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appendix tuttorials

- Aerodynamics Graph
- Ada 428039
- Worner - A Compact Introductions to the Numerical Modeling of Multiphase Flows
- JSR_Bakhtian.pdf
- The Most Famous PI Numbers
- BANDERAS.pdf
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- Experiment Two
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- Models.heat.Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
- 1-s2.0-0009250988851182-main
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0 APPENDIX

Sample of calculations :

Diameter cm m

1𝑚

(0.950 cm)( 100 𝑐𝑚) = 9.5 x 10-3 m

Mass g kg

1 𝑘𝑔

(3.450 g)( 1000 𝑔) = 3.45 x 10-3 kg

𝜌 𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙

SGNaCl = 𝜌 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝜌 𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙

1.19 = 998 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

= 1187.62 kg/m3

Specific weight (𝛾 )

𝛾𝑓 = 𝜌𝑔

= 11650.5522 N/m3

𝜌 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑐 𝑜𝑖𝑙

S.G hydraulic oil = 𝜌 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝜌 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑐 𝑜𝑖𝑙

1.25 = 998 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

Specific weight

𝛾𝑓 = 𝜌𝑔

= 12237.975 N/m3

Specific weight of large steel sphere in Nacl

9.5×10−3 𝑚

Radius = 2

= 4.80 × 10−3 𝑚

Specific weight, 𝛾𝑠

𝑚𝑔

𝛾𝑠 =

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒

𝑚𝑔

=4

⁄3𝜋𝑟 3

(3.45×10−3 𝑘𝑔)(9.81 𝑚⁄ 2 )

𝑠

= 4⁄ 𝜋(4.80×10−3 𝑚)³

3

= 73049.874 𝑁⁄𝑚3

Viscosity, μ NaCl

1 𝑚2

V = 2.4 mm2/s x (10002 𝑚𝑚2 )

μ

V = 𝜌 𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙

μ

2.4 x 10-6 m2/s = 1187.62 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

Drag Coefficient large steel Sphere in Nacl, 𝑪𝑫

8 𝑟(𝛾𝑠 − 𝛾𝑓 )

𝐶𝐷 = ( )

3 𝜌𝑉 2

𝑁 𝑁

8 (4.80×10−3 𝑚)(73049.874 −11650.5522 3 )

𝑚3 𝑚

= 3( 𝑘𝑔 𝑚 )

(1187.62 )(2.062 )²

𝑚3 𝑠

= 0.3209

𝑁 𝑘𝑔. 𝑚

𝑚 𝑚 3 2

𝑚3 → 𝑚 .𝑠

𝑘𝑔 𝑚2 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2

3

𝑚 𝑠 2 𝑚3 𝑠 2

𝑚2 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3 𝑠 2

×

𝑚3 𝑠 2 𝑘𝑔𝑚2

Area = π r2

= π (4.80 x 10-3 m)2

= 7.239168 x 10-5 m2

𝜌𝑢²

FD = CD.A 2

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

(1187.62 )(2.062 )²

-5 2 𝑚3 𝑠

= (0.3209) (7.239168 x 10 m ) 2

= 0.058652 N

2 𝛾𝑠− 𝛾𝑓

μ = 9 r2 𝑢

𝑁 𝑁

2 73049.874 − 11650.5522

𝑚3

= 9 (4.80 𝑥 10¯3 𝑚)2 𝑚

𝑚³

2.062

𝑠

𝑘𝑔

= 0.15245 𝑚.𝑠

Reynolds number of large steel sphere in NaCl solution

𝜌𝑢

𝑅𝑒 = (2𝑟)

𝜇

𝑘𝑔 𝑚

(1187.62 )(2.062 )

𝑚3

Re= 𝑘𝑔

𝑠

×2(4.80×10−3 𝑚)

0.15245

𝑚.𝑠

= 154.209

TUTORIALS

1.Discuss whether the liquids used are Newtonian or Non-Newtonian.

The liquid used for this experiment are both Newtonian fluids as their shear stress are directly

proportional to the deformation rate.

2.What is the factor that might be cause error to the calculation of the viscosity?

Factor that might be cause the error during calculating viscosity is the carelessness during

inserting the value for the calculation.

3.What is the relationship between CD and Reynolds number?

Reynolds number is a function of velocity, and density, characteristic dimension (length), and

viscosity. Thus, Reynolds number can be relate through velocity. As the velocity increase, the

drag coefficient,CD will increase. Besides, as the velocity increase, the Reynolds number will

also increase.

a. Terminal velocity

b. Drag coefficient

Terminal velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid

while drag coefficient is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or

resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water.

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