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Steel and cast iron

Chapter 11 - 1

Chapter 11 - 2

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Taxonomy of Metals

Metal Alloys

Adapted from
Ferrous Nonferrous Fig. 11.1,
Callister 7e.

Steels
Steels Cast Irons
Cast Irons
Cu Al Mg Ti
<1.4 wt% C
<1.4wt%C 3-4.5 wt%C
3-4.5 wt% C

T(°C) microstructure:
1600 ferrite, graphite
d
cementite
1400 L
g+L
1200 g 1148°C L+Fe3C
austenite Eutectic:
1000 4.30

g+Fe3C
a+

a800 727°C Fe3C


g

ferrite Eutectoid: cementite


600 0.76 a+Fe3C
400
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7
(Fe)
Co , wt% C Chapter 11 - 3

Carbon steel

1. Other terms: plain steel, mild steel, low-carbon


steel
2. Available in almost all product forms: e.g. sheet,
strip, bar, plate, tube, pipe etc.
3. Designation: e.g. 1040 steel - 0.40 wt% C
4. Up to 2 wt% C
5. Limitation for other alloying elements:
Si up to 0.6 %,
Cu up to 0.6 %
Mn up to 1.65 %

Chapter 11 - 4

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Chapter 11 - 5

Hot-rolled steels and typical applications

t11_01b_pg361
Chapter 11 - 6

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AISI: the American Iron and Steel Institute
SAE: the Sociaty of Automotive and Engineering
ASTM: the American Society for Testing and
Materials
UNS: the Uniform Numbering System

Chapter 11 - 7

High alloys:

Chapter 11 - 8

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Chapter 11 - 9

Designations, compositions and applications for six tool steels

Chapter 11 - 10

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Chapter 11 - 11

Chapter 11 - 12

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Chapter 11 - 13

Chapter 11 - 14

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Stainless steels

1. More resistant to rusting and staining than carbon- and low-alloy


steels
2. Chromium addition, usually above 10 wt% (4-30%)

Chapter 11 - 15

Stainless steels

Chapter 11 - 16

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Chapter 11 - 17

Chapter 11 - 18

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Steels
Low Alloy High Alloy
low carbon Med carbon high carbon
<0.25 wt% C 0.25-0.6 wt% C 0.6-1.4 wt% C

heat austenitic
Name plain HSLA plain
plain tool
treatable stainless
Cr,V Cr, Ni Cr, V,
Additions none none none Cr, Ni, Mo
Ni, Mo Mo Mo, W
Example 1010 4310 1040 4340 1095 4190 304
Hardenability 0 + + ++ ++ +++ 0
TS - 0 + ++ + ++ 0
EL + + 0 - - -- ++
Uses auto bridges crank pistons wear drills high T
struc. towers shafts gears applic. saws applic.
sheet press. bolts wear dies turbines
vessels hammers applic. furnaces
blades V. corros.
resistant
increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility
Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister 7e. Chapter 11 - 19

Ferrous Alloys
Iron containing – Steels - cast irons

Nomenclature AISI & SAE


10xx Plain Carbon Steels
11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability)
15xx Mn (10 ~ 20%)
40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%)
43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.4 - 0.90%), Mo (0.2 - 0.3%)
44xx Mo (0.5%)

where xx is wt% C x 100


example: 1060 steel – plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C

Stainless Steel -- >11% Cr

Chapter 11 - 20

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Cast Iron
• Ferrous alloys with > 2.1 wt% C
– more commonly 3 - 4.5 wt%C
• low melting (also brittle) so easiest to cast

• Cementite decomposes to ferrite + graphite


Fe3C Æ 3 Fe (a) + C (graphite)
– cementite (Fe3C) a metastable phase
– graphite formation promoted by
• Si > 1 wt%
• slow cooling

Chapter 11 - 21

Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram


Graphite formation
T(°C)
promoted by
1600
• Si > 1 wt%
1400 L Liquid +
• slow cooling
g+L Graphite
1200 g 1153°C
Austenite 4.2 wt% C
1000
a+g g+ Graphite
800
740°C
0.65

600
Cast iron a + Graphite
1. Gray iron
400
2. Nodular (ductile) iron 0 1 2 3 4 90 100
(Fe) Co , wt% C
3. White iron
4. Malleable iron
5. Compacted graphite iron
Chapter 11 - 22
(CGI)

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Types of Cast Iron
Gray iron

– 1 - 3 % Si, 2.5 – 4% C
– graphite flakes plus ferrite/pearlite
– brittleness due to the flake-like graphite
• weak & brittle under tension
• stronger under compression
• excellent vibrational dampening
• wear resistant

Ductile (nodular) iron

– a small amount (0.05 wt%) of Mg or Ce


– spheroidal graphite precipitates (nodules)
rather than flakes
– matrix often pearlite or ferrite
– Ductility increased by a factor of 20, strength
is doubled

Chapter 11 - 23

Microstructure of pearlite in
the grey iron (Fe-3.3C-2.1Si-
0.5Cr-0.5Mo-1.0Cu). TEM.

Optical micrograph of a grey


iron (Fe-3.3C-2.1Si-0.5Cr-
0.5Mo-1.0Cu)

Chapter 11 - 24

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(a) steel; (b) grey cast iron

Chapter 11 - 25

Types of Cast Iron


White iron

– <1wt% Si, harder but brittle


– eutectic carbide plus pearlite
– large amount of Fe3C formed during
casting

Malleable iron

– the result of annealing white iron


castings, 800º-900º C
– cementite→ graphite precipitates,
clusters or rosettes
– more ductile

Chapter 11 - 26

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Types of Cast Iron

Compacted graphite iron (CGI)

1. C: 3.1-4.0%, Si: 1.7-3.0%


2. Lower content of Mg or Ce
3. Worm-like (vermicular)
graphite particles

• higher thermal conductivity


• better resistance to thermal shock
• lower oxidation at elevated
temperature

Chapter 11 - 27

Production of Cast Iron

Adapted from Fig.11.5,


Callister 7e.

Chapter 11 - 28

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Cast iron

Chapter 11 - 29

Which type of cast iron is in the pictures illustrated below ?

Chapter 11 - 30

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Limitations of Ferrous Alloys

1) Relatively high density


2) Relatively low conductivity
3) Poor corrosion resistance

Chapter 11 - 31

Metal Fabrication
• How do we fabricate metals?
– Blacksmith - hammer (forged)
– Molding - cast

• Forming Operations
– Rough stock formed to final shape

Hot working vs. Cold working


• T high enough for • well below Tm
recrystallization • work hardening
• Larger deformations • smaller deformations

Chapter 11 - 32

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Metal Fabrication Methods - I

FORMING CASTING JOINING


• Forging (Hammering; Stamping) • Rolling (Hot or Cold Rolling)
(wrenches, crankshafts) (I-beams, rails, sheet & plate)
force
die roll
Ad
A o blank A d often at Ao
elev. T
roll
Adapted from
force Fig. 11.8,
• Drawing • Extrusion Callister 7e.
(rods, wire, tubing) (rods, tubing)
Ao
die Ad container
tensile die holder
Ao force
force ram billet extrusion Ad
die
container die
die must be well lubricated & clean ductile metals, e.g. Cu, Al (hot)
Chapter 11 - 33

Metal Fabrication Methods - II

FORMING CASTING JOINING

• Casting- mold is filled with metal


– metal melted in furnace, perhaps alloying
elements added. Then cast in a mold
– most common, cheapest method
– gives good production of shapes
– weaker products, internal defects
– good option for brittle materials

Chapter 11 - 34

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Metal Fabrication Methods - II

FORMING CASTING JOINING


• Sand Casting
(large parts, e.g.,
• trying to hold something that is hot
auto engine blocks)
• what will withstand >1600ºC?
Sand Sand • cheap - easy to mold => sand!!!

molten metal • pack sand around form (pattern) of


desired shape

Chapter 11 - 35

Metal Fabrication Methods - II

FORMING CASTING JOINING


• Sand Casting
(large parts, e.g.,
auto engine blocks) Investment Casting
• pattern is made from paraffin.
Sand Sand • mold made by encasing in
molten metal plaster of paris
• melt the wax & the hollow mold
• Investment Casting is left
(low volume, complex shapes
e.g., jewelry, turbine blades) • pour in metal
plaster
die formed
around wax wax
prototype
Chapter 11 - 36

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Metal Fabrication Methods - II

FORMING CASTING JOINING


• Sand Casting • Die Casting
(large parts, e.g., (high volume, low T alloys)
auto engine blocks)

Sand Sand

molten metal
• Continuous Casting
• Investment Casting (simple slab shapes)
(low volume, complex shapes
molten
e.g., jewelry, turbine blades)
plaster solidified
die formed
around wax wax
prototype
Chapter 11 - 37

Metal Fabrication Methods - III

FORMING CASTING JOINING


• Powder Metallurgy • Welding
(materials w/low ductility) (when one large part is
impractical)
pressure
filler metal (melted)
base metal (melted)
fused base metal
heat
heat affected zone
area unaffected unaffected
contact piece 1 piece 2 Adapted from Fig.
11.9, Callister 7e.
densify (Fig. 11.9 from Iron
Castings
• Heat affected zone: Handbook, C.F.
point contact densification Walton and T.J.
by diffusion at
(region in which the Opar (Ed.), 1981.)
at low T
higher T microstructure has been
changed).
Chapter 11 - 38

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Thermal Processing of Metals
Annealing: Heat to Tanneal, then cool slowly.
• Stress Relief: Reduce • Spheroidize (steels):
stress caused by: Make very soft steels for
-plastic deformation good machining. Heat just
-nonuniform cooling below TE & hold for
-phase transform. 15-25 h.

• Full Anneal (steels):


Types of Make soft steels for
good forming by heating
Annealing to get g, then cool in
furnace to get coarse P.
• Process Anneal:
Negate effect of
• Normalize (steels):
cold working by
Deform steel with large
(recovery/
grains, then normalize
recrystallization)
to make grains small.

Based on discussion in Section 11.7, Callister 7e. Chapter 11 - 39

Heat Treatments
800
Austenite (stable)

a) Annealing T(°C) TE
A
b) Quenching P
600
c) Tempered
Martensite
B
400 A
10
0%
Adapted from Fig. 10.22, Callister 7e. 50
0% %

0%
200 M+A
50%
M+A
90%

b) a)
10
-1
10 10
3
10
5 c)
time (s) Chapter 11 - 40

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f11_10_pg389
Chapter 11 - 41

Chapter 11 - 42

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Hardenability--Steels
• Ability to form martensite
• Jominy end quench test to measure hardenability.
Adapted from Fig. 11.11,
flat ground Callister 7e. (Fig. 11.11
specimen adapted from A.G. Guy,
Essentials of Materials
(heated to g Science, McGraw-Hill Book
phase field) Rockwell C Company, New York,
1978.)
24°C water hardness tests

• Hardness versus distance from the quenched end.


Hardness, HRC

Adapted from Fig. 11.12,


Callister 7e.

Distance from quenched end


Chapter 11 - 43

Why Hardness Changes With Position

• The cooling rate varies with position.


Hardness, HRC

60

40

20 distance from quenched end (in)


0 1 2 3
T(°C) 0%
600 P 100%
fi Adapted from Fig. 11.13, Callister 7e.
A
(Fig. 11.13 adapted from H. Boyer (Ed.)
400 Atlas of Isothermal Transformation and
Cooling Transformation Diagrams,
M(start) American Society for Metals, 1977, p.
200 376.)
A fi M
Pe Fine ens

0 M(finish)
ar P ite
M
M ens

lite ea +
ar
ar ite
t
t

rli Pe
te a

0.1 1 10 100 1000


Time (s)
rli
te

Chapter 11 - 44

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Hardenability vs Alloy Composition
100 10 3 2 Cooling rate (°C/s)
• Jominy end quench
60

Hardness, HRC
results, C = 0.4 wt% C 100
(table 11.2a p363) 4340 80 %M
50
40 4140

Adapted from Fig. 11.14, Callister 7e.


8640

10
40
(Fig. 11.14 adapted from figure furnished 5140
courtesy Republic Steel Corporation.) 20
0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance from quenched end (mm)

• "Alloy Steels" 800


(4140, 4340, 5140, 8640) T(°C) TE
600 shift from
--contain Ni, Cr, Mo A B A to B due
(0.2 to 2wt%) 400 to alloying
--these elements shift
the "nose". 200 M(start)
--martensite is easier M(90%)
to form. 0 -1 3 5
10 10 10 10 Time (s)
Chapter 11 - 45

Quenching Medium & Geometry


• Effect of quenching medium:
Medium Severity of Quench Hardness
air low low
oil moderate moderate
water high high
• Effect of geometry:
When surface-to-volume ratio increases:
--cooling rate increases
--hardness increases
Position Cooling rate Hardness
center low low
surface high high

Chapter 11 - 46

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Summary

• Steels: increase TS, Hardness (and cost) by adding


--C (low alloy steels)
--Cr, V, Ni, Mo, W (high alloy steels)
--ductility usually decreases with additions.
• Non-ferrous:
--Cu, Al, Ti, Mg, Refractory, and noble metals.
• Fabrication techniques:
--forming, casting, joining.
• Hardenability
--increases with alloy content.
• Precipitation hardening
--effective means to increase strength in
Al, Cu, and Mg alloys.

Chapter 11 - 47

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