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6.

0 APPENDIX

Sample of calculations :

Diameter cm m
1𝑚
(0.950 cm)( 100 𝑐𝑚) = 9.5 x 10-3 m

Mass g kg
1 𝑘𝑔
(3.450 g)( 1000 𝑔) = 3.45 x 10-3 kg

Specific weight of NaCl


𝜌 𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙
SGNaCl = 𝜌 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝜌 𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙
1.19 = 998 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

𝜌 𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙 = (1.19)(998 kg/m3)


= 1187.62 kg/m3

Specific weight (𝛾 )

𝛾𝑓 = 𝜌𝑔

= (1187.62 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)


= 11650.5522 N/m3

Specific weight of hydraulic oil


𝜌 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑐 𝑜𝑖𝑙
S.G hydraulic oil = 𝜌 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝜌 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑐 𝑜𝑖𝑙
1.25 = 998 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

𝜌 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑐 𝑜𝑖𝑙 = 1247.5 kg/m3


Specific weight

𝛾𝑓 = 𝜌𝑔

= (1247.5 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)


= 12237.975 N/m3
Specific weight of large steel sphere in Nacl
9.5×10−3 𝑚
Radius = 2

= 4.80 × 10−3 𝑚

Specific weight, 𝛾𝑠
𝑚𝑔
𝛾𝑠 =
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝑚𝑔
=4
⁄3𝜋𝑟 3

(3.45×10−3 𝑘𝑔)(9.81 𝑚⁄ 2 )
𝑠
= 4⁄ 𝜋(4.80×10−3 𝑚)³
3

= 73049.874 𝑁⁄𝑚3

Viscosity, μ NaCl

1 𝑚2
V = 2.4 mm2/s x (10002 𝑚𝑚2 )

= 2.4 x 10-6 m2/s

μ
V = 𝜌 𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙
μ
2.4 x 10-6 m2/s = 1187.62 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

μ = 2.8503 x 10-3 kg/ms


Drag Coefficient large steel Sphere in Nacl, 𝑪𝑫

8 𝑟(𝛾𝑠 − 𝛾𝑓 )
𝐶𝐷 = ( )
3 𝜌𝑉 2
𝑁 𝑁
8 (4.80×10−3 𝑚)(73049.874 −11650.5522 3 )
𝑚3 𝑚
= 3( 𝑘𝑔 𝑚 )
(1187.62 )(2.062 )²
𝑚3 𝑠

= 0.3209
𝑁 𝑘𝑔. 𝑚
𝑚 𝑚 3 2
𝑚3 → 𝑚 .𝑠
𝑘𝑔 𝑚2 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2
3
𝑚 𝑠 2 𝑚3 𝑠 2

𝑚2 𝑘𝑔 𝑚3 𝑠 2
×
𝑚3 𝑠 2 𝑘𝑔𝑚2

Total drag force large steel Sphere in NaCl, FD


Area = π r2
= π (4.80 x 10-3 m)2
= 7.239168 x 10-5 m2
𝜌𝑢²
FD = CD.A 2
𝑘𝑔 𝑚
(1187.62 )(2.062 )²
-5 2 𝑚3 𝑠
= (0.3209) (7.239168 x 10 m ) 2

= 0.058652 N

Viscosity of NaCl when large steel Sphere pass through it, μ


2 𝛾𝑠− 𝛾𝑓
μ = 9 r2 𝑢
𝑁 𝑁
2 73049.874 − 11650.5522
𝑚3
= 9 (4.80 𝑥 10¯3 𝑚)2 𝑚
𝑚³
2.062
𝑠

𝑘𝑔
= 0.15245 𝑚.𝑠
Reynolds number of large steel sphere in NaCl solution
𝜌𝑢
𝑅𝑒 = (2𝑟)
𝜇
𝑘𝑔 𝑚
(1187.62 )(2.062 )
𝑚3
Re= 𝑘𝑔
𝑠
×2(4.80×10−3 𝑚)
0.15245
𝑚.𝑠

= 154.209

TUTORIALS
1.Discuss whether the liquids used are Newtonian or Non-Newtonian.
The liquid used for this experiment are both Newtonian fluids as their shear stress are directly
proportional to the deformation rate.
2.What is the factor that might be cause error to the calculation of the viscosity?
Factor that might be cause the error during calculating viscosity is the carelessness during
inserting the value for the calculation.
3.What is the relationship between CD and Reynolds number?
Reynolds number is a function of velocity, and density, characteristic dimension (length), and
viscosity. Thus, Reynolds number can be relate through velocity. As the velocity increase, the
drag coefficient,CD will increase. Besides, as the velocity increase, the Reynolds number will
also increase.

4.Briefly describe the following terms :


a. Terminal velocity
b. Drag coefficient

Terminal velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid
while drag coefficient is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or
resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water.