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Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2017 Apr; 8(2): (B) 790-794

Original Research Article Microbiology

International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences ISSN


0975-6299

PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF WINE FROM BANANA FRUITS


PRADIP D. SATAV1* AND ARCHANA S. PETHE2
1
N.E.S. Science College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India-431 605.
2
Shri Shivaji College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Akola, Maharashtra, India-444 001.

ABSTRACT
Various physicochemical factors affect the fermentation of wine by wine yeast. Very less or no work reported
the effect of different parameters on physicochemical properties of banana wine fermented using baker’s yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Thus we have investigated the suitability of banana fruit (especially ripe fruits) for
wine production, and also to characterize the wine produced. In present study the effect of various parameters
such as Diammonium phosphate (DAP) concentration (mg/L), pH, inoculum concentration (%) and soluble
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solids ( Brix) on physicochemical characteristics of banana wine was studied. The banana must was inoculated
with yeast inoculum. After fermentation physicochemical parameters of the wine were analysed. With increase
in DAP concentration percentage of alcohol in must was found to be increased after fermentation within a range
of 4.44 to 5.90 %. With increase in initial soluble solids of must the alcohol percent of wine were also found to
be increased. The alcohol % of wine fermented using different inoculum concentration was found to be increase
slightly with increase in inoculum % up to 6 %. Slight decrease in alcohol % was observed with increase in pH.
With increase in initial soluble solids, inoculum concentration and DAP concentration of must the alcohol
percent was found to be increased. Slight decrease in alcohol % was observed with increase in pH. Various
parameters affect the physicochemical property of fermented banana wine.

KEYWORDS: Banana wine, Diammonium phosphate, pH, Soluble solid and inoculum.

PRADIP D. SATAV1*
N.E.S. Science College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India-431 605.

Received on : 21-01-2017
Revised and Accepted on : 17-04-2017
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22376/ijpbs.2017.8.2.b790-794

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Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2017 Apr; 8(2): (B) 790-794

INTRODUCTION Nanded, Maharashtra, India during the month of May


2015. The fruits were brought to the laboratory for
further processing.
Grapes are known to be the most commonly used raw
material for the production of wine. Recently emphasis
is also being given on suitability of fruits other than Preparation of Must
1
grapes for example apricot , apple
2,3 4
and plum as a Bananas were hand peeled after washing with tap
substrate for wine-making. India, the largest banana water. The juice was extracted by homogenizing the
producer in the world, has been rapidly increasing pulp in mixer/ blender and mixing with two part of hot
cultivated area and volumes of production over the past and boiled water (pulp;water, 1;2). This was again
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decade .Banana contains a high concentration of sugar diluted with equal proportion of water. To prevent
and many acids and also contains antioxidants Vitamin browning and to inhibit unwanted microflora the juice
A. Sucrose, glucose and fructose are the principal was added with 100 mg/L of potassium metabisulfite. To
sugars in ripened banana, with large amounts of decrease viscosity of juice it was treated with pectinase
cellulose, starch and pectin. The green fruits are rich in enzyme at a concentration of 0.01% and held overnight
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starch, and during ripening the starch present is at room temperature (35 C) for clarification. The must
converted to sugars. The fruit contains citric acid, malic so obtained contained low sugar and thus sugar was
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acid and other organic acids. Bananas can be adjusted from 4 to 18 Brix by using table sugar. The
consumed raw after harvesting. The surplus amounts must had pH of 3.98.
can be preserved in the form of banana puree/pulp, fruit
bar, canned pulp and also as juice andpowder . An
6, 7 Effect of different parameters
alternative and profitable method of using bananas To study the effect of different parameters the must was
would be production of wine if it could become widely then distributed in to different aliquots with different
accepted. Different investigators have carried out treatment. Effect of pH was studied at pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.0,
research on banana composition, especially on its 4.5 and 5.0. pH was adjusted using citric acid and
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volatiles content. However, Akuboret al. carried out calcium carbonate. Effect of inoculum percent was
production and quality evaluation of banana wine. They studied by inoculating must having pH 3.60 with 2, 4, 6,
found that the banana wine produced could be generally 8 and 10 % of yeast inoculum. Effect of sugar percent
of acceptable quality. Cheirsilp and Umsakul have
9 was studied by adjusting soluble solids to 18, 21 and 24
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reported the processing of banana-based wine product Brix using table sugar. The effect of diammonium
using pectinase and α-amylase and found that the phosphate (DAP) at concentration of 50, 100, 150, 200
clarity of the enzyme treated banana wine was also and 250 mg/L was studied. Effect of initial shaking on
fourfold higher than that of the control. Byaruagaba- fermentation was also studied and results are presented
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Bazirakeet al. screened two varieties of banana for here. To study the effect of initial shaking the pH of the
wine-making by using recombinant yeast strains and must was adjusted to 3.6-3.65 the must was
found that recombinant yeast strain could be used in supplemented with Diammonium phosphate at a
banana wine fermentations as an alternative to concentration of 100 mg/L. The musts in all treatments
commercial enzyme preparations. Jackson and Badrie
11 except in case of uncontrolled fermentation were
o
carried out studies on quality changes on storage of pasteurized at 80-90 C for 10 min.
Caribbean banana (Musa acuminata) wines with effects
of pectolase concentration and incubation period. They Fermentation of non-pasteurized must
found that wine quality was stable for most parameters For this no pH was adjusted (pH 4.97), must was not
during storage at 22– 25°C for 4 months with better supplemented with Diammonium phosphate and it was
clarity and lower SO2.Although various authors have distributed in 300 ml aliquots in 350 ml plastic bottles.
reported the technology involved in banana wine The musts in all treatments except in case of
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production, they have not optimized the conditions uncontrolled fermentation were pasteurized at 80-90 C
required for fermentation of banana wine. As per best of for ether 10 min.
our knowledge very less or no work has reported the
effect of different parameters on physicochemical Inoculum preparation
properties of banana wine fermented using baker’s One litre of non-pasteurized must, having pH 4.97, TSS
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yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).In view of this, a 18 Brix and DAP 100 mg/L, was inoculated with 2 % of
research was conducted to investigate the suitability of baker’s yeast powder and kept at room temperature (30-
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banana fruit (especially ripe fruits) for wine production, 38 C) for 40 h.
and also to characterize the wine produced. It had two
objectives, namely: (1) to standardize the fermentation Fermentation
conditions required for fermentation of banana wine; (2) The must of each treatment prepared above was
to study the banana wine production and its composition inoculated with 3% of 40 h old yeast inoculum. In case
in detail. The results of the laboratory experiments of experiment for effect of inoculum %, the must was
obtained are presented here. inoculated with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% of yeast inoculum.
Then all the treatments were kept in BOD incubator at
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MATERIAL AND METHODS 18-20 C for 20 days. After 21 to 30 days
physicochemical parameters of the young wines were
analyzed.
Collection of raw material
The fully ripened, mature and healthy banana fruits of
grand naine variety were procured from local market of

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Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2017 Apr; 8(2): (B) 790-794

Physico-chemical analysis RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The pH of the must and wine was measured with a
digital pH meter (Systronics, India), pre-calibrated with Uncontrolled fermentation
buffers of pH 4.0 and 7.0. Titratable acidity was Uncontrolled fermentation was performed by inoculating
determined by titrating with 0.1 N NaOH and alcohol % non-pasteurized banana must (NPBM) with yeast
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by specific gravity method as described by AOAC . inoculum. Its results were compared with pasteurized
Total soluble solids (TSS) were determined using banana must without shaking (PBMWOS). The
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Abbey’s refractometer (0–32) in terms of °Brix . Free concentration of SO2 (mg/L) is largely decreased by
and total SO2 was determined by ripper titrametric pasteurization in PBMWOS after fermentation. Other
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method using iodine , and reducing sugars were parameters were not differing significantly in both wines
determined calorimetrically using 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic fermented from pasteurized and non-pasteurized
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acid (DNS) method as described by Nigam . Volatile banana must. Effect of shaking of fermenting banana
acidity was determined by titration of distillate samples must during initial stage of fermentation was also
and expressed as percent of acetic acid per 100 ml of studied. The initial shaking has no significant effect of
wine. physicochemical parameters of wine. The results are
presented in table 1.

Table 1
Effect of initial Shaking on physicochemical properties of banana wine

Alcohol TA VA Free SO2 Total SO2 Bound SO2


Treatment pH °Brix SG RS (%)
(%) (%) (%) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
NPBM 3.45 5 0.9943 6.39 0.40 0.013 0.006 17.92 52.48 34.56
PBMWOS 3.5 5.3 0.9950 6.24 0.63 0.010 0.007 7.55 9.86 2.30
PBMWS 3.5 5.2 0.9950 6.31 0.62 0.009 0.009 7.68 10.11 2.43
PBMWOS; Pasteurized banana must without shaking, PBMWS; Pasteurized banana must with shaking,
NPBM; Non-pasteurized banana must SG; Specific gravity, VA; Volatile acidity, TA; Titratable acidity, RS; Reducing sugar

Effect of DAP Concentration fermented at different DAP concentrations. With


One of the important elements for growth of yeast is increase in DAP concentration percentage of alcohol in
nitrogen. If there is insufficient nitrogen then must was found to be increased after fermentation
fermentation may stop, leading to a stuck fermentation within a range of 4.44 to 5.90 %. Alcohol percentage
and high residual sugar. Additional nitrogen is usually was found to be highest and lowest in must containing
added in the form of diammonium phosphate (DAP) to 250 and 50 mg/L of DAP respectively. For guava wine
provide readily assimilable nitrogen and additional 400mg/L and 600mg/L of DAP were found to be
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phosphorus, which is another essential element that optimum for two different strains . Attri used DAP at a
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may be deficient .We have investigated the effect of concentration of 1000 mg/L for fermentation of cashew
DAP concentration on various physicochemical apple wine. Titratable acidity was found to be in the
parameters of banana must fermentation and the results range of 0.50 to 0.56% being highest at 200 mg/L of
are presented in table 2. Soluble solids (°Brix), specific DAP. Other parameters were not affected largely by
gravity and pH were found to be almost same in wines changing the concentration of DAP

Table 2
Effect of DAP concentration on physicochemical analysis of banana wine

Alcohol TA VA Free SO2 Total SO2 Bound SO2


DAP Conc. (mg/L) pH °Brix SG RS(%)
(%) (%) (%) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
50 3.56 5 0.9965 4.44 0.53 0.014 0.005 13.44 36.48 23.0
100 3.55 5 0.9965 5.64 0.54 0.016 0.005 12.54 32.38 19.8
150 3.54 5 0.9965 5.64 0.50 0.014 0.003 11.90 32.13 20.2
200 3.54 5 0.9963 5.76 0.56 0.015 0.004 8.70 27.26 18.6
250 3.54 5 0.9961 5.90 0.52 0.015 0.004 12.67 31.36 18.7
SG; Specific gravity, VA; Volatile acidity, TA; Titratable acidity, RS; Reducing sugar

Effect of sugar % (Soluble solid in °Brix) concentration. With increase in acidity the pH of the
Soluble solids (°Brix) largely affect the various wine was not decreased. Its value was lowest in must
physicochemical parameters of fermented wine. The with sugar percent of 21. Our results are in agreement
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results are presented in table 3.With increase in initial with results obtained by Attri for cashew apple wine
soluble solids (°Brix) of must the alcohol percent, except for pH. The maximum alcohol percent could be
reducing sugar (%), titratable acidity (%) and total SO2 obtained in the present experiment was 8.92% in the
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of wine were also found to be increased. Specific gravity must having 24 Brix initial total soluble solids. With
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of the wine was found to be decreased with increase in increase in total soluble solids up to 24-25 Brix
sugar percent. This might be due to increase in alcohol increase in alcohol percent were also reported for litchi
19 20
percent with increase in sugar percent. Highest volatile wine and amla wine .
acidity was observed in must with highest sugar

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Table 3
Effect of sugar % on physicochemical parameters of banana wine

Alcohol TA VA Free SO2 Total SO2 Bound SO2


Sugar % (°Brix) pH °Brix SG RS (%)
(%) (%) (%) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
18 3.36 5 0.9950 6.64 0.50 0.010 0.005 7.55 9.86 2.30
21 3.33 5.4 0.9941 7.49 0.56 0.009 0.012 6.91 10.50 3.58
24 3.43 7 0.9934 8.92 0.65 0.014 0.080 8.70 12.93 4.22
SG; Specific gravity, VA; Volatile acidity, TA; Titratable acidity, RS; Reducing sugar

Effect of inoculum concentration (%) alcohol % of wine. Lowest alcohol % was observed at 2
Effect of inoculum concentration on physicochemical % of inoculum concentration and highest was found at 6
properties of banana wine is presented in table 4.The %. Higher levels of inoculum gave almost same amount
pH of wine fermented using different inoculum of alcohol content, such as 6% inoculation gave 6.68%
concentration was found between 3.50-3.52. Lowest pH of alcohol content, while 10% inoculum concentration
was observed at 4 % of inoculum concentration and gave 6.64% alcohol. Thus, as the concentration of yeast
highest was found at 8 and 10%. At all concentration of inoculum is increased, yeast converted more sugars to
initial inoculum the final total soluble solid of the wine alcohol, while at higher inoculum concentration yeast
was found to be same and which was found to be 5. The was not able to convert more sugar in to it. Similar
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specific gravity of wine fermented using different results were reported by Sevda and Rodrigues for
inoculum concentration was found to be same and had guava wine production. The titratable acidity (%) of wine
value of 0.9954.The alcohol % of wine fermented using fermented using different inoculum concentrations was
different inoculum concentration was found to be found to be almost same and was ranged between 0.49-
increase slightly with increase in inoculum % up to 6 %. 0.52 percent.
Further increase in inoculum % did not increase the

Table 4
Effect of inoculum concentration (%) on physicochemical parameters of banana wine

Inoculum % Alcohol TA VA Free SO2 Total SO2 Bound SO2


pH °Brix SG RS (%)
(%) (%) (%) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
2% 3.51 5 0.9954 5.895 0.49 0.012 0.011 11.65 27.14 15.49
4% 3.5 5 0.9954 6.275 0.52 0.012 0.011 15.74 25.60 9.86
6% 3.51 5 0.9954 6.68 0.49 0.014 0.019 10.50 21.12 10.62
8% 3.52 5 0.9954 6.62 0.52 0.013 0.007 10.24 19.33 9.09
10% 3.52 5 0.9954 6.64 0.49 0.011 0.009 10.37 20.74 10.37
SG; Specific gravity, VA; Volatile acidity, TA; Titratable acidity, RS; Reducing sugar

Effect of pH having initial pH of 3. Thus optimum pH for banana wine


Effect of pH on physicochemical properties of banana fermentation was found to be 3. In contrast to our
wine is presented in table 5. Final pH of all the musts results, increase in pH resulted increase in alcohol
19 21
were decreased from its initial values except at pH 3.0 percent for litchi wine and mango wine . The optimum
which showed slight increase. Increase in initial pH also pH reported by these authors was 5. Patrick and
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show increase in final pH of the wine and within the Palaniswamy carried out the optimization of
range of 3.12 – 3.70. Highest fall in pH was observed at fermentation parameters for enhanced production of
pH 5. Titratable acidity of was found to be decrease with ethanol using Sacchromyces cerevisiae. The optimum
increase in initial pH except at pH 5. Volatile acidity of all pH reported by these authors for production of ethanol
the wine was found to be increase with increase in pH. was 5.5. The final pH of the banana wine fermented
Highest volatile acidity was observed at pH 5. Slight from musts having pH value between 3.0-5.0 was found
decrease in alcohol % and reducing sugar % were to be in the range of 3.12-3.70. Different authors have
observed with increase in pH. Total soluble solids of all reported fermentation of musts having pH within range
the must were found to be same. Specific gravity of the of 3.0-5.0. The pH reported for banana and other wines
8, 23 24
wine fermented at all pH had lower value than the were 3.3-4.10 (banana wine) , 3.6 (cocoa wine) , and
25
specific gravity of must. The maximum alcohol percent 3.6-4.0 (mango wine) .
obtained in the present study was 6.60% in the must

Table 5
Effect of pH on physicochemical parameters of banana wine

pH Alcohol TA VA Free SO2 Total SO2 Bound SO2


pH °Brix SG RS (%)
(%) (%) (%) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
3 3.12 5 0.9961 6.61 0.83 0.012 0.043 10.24 19.33 9.09
3.5 3.42 5 0.9954 6.09 0.56 0.017 0.040 8.32 21.12 12.80
4 3.67 5 0.9952 5.91 0.41 0.023 0.030 13.44 25.86 12.42
4.5 3.7 5 0.9958 5.91 0.35 0.036 0.032 20.86 32.13 11.26
5 3.61 5 0.9958 5.87 0.45 0.080 0.027 13.06 25.73 12.67
SG; Specific gravity, VA; Volatile acidity, TA; Titratable acidity, RS; Reducing sugar

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CONCLUSION increase in alcohol % was observed with increase in


inoculum %. Further studies are required to know the
It is concluded for the fermentation of treated banana effect of other parameters such as temperature, various
juice that initial DAP, sugar and inoculum concentrations nutrients, etc. Volatile components are also needs to be
and pH played an important role. Increase in DAP and studied.
sugar concentrations increases the alcohol % in final
product. Highest alcohol % was produced at lowest pH. CONFLICT OF INTEREST
Increase in sugar concentration also increases the
acidity of wine. Inoculum % has very less effect on Conflict of interest declared none.
physicochemical parameters of fermented juice. Slight

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