You are on page 1of 13

1|Page

POLITICAL SCIENCE

FINAL DRAFT

INDIA’S STAKE ON BALUCHISTAN

Submitted to: Prof. Varada Sambhus

Prof. Mangesh Kadam

Submitted by: Shivraj Madavi

Submission date: 14.09.2017

Enrolment no:-2017050
2|Page

TABLE CONTENTS

1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………….page 3

2. Struggle of Baloch people……………………………………………………...page 4

3. Why India should support Baluchistan in its freedom for struggle…………page 5

4. Indian Prime Minister’s words for Baluchistan………………………………page 5

5. India’s strategy………………………………………..…………………………page 7
5.1 Pressure tactic on Pakistan
5.2 Importance of Baluchistan for Pakistan
5.3 CPEC a challenge to India’s sovereignty

6. Importance of Chabhar port………………………………………………….. page8

7. Responses on Baluchistan issue………………………………………………..page9

7.1 United States’s Response


7.2 Bangladesh and Afghanistan’s response
7.3 India’s response
7.4 Pakistan’s response

8. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..…page 10

9. Take away……………………………………………………………………...page 11

10. Refrence………………………………………………………………………..page 11
3|Page

1. Introduction

Baluchistan is divided among three countries Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, but the major
portion of Baluchistan comes under the province of Pakistan which holds the 44% land of
Baluchistan .The population of Baluchistan is equal to the 5% population of Pakistan.
Baluchistan is very rich in minerals like coal, manganese and it has a very large no. of reserves
of natural gases which are enough to run the economy of Pakistan alone. The location of
Baluchistan is extremely strategic as it shares the borders with Punjab, Sindh, Fata as well as
Afghanistan and Iran.

As we know since a long time Baluchistan became a point of attraction for many news channels
due to their bad relationship with their own country Pakistan, As Pakistan government
unnecessarily killing the peoples of Baluchistan and violating the human rights of Baloch
people and atrocities are taking place inside Pakistan which has conducted five military
operation against Baluchistan.

So to tackle the situation Baloch peoples struggled for ages to get any international support but
not a single country ever spoken of the Baloch and sufferings except India. India is playing a
vital role for the relief of Baloch people. India has stand out alone not only against gross human
rights violations in the neighbourhood but also its strategic interest is involved. India is
providing support to the Baluchistan people in the form of funding, Investment and by sending
their military forces to afghan border. India is also going to raise the issue of Baluchistan in
UN assembly about the human rights violation and atrocities done by Pakistan on their own
peoples.

India is also developing Chabhar port which lies in Iran’s Sistan-Baluchistan, so India would
have better access to Baloch people and they can keep an eye on the activities of Pakistan in1

1
Roychowdhury, Adrija. "Balochistan: Everything you need to know about the Pakistan province and its bumpy
history." The Indian Express. August 18, 2016. Accessed August 20, 2017.
http://indianexpress.com/article/research/balochistan-everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-province-and-
its-bumpy-history/.
2 "Will approach India for Balochistan's freedom: Baloch leader." The Economic Times. Accessed August 22,
2017. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/will-approach-india-for-balochistans-freedom-
baloch-leader/articleshow/57331874.cms.
3 Pti. "India says it will continue to raise Balochistan issue." India Today. September 15, 2016. Accessed August
20, 2017. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/india-says-it-will-continue-to-raise-balochistan-
issue/1/765383.html.
4 "India raises Balochistan at U.N.; hits out at Pakistan." The Hindu. September 14, 2016. Accessed August 21,
2017. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/India-raises-Balochistan-at-U.N.-hits-out-at-
Pakistan/article14638295.ece.
4|Page

Baluchistan .Highway connecting to Chabhar and Afghanistan would eliminate Pakistan’s


involvement and Indian consignments could pass through Afghanistan to Baluchistan.

Chabhar port is also very important for India thus Chabhar port will help India to bypass
Pakistan which result in increase in trade with Afghanistan and other countries. The port will
reduce the transport time. It lies in outside the Persian Gulf so it can be easily accessed by the
western coast of India.

2. Struggle of Baloch people

First conflict - 1948: One Baloch Kingdom (Kalat) withstood annexure with Pakistan, until
forceful takeover in 1948 by Jinnah

Second conflict - 1958: Ethnic leader Nawab Nauroz Khan launched a guerrilla attack against
Pak, was arrested and imprisoned.

Third conflict - 1966: All likeminded ethnic leaders forced Pakistan to give up 'one unit' policy
to recognise it as fourth province

Fourth Conflict - 1973: Biggest fight for freedom began in 1973 when Martial Law was
imposed, leading to a large scale guerrilla war

Fifth Conflict 2004 till date: Widespread 'Kill and Dump' policy adopted by Pak Army
sparked biggest conflict till date. Movement reportedly weakened since 2014.

More than 1, 40,000 displaced since 2004-2005

At least 20,000 Balochs went missing in 2011

At least 300 executions in 2015

5 "Balochistan conflict: All you need to know." Times Now. Accessed September 12, 2017.
http://web.timesnowmobile.com/story?id=46981.
6 "Five things about Chabahar Port and how India gains from it." The Economic Times. Accessed August 22,
2017. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/five-things-about-chabahar-port-
andhow-india-gains-from-it/articleshow/52400399.cms.
7 Pti. "Balochistan leaders welcome PM Narendra Modi’s speech." The Indian Express. August 16, 2016.
Accessed August 20, 2017. http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/balochistan-leaders-
welcome-pm-narendra-modis-speech-2978410/.
8 Sui Gas Field. Accessed August 20, 2017. http://www.ppl.com.pk/content/sui-gas-field-overview.
5|Page

3. Why India should support Baluchistan in its freedom for struggle

Baluchistan is a readily ignited country which has till now remained more or less unexposed to
geo-political pressures either because of Indian dependence or because of Pakistan's deft
foreign policy or because it was not useful to the West. However, it holds the potential to
emerge as a new diplomatic flashpoint involving India, Pakistan and a range of external
stakeholders, including Afghanistan, Iran, USA, China, and Russia

Baluchistan, once an independent entity ruled by the Khan of Kalat, was forcefully occupied
by the Pakistani army in 1947, violating all the international norms of sovereignty and human
rights. Since then it has seen a continuous freedom struggle led by the Baloch National Army,
in which thousands of innocent civilians including women and children have been mercilessly
butchered by the Pakistani army. There have even been reports of the Pakistani army
committing genocide so as to facilitate the implementation of the China-Pak economic corridor.
Additionally, Pakistan has also been trying to inject Islamic extremism into the secular cultural
fabric of the world's oldest civilization of Baluchistan.

The disintegration of Pakistan is the ultimate way to guarantee security against aggression and
terrorism on the western front.

After the killing of tribal chief Akbar Khan Bugti in 2006, the freedom movement has
intensified, and can been seen in the form of protests, armed resistance and long marches by
civilians, with a strong participation of youth and women.

Baluchistan is extremely rich in gas, oil and mineral resources which if explored, developed
and utilized jointly with the help of Indian technology, will go a long way in fighting our energy
problem.2

4. Indian Prime Minister’s words for Baluchistan

In an address to the nation on India’s Independence Day, Indian Prime Minister Mr Narendra
Modi. In his speech prime minister thanked all the people of Baluchistan, Gilgit, Pakistan
occupied Kashmir for having an expression of thankfulness and talked about the situation in
Baluchistan and later urged Indian diplomats and media to highlight this issue in world capitals,

2
9 Pandya, Abhinav. "Why India Should Support Balochistan In Its Fight For Freedom." Huffington Post India.
July 20, 2016. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://www.huffingtonpost.in/abhinav-pandya/why-india-should-
support-balochistan-in-its-fight-for-freedom_a_21432713/.
6|Page

bringing it up in his Independence Day address to corner Pakistan on human rights violations
in its own region.

His remarks drew an angry reaction from Islamabad which claimed this “only proves Pakistan’s
contention that India has been exiting terrorism in Baluchistan through RAW (Research and
Analysis Wing).

He expressed his concern over terrorism. He said when innocent people are killed in attacks,
they celebrate what type of terrorism-inspired life is it, what type are these creations of
terrorism inspired governments.

His statement on the situation in Baluchistan and PoK is possibly the first by a Prime Minister
in an Independence Day speech.

Pakistan responded swiftly, saying the situation in Baluchistan cannot be equated with
Kashmir. Sartaj Aziz, Pakistan Prime Minister’s Adviser on Foreign Affairs, said the Indian
Prime Minister was only trying to divert world attention from the “grim tragedy” unfolding in
Kashmir over the past five weeks.

Mr Narendra Modi’s remarks are being seen as a retaliation to Pakistan’s strategy of attracting
international attention to the situation in Kashmir.

PM Narendra Modi told in an all-party meeting on Kashmir that Pakistan “bombs its own
citizens using fighter planes” and the “time has come that Pakistan shall have to answer to the
world for the atrocities committed by it against people in Baluchistan and PoK”.

India has always said the entire Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of the country, it has
rarely raised the human rights situation in PoK and Gilgit-Baltistan. What is even more unusual
is New Delhi’s bid, at the highest political level, to draw attention to rights violation in
Baluchistan.

India’s hawkish national security advisor AK Doval had almost issued a threat to Pakistan
when he said that India’s troublesome neighbour could lose Baluchistan if there was a repeat
of the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks. “You do one more Mumbai, you lose Baluchistan,”3

3
10 Mishra, Shubhajit RoyAnand. "Narendra Modi’s Independence Day speech: PM throws down Balochistan
gauntlet." The Indian Express. August 16, 2016. Accessed August 27, 2017.
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/pm-narendra-modi-balochistan-independence-day-
congress-pakistan-salman-khurshid-2977554/.
7|Page

5. India’s strategy

5.1 Pressure tactic on Pakistan

India is using Baluchistan issue as a pressure tactic for Pakistan because since a long a time
Pakistan is raising its voice for the India’s Kashmir part in every international conference they
raise the topic of Kashmir riots so to counter that India is also started raising the issue of
Baluchistan as Baluchistan consist of at least 44% of land of Pakistan which is very rich in
mineral resources so Pakistan cannot afford to losing it.

5.2 IMPORTANCE OF BALUCHISTAN FOR PAKISTAN

China is developing Gwadar port on the land of Baluchistan .The port was officially leased to
china for 43 years by Pakistan government so that the ships of China can stay there. On return
after the lease period it will be Pakistan’s second naval base which is also a danger for the
security of India because Gwadar is very close to the western coast of India in Arabian Sea.

The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a 3,218 km route consisting of highways,


railways and pipelines that will connect Gwadar port to Xinjiang in China. The CPEC is crucial
for China's 'One Belt, One Road' initiative that aims to connect China to Europe and Asia.
CPEC investments expected to exceed all FDI in Pakistan since 1970 and Over 7 lakh direct
jobs likely to be created by CPEC in Pakistan. But People of Baluchistan in the Pakistani
province in which Gwadar is located are against the CPEC. They claim that the CPEC's benefits
will not flow to them. Pakistani extremist outfit Tehreek-e-Taliban has already claimed the
killing of some Chinese in Pakistan.

Indian army chief General Bipin Rawat also said that CPEC challenges Indian sovereignty. He
expressed concern over the increasing presence of transnational actors in Pakistan with
fundamentalist ideologies India knows Baluchistan is the soft underbelly of Pakistan, where
the Pakistani state faces the most hostile population. Hence stronger control over the affairs of
Baluchistan strengthens India enough to bring nuclear-armed Pak to its knees.4

11 Krishnamachari, S. V. "PM Modi delivers lacklustre speech on 71st Independence Day." Scrolltoday.com.
August 15, 2017. Accessed August 26, 2017. http://scrolltoday.com/pm-modi-delivers-lacklustre-speech-71st-
independence-day/.

4
12 Raafi, Muhammad. "CPEC a challenge to India's sovereignty: Army chief." Kashmir Life. August 27, 2017.
Accessed August 28, 2017. http://kashmirlife.net/cpec-a-challenge-to-indias-sovereignty-army-chief-149186/.
"The tale of CPEC and Balochistan." Pakistan Today. Accessed August 26, 2017.
https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/08/25/the-tale-of-cpec-and-balochistan/.
8|Page

6. Importance of Chabhar port

The first and foremost significance of the Chabahar port is the fact that India can bypass
Pakistan in transporting goods to Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Chabahar port will boost India's
access to Iran, the key gateway to the International North-South Transport Corridor that has
sea, rail and road routes between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia.5

Chabahar port will be beneficial to India in countering Chinese presence in the Arabian Sea
which China is trying to ensure by helping Pakistan develop the Gwadar port. Gwadar port is
less than 400 km from Chabahar by road and 100 km by sea.

With Chabahar port being developed and operated by India, Iran also becomes a military ally
to India. Chabahar could be used in case China decides to flex its navy muscles by stationing
ships in Gwadar port to reckon its upper hand in the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and Middle
East.

With Chabahar port becoming functional, there will be a significant boost in the import of iron
ore, sugar and rice to India. The import cost of oil to India will also see a considerable decline.
India has already increased its crude purchase from Iran since the West imposed ban on Iran
was lifted.

Chabahar port will ensure in the establishment of a politically sustainable connectivity between
India and Afghanistan. This is will, in turn, lead to better economic ties between the two
countries.

Chabahar port could be used as a point from where humanitarian operations could be
coordinated.

The Zaranj-Delaram road constructed by India in 2009 can give access to Afghanistan's
Garland Highway, setting up road access to four major cities in Afghanistan - Herat, Kandahar,
Kabul and Mazar e Sharif.

5
13 Why is Balochistan important? Let's revisit the tale of the Durand Line." Firstpost. August 16, 2016.
Accessed August 28, 2017. http://www.firstpost.com/politics/why-is-balochistan-important-lets-revisit-the-
tale-of-the-durand-line-2958730.html.
9|Page

7. Responses on Baluchistan issue

United States’ Response

US State Department spokesman John Kirby comments that the US government respects the
unity and territorial integrity of Pakistan but we do not support independence for Baluchistan
told in Washington.

The situation has raised alarms in Washington, where officials are urging both India and
Pakistan to resume their dialogue for reducing tensions in South Asia.

“We strongly support all efforts between India and Pakistan that can contribute to a more stable
and prosperous region, and that includes meetings at any level between Indian and Pakistani
officials,” said the State Department’s deputy spokesman, Mark Toner.

The United States has clearly distanced itself from Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s
attempt to internationalise the Baloch issue and in the process has also assured Pakistan of its
continued support to the country’s territorial integrity.

Bangladesh and Afghanistan’s response

Bangladesh and former Afghan president Hamid Karzai supported the Indian position,
encouraging Mr Modi to continue his campaign against Pakistan.

India’s Response

“What India is saying now is that we have long ignored the Baluchistan issue. But that doesn’t
mean we can’t raise the issue.”

India says that it will help Baluchistan as much as they can in all possible aspects.

Pakistan’s response

Pakistan is expectedly upset after India hit it where it hurts the most Sartaz\ Aziz Pakistan
advisor on foreign affairs, said that India was trying to divert global attention from the “tragedy
in India held Kashmir”

6
Pakistan has been accusing India of running terrorist activities as well as helping Baloch
nationalists. When a terrorist attack killed over 50 people in Quetta, Baluchistan, the Pakistani

6
14 Agencies. "India, Iran and Afghanistan sign Chabahar port agreement." Http://www.hindustantimes.com/.
May 23, 2016. Accessed September 11, 2017. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/india-iran-afghanistan-
sign-chabahar-port-agreement/story-2EytbKZeo6zeCIpR8WSuAO.html.
10 | P a g e

Chief Minister blamed RAW (Research and Analysis Wing), the foreign intelligence agency
of India. Pakistan could never produce any substantial proof against India.

8. Conclusion

The researcher had done this research by using various articles, magazines, and other online
sources from which he came to the conclusion.

Firstly, Baluchistan is extremely rich in gas, oil and mineral resources which if explored,
developed and utilized jointly with the help of Indian technology, will go a long way in fighting
our energy problem.

Secondly, Baluchistan is Pakistan's soft underbelly our neighbour's nukes are hidden in the
region, where the Pakistani state faces the most hostile population. Hence stronger control over
the affairs of Baluchistan strengthens India enough to bring nuclear-armed Pak to its knees.

In addition to taking a stand on the moral dimension of human rights abuses and killings, India
has other strategic reasons to support the Baloch national movement

Thirdly, from Karachi to Bandar Abbas, there will not be any anti-India naval base like Gwadar.

Fourthly, the disintegration of Pakistan is the ultimate way to guarantee security against
aggression and terrorism on the western front. If this happens, India is left with the friendly
neighbours of Sindh and Baluchistan. A weakened and broken Pakistan also means the
shattering of the backbone of transnational Islamic extremism to a large extent. Finally, it
leaves India with more resources for economic development, a peaceful South Asia, and
friendly neighbours.

However, the project has its own complications. India might face opposition from Iran and
Afghanistan as Baloch land also lies under their territorial control. Further, Chinese interests
and Iran's growing friendship with Russia as well as its eagerness to build its economic and
military strength might lead to the emergence of the Baloch region as a new theatre for power

15 Abbas, Syed Sammer. "Modi trying to divert global attention from tragedy in India-held Kashmir, says Aziz."
DAWN.COM. August 15, 2016. Accessed September 12, 2017. https://www.dawn.com/news/1277706.
11 | P a g e

struggles. In the process, there are chances that the Baloch people might continue to undergo
suffering.

India needs to declare in clear terms its diplomatic and moral support in international fora to
the Baloch cause. India must invest heavily in publicity campaigns in international institutions,
think-tanks like Brookings, Carnegie, and universities to create a rational intellectual discourse
at an international level on the issue.

To conclude, this time, India needs to be consistent and continue the fight until the objective is
achieved. India needs to replace its systemic nervousness, confusion and timidity with strong
decision-making and resolve at a political level. This action will also speak out loud that how
much powerful India is and with pace it is emerging at international level.

9. Take Away

The researcher has learned a lot of things about the Baluchistan, The conflicts of Baluchistan,
the struggle of Baloch people in Pakistan against the human right violation, atrocities, about
the resources of Baluchistan and why Baluchistan is important for other countries due to its
geo-strategic location.

10. References:

1 Dikshit, Ashish. "Ten Things You Must Know About the Balochistan Conflict Now." The Quint. August 16,
2016. Accessed August 27, 2017. https://www.thequint.com/india/2016/08/15/ten-things-you-must-know-about-
balochistan-conflict-now-pakistan-india-prime-minister-narendra-modi-nawaz-sharif.

2 Jamal, Nasir. "The cost of CPEC." DAWN.COM. June 21, 2017. Accessed August 27, 2017.
https://www.dawn.com/news/1320028.

3 IndiaToday.in. "7 reasons why Irans Chabahar port is crucial to India." India Today. August 07, 2017. Accessed
August 27, 2017. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/chabahar-port-iran-importance-to-india-pakistan-
afghanistan/1/1020401.html.

4 "Why is Balochistan important? Let's revisit the tale of the Durand Line." Firstpost. August 16, 2016. Accessed
August 28, 2017. http://www.firstpost.com/politics/why-is-balochistan-important-lets-revisit-the-tale-of-the-
durand-line-2958730.html.

5 Dighe, Sandip, and Tnn. "China trying to change status quo, Doklam-like events may recur: Army chief - Times
of India." The Times of India. August 26, 2017. Accessed August 27, 2017.
12 | P a g e

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/china-trying-to-change-status-quo-more-doklam-like-incidents-
possible-in-future-army-chief/articleshow/60238328.cms.

6 Krishnamachari, S. V. "PM Modi delivers lacklustre speech on 71st Independence Day." Scrolltoday.com.
August 15, 2017. Accessed August 26, 2017. http://scrolltoday.com/pm-modi-delivers-lacklustre-speech-71st-
independence-day/.

7 Raafi, Muhammad. "CPEC a challenge to India's sovereignty: Army chief." Kashmir Life. August 27, 2017.
Accessed August 28, 2017. http://kashmirlife.net/cpec-a-challenge-to-indias-sovereignty-army-chief-149186/.

8 "The tale of CPEC and Balochistan." Pakistan Today. Accessed August 26, 2017.
https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/08/25/the-tale-of-cpec-and-balochistan/.

9 Editorial. "Modi." DAWN.COM. August 15, 2016. Accessed August 28, 2017.
https://www.dawn.com/news/1277527/modis-aggressive-language.

10 Correspondent, The Newspaper's. "US refuses to support Modi." DAWN.COM. September 16, 2016.
Accessed August 26, 2017. https://www.dawn.com/news/1284025.

11 Pandya, Abhinav. "Why India Should Support Balochistan In Its Fight For Freedom." Huffington Post India.
July 20, 2016. Accessed August 27, 2017. http://www.huffingtonpost.in/abhinav-pandya/why-india-should-
support-balochistan-in-its-fight-for-freedom_a_21432713/.

12 Haidar, Suhasini. "In policy shift, Narendra Modi brings up Balochistan again." The Hindu. August 15, 2016.
Accessed August 28, 2017. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/In-policy-shift-Narendra-Modi-brings-up-
Balochistan-again/article14572650.ece.

13 Mishra, Shubhajit RoyAnand. "Narendra Modi’s Independence Day speech: PM throws down Balochistan
gauntlet." The Indian Express. August 16, 2016. Accessed August 27, 2017.
http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/pm-narendra-modi-balochistan-independence-day-
congress-pakistan-salman-khurshid-2977554/.

14 "India steps up its offence against Pakistan on Balochistan." The Economic Times. Accessed August 27, 2017.
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/india-steps-up-its-offence-against-pakistan-on-
balochistan/articleshow/54369447.cms.

15 Akbar, Malik Siraj. "A gamechanger for the Baloch." The Indian Express. August 19, 2016. Accessed August
27, 2017. http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/narendra-modi-balochistan-comment-pakistan-
jammu-and-kashmir-2983746/.

16. Abbas, Syed Sammer. "Modi trying to divert global attention from tragedy in India-held Kashmir, says Aziz."
DAWN.COM. August 15, 2016. Accessed September 12, 2017. https://www.dawn.com/news/1277706.

17. "Balochistan conflict: All you need to know." Times Now. Accessed September 12, 2017.
http://web.timesnowmobile.com/story?id=46981.
13 | P a g e

18. Haidar, Suhasini. "Avoiding the 'Copycat Trap' on Balochistan." The Hindu. August 17, 2016. Accessed
September 13, 2017. http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/Avoiding-the-%E2%80%98Copycat-
Trap%E2%80%99-on-Balochistan/article14574549.ece.

19. Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. "Playing the Baloch card." The Indian Express. August 18, 2016. Accessed September
13, 2017. http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/pm-modi-balochistan-remark-independence-day-
speech-india-pakistan-2981612/.

Related Interests