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 ABAS

Aircraft-based augmentation is achieved by features of the onboard equipment


designed to overcome performance limitations of the GNSS constellations. ABAS
equipment to date has been designed to resolve integrity deficiencies, although
future systems may address other aspects. The two systems currently in use are
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) and the Aircraft Autonomous
Integrity Monitor (AAIM).

 RAIM

RAIM provides integrity by detecting the failure of a GNSS satellite. It is a software


function incorporated into GPS receivers designed to meet TSO-C129, C145, C146
or later versions of these standards. GPS systems with RAIM normally provide
three modes of operation:

o • Navigation solution with RAIM;

o • 2D or 3D navigation solution without RAIM; and

o • Dead Reckoning (DR), or loss of navigation solution.

RAIM may be either Fault Detection (FD) or Fault Detection & Exclusion (FDE),
although the majority of existing receiver designs do not include FDE.
 RAIM (FD)

FD compares position and time information derived from combinations of four


satellites in a set of at least five satellites. In this way, a faulty satellite can be
detected and the pilot provided with a warning that the system should no longer be
used for navigation. RAIM messages vary between receivers, but there are generally
two types. One type indicates that there are not sufficient satellites available to
provide RAIM integrity monitoring and another type indicates that the RAIM
integrity monitor has detected a potential error that exceeds the limit for the current
phase of flight (en-route, terminal or approach). Without RAIM capability, the pilot
has no assurance of the accuracy of the GNSS-derived position.
A RAIM hole occurs for the period of time that there are insufficient GNSS
satellites in view to provide an integrity check at a given location. In some parts of
Australia, particularly southern Australia, there are fewer than five GPS satellites in
view for short periods. With only four satellites in view, RAIM may be achieved
with barometric altitude aiding to provide the fifth data input. RAIM holes are
predictable and GPS NOTAMS (for FD functions with barometric aiding) are
issued for flight planning purposes by Airservices Australia.

 RAIM (FDE)

FDE needs six inputs and, like FD, may use barometric aiding as a data source.
With six or more visible satellites FDE will not only detect a faulty satellite but also
remove it from the navigational solution and continue to provide FDE or FD with
the remaining satellites. FDE is required for oceanic approvals using GPS
equipment and mandated in the TSO-C145 and C146 standards.

 AAIM

The AAIM uses the redundancy of position estimates from multiple sensors,
including GNSS, to provide integrity performance that is at least equivalent to
RAIM. The multi-sensor airborne augmentation systems may be certified in
accordance with TSO-C115 as amended. A common example of AAIM uses inertial
navigation solutions as an integrity check of the GPS solution when RAIM is
unavailable but GPS positioning information continues to be valid.

o Communication Systems

o INMARSAT

INMARSAT (International Maritime Satellite Organization) is an


international organization established in 1979 and operates as a cooperative
society. At the beginning it was settled to improve sea communications in
order to increase the safety. Nowadays, in addition to offer services of phone
network and data transmission to ships and sea-platforms, it also provides
them to the aeronautical comunity and mobile phone network. In its origins,
26 countries founded the organization but now it is formed by 79 members,
from which U.S.A is the owner of the biggest part (23%), and United
Kingdom and Norway have 11% and 10.5% each one.

Currently are working two generations of satellites (I-2, I-3), and one more
(I-4) will be launched this year (2005). Each new generation improves the
features of the Inmarsat system to obtain a better broadband and increase the
different types of services.

Inmarsat's primary satellite constellation consists of four Inmarsat I-3


satellites in geostationary orbit. These are currently backed up by a fifth
spacecraft that can be brought in to provide additional capacity. Between
them, the main "global" beams of the satellites provide overlapping
coverage of the whole surface of the Earth apart from the poles. A
geostationary satellite follows a circular orbit in the plane of the Equator at a
height of 35,600km, so that it appears to hover over a chosen point on the
Earth's surface. These satellites are supported by four previous-generation
Inmarsat-2s, also in geostationary orbit. Each satellite covers one third of the
surface of the world proximately, but thay are situated over one strategic
region forming 4 regions as the following graphic shows:

The satellites are controlled from the Satellite Control Centre (SCC) at
Inmarsat HQ in London. The control teams there are responsible for keeping
the satellites in position above the Equator, and for ensuring that the onboard
systems are fully functional at all times.

Data on the status of the nine Inmarsat satellites is supplied to the SCC by
four tracking, telemetry and control (TT&C) stations located at Fucino,
Italy; Beijing in China; Lake Cowichan, western Canada; and Pennant Point,
eastern Canada. There is also a back-up station at Eik in Norway.

The job of the satellites will be to support the new Broadband Global Area
Network (BGAN), currently scheduled to enter service in 2005 to deliver
Internet and intranet content and solutions, video-on-demand,
videoconferencing, fax, e-mail, phone and LAN access at speeds up to
432kbit/s almost anywhere in the world.
INMARSAT offers differents kind of services for different purposes. The
aeronautical ones are:

 Swift64; based on Inmarsat's Global Area Network (GAN)


technology, Swift64 offers Mobile ISDN and IP-based Mobile
Packet Data Service (MPDS) connectivity at a basic rate of 64kbit/s
to support high-quality voice, fax and data communications.
Techniques such as channel bonding and data acceleration can boost
the effective data rate to beyond 0.5Mbit/sec.

 Aero H; the original Inmarsat voice and data service, it supports


multichannel voice, fax, data communications at up to 9.6kbit/s, it
complys with the ICAO requirementes about safety and air traffic
control.Aero H+ is an evolution of Aero H. When an Aero H+
equipped aircraft is operating within a high-power spotbeam from an
Inmarsat I-3 satellite it can receive Aero H levels of service at lower
cost. Outside the spotbeams the terminal works with the global beam
as if it were a standard Aero H system.

 Aero I; exploiting the spotbeam power of the Inmarsat I-3 satellites.


Aero I brings multi-channel voice, fax and data at up to 4.8kbit/s
through smaller, cheaper terminals.

 Aero L; low-speed (600 bit/s) real-time data, mainly for airline


ATC, operational and administrative communications. It complys
with the requirements of ICAO about safety and air traffic control, as
well as aero-H.

 mini-M; aero Single-channel voice, fax and 2.4kbit/s data for small
corporate aircraft and general aviation.

 Aero C ; it allows non-safety-related text or data messages to be sent


and received by general-aviation and military aircraft operating
almost anywhere in the world. Aero C operates on a store-and-
forward basis - messages are transmitted packet-by-packet,
reassembled and delivered in non-real-time. This is the aeronautical
version of the other of the services offered by INMARSAT.

Therefore the contribution to the development of the strategy CNS/ATM


due to INMARSAT is summarized in three points:

Controller-pilot datalink ;Starting with the Pacific and the North Atlantic,
ATC providers have introduced two Inmarsat-supported techniques -
automatic dependent surveillance (ADS) and controller-pilot datalink
communications (CPDLC) - that are beginning to deliver significant
improvements, with further benefits in prospect.
Satellite navigation; The accuracy, availability and integrity of the data
supplied to receivers aboard aircraft by GPS and Glonass are augmented by
signals broadcast by the Inmarsat I-3 satellites, and Galileo is expected to
benefit in the same way.

Voice via Inmarsat;The flight-deck voice capability offered by Inmarsat is


used regularly for non-routine communications with the ground, allowing
the crew to speak directly to flight dispatch, maintenance and other airline
departments. But it also has a number of features allowing it to be used
dependably for communications in an onboard emergency. There is at least
one significant uncertainty about the future shape of the global air traffic
system. While ICAO has mandated the development and implementation of
the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) to support the
efficient, standardized flow of data within the system, the interim use of
FANS 1/A avionics and the established Acars datalink format for ADS and
CPDLC is increasingly common among international airlines. The Inmarsat
Aero system can accommodate both data formats.

o INTELSAT y EUTELSAT

They are two example of private companies in the sector of


communications, although don´t offer specific services to aircraft
communications, they could play an important role in ATM, but is necessary
to plan this possibility with an economical point of view and to certify the
services they provide.

EUTELSAT has been active fromn 1977 years in commercial satellites


communications and owns one of the youngest fleets in the world. Their
orbital positions are from 15 degrees West to 70.5 degrees East providing
coverage in this way to the 90% of worldwide population across Europe,
Asia and America. Satellite control and operations of the company's fully-
owned satellites is managed through its teleport in Rambouillet (France)
which is also fully equipped to service postlaunch satellite manoeuvres.

His fleet is composed of 23 satellites which serve landbased, maritime and


in-flight communications requirements. They are used for video
broadcasting to cable and satellite homes, satellite newsgathering and
programme exchanges. Their orbital position are shown in the picture below.
Founded in 1964, INTELSAT was the first organization to provide global
satellite coverage and connectivity. Today INTELSAT owns and operates a
global communication satellite system providing capacity for voice, video,
corporate/private networks and Internet in more than 200 countries and
territories, that means 99% of the woldwide population, with a fleet of 27
satellites. Their position are shown in the following graphic.

All transmissions via Eutelsat satellites are subject to certain standards and
parameters in order to guarantee high quality reception and the safety of the
overall system, for that reason either system precise of big ground net spread
around the world to monitore and transmit information to the satellites.

These systems are widely used by different kind of companies, not only for
communication ones as television channels, newspapers or mobile phone
operators. They offer the possibility to set a network for a company with
almost wolrdwide goverage, reliability (availability of 99.995% in
INTELSAT transponders) and not a huge cost, allowing a fast exchaging of
data and information.

Data transmission in one-way or two-way, fax, telephony, internet


connection are the typical services offered, but nowadays the VSAT
technology is taking more importance as well as all kind of communications
available for ship fleets, even they broadcast the GPS signal in some areas. It
doesn´t exist applications for aircraft currently, but the use for air transport
is evident and the possibility to allowe passengers different services as
internet connection, fax,... could be possible. Although to play a role in the
future CNS/ATM concept is necessary to define the standars which these
systems have to reach and dicuss the exact task which they would do.

o IRIDIUM

The Iridium system is being funded by Iridium Inc., a diverse international


consortium of telecommunications and industrial companies. Motorola is the
prime contractor to Iridium Inc. for the procurement of the Iridium system. ,
it began service to the U.S. Government in December, 2000. On March 28,
2001, commercial satellite communications services were launched to heavy
industry and other government customers. The marketing strategy will be to
focus on industrial clients whose operations require reliable communications
to and from remote areas of the globe where terrestrial systems are not
available. The Iridium system has the unique ability to reach all of the
world's remote areas, including the airspace, the oceans and the many under-
developed parts of the globe that currently have no communications
systems. Specifically, the company will pursue industrial segments
including aviation, maritime, oil & gas, mining, heavy construction, forestry,
emergency services, and the leisure market.

The Iridium constellation consists of 66 satellites in near-polar circular


orbits inclined at 86.4° at an altitude of 780 km. The satellites are distributed
into six planes separated by 31.6° around the equator with eleven satellites
per plane. There is also one spare satellite in each plane. With a satellite
lifetime of from 5 to 8 years, it is expected that the replenishment rate will
be about a dozen satellites per year after the second year of operation. The
altitude was specified to be within the range 370 km (200 nmi) and 1100 km
(600 nmi). The engineers wanted a minimum altitude of 370 km so that the
satellite would be above the residual atmosphere, which would have
diminished lifetime without extensive stationkeeping, and a maximum
altitude of 1100 km so that the satellite would be below the Van Allen
radiation environment, which would require shielding.

Each satellite covers a circular area roughly the size of the United States
with a diameter of about 4400 km, having an elevation angle of 8.2° at the
perimeter and subtending an angle of 39.8° with respect to the center of the
earth. The coverage area is divided into 48 cells. The satellite has three main
beam phased array antennas, each of which serves 16 cells.

The period of revolution is approximately 100 minutes, so that a given


satellite is in view about 9 minutes. The user is illuminated by a single cell
for about one minute. Complex protocols are required to provide continuity
of communication seamlessly as handover is passed from cell to cell and
from satellite to satellite. The communications link requires 3.5 million lines
of software, while an additional 14 million lines of code are required for
navigation and switching. As satellites converge near the poles, redundant
beams are shut off. There are approximately 2150 active beams over the
globe. The configuration of the IRIDIUM is shown in the following picture.

IRIDIUM can provide 4800-bps data rate for voice communications and
support 80 simultaneous users per cell and 172,000 simultaneous users
system wide. The end-to-end delay is able to meet the standard minimum of
400 ms.

In his developing phase, Iridium was intended to provide both safety (ATS
& AOC) and non-safety (AAC & APC) services across all authorized
frequencies. Nowadays it only offers non-safety communications
service,ground to air, air to ground and aie to air; besides other services as
fax, voice, data transmissiom or internet connection. It was supposed to be
the main tool for the aeronautical communications but it didn´t reach the
expected features, currently it is the base to develop the "aero fleet" project
(based on MASSAO project) by ESA, a system to allow an operating
personal centre tracking, monitoring and communicating with an aircraft in
all weather conditions and in large distance from the centre via satellite.

 New technologies and developing projects

 VSAT

The VSAT market has been going since the early 1980s and the
launch of the first one-way VSAT system by Equatorial of
California. Towards 1985 the first interactive star systems began to
be seen and it wasn't until 1989 that the first mesh telephony
products were really sold.

VSAT is the acronym of Very Small Aperture Terminal, an


earthbound station used in satellite communications of data, voice
and video signals, excluding broadcast television. A VSAT allowed
one-way or interactive communications.

The data transmission rate on the return link, in the direction from
the VSAT to the hub, is typically from a few 100 bit/s to 512
kbit/s. The number of VSAT sites sharing a return link and the
number of return links is adjustable to match actual traffic patterns
without unacceptable congestion. Where higher return link bit rates
are required up to say 2 Mbit/s a continuous return link carrier is
used (SCPC) Single channel per carrier.

In the outlink direction from the hub to the VSATs continuous


carriers are used, typically more than 256k bit/s and up to 60 Mbit/s.
For strongly asymmetrical services, such as Internet or Intranet
broadband applications extra outlink capacity up 60 Mbit/s is easily
added. Each VSAT is restricted to extract from the data stream only
those packets of data intended for it's ports. One outlink may be
shared by 5 to 32000 VSAT sites, according to the traffic load.

There are many further possibilities. Point to point VSAT networks


(2 terminals only) are possible with 2 Mbit/s each way, carrying a
mixture of data and voice traffic

Generally, these systems operate in the Ku-band (10/14 GHz) and C-


band (6/4 GHz) frequencies. As a rule of thumb C-band (which
suffers less from rain attenuation, but requires larger antennas) is
used in Asia, Africa and Latin America whilst Ku-band (which can
use smaller antennas, but suffers from rain fade in a monsoon-like
downpour) is used in Europe and North America. Typically,
interactive Ku-band antenna sizes range from 75 centimetres to 1.8
metres and C-band from 1.8 metres to 2.4 metres. One way systems
can use antennas as small as 45 centimetres.

One-way or broadcast systems rely on a transmitting station which


transmits one or more carriers to the satellite which re-broadcasts the
signal over its coverage area. All receive-only VSATs under the
satellite footprint can then receive the signal or the user/operator is
able to define groups of VSATs from one to all on the network.

Interactive VSAT systems come in two main network topologies -


star and mesh. The former tends to be based either on a shared access
scheme (TDM/TDMA), which is designed to support transactional
processing applications, or on a dedicated link (the satellite
equivalent to a leased line). The latter usually uses links which are
set-up and torn-down on request to establish a direct link between
two sites on a demand assigned basis. Either technics of
communication are described below:

 Time Division Multiplexing, a satellite channel divided into


time slots for transmission from a central hub to a group of
VSAT sites. Individual time slots can be addressed
specifically to one or more VSATs. Usually used as the
access protocol for the outbound channel (hub to VSAT) of a
VSAT system.

 Time Division Multiple Access, a contentious access satellite


channel which is divided into time slots for sharing between
VSATs at different sites usually for connection to a hub.
Usually used as the access protocol for the inbound channel
(VSAT to hub) of a VSAT system.

This is how a star data, TDM/TDMA VSAT network works using a


hub station. All the channels are shared and the remote terminals are
online, offering fast response times. Consequently, TDM/TDMA
systems are comparable with terrestrial X.25 or frame relay
connections.
However, mesh networks which use capacity on a demand assigned
multiple access (DAMA) basis take a different approach. The master
control station merely acts as a controller and facilitator rather than a
hub through which traffic passes as in a star network. However, these
connections take a little time to set-up and thus, mesh/DAMA
systems are often equated to a terrestrial dial-up connection.
There are also mesh systems which use a TDMA access scheme
where all of the terminals in a network receive and transmit to the
same channel, selecting different time slots because each terminal is
aware of what the others have reserved. In the past this type of
system has been costly and therefore, reserved for large scale
trunking applications, but, more recently, costs have come down
considerably and now they can be cost competitive with
SCPC/DAMA systems for thin route applications as well.

Point-to-point SCPC (single channel per carrier) links are the


satellite equivalent of a terrestrial leased line connection. They are
usually set-up on a permanent, 24 hour basis and are thus more
costly in satellite capacity and less efficient if not used all the time.
However, they do support high bandwidths (typically from 9.6 kbps
to 2 Mbps) and can easily be used to carry data, voice and even video
traffic.
All other systems are usually a variation on one of the themes
described above, either in a star, mesh or hybrid (star and mesh)
configuration. Most of the TDM/TDMA manufacturers also offer a
mesh product which can be deployed in a hybrid-ised configuration,
sharing common components such as antennas and RF units, at a
remote site.