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# Linear Motion

## Distance is the total length/path travelled by an object. s= u + v t ………………………..(2)

Distance is a scalar quantity . 2
The unit of distance is metre (m)
s = ut + ½ at 2 ………………………..(3)
Displacement is shortest distance between two location in a
particular direction. v 2 = u 2 + 2as ………………………..(4)
Displacement is a vector quantity Example 1
The unit of dispacement is metre (m) A car accelerates from rest to 25 m s-1 in 4 s. Find the acceleration
of the car.
EXAMPLE 1
A boy walks finish the following path PQ.

Example 2
A car accelerates from rest at 3 ms-2 along a straight road. How far
has the car travelled after 4s?

Example 3
Find A car is travelling at 20 ms-1 along a straight road. The driver puts
(a) total distance traveled the brakes on for 5 s. It this causes a deceleration of 3 m s-2, what
(b) displacement is the car’s final velocity?

## Speed is the rate of change of distance.

Speed = distance travelled
time taken
Velocity is the rate of change of displacement. Example 4
Velocity = displacement A car moving with constant velocity of 40 ms-1. The driver saw and
time taken obstacle in front and he immediately stepped on the brake pedal
EXAMPLE 2 and managed to stop the car in 8 s. What is the total distance
travelled?

Ticker Timer
Time for one tick = 0.02s
a) Determine the average velocity

## Figure above shows runner runs 500 m towards east in 2

minutes and 1200m towards north in 4 minutes. b) Determine the acceleration
Calculate his
(a) Total distance
(b) Total displacement
(c) average speed
(d) average velocity
c) Determine the acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
Acceleration = change in velocity
time taken
Acceleration = final velocity – initial velocity
time taken
a = v - u
t
Equation of linear motion
v = u + at ……………………….(1)
d)Determine the acceleration DISPLACEMENT –TIME GRAPH

Displacement/m Gradient =
Velocity

Time/s

s/m
Type of motion:
e) Describe the type of motion for each of the following
t/s
i)
s/m Type of motion :

t/s
Gradient = acceleration
s/m Type of motion:
Area under the graph = displacement

t/s
ii)
s/m
Type of motion:

t/s

## s/m Type of motion:

iii)

t/s

EXAMPLE 1
The following figure shows displacement – time graph of an object.

iv)

## Based on the graph

(a)state the section of the graph showing
v)
(i) object moving away from origin (ii) moving back to origin
Gradient = Acceleration
(b) state how long the object is at rest
Area under the graph =
(c) calculate the velocity at Displacement
(i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD

(d) Calculate
(i) total distance (ii)total displacement.
(e) Calculate
(i) the average speed (ii)average velocity
t/s

v/ms-1
Type of motion:
(f) Sketch a velocity against time graph.
v/ms-1 t/s

## 0 10 30 35 t/s v/ms-1 Type of motion:

EXAMPLE 2 t/s
Figure below shows a displacement-time graph of a lift moving
from the 4th floor to the 7th and goes down again to the 1st floor. EXAMPLE 1
The following is the velocity-time graph of a car moving to the right
and turning to the left.
v/ms-1
20 B C

D F
A 0 2 5 7 8 10 t/s
(a) Calculate the velocity over
(i) JK (ii) LM (iii) MN -10 E

## Based on the graph,

(b) Calculate the (a)State the section of the graph showing
(i) total distance (ii) total displacement of the lift. (i) acceleration (ii) deceleration

(b) How long the car was moving with constant velocity?
(c) Calculate:
(i) average speed (ii) average velocity (c) State the point on the graph showing the car start to change
direction.

(d) Sketch a velocity-time graph for the lift from J to N. (d) Calculate the acceleration over
(i) AB (ii) BC (iii)CD (iv) EF

## VELOCITY – TIME GRAPH (d)Calculate

Gradient = Acceleration (i)the total displacement. (ii)the total distance

## Area under the graph = diaplacement

(e)Calculate
(i) average velocity (ii)average speed

## (f) Sketch an acceleration against time graph.

t/s a/ms-2

0 2 5 8 10 t/s
-1
v/ms Type of motion :

t/s EXAMPLE 2
v/ms -1
Type of motion: Diagram 8.1 shows a car driven by a kidnapper has overtook a
police car at 2.00 p.m. The police car then followed the
kidnapper’s car. Diagram 8.2 shows a velocity against time graph In elastic collision, after two objects moving with their respective
for both cars. velocities do collide, those two objects will separate and move with
different velocities.

## Based on The Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum,

The total momentum = The total momentum
before collision after collision
m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

EXAMPLE 1

## (a) Based on graph in Diagram 8 state the motion of the

(i) kidnapper’s car

## (ii) the police car

…………………………………………………………[1 mark]
EXAMPLE 2
(b) (i) What is the net force acting on the police car after 2.01p.m?

…………………………………………………………[1 mark].

(ii) Give a reason for your answer in 3(b)(i). Two objects P and Q of masses 0.8 kg and 0.6 kg respectively
moving towards each other. After collision object P bounces back
…………………………………………………………[1 mark] with a velocity of 1.6 ms-1. What is the velocity and the direction of
motion of object Q after collision?
(c) Sketch a displacement against time graph of the police car.

Inelastic collision
In inelastic collision, after two objects moving with their respective
velocities do collide, they stick together and move with a common
velocity.

MOMENTUM
momentum = mass x velocity
p =mv (unit = kgms-1)

## The Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum

The Principle of conservation of momentum states that Based on The Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum,
“ The total momentum of a system is always fixed if there is no The total momentum = The total momentum
external force acting on the system” or the total momentum before before collision after collision
collision will be equal to the total momentum after the collision” m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2) V
Elastic collision

EXAMPLE 1
Two trolleys of masses 2 kg and 3 kg respectively moving towards
each other. Both of the trolleys are moving at same velocity of 2
ms-1. After collision they stick together with a common velocity.
What is the common velocity of the trolleys?

## EXAMPLE 2 Based on The Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum,

A man of mass 60 kg runs with velocity 6ms-1 and suddenly jumps The total momentum = The total momentum
to a stationary trolley of mass 30 kg. After collision the man and before explosion after explosion
the trolley move together with a common velocity. What is the m1U1 + m2U2 = m1V1 + m2V2
velocity of the man and the trolley? 0 = m1V1 + m2V2
m1V1 = - m2V2
EXAMPLE 1
A man fires a pistol which has a mass of 1.5 kg. If the mass of the
EXAMPLE 3 bullet is 10 g and it reaches a velocity of 300 m/s after shooting,
Diagram 13.1 shows a lorry of mass 1200 kg moving at the speed what is the recoil velocity of the pistol?
of 30 m/s collides with a car of mass 1000 kg which is travelling in
the opposite direction at 20 m/s. After the collision, the two
vehicles move together.

EXAMPLE 2
Figure below shows a man standing on a stationary boat. He then
jumps out of the boat onto the jetty. The boat moves away from
Diagram 13.1 the jetty as he jumps.
(a) State the type of collision involved in this accident.

………………...........................................................................

## (b) Calculate the velocity, v of both vehicles immediately after

collision. (a) State the physics principle that is involved in the
movement of the boat as the man jumps onto the jetty.

(c) The driver of the car is thrown forward during the collision. ………………………………………………………………
State the physics concept involved.
(b) Explain why the boat moves away from the jetty when
……………............................................................................. the man jumps.

(d) The speed limit and the load limit of a truck is shown in …………………………………………………………..……
Diagram below.
…………………………………………………..……………

## (c) The mass of the man is 50 kg and he jumps at a

velocity of 2 m s-1 . The mass of the boat is 20 kg.
Explain why the speed limit and the load limit must be Calculate the velocity of the boat as the man jumps.
imposed on the truck.

…………...................................................................................
(d) Name one application of the physics principle stated in
……………………………………...…...……………………..(2m) (a) in an exploration of outer space.

…………………………………………………………..……
EXPLOSION
FORCE
 Push/pull on an object
Balanced Force
i) When the forces acting on an object are balanced, they cancel
each other out. The net force is zero.
ii) Effect : the object at is at rest [ velocity = 0] or moves at
constant velocity [ a = 0] (a) Based on the situation in Diagram 5.1 and situation in
Diagram 5.2,
Example 1 (i) state similarities about the magnitudes and directions of the
forces F1 and F2 , F3 and F4

magnitudes : ………………………..…

## (ii) What is the net force in both situations?

 The cup stays at rest. The net force acting on it is zero. Weight,
W = Normal Reaction, R ……………………………………………………………...[1 mark]
 The plane moves with constant velocity and height
 The net force acting on it is zero. Weight, W = Lift, U Thrust, F = (iii)Based on the answers in 5(a)(i) and 5(a)(ii), name the physics
drag, G concept involved.
Unbalance Force ……………………………………………………………..[1 mark]
i) When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, there
must be a net force acting on it. (b) (i) Another aircraft has F3 greater than F4 . Describe the motion
ii) The net force is known as the unbalanced force or the resultant of this aircraft.
force.
iii) Net force = force applied – resistant force …………………………………………………………..[1 mark]
iv) Effect : Can cause to accelerate, decelerate or change its
direction (ii) Explain the answer in 5(b)(i).

F = ma (N or kg m s-2) …………..……………………………………………………….

## 4. Figure shows a cyclist is riding along a road at a constant

velocity. The total of downward force acting on the bicycle and
the cyclist is 650 N. The normal reaction of the front tyre is 300
N and forward thrust is 200 N.
1.Two forces act horizontally to a block of wood of mass 4 kg as
shown in figure above. What is the acceleration and the direction
of motion of the block.

## 2.An object of mass 2 kg is pulled on the floor by a force of 5 N

and having a constant velocity.
(a) What is the frictional force between the object and the floor.
(b) Calculate the acceleration of the object if the object is pulled
by a 17 N force?
(a) Calculate the normal reaction, P acting on the rear tyre.
3.Diagram 5.1 shows two boys pushing a large box. After some
[1 mark]
time, the box still remains stationary. Diagram 5.2 shows a jet
moving forward with a uniform velocity at a constant height.
(b) Give one reason why the total resistance, Q should be 200
N at that moment?

.…………………………………………………………..[1 mark]

## (c) What will happen when the forward thrust is increased?

Diagram 5.1
.………………………………………….………………..[1 mark]
(d) Why the cyclist thrown forward when the bicycle runs over a Impulse is defined as the change of momentum
stone? = final momentum – initial momentum= mv - mu
From F = mv – mu
.. .…………………………………………………………...[1 mark] t
Ft = mv – mu = change of momentum = Impulse
(e) Explain why the cyclist can gets serious injuries if he falls onto The product of the force and the time is called the impulse.
the road which the surface is very hard. Unit : kgms-1 or Ns

…...…………………………………………………….……………

## ...…………………………………………………..…….[2 marks] Example 1

A 60 kg resident jumps from the first floor of a burning house. His
5. Diagram 4.1 shows a 50kg box is pushed by a man with a force velocity just before landing on the ground is 6 ms-1.
of 300N. The box moved with constant velocity. (a) Calculate the impulse when his legs hit the ground.

## (b) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he bends

upon landing and takes 0.5 s to stop?
Diagram 4.1
(a) What is the meaning of force?

……………………………………………………....[1 mark]
(c) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he does not
(b) (i)What is the frictional force acting on the box? bend and stops in 0.05 s?

…………………………………………….……....[1 mark]

(ii)Sketch a displacement against time graph motion of the (d) What is the advantage of bending his legs upon landing?
box in Diagram 4.2

displacement(m)
Example 2
Rooney kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The time of contact of
time(s) his boot with the ball is 0.01 s. What is the impulse delivered to the
ball? If the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the
(c)The pushing force of the box is increased to 350N. Calculate ball?
(i) the resultant force acting on the box.

[2 marks]
(ii) the acceleration of the box Example 3
In a tennis match, a player hits an on-coming ball with mass of 0.2
kg and velocity of 20 ms-1. The ball rebounds with a velocity of 40
[2 marks] m s-1. The time taken in the collision between the ball and the
tennis racket is 0.01 s.
IMPULSIVE FORCE AND IMPULSE
The large force that acts over a short period of time during
collisions is known as impulsive force. From the relationship
between force, mass and acceleration: F = ma = m (v – u)
t
From the expression F = Change of momentum
t
(a) What is the impulse experienced by the ball?
Impulsive force is inversely proportional to time of contact /impact
(b) What is the impulsive force exerted on the tennis ball?
Impulsive force is directly proportional to force
Longer period of time - Impulsive force decrease
Shorter period of time - Impulsive force increase
4. Diagram 5.1 shows a car that had collided into a tree. Diagram (a) What is meant by impulse?
5.2 shows another car that had collided into a pile of sand.
Both cars have the same mass of 1000 kg and were driven at ………………..…........................................................[1 mark]
the same speed of 25 ms-1.
(b) With reference to Diagram 14.1 and Diagram 14.2;
(i) Compare the force on the eggs that strike surface A and
Surface B.

………….……………..........................................................

## (ii) Compare the time of impact of the eggs on Surface A and

(a) What is meant by speed? Surface B.

## ………………………………………………………[ 1 mark ] …………………..................................................................

(b) Using the diagram 5.1 and diagram 5.2, (iii) Compare the change in momentum of the eggs in both
(i) compare the damage of the two cars situations.

## ……………………………………..……............[ 1 mark ] ……….………...............................................................

(ii) compare the change of momentum between the two (iv) State the relationship between the force produced in a
cars collision and the time of impact.

## ……………………………..………..……..……..[ 1 mark ] …….………………...........................................................

(c) State the relationship between the time of impact with the (v) Suggest a suitable material for Surface A.
damage of the car
……..…………..................................................................
…………………...…………………………………....[ 1 mark ]
(c) Diagram 14.3 shows a pile hammer used in driving a pile into
(d) (i) If the time of impact of the collisions of the car in Diagram the ground at a construction site.
5.1 is 0.2 s, calculate the rate of change of momentum of
the car.

[ 2 marks ]
(ii) State the physics concept which affects the collision of the
car. Explain how a large force is produced by the pile hammer in
driving the pile into the ground.
……...………………………………………………....[ 1 mark ]
.................................................................................................
(iii) State the relationship between the time of impact with the
answer from (d) (ii) .................................................................................[2 marks]

……….……………………………………………..…[ 1 mark ] 6. Diagram 16 shows an egg being dropped onto a wooden block.
The egg cracks after an impact. The velocity of the egg just
5.Diagram 14.1 and Diagram 14.2 show two eggs released from before the impact is 5 ms-1
the same height and drop on to Surface A and Surface B
respectively.
(a) Name the force involved during the impact. (i) The distance between two successive images of the sphere
increases showing that the two spheres are falling with
……………................................................................................ increasing velocity; falling with an acceleration.

(b) Give one reason why the egg cracked after the impact. (ii) The two spheres are at the same level at all times. Thus, a
heavy object and a light object fall with the same gravitational
…………................................................................................. acceleration. Gravitational acceleration is independent of
mass.
(c) The mass of the egg is 0.05 kg. Calculate the momentum just
before the impact. Example 1
An object that experience free fall takes 2.0 s to reach the ground.
What is
(d) Give one suggestion how you would avoid the egg from (a (a) its speed when it strikes the ground
cracking when dropped from the same height. (b) the height where the object is dropped

……………...............................................................................

GRAVITY
Objects fall because they are pulled towards the Earth by
gravitational force / gravitational pull.
Example 2
An object is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 20ms-1. If
the object experience free fall, calculate
(a) maximum height reached
(b) time to reach the maximum height
(c) time to reach the ground again

At vacuum state:
There is no air resistance.
The coin and the feather experience free fall.
Only gravitational force acted on the objects. 3. Figure below is a stroboscopic photograph shows two steel
Both will fall at the same acceleration known as acceleration due balls in a state of free-fall. Both balls are dropped
to gravity, g. (0n earth g = 10ms-2) simultaneously from the same height.
Both object will reach the ground at the same time.

## At normal state (when there is air resistance):

Both coin and feather will fall because of gravitational force.
Air resistance depends on surface area of a fallen object.
The feather that has large area will have more air resistance.
The coin will reach the ground first.
(a) Observe the photograph and state two similarities between the
position of the balls.

__________________________________________________

______________________________________________[2 m]

(b) Name one physical quantity which causes the balls to fall.

______________________________________________[1 m]

## (c) Based on the positions of the free-falling balls, there is a

physical quantity that is constant.
Diagram above shows two steel spheres dropped at the same (i) Name the quantity.
time from the same height.
____________________________________________[1 m]
(ii) What is the value of the quantity and its unit?

____________________________________________[1 m]

(iii) State how the mass of a ball affect the valued of the physical
quantity stated in (c)(i). Diagram 6

## __________________________________________[1 m] (a) State the type of motion when the ball

(i) Move up:
(d) A ball is thrown vertically upwards at a certain velocity.
(i) What happens to the motion of the ball as it moves …………………………….……………………………………
upwards?
(ii) Fall down:
___________________________________________[1 m]
……………………………………………………..[2 marks]
(ii) Give one reasons for your answer.
(b) State the force that causes the motion as stated in your answer
___________________________________________[1 m] at (a)

4.Fig. 2.1 shows apparatus that demonstrates how a coin and a ………………………...………………………………..…[1 mark]
piece of paper fall from rest.
(c) State the value of the velocity when the ball reached the
maximum height.

…………...……………………………………....……….…[1 mark]

## (d) Using the equation: v2 = u2 + 2 as, calculate the maximum

height reach by the ball.
Fig. 2.1 Fig. 2.2
At the positions shown in Fig. 2.1, the coin and paper are falling
through air in the tube. The forces on them are shown in Fig. 2.2. [2 marks]
The length of an arrow indicates the size of each force. (e) What happened to the value of maximum height reached
(a) State the initial value of the acceleration of the coin as it falls. calculated in (c) if there is air resistance.

## …................................................................................. [1] …………...…………………………………………..………[1 mark]

(b) Explain how Fig. 2.2 shows that (f) Sketch a velocity, v against time, t graph to describe the motion
(i) the paper falls with constant speed, of the ball.
v/ms-1
......................................................................................... t/s
[2 marks]
(ii) the coin accelerates.
RESULTANT FORCE
.....................................................................................[2] - a single force that represents the combined effect of two of
more forces in magnitude and direction.
(c) A vacuum pump is connected to A and the air in the tube is
removed. The coin and paper fall differently in a vacuum from Example
the way they fall in air. State two of these differences. 1. Calculate the resultant force for the diagrams below. Which
direction does the object move?
1....................................................................................... (a) (b)

2. ................................................................................ [2]

## 5. Diagram 6 shows a boy throwing a ball upwards at a velocity of

10m s-1 where the air resistance can be ignored.

## Two forces acting at an angle to each other

The resultant of two forces, which act on an object in two different
directions, can be determined by the triangle method and the
parallelogram method

## STEP 1 : Using ruler and protractor, draw the two forces 5N

and 12N from a point.
Resultant Forces in a Lift
(i)Stationary Lift (Also moves upwards or
60° downwards with uniform velocity

60° 120°

## STEP 3: Draw the diagonal of the parallelogram. The

diagonal represent the resultant force, F in F = R – mg = 0
magnitude and direction. R = mg
The reading on the weighing scale = the weight of the girl

## Resultant force (ii) The lift moves upwards with an acceleration of a ms -2

QUESTIONS
1.By using the scale given find the resultant force for the following
diagrams.
(a) (b)

## Resultant Force, F is upwards

R > mg
F = ma
F = R – mg = ma
1cm : 2N 1cm: 1N R = mg + ma
The reading on the weighing scale machine is larger

## Resultant Force, F is downwards

mg > R
F = ma
F = mg – R = ma
R = mg – ma
The reading on the weighing scale machine is smaller
(c)
Example (c) What is the function of each component?
5. A boy of mass 50 kg inside is inside a lift. Calculate the weight
experienced by the boy @ the reading on the weighing scale if
the lift: (d) If the lawnmower weighs 300 N, what is the total downward
(a) is stationary force on the ground?
(b) moves upwards with constant velocity of 1.5 ms-1
(c) accelerates upwards with an acceleration of 2 ms-2
(d) accelerates downwards with an acceleration of 2 ms-2 (e) If the lawnmower is pulled rather than pushed, what is the total
downward force on the ground?
RESOLUTION OF FORCES:
A force F can be resolved into components which are
perpendicular to each other: (f) Based on your answer in (d) and (e) which method is suitable to
(a) horizontal component , FX cut the grass and give a reason.
(b) vertical component, Fy
………………………………………………………………….…....

……………………………………………………………….………

## 3. Figure(a) and Figure(b) show two ways in which a gardener

Fy = sin θ Fx = cos θ moves a wheelbarrow on a muddy road.
F F
Fy = F sin θ Fx = F cos θ
Questions
1. Find the horizontal component and the vertical component of
the force.
(a) (b)
Fy Fy
50N 120N 50°
30°
Fx Fx
Figure(a) Figure(b)
(a) On Figure(a) and Figure(b) ,indicate and label:
(i) the direction of force F exerted by the gardener on
(c) Fx (d) Fx
the handle of each wheelbarrow to make it move.
70°
(ii) the direction of the vertical component Fy , of the
force in (a)(i).
250N 45° 350 N
(b) (i) Based on the answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii), which of the
ways is more suitable on the muddy road?
Fy Fy
………………………………………………….( 1mark)
2. A man pushes a lawnmower with a force of 100 N.
(ii) Explain the reason for your answer in (b)(i).
………………………...……………………………...……

…………….…………………………………....(2 marks)

## RESOLUTION OF FORCES ON INCLINE PLANE

A block of wood of m kg which is placed on an inclined plane
which makes an angle θ with the horizontal. The block of wood is
(a) Indicate and label acted upon by several forces:
(i) The force F
(ii) The horizontal force Fx
(iii) The vertical force Fy
(b) Calculate
(i) The horizontal force Fx

(ii) The vertical force Fy a) the weight component which is parallel to the inclined plane, mg
sin θ
b) the weight component which is perpendicular to the inclined (d) Diagram 11.2 shows four lawnmowers, J, K, L and M with
plane, mg cos θ different specifications. You are required to determine the
c) the normal reaction force, N most suitable lawnmower to cut grass effectively.
d) the frictional force, f Study the specifications of the four lawnmowers based on
following aspect:
QUESTIONS (i) Method of moving the lawnmower.
1) Diagram below shows a bag of cement of mass 35 kg on a (ii) Mass of the lawnmower.
ramp with 15° slope to horizontal. Frictional force exerted (iii) Size of the cutter blade.
between the bag and the ramp is 90.6 N. (iv) The angle between the handle and the horizontal line.
Explain the suitability of aspect and the determine the
most suitable lawn mover. Give a reason for your
choice. [10 marks]

## (a) What is meant by frictional force

…………..……………………………………….…[1 mark]

## (b) Calculate the resultant force parallel to the ramp.

[2 marks]
(c) Based on your answer in 4 (b), state what
happens to the motion of the bag of cement.
Give a reason for your answers.

………………………………………………………………

……….…………………………….........………[2 marks]

## 2. Diagram 11.1 shows a boy of mass 40 kg sliding in two identical

flumes, one after another. Diagram 11.1(a) shows the boy
sliding down the flume, which is inclined at 30° to the
horizontal. Diagram 11.1(b) shows the boy stationary in the
flume when the flume is inclined at 17.5° to the horizontal. The
frictional force acting on the boy in both flumes is 120 N.

## (a) What is the meaning of frictional force? [1m]

(b) Based on diagram 11.1(a), calculate:
(i) The component of the weight parallel to the slope of the
flume, Wc. [2 m]
(ii) The resultant force acting on the boy. [1m] (e)Diagram below shows four flag poles P, Q, R and S with
(iii) The acceleration of the boy. [2 marks] different specifications mounted on the ground
(c) Using the concept of force, explain why the boy slides down
the flume when the angle of inclination is 30° and remains
stationary when the angle of inclination is 17.5°.
[4 marks]
Maximum tension of string =
1 000 N horizontally :
Density of pole =
1 500 kg m–3 …………………………………………………………...[2 marks]
Flexibility of pole =
Low (ii) compare the forces acting on the load.
Maximum tension of string =
2 000 N Vertically
Density of pole =
900 kg m–3 ……….……………………………………………………….…….
Flexibility of pole =
High horizontally
Maximum tension of string =
1 000 N ……………………………………………………………[2 marks]
Density of pole =
900 kg m–3 (c) Compare the type of motion of the airplane and the object
Flexibility of pole =
High …………………..............................................................[ 1 mark ]
Maximum tension of string =
2 000 N (e) Name the phenomenon shown in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram
Density of pole = 5.2.
1 500 kg m–3
Flexibility of pole = .……………………….…...............................................[ 1 mark ]
Low
You are required to determine the most suitable characteristics of 2) Diagram below shows acting on an object are in equilibrium.
flag pole that can withstand strong wind. Study the specifications Calculate the value of force R and F using triangle of forces in
of all the four flag poles from the following aspects: equilibrium.
-the density of the pole (a)
-the maximum tension of the string 5N
-the flexibility of the pole
-the height of string tied to the pole [10 marks]

FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM F
Net force/Resultant force is zero 30°
Object is stationary or move with constant velocity R

QUESTIONS
1 Diagram 2.1 shows an airplane maintaining a steady and level (b)
flight under the influence of four forces. Diagram 2.2 shows a
load hanging from the middle of the string. T1 and T2 are Tension (R)
tensions of the string and W is the weight of the load. The 60° F
dotted line shows the resolved component of the tensions T1
and T2 .
Weight (20N)

the ceiling

## a) What is meant by weight?

..………………...........................................................[ 1 mark ]

## (b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2,

(i) compare the forces acting on the airplane vertically a). In the diagram 4.1, mark the direction and label the forces
acting on the thread and the pendulum bob with label P and
…………………………………………………………………….. Q. [2 marks]
b). The thread is pulled sideway by a force F , so that the thread (d) Based on your answer in (c) which is the best method to hang
makes an angle of 30° with the vertical line as shown in the picture. Give your reason
diagram 4.2
(i) In the space below, draw the triangle of forces to show ..………………..........................................................[2 marks ]
the three forces P, Q and F are in equilibrium.
(e) If the string in Diagram 8.1 is cut, the mirror will fall down in 0.6
s. Calculate the velocity just before hitting the ground.

[2 marks] [2 marks ]
(ii) Calculate the force F [2 marks]
WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

## Work done is the product of an applied force and the displacement

4) Diagram shows picture frame of mass 2kg hung using different of an object in the direction of the applied force.
angle. The maximum tension can be applied to the string W = Fs ( W = work, F = force & s = displacement)
before it snap is 14N. The SI unit of work is the joule, J
Calculation of Work

W=Fxs

## Diagram 5.1(a) Diagram 5.1(b)

W = (F cos θ) s
(a) What is meant by equilibrium state?
Example 1
………..........................................................................[ 1 mark ] A boy pushing his bicycle with a force of 25 N through a distance
of 3 m.
(b) What is the weight of the picture frame

………..........................................................................[ 1 mark ]

## (c) Draw triangle of forces in equilibrium for both diagram.

Calculate the work done by the boy.

Example 2
A girl is lifting up a 3 kg flower pot steadily to a height of 0.4 m.
[2 marks ]
(c) Using 1cm = 2N draw triangle of forces in equilibrium for both
diagram.

## What is the work done by the girl?

Example 3
A man is pulling a crate of fish along the floor with a force of 40 N
through a distance of 6 m.

T1 = _____cm = ______N
T2 =_____cm = ______N What is the work done in pulling the crate?

[4 marks ]
ENERGY
i) Energy can be defined as the capacity to do work.
ii) Kinetic Energy is the energy of an object due to its motion
iii) Kinetic energy = ½ mv 2

Example 5
A ball of mass 0.5 kg moves with velocity of 4 ms-1. Calculate the
kinetic energy
Example 10:
A ball is moving along a smooth horizontal surface at a velocity of
iv) G ravitational potential energy is the energy stored in the 6 ms-1. The ball then moves up a smooth inclined plane. The
object because of its height above the earth’s surface. height of the inclined plane is 1.5 m. What is its velocity at point B?
v) Gravitational potential energy = mgh

Example 6
An object of mass 5 kg is placed at a height of 10m Calculate the
gravitational potential energy.

## vi) Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in the object

when it is compressed or extended.
vii) Elastic potential energy = ½ F x
11 Figure below shows a high jump athlete of mass 60 kg jumping
Example 7 over the bar of height 5.0 m. I,J, K, L, M, N, O, P and Q show
When an object of weight 100N is hung to a spring with original the different stages of the jump made by the athlete. The
length 15cm the total length becomes 23 cm. Calculate the elastic height of the athlete from the level of the bar is 0.2 m.
potential energy.

## viii) The principle of conservation of energy states that energy

can be changed from one form to another form, but it cannot
be created or destroyed.
The total of energy in a system is constant.

## Example 8: (a) Why is the athlete required to accelerate to a certain

A ball is released at point A from a height 0.8 m using a smooth velocity at the stage of J to K before he begins to jump?
inclined plane. What is the velocity of the ball at point B?
………………………………………………………………….

## (b) Explain why the pole has to be bend at L.

……………………………………………………………………..

## Example 9: (d) What is the acceleration of the athlete at stage P?

A 2kg ball is released at point A from a height 0.8 m using a an
inclined plane. If work done against friction is 10J, what is the ……………………………………………………………………
velocity of the ball at point B?
(e) Why is a rubber mattress placed in the area where the
athlete lands?

…………………………………………………………………….
12 Diagram below shows a worker lifting a load of mass 20 kg (ii) Based on the answer in (a)(i), compare the work done by
using a pulley system. The worker applies a force of 220 N to the student between the two throwing techniques
pull the rope down a distance of 0.5 m. The load is raised to a
height of 0.5 m. …..……………………………………………………………..

(iii) If the force which acts on the iron ball is 20 N and the
distance of hand movement is 0.5 m, calculate the work
done by the student.

## (b) (i) Based on the answer in (a)(i), state the relationship

between the energy gained by the iron ball and the
(a) What is meant by work? distance of projection.

…………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………….……………………….

(b) Calculate the work done (ii) State the principle involved.
(i) by the worker to pull the rope down a distance of 0.5 m.
………………………………………………….………………

(ii) on the load to raise to a height of 0.5 m. (c) (i) Using Diagram 6.1, what happens to the falling time if an
iron ball of a bigger mass is used?

………………………………………………………………….
(c) (i) Compare the work done in (b)(i) and (ii).
(ii) Give one reason for your answer in (c)(i).
…………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………….
(ii) state why there is a difference between the work done
in (b)(i) and (b)(ii). 14 Diagram 5.1(a) shows a boy skating down a ramp from position
X. Diagram 5.1(b) shows the velocity-time graph of the boy
………………………………………………………………. from X to Z.

## 13. Diagram 6.1and Diagram 6.2 show a student throwing an iron

ball in a shot put event using different throwing techniques.
The angle of projection and the force used by the student in
both techniques are the same.

## Diagram 5.2(a) shows the same boy skating down from

position Y by using another ramp. Diagram 5.2(b) shows the
velocity-time graph of the boy from Y to Z.

## (a) Name the physical quantity represented by the gradient of

(a) Observe Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2. the velocity-time graph.
(i) Compare the distance of the hand movement to throw
the iron ball. ………….………………………………………………[1 mark]
………………………………………………………………..
(b) Observe Diagram 5.1(a) and Diagram 5.2(a). (ii) If the mass of the stone is 20 g, what is the velocity of the
(i) Compare the gravitational potential energy of the boy at stone.
X and Y.
……………………………………………………….[1 mark]

## (ii) Compare the velocity of the boy at Z in these two 16.

situations.

…..……………………………………………………[1 mark]

## (iii) Compare the kinetic energy of the boy at Z in these two

situations. Diagram above shows a metal ball with a mass of 2kg
compressing a spring. The orignal length of the spring is 15 cm.
..……..……….………………………………………….[1 mark] The force used to compress the spring is 100 N.
(a) State the energy changes when the ball is release.
(c) Based on the answers in (b),
(i) State the relationship between the gravitational potential (b) Calculate the velocity of the ball imediately when the spring is
energy and the kinetic energy of the boy. release.

……..…………………………………………………….[1 mark]

(ii) State the physics concept involved. (c) If the value of compression is the same state the changes in
the velocity of the ball if
………………………………..………………………….[1 mark] (i) a ball with bigger mass is used.

## (d) (i) Based on Diagram 5.1(a), what happens to the velocity of

the boy when he skates from Z to Q? (ii) a stiffer spring is used

………………………………………………..…………[1 mark]

## (ii) Give one reason for the answer in (d)(i). ELASTICITY

(i) A property of matter that enables an object to return to its
…………………….……………………………………[1 mark] original size and shape when the force that was acting on it is
removed.
15 Figure 1 shows a boy extending the rubber of a catapult.

Figure 1
(ii)No external force is applied. Molecules are at their equilibrium
(a) State the type of energy stored in the elastic rubber.
separation. Intermolecular force is equal zero.
…………………………………………………………………………

(b) Explain the change of energy when the stone is released from
the elastic rubber of the catapult.
(iii)Compressing a solid causes its molecules to be displaced
………………………………………………………………………… closer to each other. Repulsive intermolecular force acts to
push the molecules back to their original positions.
(c) What happens to the maximum displacement if a smaller stone
of similar mass is used?

………………………………………………………………………...

## (d) If the elastic rubber is extended 20 cm by a force of 8 N,

(i) what is the stored potential energy in the elastic rubber?
(iv)Stretching a solid causes its molecules to be displaced away
from each other. Attractive intermolecular force acts to pull
back the molecules to their original positions.
Hooke’s law state the extension of a spring is directly
proportional to the applied force provided the elastic limit is not
exceeded.
F = kx
F= force on the spring x = extension
k = force constant of the spring (stiffness of spring)

## The load is shared equally among the springs.

Tension in each spring = W
2
Extension of each spring = x
2
If n springs are used: The total extension = n
X
Spring constant = 2k
.
Elastic limit is the maximum force that can be applied before the Example 1
spring loses it’s elasticity Spring A extends by 2 cm when it hung with a 10 g weight. Spring
B extends by 4 cm when it hung with a 10g weight. Find the total
stretch in each of the spring systems shown in the following figure.

## The gradient of the graph represent = force constant of the spring,

k
Factors effecting elasticity
Factor Change in factor How does it affects
the elasticity
Length Shorter spring Less elastic(hard)
Longer spring More elastic(soft)
Diameter of Smaller diameter More elastic
spring wire Big diameter Less elastic Questions
Diameter Smaller diameter Less elastic 1 A spring of 10 cm length extends by 6 cm when a load of 30 N is
spring Big diameter More elastic attached to it. When two identical springs are used to carry a 20
Type of Alloy Less elastic N loads, as shown in Diagram below, what is the length of the
material Metal More elastic spring system?
Arrangement Parallel Less elastic
Series More elastic
Series

A 2 cm B 4 cm C 6 cm D 12 cm E 15 cm

## 2 Diagram shows a system of three identical springs. The original

length of each spring is 10 cm. It is stretched to 13 cm when it
is loaded with mass of 50 g.

## The same load is applied to each spring.

Tension in each spring = W
Extension of each spring = x
Total extension = 2x
If n springs are used: The total extension = nx
Spring constant = k
2 What is the total length of spring, X cm ?
Parallel A 26 cm B 29 cm C 32 cm D 39 cm
3 Diagram shows a spring of length 20 cm is compressed to a 7. Figure 2 shows the arrangement of an apparatus in an
length of 10 cm when a load of 12 kg is put on top of it. When experiment to determine the relationship between the
the load M is put on top of it, the spring compressed to a length extension e of a spring T with weight W. The relationship of e
of 15 cm. What is the value of M? with W is shown in the graph in Figure 2.1

A 4 kg B 6 kg C 8 kg D 9 kg

## 4 Four arrangements A, B, C and D are made of identical

springs. Each spring extends by 4 cm when a 200 g load is
hung at its end. Which arrangement produces the largest
extension?
A B C D
Figure 2.1
(a)(i) A law state that “extension of spring directly proportional to
force applied if the elastic limit is not exceeded”. Name the
law.

400 ……………………………………………………………………..
g 400
g (ii) What is meant by elastic limit.
400
400
g …..………………………………………………………………..
g
5 Figure (a) shows a spring P extends by 5 cm when it hung with a (iii) Mark with a cross (x) the elastic limit of the spring on the
0.5 kg weight. Figure (b) shows four springs P are arranged in graph.
a system and it hung with a 1.0 kg load. What is the total
extension of the spring system? (b) Based on the graph in figure 14.1, determine the force
constant of a spring, k.

## (d) The spring stores energy when it is extended. Calculate the

energy stored in the spring when it is extended by 4 cm.

## A5.0 cm B 10.0 cm C15.0 cm D 20.0 cm E 25.0 cm

(e) Another spring, identical to spring T, is added to the
6 Diagram 1 shows spring P is compressed to a distance x ,
arrangement in Figure 2.1. This new arrangement is shown in
when a load of mass, m is placed onto it. Another identical
Figure 2.2. The experiment is then repeated.
spring is then arranged parallel to spring P and a load of mass
2m is placed onto the spring system as shown in Diagram
below

Figure 2.2
Sketch the graph of x against F for this experiment in Figure
2.1.

## Diagarm (b) 8 A student investigated how the extension of a spring depends

What is the compression of the spring system in Diagram b? on the force applied to the spring. Diagram 5.1 shows the
A. ½ x B. x C. 2x D. 4x spring before and after a force had been applied.
(d) The student has loaded the spring beyond its elastic limit.
Mark on Diagram 5.2 the elastic limit of the spring. Label
the point P. Give the reason for choosing your point P.

………………………………..…………………….…[2 marks]

## (e) The student uses a different spring as a spring balance.

When the student hangs a stone from this spring, its
extension is 72 mm. The spring does exceed its elastic
limit. Calculate the force exerted by the stone on the spring
if the spring constant of the spring is 25Nm-1.

Diagram 5.1

## (a) Complete the following sentence using letters, A, B, C or [2 marks]

D, from the diagram. The extension of the spring is the
distance between the positions labelled .......and .....on the
metre rule. [1 mark]

## (b) What form of energy is stored in the stretched spring?

….............................................................................[1 mark]

(c) The results from the investigation are plotted on the graph
as shown on Diagram 5.2.

Diagram 5.2
(i)The graph shows that the student has made an error
throughout the investigation. What error has the student
made?

………………..…………………..…………………[1 mark]

## (ii)Give the reason for your answer.

..........................................................................[1 mark]