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AEROMODELLING LAB

AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING R/C MODEL AIRCRAFT

REPORT SUBMITTED BY-


GROUP ‘D’
• MILAN K CHOUHAN (15/558)
• PUNEET MEHRA (15/318)
• SACHIN (15/358)
• SUDHEER SHARMA (15/609)
• YASH DETHA (15/474)
AERODYNAMIC DESIGN

CONTENTS PAGE NO.

• CHAPTER 1 MISSION GOAL DECISION AND FIRST WEIGHT ESTIMATION


• CHAPTER 2 SECOND WEIGHT ESTIMATION
• CHAPTER 3 WING LOADING AND THRUST TO WEIGHT RATIO
• CHAPTER 4 THIRD WEIGHT ESTIMATION
LIST OF SYMBOLS

AR = Aspect ratio
b = Wing span
C = Chord of wing
Cm = Moment Coefficient
Cd = Coefficient of drag (2-D)
CD = Coefficient of drag (3-D)
Cdo = Zero lift drag coefficient (2-D)
CD0 = Zero lift drag coefficient (3-D)
CHT = Horizontal tail volume coefficient
Cl = Coefficient of lift (2-D)
CL = Coefficient of lift (3-D)
Cl(max) = Maximum coefficient of lift (2-D)
CL(max) = Maximum Coefficient of lift (3-D)
Cp = Coefficient of power
Cr = Root chord of vertical tail
Ct = Coefficient of thrust
Ct = Tip chord of vertical tail
CW = Wing chord in m
CLlo = Coefficient of lift at lift-off
Cfc = Skin friction coefficient
D = Drag, diameter of propeller
e = Ostwald’s efficiency factor
FF= Form factor
g = Acceleration due to gravity
hf = Flare height
hOB = Obstacle height
I = Moment of inertia
J = Advance ratio
L = Lift
LHT = Distance between the quarter chord point of wing & the tail
(L/D)max = Maximum lift to drag ratio
(L/D)VLO = Lift to drag ratio at lift-off
M = Bending moment on wing
n = Load factor
n = Speed of propeller in rps
N = Speed of propeller in rpm
P = Power
q = Dynamic pressure
R = Radius of curvature of flight path, Radius of propeller
S = Wing plan-form area
Sa = Approach distance
Sf = Flare distance
Sg = Ground run
SHT= Horizontal tail length
Sref= Reference surface area
Swet = Wet surface area
T = Thrust
V = Velocity of the aircraft
V∞ = Free stream velocity
Vcruise = Cruise speed
Vf = Flare speed
VLO = velocity at lift-off
Vmp = Velocity at minimum power condition
Vstall = Stall speed
W = Weight
W0 = Gross weight of the aircraft
WP/L = Pay load weight
WPP = Power-plant weigh
Ws = Structure Weight
θOB = Flight path angle
ρ = Density of air
𝞼 = allowable stress on wing
𝙾ht = Suffix for horizontal tail
𝙾f = Suffix for fuselage
𝙾vt = Suffix for vertical tail
𝞭f = Deflection angle
Re = Reynolds’s number
𝞱a = Approach angle
𝞱f = Flare angle
μ = Coefficient of viscosity
μr = Coefficient of rolling friction
MISSION GOAL DECISION AND FIRST WEIGHT ESTIMATION

INTRODUCTION-
Our main aim is to build a information transmitting small flying aircraft
model. The main purpose is to provide a better and affordable alternative to
the present R/C models used presently in the information and broadcasting
industry.

Powered models contains an onboard power-plant to propel the aircraft.


Powered models contain an onboard power-plant to propel the aircraft such
as electric motor, internal combustion etc. The power from these units is
used to rotate the propeller which generates the required thrust for the
aircraft. As the present mission criterion involves a pilotless small aircraft,
the radio control is preferred.

Based on the Systems Engineering approach, an aircraft will be designed


during three phases:
1. Conceptual design phase,
2. Preliminary design phase, and
3. Detail design phase.

MISSION OF THE MODEL AIRCRAFT-

• Aerial imaging and mapping.


• Aerial surveillance and surveying.
PRELIMINARY DESIGN CONSIDERATION-

It is assumed that the preliminary weight estimation has already been


carried out, and the airplane performance and structural capabilities have
been worked out. The preliminary design parameters taken into
consideration for design are given in the table below. These may be altered
at a later stage depending on the better estimate of parameters.
PARAMETERS PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE
Weight 0.7 - 0.9 Kg
Wing Span 0.6 m
Length 0.5 m
Wing Area 0.1 m2
Wing Type High Wing, Dihedral
Aspect Ratio 5 to 6
Power Plant Battery driven propeller
Control Ailerons, Elevatros, Rudders
Thrust / Weight To be decided
Range 750 m

FIRST WEIGHT ESTIMATION-


We start with the payload weight 100 gm. and gross weight as 1000gm.
The preliminary weight estimation is done by assuming the payload to be
10 % of the gross weight.
Wo = Wp/l + Wpp + Ws
Wo = Wp/l + (Wpp/Wo)Wo + (Ws/Wo)Wo

Wo = [(Wp/l) / {(Wpp/Wo) - (Ws/Wo)}]


CALCULATIONS-
Wp/l = 100 gm
(Wpp/Wo) = 0.2421
(Ws/Wo) = 0.6595
Wo = 1016.260 gm

CONCLUSION-

The initial estimated gross weight is 1016.26 gm for the required payload
weight of 100 gm.
SECOND WEIGHT ESTIMATION
MISSION REQUIREMENTS-
For our mission we decided to choose an airfoil which has very low value of
stalling speed. To fulfill this requirement we should have higher value of
Clmax. and (L/D)max. These two parameters are of prime importance for
choosing airfoil. Further the high (L/D)max is more important because
higher the value of (L/D)max, lower will be the minimum drag. This drag
multiplied by the cruise velocity will give the power required corresponding
to minimum drag condition. During ascent, the wing is flying at a lower
speed and therefore at a higher lift coefficient. The rate of climb is a
function of the excess horsepower available so, the lower the drag, the
more power is available to gain altitude.
For our design and weight estimation consideration we chose different
NACA 4digit airfoils and having stalling angle of attack in the range of 13-15
degrees and under cambered for good low speed lift.

SELECTION OF AEROFOIL-
After investigating various airfoil data and characteristics we decided to
choose NACA-6409 as its features fulfill our requirement.

NACA - 6409

CALCULATIONS BASED ON NACA-6409 -

Assuming:
• Chord Length (c) = 0.1 m
• Wingspan (b) = 0.6 m
• Density of air in UD, RTU Kota = 1.135 kg/m3
• Viscosity of air in UD, RTU Kota = 1.75*10-5 N-sec/m2
ASPECT RATIO, AR = b/c
AR = 0.6/0.1 = 6

Vstall = sqr rt. (2 * Wo) / (𝛒 * S * Clmax)


Vstall = 4.57 m/s

Designed cruising speed = 2 * Vstall = 9.14 m/s

Reynolds’ Number = (𝛒 * Vstall * l) / (µ)


Re = 177838