You are on page 1of 13
Energy 27 (2002) 415–427 www.elsevier.com/locate/energy Gasification of hazelnut shells in a downdraft gasifier M. Dogru ,

Energy 27 (2002) 415–427

Energy 27 (2002) 415–427 www.elsevier.com/locate/energy Gasification of hazelnut shells in a downdraft gasifier M. Dogru ,

www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

Gasification of hazelnut shells in a downdraft gasifier

M. Dogru a,* , C.R. Howarth a , G. Akay a , B. Keskinler a , A.A. Malik b

a Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Newcastle, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK b Waste to Energy Ltd, Eyston, Borley Green, Sudbury, Suffolk, UK

Abstract

The potential offered by biomass to reduce greenhouse gas production is now being more widely recog- nised. The energy in biomass may be realised either by direct combustion use, or by upgrading into more valuable and useable products such as gas, fuel oil and higher value products for utilisation in the chemical industry or for clean power generation. Up till now, gasification work has concentrated on woody biomass but recently sources of other biomass with large energy production potential have been identified, namely hazelnut shells. Therefore, a pilot scale downdraft gasifier is used to investigate gasification potential of hazelnut shells. A full mass balance is reported including the tar production rate as well as the composition of the produced gas as a function of feed rate. Additionally, the effect of feed rate on the CV/composition of the product gas and the associated variations of gasifier zone temperatures are determined with tempera- tures recorded throughout the main zones of the gasifier and also at the gasifier outlet and gas cleaning zones. Pressure drops are also measured across the gasifier and gas cleaning system because the produced gas may be used in conjunction with a power production engine when it is important to have low pressure drop in the system. The quality of the product gas is found to be dependent on the smooth flow of the fuel and the uniformity of the pyrolysis, and so the difficulties, encountered during the experiments are detailed. The optimum operation of the gasifier is found to be between 1.44 and 1.47 N m 3 /kg of air fuel ratios at the values of 4.06 and 4.48 kg/h of wet feed rate which produces the producer gas with a good GCV of about 5 MJ/m 3 at a volumetric flow of 8–9 N m 3 /h product gas. It was concluded that hazelnut shells could be easily gasified in a downdraft gasifier to produce good quality gas with minimum polluting by-products. It is suggested that, in view of ease of operation, small-scale gasifiers can make an important contribution to the economy of rural areas where the residues of nuts are abundant. It is also suggested that gasification of shell waste products is a clean alternative to fossil fuels and the product gas can be directly used in internal gas combustion engines, thus warranting further investment/encouragement by authorities to exploit this valuable resource. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +44-191-222-7276; fax: +44-191-222-5292.

E-mail address: murat.dogru@ncl.ac.uk

(M. Dogru).

0360-5442/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0 360-5442(01)00094-9

  • 416 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415–427

1. Introduction

If biomass is gasied efciently it can generate a high yield of clean product gas. The rst step to the process is a thermo-chemical decomposition of lignocellulosic compounds with pro- duction of char, tar and volatile compounds [1]. The tar and char impairs the product gas quality and a large number of research projects in the eld of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass, mainly on pyrolysis and gasication, have been carried out to try to understand the process. There are, however, still problems associated with the realisation of the process and the utilisation of the products that have been recently reviewed [2,3]. The comparison of the environmental impact of biomass use in gasiers and incinerators is very important when considering the effective use of biomass. Hazelnut shell can be one of the most important types of biomass for gasication, as it is an abundant and important agricultural and commercial material in Turkey. At present, two-thirds of the world production capacity of hazelnuts is provided by Turkey, with around 250 thousand tons of hazelnut shells per year (equivalent to 4.63×10 9 MJ) produced in the Black-Sea region of Turkey alone, equivalent to one-third of the combined capacity of nuts produced by America, Italy and Spain, respectively [4]. Because hazelnut shells have only been used in simple combus- tion conditions, little research has been carried out to investigate burn-outdata and there is virtually no data available. Recent researches have been mainly concentrated on drying, pyrolysis and liquefaction [46]. For this study, four types of nutshell mixtures from TrabzonTurkey, Tombul, Palaz, Badem and Sivri were utilised. Almost all of the fruits of this group are used in industry and traded as shelled at international markets and the shell is normally regarded as a waste product [7]. Thus, hazelnut shells may also be used in gasication systems to produce a low caloric value combust- ible gas for clean energy production. The characterisation of hazelnut shell properties is important for gasication system design. The most signicant properties of any biomass that are known to inuence the gasication process are moisture content, size and shape, absolute and bulk density, chemical composition (i.e. proximate and ultimate analysis) and the higher heating value. The purpose of this study was to investigate gasication characteristics of hazelnut shells in a pilot-scale (5 kWe electrical output) downdraft gasier. The ultimate objective is to direct use of the product gas in an Internal Combustion Engine to produce electric power. In order to achieve this, the pressure and temperature of the gas fed to this system are important. During the experi- ments, temperatures recorded for each run are the drying zone, pyrolysis zone and throat zone of the gasier and also gasier, scrubber and box lter outlet temperatures. An Analog to Digital (ATD) converter linked to a computer was used to record these temperature data every 15 s. The pressure drops were measured by means of pressure transducers at the gasier, water scrubber and box lter outlets. Additionally, the chemical composition, the ow rate, tar and condensate content of the product gas as well as ash and char rate were also measured. Some of the minor difculties, encountered during the experiments, were recorded. However, it was concluded that hazelnut shells were satisfactorily gasied in a downdraft gasier.

M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

2. Experimental set-up and procedure

2.1. Experimental set-up

417

In downdraft gasiers, both the fuel and the gas ow downwards through the reactor enabling the pyrolysis gases to pass through a throated hot bed of char which was supported by a grate. This results in the cracking of most of the tars into non-condensable gases and water. Furthermore, the air or oxygen enriched air is usually admitted to fuel bed through air intake nozzles causing pyrolysis to charcoal and volatiles that partially burn as they are produced. The gaseous products of this ‘flaming pyrolytic combustionthen consume the charcoal produced during this pyrolysis and are reduced to fuel gas. This gas is much more suitable for operation in clean gas burners, Internal Combustion Engines, gas turbines and/or to transport the product gas in pipelines. Other advantages of the downdraft gasier are high char conversion, lower ash and tar carry over, quick response to load change and simple construction. Higher gas outlet temperatures, difculty of scale up; ash fusion at high grate temperatures and fuel moisture limitations (less than 25%) are the common disadvantages. However, compared to updraft gasier types, on balance the lower tar levels and response to load and fuel changes make this type of the gasier most suitable in a combined heat and power generation requirement especially in operation which require simul- taneous drying and power. As shown in Fig. 1, the downdraft gasifier has four distinct reaction zones, which are drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones from top to bottom (height of the bed (H)=810 mm, diameter of the oxidation zone (D)=450 mm, diameter of the drying hopper zone (L)=305 mm, diameter of the throat (d)=135 mm). In terms of the construction, this system is made of four sections: a fuel hopper, a gasier reaction zone, air feeding system and an ash removal box. Schematic diagrams with a typical temperature prole and zones are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. In general, as shown in Fig. 3, hardware of the experimental system essentially consists of a downd- raft gasier, packed-bed scrubber, lter box, circulation fan and a pilot burner. In the drying zone, hazelnut shells descend into the gasier and moisture is removed using the heat generated in the zones below by evaporation. The rate of drying depends on the surface area of the fuel, the temperature difference between the feed and the hot gases, the re-circulation velocity and relative humidity of these gases as well as the internal diffusivity of moisture within the fuel. The temperature and the height of drying zone are about 70200°C and 0.10 m, respect- ively. In the pyrolysis zone, the irreversible thermal degradation of dried fuel descending from the drying zone takes place using the thermal energy released by the partial oxidation of the pyrolysis products. The temperature and the height of the pyrolysis zone are approximately 350500°C and 0.17 m. In the oxidation zone, the volatile products of pyrolysis are partially oxidised in highly exother- mic reactions resulting in a rapid rise in temperature up to 1200°C in the throat region. The heat generated is used to drive the drying and pyrolysis of the fuel and the gasication reactions. The oxidation reactions of the volatiles are very rapid and the oxygen is consumed before it can diffuse to the surface of the char. Therefore, no combustion of the solid char can take place. Oxidation of the condensable organic fraction to form lower molecular weight products is important in

  • 418 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

418 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415 – 427 Fig. 1. Schematic diagram

Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of downdraft gasier (5 kWe) and its temperature prole.

reducing the amount of tar produced by a gasier. The temperature and the height of the oxidation zone are approximately 10001200°C and 0.12 m. In the reduction zone (often referred as gasication zone) the char is converted into product gas by reaction with the hot gases from the upper zones. The gases are reduced to form a greater

proportion of H 2 , CO, CH 4 , C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 . In this zone, the combustible gases

leave the gasier

at a temperature between 200 and 300°C and are loaded with dust, pyrolytic products (tar) and water vapour. Depending in the end use, it is necessary to cool and clean the gas in order to

remove as much water vapour, dust and pyrolytic products as possible from the gas, especially if it is to be used in an Internal Combustion Engine. The packed-bed scrubber shown in Fig. 3 consists of water tank to re-circulate the spray and a water spray packed-bed cooling tower. The product gases leave the scrubber cooled by up to 30°C and up to 8090% tar, dust, y ash and condensate content removed. After scrubbing the product gas, it is further cleaned by a vertical lter box. The lter box in Fig. 3 has two layers. Wood and charcoal are chosen as the lter medium so that the contaminated lter can be re-cycled as fuel in subsequent use of the gasier. To prevent excessive pressure drop over the box lter, hazelnut shells and charcoal are thoroughly sieved to remove any nes before they are placed in the lter trays. In the lter box, the charcoal tray

M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

419

M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415 – 427 419 Fig. 2. Simulated picture

Fig. 2.

Simulated picture of downdraft xed bed-throated (5 kWe) gasier.

occupies the lower tray while the dry nutshells are on the upper tray. Contaminated nutshells were utilised in the gasier for the following runs. Remaining tar and condensate from the product gas are collected at the base of the box lter. Finally, a circulation fan shown in Fig. 3 was utilised to draw the gases from the gasier and blow them into the gas burner.

2.2. Operating procedure

The operation of the gasier can be divided into four parts as follows. (1) Start-up, which includes all operations required until a steady state, whereby the gas quality for the engine is stable is reached. Pre-weighed batches of nut shells (approximately 20 kg) are loaded into the hopper to a predetermined level, and then, the air fan and the water scrubber circulation pump are switched on. The fuel is ignited on the grate using solid fuel igniters. (2) The data measured are the wood ow rate, gas ow rate, gas composition analysis, tar and condensate, temperature and pressure measurements. Temperatures were recorded with an ATD converter every 15 s for inlet air, drying zone, pyrolysis zone, throat, scrubber and box lter outlet. The pressure drops were also measured at the gasier, water scrubber and box lter outlet. The product gas ow rate was measured by a gas ow meter located after the suction fan and

  • 420 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

420 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415 – 427 Fig. 3. Schematic fi

Fig. 3. Schematic gure of the experimental set-up (T 1 : throat (oxidation) zone temperature, T 2 : pyrolysis zone tem- perature, T 3 : drying zone temperature, T 4 : gasier outlet temperature, T 5 : scrubber outlet temperature, T 6 : box lter outlet temperature, P g : pressure drop across the gasier, P s : pressure drop across the scrubber, P f : pressure drop across the box lter, SP 1 : gas sampling point at the gasier outlet, SP 2 : gas sampling point at the scrubber outlet, SP 3 : gas sampling point at the box lter outlet.

the amounts of tar and condensate in the product gas were determined from gas samples taken at the gasier, water scrubber and box lter outlets. (3) Shutdown procedure includes all the actions to safely seal the gasier. Computer, water scrubber, gasier air nozzles, circulation fan and exhaust fan of boiler are shut down in an orderly sequence with the off gas burner remaining on using a secondary natural gas burner until no combustible gas is produced. (4) For a full mass balance, cleanup procedure includes all procedures required to collect tar, char, ash and condensate. After the reactor cooled down, the amounts of ash and char were determined by collecting those from the ash chamber. Finally, the top plate of the gasier was opened so that all unused hazelnut shells were carefully removed and monitored. The average feed rate of fuel was calculated by dividing the total hazelnut shells consumed by the total operating time of the gasier.

3. Results and discussions

3.1. Characteristics of hazelnut shells

Table 1 lists the physical properties, the proximate and ultimate analyses of hazelnut shell. The physical properties dene the particulate size, absolute density and bulk density. The proximate

M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

421

Table 1 Physical and chemical properties (proximate and ultimate analysis) of hazelnut shell

Physical properties of hazelnut shell (average of four samples)

Size (mm 3 )

Absolute density (kg/m 3 )

Bulk density (kg/m 3 )

17.9×16.5×8.5

944.84

319.14

Proximate analysis, % wet basis (average of four samples)

 

Moisture (%)

Volatile matter (%)

Fixed carbon (%)

Ash (%)

GCV (MJ/kg)

12.45

62.70

24.08

0.77

17.36

Ultimate analysis, % dry basis (average of four samples)

 

Carbon (%)

Hydrogen (%)

Oxygen (%)

Nitrogen (%)

Sulphur (%)

46.76

5.76

45.83

0.22

0.67

analysis determined the moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and xed carbon (by difference) using standard method described in ASTM-84 (American Society for Testing Materials-84) tests. A partial, ultimate analysis is reported. The ultimate analysis usually lists the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and ash content of the dry hazelnut shell on a weight percentage basis. The ultimate and proximate analysis of fuel does not indicate the suitability of biomass for gasication. However, it is the main tool for predicting the gas gross caloric value composition and temperature limits of the gasier through mass and energy balances. The Gross Caloric Value (GCV) of the fuel was either measured by Gallenkamp-Autobomb calorimeter or used the IGT method [8] with the relationship:

GCV 341C 1323H 68S 15.3A 120(O N)

(1)

where GCV denotes gross caloric value in kJ/kg, and carbon (C), hydrogen (H), sulphur (S), ash (A), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) are used by percentage elemental mass. The GCV of hazelnut shells was experimentally determined at 17.36 MJ/kg (with standard deviation of 0.14%) and theoretically calculated at 18.08 MJ/kg (with STD of 0.23%); the experimental value was used in all calculations of the study. The fuel moisture content greatly effects both the operation of the gasier and the quality of the product gas. The moisture content constraints for gasier fuels are dependent on type of gasier used. Higher values are possible in updraft systems but the upper limit acceptable for a downdraft reactor is generally considered to be around 40% dry basis [8]. Generally, moisture content of most bio-mass varies between 11 and 18%, thus believed to be very suitable and well within the range for an engine application [9]. In this study, the moisture content of hazelnut shells was around 12%. Earp [10] recommended the maximum particle size to be used in a downdraft gasier as one- eighth of the reactor throat diameter, the particle size of hazelnut shells used in the experiments was 17.9×16.5×8.5 mm 3 on average, which is close to this recommendation. The absolute and bulk density of biomass is very important for process design in terms of handling and storage [9]. Biomass with high bulk densities will require less reactor space for a given re-fuelling time. However, low bulk fuels sometimes give rise to insufcient ow under gravity resulting in low gas heating value and possibly burning char in the reduction zone [11]. The bulk density of hazelnut shell is higher than wood chip (250.28 kg/m 3 ) [9], and the experiments showed that there

  • 422 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

was no char burning in the reduction zone. It is also observed that product gas quality was almost constant during the run, suggesting good ow characteristics. High volatile matter in biomass generally increases tar content in the product gas and a substan- tial quantity of this tar should be removed before it fed to an internal combustion engine [1214]. Hazelnut shells have lower volatile matter than wood chips (64.79%) [9]; thus the product gas had a low tar content. The ash content of most biomass is typically much less than that of coals ( 3%), but some forms have a high as content [9]. The amount of ash in hazelnut shells was quite low and, therefore, the ash could be removed less frequently and continuously from the gasier, without interfering with the continuous production of good quality gas.

3.2. Gasication results

The detailed hazelnut shell gasication results which include chemical analyses of the product gas, caloric values (GCV), wet feed rate, wet product gas ow and air fuel ratios, are summarised in Table 2. The airfuel ratio used in Table 2 is dened as the volume of dry air to total mass of dry, ash- free (daf) fuel. The control of the gas production rate and air fuel ratios is via the gate valve (see in Fig. 3), and this inuences both the air/fuel ratio and the feed rate. The airfuel ratio has a vital important effect on the gasier performance because it regulates the fuel consumption rate, therefore, airfuel ratios should be monitored carefully during design pilot scale work in order to aid scaling-up of a gasier. However, Jenkins claimed that this ratio is not easily controlled and should not be arbitrarily assumed [15]. Walawender [16] published experimental gasication data and reported that the airfuel ratio ranged from 0.99 to 2.08 N m 3 /kg for wood chips having moisture content of 5.516.5%. Hoi [17] obtained an airfuel ratio, which varies from 0.84 to 2.11 N m 3 /kg for rubberwood at 10.7% moisture content in a downdraft gasier. In this study, higher air fuel ratios were obtained at lower wet feed rates (1.64 N m 3 /kg at the

Table 2

Gasication results of hazelnut shells

Run

Feed

rate

(kg/h)

Product

gas ow

(N m 3 /h)

Air/fuel

(N m 3 /kg) H

2

(%)

N

2

(%)

CH

4

(%)

CO (%)

CO 2

(%)

C 2 H 2

(%)

C 2 H 6

(%)

GCV

(MJ/N m 3 )

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1.73

2.15

2.64

3.19

3.69

4.02

4.06

4.48

4.70

4.93

5.40

3.55

4.44

5.33

6.22

7.26

8.15

8.15

9.18

9.48

10.07

10.96

1.63

1.64

1.52

1.38

1.51

1.46

1.47

1.44

1.37

1.48

1.50

14.77

14.62

14.77

14.77

14.12

13.13

12.67

11.86

13.83

11.33

11.11

58.67

59.67

56.96

57.05

57.07

53.33

54.71

53.95

54.24

55.65

55.83

1.40

2.10

1.94

2.03

1.70

2.18

1.97

2.47

1.98

2.36

2.15

8.56

8.92

12.08

14.41

16.80

20.66

19.63

19.89

18.41

18.99

18.56

16.33

13.92

13.02

11.42

9.93

9.52

10.02

11.25

11.12

11.09

11.22

0.09

0.13

0.21

0.12

0.17

0.15

0.20

0.26

0.12

0.25

0.17

0.05

0.02

0.08

0.12

0.04

0.11

0.17

0.19

0.02

0.11

0.14

3.47

3.76

4.22

4.50

4.55

5.12

4.96

5.15

4.75

4.86

4.66

M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002)

415427

423

value of 2.15 kg/h), but this falls as the feed rate rises to produce optimum gas ( 5 MJ/kg of GCV) with a value of around 1.41.45 N m 3 /kg at the highest output. In most other bio-mass gasication, higher feed rates inuence the temperature sufciently to induce slag and the clinker formation [18,19], which may disturb the pyrolysis zone sufciently to cause an increase in the air fuel ratio which raises the temperature in this zone resulting in combustion instead pyrolysis in the reactor bed. However, in our study, it was estimated that air fuel ratios generally varied between 1.5 and 1.65 N m 3 /kg, and we also observed that there was no temperature high enough to induce slag and clinker formation. The optimum air fuel ratios were obtained as 1.371.47 N m 3 /kg at the values between 4.02 and 4.70 kg/h of wet feed rate, and it is suggested that the gasier should operate within these values to produce high quality combustible gas.

  • 3.3. Product gas quality

Table 2 shows that the major combustible products were H 2 , CH 4 , CO, C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 , and it

was estimated that their total percentages were approximately 24.836.23% of total product gas. The highest amount was obtained at its optimum operating point of wet feed rate (44.5 kg/h) and air fuel ratio 1.45 N m 3 /kg. Fig. 4 shows the variation of the caloric value of the produced gas as a function of the wet product gas ow and wet feed rate as percentage and also gives a good idea of the optimum operating point of the gasier. Table 2 shows that the highest GCV gases were produced at a rate between 8.1510.07 N m 3 /h of wet gas ow from 44.5 kg/h of fuel. Fig. 4 shows that the GCV of produced gas rises steadily with an increase in wet feed rate and product gas until the optimum of 7585% throughput is reached.

  • 3.4. Zone temperatures

Fig. 5 shows the variations of the average zone temperatures of the gasier on the left ordinate and the GCV of the produced gas located on the right ordinate against air fuel ratio. Maximum

M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415 – 427 423 value of 2.15 kg/h),

Fig. 4.

Variations of GCV of the produced gas versus the percent of the wet feed rate and product gas capacity.

  • 424 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

424 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415 – 427 Fig. 5. Variations of

Fig. 5.

Variations of average zone temperatures versus air/fuel and gross caloric value of produced gas.

temperatures in drying, pyrolysis and throat zones were measured, respectively, as 125, 566 and 1206°C at lower than the optimum performance (1.41.45 N m 3 /kg) air fuel ratios. However, it was observed that zone temperatures were approximately constant at the values of air fuel ratio between 1.41.51 N m 3 /kg with the throat temperature being about 1050°C the highest values of GCV in spite of the increase of air fuel ratio. This suggested that within these air fuel ratios, the downdraft gasier was at its optimum performance operated to produce low tar, char and high caloric value product gas (see Table 3). It was observed that, at the higher values than 1.5 N m 3 /kg, the GCV of produced gas and zone temperatures showed a signicant decrease while tar output sharply increased (see Figs. 3 and 6) probably because more air enters and this modies the balance of the zones to the detriment of the output gas quality and the amount of pollutant (tar).

  • 3.5. Pressure drops

Pressure drops were determined across the gasier, packed-bed scrubber and the lter box. The pressure losses were measured as 5.07 mm Hg at the gasier outlet and as 5.38 mm Hg across the packed-bed scrubber and as 5.27 mm Hg across the lter box. These are satisfactory to allow an Internal Combustion Engine to operate. Consequently, total maximum pressure drop across the whole system was determined as 15.72 mm Hg.

  • 3.6. By-products

Fig. 6 shows the variations of by-product (side products from the gasication system) ratios as a function of feed rate for eleven runs versus hazelnut shells feed rate. In addition, Table 3 tabulates the main operating parameters alongside with gasier by-products. It is clear that char and tar rates can be assumed to be the best indicators of performance and the ratios of by- product/feed could be regarded as a good indication to evaluate the efciency of the system. As shown in Fig. 6 and Table 3, the char and ash output remained almost constant and, however,

Table 3

M. Dogru et al. / Energy

27 (2002) 415427

425

Gasier operation parameters and by-products (by-product to feed ratios shown in brackets)

Run

Feed rate

(kg/h)

Air/fuel

(N m 3 /kg)

GCV

(MJ/N m 3 )

Throat

temp. (°C)

Char (kg/h) Ash (kg/h)

Tar (kg/h)

Condensate Total water

(kg/h)

(kg/h)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1.73

2.15

2.64

3.19

3.69

4.02

4.06

4.48

4.70

4.93

5.40

1.63

1.64

1.52

1.38

1.51

1.46

1.47

1.44

1.37

1.48

1.50

3.47

3.76

4.22

4.50

4.55

5.12

4.96

5.15

4.75

4.86

4.66

821

833

846

869

1025

1015

1020

1130

1206

1110

1021

0.094

(0.054)

0.115

(0.053)

0.140

(0.053)

0.161

(0.050)

0.183

(0.050)

0.201

(0.050)

0.209

(0.051)

0.228

(0.051)

0.243

(0.052)

0.267

(0.054)

0.305

(0.056)

0.015

(0.009)

0.019

(0.009)

0.025

(0.009)

0.030

(0.009)

0.035

(0.009)

0.038

(0.009)

0.040

(0.010)

0.044

(0.010)

0.050

(0.011)

0.055

(0.011)

0.059

(0.011)

0.0141

(0.008)

0.0139

(0.006)

0.0185

(0.007)

0.0203

(0.006)

0.0215

(0.006)

0.0239

(0.006)

0.0230

(0.006)

0.0253

(0.006)

0.0230

(0.005)

0.0263

(0.005)

0.0283

(0.005)

0.47

(0.272)

0.60

(0.279)

0.71

(0.269)

0.77

(0.241)

0.86

(0.233)

0.98

(0.244)

0.93

(0.229)

1.05

(0.234)

1.06

(0.226)

1.05

(0.213)

1.20

(0.222)

0.476

(0.275)

0.605

(0.281)

0.715

(0.271)

0.783

(0.245)

0.879

(0.238)

1.016

(0.253)

0.954

(0.235)

1.097

(0.245)

1.101

(0.234)

1.068

(0.217)

1.255

(0.232)

the tar rate decreased slightly at higher fuel ow rates and all of these may be more a function of in efcient collection due to carry overat high rates. Moreover, the condensate and water output went through a minimum because temperature in the gasier ascended by entering of more fuel and the product gas obtained at high temperature. However, it was deduced that high quality product gas (4.755.15 MJ/N m 3 ) was produced at the feed rates between 4.02 and 4.70 kg/h because of high throat (oxidation) temperature (10151206°C) and low char (0.2010.228 kg/h) and tar (0.0230.025 kg/h) for this size of gasier. It is obvious that the changes on the operating parameters have little effect on the overall performance of the gasier.

3.7. Mass balance results

During the research, total of 11 runs was carried out. In actuality, the total mass input must be equal to the total mass output. The mass balance is one of the ways in which the reliability of the data collected is examined. Total mass inputs include feedstock, air and total water input, while total mass outputs comprise total water output, ash, char, tar, condensate and dry gas out- puts. Therefore, the usual method to quantify the discrepancies in the mass balance is the closure of the mass balance which is dened as the percentage ratio of the total output mass to that of the total input mass. It is not easy to get 100% closure and illustrates the difculties of obtaining

  • 426 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

426 M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415 – 427 Fig. 6. Variations of

Fig. 6.

Variations of by-products/feed rate versus wet hazelnut shell feed rate.

this data, nevertheless most of the closures are within the 90100% range for the total fuel input range of 1.735.40 kg/h. The average mass balance closure was found to be 95% over 11 runs with hazelnut shells.

4. Conclusion

Gasication of hazelnut shells was carried out in a pilot scale (5 kWe) downdraft gasier. The gasier was efciently and consistently operated with a range of feed rate between 1.7 and 5.5 kg/h (3:1 turndown). The optimum operation of the gasier was found to be between 1.44 and 1.47 N m 3 /kg of air fuel ratios at the values of 4.06 and 4.48 kg/h of wet feed rate which produces the producer gas with a good GCV of about 5 MJ/m 3 at a volumetric ow of 89Nm 3 /h product gas. At this optimum, low tar and char were produced at a ratio of 0.005 and 0.051 of the feed, respectively. Maximum temperatures in drying, pyrolysis and throat zones were determined as 125, 566 and 1206°C but the throat temperature fell to about 1020°C at the optimum. With hazelnut shells there was no sign of bridging or ash fusion at the optimum throat tempera- ture of about 10001050°C. The majority of the material balance closures for most of the runs were fairly consistent and satisfactory over a wide range of different operating conditions and fuels. It was noted that if moisture in fuel increases, mass closures increase dramatically and hence, difculties could be encountered in maintaining the gas quality resulting in poor yields. Thus, the optimum oper-

M. Dogru et al. / Energy 27 (2002) 415427

427

ational point for this size of the gasier reactor was determined according to feed rate, maximum combustible gas ow, air fuel ratio, optimum char and tar output rates, optimum GCV of the combustible gases and optimum throat temperature.

  • 6.1. Optimum nut shells feed rate for this size of the gasier is around 4.02 kg/h.

  • 6.2. Maximum combustible gas ow is obtained as 10.96 N m 3 /h.

  • 6.3. Optimum air fuel ratio is obtained as 1.46 N m 3 /kg.

  • 6.4. Optimum char output rate is determined as 0.201 kg/h.

  • 6.5. Optimum tar output rate is found as 0.023 kg/h.

  • 6.6. Maximum GCV of the producer gas

is analysed as 5.15 MJ/N m 3 .

  • 6.7. Optimum throat temperature is measured as 1015°C.

References

[1] Maschio G, Lucchesi A, Stoppato G. Production of syngas from biomass. Bioresour Technol 1994;48:11926.

[2] Elliot DC. Comparative analysis of gasication/pyrolysis condensates. In: Proceedings of Biomass Thermochem-

ical Conversion Contractors, 1985:36173, (Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA, Battle Institute, Colombus, Ohio,

USA).

[3] Bridgwater A, Van Swaaij WPM. R&D requirements in thermochemical conversion of biomass. In: Grassi G,

editor. Proceedings of Fourth E.C. Conference Energy from Biomass, 1987:23551, (London, UK).

[4] Balci S, Dogu T, Yucel H. Pyrolysis kinetics of lignocellulosic material. Ind Eng Chem Res 1993;32:25739.

[5] Kucuk MM. Liquefaction of hazelnut seed coat by supercritical gas extraction. Energy Conversion Manage

1995;36(2):1458.

[6] Demirbas A, Akdeniz F, Erdogan Y, Pamuk V. Kinetics for fast pyrolysis of hazelnut shells. Fuel Sci Technol

1996;14:40515.

[7] Dogru M, Howarth CR, Malik AA, Olgun H. A study of bio-nut shells for gasication. In: Oxford, UK: Elsevier

Science Ltd, 1999:10517, (Oakland, California, USA).

[8] Bridgewater AV, Double JM, Earp DM. Technical and market assessment of biomass gasication in the United

Kingdom. ETSU Report, UKAEA, Harwell, UK, 1986.

[9] Dogru M. Fixed-bed gasication of biomass. PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle, UK, 2000.

[10] Earp DM. The gasication of biomass in a downdraft reactor. PhD Thesis, Aston University, UK, 1988.

[11] Coovattanachai N. Field trials on producer gas systems developed at prince of Songkla University, Thailand. In:

Proceedings of Second International Producer Gas Round Table Conference, 1985, (Bandung, Indonesia, The

Beijer Institute, Box 50005, Stockholm, Sweden).

[12] Anonymous. Generator gas the Swedish experience from 193945. The Swedish Academy of Engineering

Sciences, Translated by Solar Energy Research Institute, Colorado, USA, SP No. 33140, 1979.

[13] Dasappa S, Reddy V, Mukunda HS, Shrinivasa U. Experience with gasiers for 3.7 kW engines. Ambio

1985;14:2759.

[14] Reed TB, Das A. Hand book on biomass downdraft gasier engine systems. SERI/SP-271-3022, Colorado,

USA, 1988.

[15] Jenkins BM, Goss JR. Effect of air blast rate on xed bed gasiers. In: American Society of Agricultural Engineer-

ing Pacic Regional Annual Meeting, 1980, (Hilo, Hawaii, Paper No. PR 80-028).

[16] Klass DL, editor. Energy from Biomass XI. Chicago: Institute of Gas Technology, 1988.

[17] Hoi KW. Gasication of rubberwood in a downdraft gasier. PhD Thesis, University of Aston, UK.

[18] Bridgewater AV, editor. Thermochemical processing of biomass. UK: Butterworths, 1984.

[19] Washington DC, editor. Energy from Biomass and Waste-X. London, UK: Elsevier Applied Science, 1987.