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Distance is a scalar quantity . 2

The unit of distance is metre (m)

s = ut + ½ at 2 ………………………..(3)

Displacement is shortest distance between two location in a

particular direction. v 2 = u 2 + 2as ………………………..(4)

Displacement is a vector quantity Example 1

The unit of dispacement is metre (m) A car accelerates from rest to 25 m s-1 in 4 s. Find the acceleration

of the car.

EXAMPLE 1

A boy walks finish the following path PQ.

Example 2

A car accelerates from rest at 3 ms-2 along a straight road. How far

has the car travelled after 4s?

Example 3

Find A car is travelling at 20 ms-1 along a straight road. The driver puts

(a) total distance traveled the brakes on for 5 s. It this causes a deceleration of 3 m s-2, what

(b) displacement is the car’s final velocity?

Speed = distance travelled

time taken

Velocity is the rate of change of displacement. Example 4

Velocity = displacement A car moving with constant velocity of 40 ms-1. The driver saw and

time taken obstacle in front and he immediately stepped on the brake pedal

EXAMPLE 2 and managed to stop the car in 8 s. What is the total distance

travelled?

Ticker Timer

Time for one tick = 0.02s

a) Determine the average velocity

minutes and 1200m towards north in 4 minutes. b) Determine the acceleration

Calculate his

(a) Total distance

(b) Total displacement

(c) average speed

(d) average velocity

c) Determine the acceleration

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.

Acceleration = change in velocity

time taken

Acceleration = final velocity – initial velocity

time taken

a = v - u

t

Equation of linear motion

v = u + at ……………………….(1)

d)Determine the acceleration DISPLACEMENT –TIME GRAPH

Displacement/m Gradient =

Velocity

Time/s

s/m

Type of motion:

e) Describe the type of motion for each of the following

t/s

i)

s/m Type of motion :

t/s

Gradient = acceleration

s/m Type of motion:

Area under the graph = displacement

t/s

ii)

s/m

Type of motion:

t/s

iii)

t/s

EXAMPLE 1

The following figure shows displacement – time graph of an object.

iv)

(a)state the section of the graph showing

v)

(i) object moving away from origin (ii) moving back to origin

Gradient = Acceleration

(b) state how long the object is at rest

Area under the graph =

(c) calculate the velocity at Displacement

(i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD

(d) Calculate

(i) total distance (ii)total displacement.

(e) Calculate

(i) the average speed (ii)average velocity

t/s

v/ms-1

Type of motion:

(f) Sketch a velocity against time graph.

v/ms-1 t/s

EXAMPLE 2 t/s

Figure below shows a displacement-time graph of a lift moving

from the 4th floor to the 7th and goes down again to the 1st floor. EXAMPLE 1

The following is the velocity-time graph of a car moving to the right

and turning to the left.

v/ms-1

20 B C

D F

A 0 2 5 7 8 10 t/s

(a) Calculate the velocity over

(i) JK (ii) LM (iii) MN -10 E

(b) Calculate the (a)State the section of the graph showing

(i) total distance (ii) total displacement of the lift. (i) acceleration (ii) deceleration

(b) How long the car was moving with constant velocity?

(c) Calculate:

(i) average speed (ii) average velocity (c) State the point on the graph showing the car start to change

direction.

(d) Sketch a velocity-time graph for the lift from J to N. (d) Calculate the acceleration over

(i) AB (ii) BC (iii)CD (iv) EF

Gradient = Acceleration (i)the total displacement. (ii)the total distance

(e)Calculate

(i) average velocity (ii)average speed

t/s a/ms-2

0 2 5 8 10 t/s

-1

v/ms Type of motion :

t/s EXAMPLE 2

v/ms -1

Type of motion: Diagram 8.1 shows a car driven by a kidnapper has overtook a

police car at 2.00 p.m. The police car then followed the

kidnapper’s car. Diagram 8.2 shows a velocity against time graph In elastic collision, after two objects moving with their respective

for both cars. velocities do collide, those two objects will separate and move with

different velocities.

The total momentum = The total momentum

before collision after collision

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

EXAMPLE 1

(i) kidnapper’s car

…………………………………………………………[1 mark]

EXAMPLE 2

(b) (i) What is the net force acting on the police car after 2.01p.m?

…………………………………………………………[1 mark].

(ii) Give a reason for your answer in 3(b)(i). Two objects P and Q of masses 0.8 kg and 0.6 kg respectively

moving towards each other. After collision object P bounces back

…………………………………………………………[1 mark] with a velocity of 1.6 ms-1. What is the velocity and the direction of

motion of object Q after collision?

(c) Sketch a displacement against time graph of the police car.

Inelastic collision

In inelastic collision, after two objects moving with their respective

velocities do collide, they stick together and move with a common

velocity.

MOMENTUM

momentum = mass x velocity

p =mv (unit = kgms-1)

The Principle of conservation of momentum states that Based on The Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum,

“ The total momentum of a system is always fixed if there is no The total momentum = The total momentum

external force acting on the system” or the total momentum before before collision after collision

collision will be equal to the total momentum after the collision” m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2) V

Elastic collision

EXAMPLE 1

Two trolleys of masses 2 kg and 3 kg respectively moving towards

each other. Both of the trolleys are moving at same velocity of 2

ms-1. After collision they stick together with a common velocity.

What is the common velocity of the trolleys?

A man of mass 60 kg runs with velocity 6ms-1 and suddenly jumps The total momentum = The total momentum

to a stationary trolley of mass 30 kg. After collision the man and before explosion after explosion

the trolley move together with a common velocity. What is the m1U1 + m2U2 = m1V1 + m2V2

velocity of the man and the trolley? 0 = m1V1 + m2V2

m1V1 = - m2V2

EXAMPLE 1

A man fires a pistol which has a mass of 1.5 kg. If the mass of the

EXAMPLE 3 bullet is 10 g and it reaches a velocity of 300 m/s after shooting,

Diagram 13.1 shows a lorry of mass 1200 kg moving at the speed what is the recoil velocity of the pistol?

of 30 m/s collides with a car of mass 1000 kg which is travelling in

the opposite direction at 20 m/s. After the collision, the two

vehicles move together.

EXAMPLE 2

Figure below shows a man standing on a stationary boat. He then

jumps out of the boat onto the jetty. The boat moves away from

Diagram 13.1 the jetty as he jumps.

(a) State the type of collision involved in this accident.

………………...........................................................................

collision. (a) State the physics principle that is involved in the

movement of the boat as the man jumps onto the jetty.

(c) The driver of the car is thrown forward during the collision. ………………………………………………………………

State the physics concept involved.

(b) Explain why the boat moves away from the jetty when

……………............................................................................. the man jumps.

(d) The speed limit and the load limit of a truck is shown in …………………………………………………………..……

Diagram below.

…………………………………………………..……………

velocity of 2 m s-1 . The mass of the boat is 20 kg.

Explain why the speed limit and the load limit must be Calculate the velocity of the boat as the man jumps.

imposed on the truck.

…………...................................................................................

(d) Name one application of the physics principle stated in

……………………………………...…...……………………..(2m) (a) in an exploration of outer space.

…………………………………………………………..……

EXPLOSION

FORCE

Push/pull on an object

Balanced Force

i) When the forces acting on an object are balanced, they cancel

each other out. The net force is zero.

ii) Effect : the object at is at rest [ velocity = 0] or moves at

constant velocity [ a = 0] (a) Based on the situation in Diagram 5.1 and situation in

Diagram 5.2,

Example 1 (i) state similarities about the magnitudes and directions of the

forces F1 and F2 , F3 and F4

magnitudes : ………………………..…

The cup stays at rest. The net force acting on it is zero. Weight,

W = Normal Reaction, R ……………………………………………………………...[1 mark]

The plane moves with constant velocity and height

The net force acting on it is zero. Weight, W = Lift, U Thrust, F = (iii)Based on the answers in 5(a)(i) and 5(a)(ii), name the physics

drag, G concept involved.

Unbalance Force ……………………………………………………………..[1 mark]

i) When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, there

must be a net force acting on it. (b) (i) Another aircraft has F3 greater than F4 . Describe the motion

ii) The net force is known as the unbalanced force or the resultant of this aircraft.

force.

iii) Net force = force applied – resistant force …………………………………………………………..[1 mark]

iv) Effect : Can cause to accelerate, decelerate or change its

direction (ii) Explain the answer in 5(b)(i).

F = ma (N or kg m s-2) …………..……………………………………………………….

velocity. The total of downward force acting on the bicycle and

the cyclist is 650 N. The normal reaction of the front tyre is 300

N and forward thrust is 200 N.

1.Two forces act horizontally to a block of wood of mass 4 kg as

shown in figure above. What is the acceleration and the direction

of motion of the block.

and having a constant velocity.

(a) What is the frictional force between the object and the floor.

(b) Calculate the acceleration of the object if the object is pulled

by a 17 N force?

(a) Calculate the normal reaction, P acting on the rear tyre.

3.Diagram 5.1 shows two boys pushing a large box. After some

[1 mark]

time, the box still remains stationary. Diagram 5.2 shows a jet

moving forward with a uniform velocity at a constant height.

(b) Give one reason why the total resistance, Q should be 200

N at that moment?

.…………………………………………………………..[1 mark]

Diagram 5.1

.………………………………………….………………..[1 mark]

(d) Why the cyclist thrown forward when the bicycle runs over a Impulse is defined as the change of momentum

stone? = final momentum – initial momentum= mv - mu

From F = mv – mu

.. .…………………………………………………………...[1 mark] t

Ft = mv – mu = change of momentum = Impulse

(e) Explain why the cyclist can gets serious injuries if he falls onto The product of the force and the time is called the impulse.

the road which the surface is very hard. Unit : kgms-1 or Ns

…...…………………………………………………….……………

A 60 kg resident jumps from the first floor of a burning house. His

5. Diagram 4.1 shows a 50kg box is pushed by a man with a force velocity just before landing on the ground is 6 ms-1.

of 300N. The box moved with constant velocity. (a) Calculate the impulse when his legs hit the ground.

upon landing and takes 0.5 s to stop?

Diagram 4.1

(a) What is the meaning of force?

……………………………………………………....[1 mark]

(c) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he does not

(b) (i)What is the frictional force acting on the box? bend and stops in 0.05 s?

…………………………………………….……....[1 mark]

(ii)Sketch a displacement against time graph motion of the (d) What is the advantage of bending his legs upon landing?

box in Diagram 4.2

displacement(m)

Example 2

Rooney kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The time of contact of

time(s) his boot with the ball is 0.01 s. What is the impulse delivered to the

ball? If the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the

(c)The pushing force of the box is increased to 350N. Calculate ball?

(i) the resultant force acting on the box.

[2 marks]

(ii) the acceleration of the box Example 3

In a tennis match, a player hits an on-coming ball with mass of 0.2

kg and velocity of 20 ms-1. The ball rebounds with a velocity of 40

[2 marks] m s-1. The time taken in the collision between the ball and the

tennis racket is 0.01 s.

IMPULSIVE FORCE AND IMPULSE

The large force that acts over a short period of time during

collisions is known as impulsive force. From the relationship

between force, mass and acceleration: F = ma = m (v – u)

t

From the expression F = Change of momentum

t

(a) What is the impulse experienced by the ball?

Impulsive force is inversely proportional to time of contact /impact

(b) What is the impulsive force exerted on the tennis ball?

Impulsive force is directly proportional to force

Longer period of time - Impulsive force decrease

Shorter period of time - Impulsive force increase

4. Diagram 5.1 shows a car that had collided into a tree. Diagram (a) What is meant by impulse?

5.2 shows another car that had collided into a pile of sand.

Both cars have the same mass of 1000 kg and were driven at ………………..…........................................................[1 mark]

the same speed of 25 ms-1.

(b) With reference to Diagram 14.1 and Diagram 14.2;

(i) Compare the force on the eggs that strike surface A and

Surface B.

………….……………..........................................................

(a) What is meant by speed? Surface B.

(b) Using the diagram 5.1 and diagram 5.2, (iii) Compare the change in momentum of the eggs in both

(i) compare the damage of the two cars situations.

(ii) compare the change of momentum between the two (iv) State the relationship between the force produced in a

cars collision and the time of impact.

(c) State the relationship between the time of impact with the (v) Suggest a suitable material for Surface A.

damage of the car

……..…………..................................................................

…………………...…………………………………....[ 1 mark ]

(c) Diagram 14.3 shows a pile hammer used in driving a pile into

(d) (i) If the time of impact of the collisions of the car in Diagram the ground at a construction site.

5.1 is 0.2 s, calculate the rate of change of momentum of

the car.

[ 2 marks ]

(ii) State the physics concept which affects the collision of the

car. Explain how a large force is produced by the pile hammer in

driving the pile into the ground.

……...………………………………………………....[ 1 mark ]

.................................................................................................

(iii) State the relationship between the time of impact with the

answer from (d) (ii) .................................................................................[2 marks]

……….……………………………………………..…[ 1 mark ] 6. Diagram 16 shows an egg being dropped onto a wooden block.

The egg cracks after an impact. The velocity of the egg just

5.Diagram 14.1 and Diagram 14.2 show two eggs released from before the impact is 5 ms-1

the same height and drop on to Surface A and Surface B

respectively.

(a) Name the force involved during the impact. (i) The distance between two successive images of the sphere

increases showing that the two spheres are falling with

……………................................................................................ increasing velocity; falling with an acceleration.

(b) Give one reason why the egg cracked after the impact. (ii) The two spheres are at the same level at all times. Thus, a

heavy object and a light object fall with the same gravitational

…………................................................................................. acceleration. Gravitational acceleration is independent of

mass.

(c) The mass of the egg is 0.05 kg. Calculate the momentum just

before the impact. Example 1

An object that experience free fall takes 2.0 s to reach the ground.

What is

(d) Give one suggestion how you would avoid the egg from (a (a) its speed when it strikes the ground

cracking when dropped from the same height. (b) the height where the object is dropped

……………...............................................................................

GRAVITY

Objects fall because they are pulled towards the Earth by

gravitational force / gravitational pull.

Example 2

An object is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 20ms-1. If

the object experience free fall, calculate

(a) maximum height reached

(b) time to reach the maximum height

(c) time to reach the ground again

At vacuum state:

There is no air resistance.

The coin and the feather experience free fall.

Only gravitational force acted on the objects. 3. Figure below is a stroboscopic photograph shows two steel

Both will fall at the same acceleration known as acceleration due balls in a state of free-fall. Both balls are dropped

to gravity, g. (0n earth g = 10ms-2) simultaneously from the same height.

Both object will reach the ground at the same time.

Both coin and feather will fall because of gravitational force.

Air resistance depends on surface area of a fallen object.

The feather that has large area will have more air resistance.

The coin will reach the ground first.

(a) Observe the photograph and state two similarities between the

position of the balls.

__________________________________________________

______________________________________________[2 m]

(b) Name one physical quantity which causes the balls to fall.

______________________________________________[1 m]

physical quantity that is constant.

Diagram above shows two steel spheres dropped at the same (i) Name the quantity.

time from the same height.

____________________________________________[1 m]

(ii) What is the value of the quantity and its unit?

____________________________________________[1 m]

(iii) State how the mass of a ball affect the valued of the physical

quantity stated in (c)(i). Diagram 6

(i) Move up:

(d) A ball is thrown vertically upwards at a certain velocity.

(i) What happens to the motion of the ball as it moves …………………………….……………………………………

upwards?

(ii) Fall down:

___________________________________________[1 m]

……………………………………………………..[2 marks]

(ii) Give one reasons for your answer.

(b) State the force that causes the motion as stated in your answer

___________________________________________[1 m] at (a)

4.Fig. 2.1 shows apparatus that demonstrates how a coin and a ………………………...………………………………..…[1 mark]

piece of paper fall from rest.

(c) State the value of the velocity when the ball reached the

maximum height.

…………...……………………………………....……….…[1 mark]

height reach by the ball.

Fig. 2.1 Fig. 2.2

At the positions shown in Fig. 2.1, the coin and paper are falling

through air in the tube. The forces on them are shown in Fig. 2.2. [2 marks]

The length of an arrow indicates the size of each force. (e) What happened to the value of maximum height reached

(a) State the initial value of the acceleration of the coin as it falls. calculated in (c) if there is air resistance.

(b) Explain how Fig. 2.2 shows that (f) Sketch a velocity, v against time, t graph to describe the motion

(i) the paper falls with constant speed, of the ball.

v/ms-1

......................................................................................... t/s

[2 marks]

(ii) the coin accelerates.

RESULTANT FORCE

.....................................................................................[2] - a single force that represents the combined effect of two of

more forces in magnitude and direction.

(c) A vacuum pump is connected to A and the air in the tube is

removed. The coin and paper fall differently in a vacuum from Example

the way they fall in air. State two of these differences. 1. Calculate the resultant force for the diagrams below. Which

direction does the object move?

1....................................................................................... (a) (b)

2. ................................................................................ [2]

10m s-1 where the air resistance can be ignored.

The resultant of two forces, which act on an object in two different

directions, can be determined by the triangle method and the

parallelogram method

and 12N from a point.

Resultant Forces in a Lift

(i)Stationary Lift (Also moves upwards or

60° downwards with uniform velocity

60° 120°

diagonal represent the resultant force, F in F = R – mg = 0

magnitude and direction. R = mg

The reading on the weighing scale = the weight of the girl

QUESTIONS

1.By using the scale given find the resultant force for the following

diagrams.

(a) (b)

R > mg

F = ma

F = R – mg = ma

1cm : 2N 1cm: 1N R = mg + ma

The reading on the weighing scale machine is larger

mg > R

F = ma

F = mg – R = ma

R = mg – ma

The reading on the weighing scale machine is smaller

(c)

Example (c) What is the function of each component?

5. A boy of mass 50 kg inside is inside a lift. Calculate the weight

experienced by the boy @ the reading on the weighing scale if

the lift: (d) If the lawnmower weighs 300 N, what is the total downward

(a) is stationary force on the ground?

(b) moves upwards with constant velocity of 1.5 ms-1

(c) accelerates upwards with an acceleration of 2 ms-2

(d) accelerates downwards with an acceleration of 2 ms-2 (e) If the lawnmower is pulled rather than pushed, what is the total

downward force on the ground?

RESOLUTION OF FORCES:

A force F can be resolved into components which are

perpendicular to each other: (f) Based on your answer in (d) and (e) which method is suitable to

(a) horizontal component , FX cut the grass and give a reason.

(b) vertical component, Fy

………………………………………………………………….…....

……………………………………………………………….………

Fy = sin θ Fx = cos θ moves a wheelbarrow on a muddy road.

F F

Fy = F sin θ Fx = F cos θ

Questions

1. Find the horizontal component and the vertical component of

the force.

(a) (b)

Fy Fy

50N 120N 50°

30°

Fx Fx

Figure(a) Figure(b)

(a) On Figure(a) and Figure(b) ,indicate and label:

(i) the direction of force F exerted by the gardener on

(c) Fx (d) Fx

the handle of each wheelbarrow to make it move.

70°

(ii) the direction of the vertical component Fy , of the

force in (a)(i).

250N 45° 350 N

(b) (i) Based on the answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii), which of the

ways is more suitable on the muddy road?

Fy Fy

………………………………………………….( 1mark)

2. A man pushes a lawnmower with a force of 100 N.

(ii) Explain the reason for your answer in (b)(i).

………………………...……………………………...……

…………….…………………………………....(2 marks)

A block of wood of m kg which is placed on an inclined plane

which makes an angle θ with the horizontal. The block of wood is

(a) Indicate and label acted upon by several forces:

(i) The force F

(ii) The horizontal force Fx

(iii) The vertical force Fy

(b) Calculate

(i) The horizontal force Fx

(ii) The vertical force Fy a) the weight component which is parallel to the inclined plane, mg

sin θ

b) the weight component which is perpendicular to the inclined (d) Diagram 11.2 shows four lawnmowers, J, K, L and M with

plane, mg cos θ different specifications. You are required to determine the

c) the normal reaction force, N most suitable lawnmower to cut grass effectively.

d) the frictional force, f Study the specifications of the four lawnmowers based on

following aspect:

QUESTIONS (i) Method of moving the lawnmower.

1) Diagram below shows a bag of cement of mass 35 kg on a (ii) Mass of the lawnmower.

ramp with 15° slope to horizontal. Frictional force exerted (iii) Size of the cutter blade.

between the bag and the ramp is 90.6 N. (iv) The angle between the handle and the horizontal line.

Explain the suitability of aspect and the determine the

most suitable lawn mover. Give a reason for your

choice. [10 marks]

…………..……………………………………….…[1 mark]

[2 marks]

(c) Based on your answer in 4 (b), state what

happens to the motion of the bag of cement.

Give a reason for your answers.

………………………………………………………………

……….…………………………….........………[2 marks]

flumes, one after another. Diagram 11.1(a) shows the boy

sliding down the flume, which is inclined at 30° to the

horizontal. Diagram 11.1(b) shows the boy stationary in the

flume when the flume is inclined at 17.5° to the horizontal. The

frictional force acting on the boy in both flumes is 120 N.

(b) Based on diagram 11.1(a), calculate:

(i) The component of the weight parallel to the slope of the

flume, Wc. [2 m]

(ii) The resultant force acting on the boy. [1m] (e)Diagram below shows four flag poles P, Q, R and S with

(iii) The acceleration of the boy. [2 marks] different specifications mounted on the ground

(c) Using the concept of force, explain why the boy slides down

the flume when the angle of inclination is 30° and remains

stationary when the angle of inclination is 17.5°.

[4 marks]

Maximum tension of string =

1 000 N horizontally :

Density of pole =

1 500 kg m–3 …………………………………………………………...[2 marks]

Flexibility of pole =

Low (ii) compare the forces acting on the load.

Maximum tension of string =

2 000 N Vertically

Density of pole =

900 kg m–3 ……….……………………………………………………….…….

Flexibility of pole =

High horizontally

Maximum tension of string =

1 000 N ……………………………………………………………[2 marks]

Density of pole =

900 kg m–3 (c) Compare the type of motion of the airplane and the object

Flexibility of pole =

High …………………..............................................................[ 1 mark ]

Maximum tension of string =

2 000 N (e) Name the phenomenon shown in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram

Density of pole = 5.2.

1 500 kg m–3

Flexibility of pole = .……………………….…...............................................[ 1 mark ]

Low

You are required to determine the most suitable characteristics of 2) Diagram below shows acting on an object are in equilibrium.

flag pole that can withstand strong wind. Study the specifications Calculate the value of force R and F using triangle of forces in

of all the four flag poles from the following aspects: equilibrium.

-the density of the pole (a)

-the maximum tension of the string 5N

-the flexibility of the pole

-the height of string tied to the pole [10 marks]

FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM F

Net force/Resultant force is zero 30°

Object is stationary or move with constant velocity R

QUESTIONS

1 Diagram 2.1 shows an airplane maintaining a steady and level (b)

flight under the influence of four forces. Diagram 2.2 shows a

load hanging from the middle of the string. T1 and T2 are Tension (R)

tensions of the string and W is the weight of the load. The 60° F

dotted line shows the resolved component of the tensions T1

and T2 .

Weight (20N)

the ceiling

..………………...........................................................[ 1 mark ]

(i) compare the forces acting on the airplane vertically a). In the diagram 4.1, mark the direction and label the forces

acting on the thread and the pendulum bob with label P and

…………………………………………………………………….. Q. [2 marks]

b). The thread is pulled sideway by a force F , so that the thread (d) Based on your answer in (c) which is the best method to hang

makes an angle of 30° with the vertical line as shown in the picture. Give your reason

diagram 4.2

(i) In the space below, draw the triangle of forces to show ..………………..........................................................[2 marks ]

the three forces P, Q and F are in equilibrium.

(e) If the string in Diagram 8.1 is cut, the mirror will fall down in 0.6

s. Calculate the velocity just before hitting the ground.

[2 marks] [2 marks ]

(ii) Calculate the force F [2 marks]

WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

4) Diagram shows picture frame of mass 2kg hung using different of an object in the direction of the applied force.

angle. The maximum tension can be applied to the string W = Fs ( W = work, F = force & s = displacement)

before it snap is 14N. The SI unit of work is the joule, J

Calculation of Work

W=Fxs

W = (F cos θ) s

(a) What is meant by equilibrium state?

Example 1

………..........................................................................[ 1 mark ] A boy pushing his bicycle with a force of 25 N through a distance

of 3 m.

(b) What is the weight of the picture frame

………..........................................................................[ 1 mark ]

Calculate the work done by the boy.

Example 2

A girl is lifting up a 3 kg flower pot steadily to a height of 0.4 m.

[2 marks ]

(c) Using 1cm = 2N draw triangle of forces in equilibrium for both

diagram.

Example 3

A man is pulling a crate of fish along the floor with a force of 40 N

through a distance of 6 m.

T1 = _____cm = ______N

T2 =_____cm = ______N What is the work done in pulling the crate?

[4 marks ]

ENERGY

i) Energy can be defined as the capacity to do work.

ii) Kinetic Energy is the energy of an object due to its motion

iii) Kinetic energy = ½ mv 2

Example 5

A ball of mass 0.5 kg moves with velocity of 4 ms-1. Calculate the

kinetic energy

Example 10:

A ball is moving along a smooth horizontal surface at a velocity of

iv) G ravitational potential energy is the energy stored in the 6 ms-1. The ball then moves up a smooth inclined plane. The

object because of its height above the earth’s surface. height of the inclined plane is 1.5 m. What is its velocity at point B?

v) Gravitational potential energy = mgh

Example 6

An object of mass 5 kg is placed at a height of 10m Calculate the

gravitational potential energy.

when it is compressed or extended.

vii) Elastic potential energy = ½ F x

11 Figure below shows a high jump athlete of mass 60 kg jumping

Example 7 over the bar of height 5.0 m. I,J, K, L, M, N, O, P and Q show

When an object of weight 100N is hung to a spring with original the different stages of the jump made by the athlete. The

length 15cm the total length becomes 23 cm. Calculate the elastic height of the athlete from the level of the bar is 0.2 m.

potential energy.

can be changed from one form to another form, but it cannot

be created or destroyed.

The total of energy in a system is constant.

A ball is released at point A from a height 0.8 m using a smooth velocity at the stage of J to K before he begins to jump?

inclined plane. What is the velocity of the ball at point B?

………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………..

A 2kg ball is released at point A from a height 0.8 m using a an

inclined plane. If work done against friction is 10J, what is the ……………………………………………………………………

velocity of the ball at point B?

(e) Why is a rubber mattress placed in the area where the

athlete lands?

…………………………………………………………………….

12 Diagram below shows a worker lifting a load of mass 20 kg (ii) Based on the answer in (a)(i), compare the work done by

using a pulley system. The worker applies a force of 220 N to the student between the two throwing techniques

pull the rope down a distance of 0.5 m. The load is raised to a

height of 0.5 m. …..……………………………………………………………..

(iii) If the force which acts on the iron ball is 20 N and the

distance of hand movement is 0.5 m, calculate the work

done by the student.

between the energy gained by the iron ball and the

(a) What is meant by work? distance of projection.

…………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………….……………………….

(b) Calculate the work done (ii) State the principle involved.

(i) by the worker to pull the rope down a distance of 0.5 m.

………………………………………………….………………

(ii) on the load to raise to a height of 0.5 m. (c) (i) Using Diagram 6.1, what happens to the falling time if an

iron ball of a bigger mass is used?

………………………………………………………………….

(c) (i) Compare the work done in (b)(i) and (ii).

(ii) Give one reason for your answer in (c)(i).

…………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………….

(ii) state why there is a difference between the work done

in (b)(i) and (b)(ii). 14 Diagram 5.1(a) shows a boy skating down a ramp from position

X. Diagram 5.1(b) shows the velocity-time graph of the boy

………………………………………………………………. from X to Z.

ball in a shot put event using different throwing techniques.

The angle of projection and the force used by the student in

both techniques are the same.

position Y by using another ramp. Diagram 5.2(b) shows the

velocity-time graph of the boy from Y to Z.

(a) Observe Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2. the velocity-time graph.

(i) Compare the distance of the hand movement to throw

the iron ball. ………….………………………………………………[1 mark]

………………………………………………………………..

(b) Observe Diagram 5.1(a) and Diagram 5.2(a). (ii) If the mass of the stone is 20 g, what is the velocity of the

(i) Compare the gravitational potential energy of the boy at stone.

X and Y.

……………………………………………………….[1 mark]

situations.

…..……………………………………………………[1 mark]

situations. Diagram above shows a metal ball with a mass of 2kg

compressing a spring. The orignal length of the spring is 15 cm.

..……..……….………………………………………….[1 mark] The force used to compress the spring is 100 N.

(a) State the energy changes when the ball is release.

(c) Based on the answers in (b),

(i) State the relationship between the gravitational potential (b) Calculate the velocity of the ball imediately when the spring is

energy and the kinetic energy of the boy. release.

……..…………………………………………………….[1 mark]

(ii) State the physics concept involved. (c) If the value of compression is the same state the changes in

the velocity of the ball if

………………………………..………………………….[1 mark] (i) a ball with bigger mass is used.

the boy when he skates from Z to Q? (ii) a stiffer spring is used

………………………………………………..…………[1 mark]

(i) A property of matter that enables an object to return to its

…………………….……………………………………[1 mark] original size and shape when the force that was acting on it is

removed.

15 Figure 1 shows a boy extending the rubber of a catapult.

Figure 1

(ii)No external force is applied. Molecules are at their equilibrium

(a) State the type of energy stored in the elastic rubber.

separation. Intermolecular force is equal zero.

…………………………………………………………………………

(b) Explain the change of energy when the stone is released from

the elastic rubber of the catapult.

(iii)Compressing a solid causes its molecules to be displaced

………………………………………………………………………… closer to each other. Repulsive intermolecular force acts to

push the molecules back to their original positions.

(c) What happens to the maximum displacement if a smaller stone

of similar mass is used?

………………………………………………………………………...

(i) what is the stored potential energy in the elastic rubber?

(iv)Stretching a solid causes its molecules to be displaced away

from each other. Attractive intermolecular force acts to pull

back the molecules to their original positions.

Hooke’s law state the extension of a spring is directly

proportional to the applied force provided the elastic limit is not

exceeded.

F = kx

F= force on the spring x = extension

k = force constant of the spring (stiffness of spring)

Tension in each spring = W

2

Extension of each spring = x

2

If n springs are used: The total extension = n

X

Spring constant = 2k

.

Elastic limit is the maximum force that can be applied before the Example 1

spring loses it’s elasticity Spring A extends by 2 cm when it hung with a 10 g weight. Spring

B extends by 4 cm when it hung with a 10g weight. Find the total

stretch in each of the spring systems shown in the following figure.

k

Factors effecting elasticity

Factor Change in factor How does it affects

the elasticity

Length Shorter spring Less elastic(hard)

Longer spring More elastic(soft)

Diameter of Smaller diameter More elastic

spring wire Big diameter Less elastic Questions

Diameter Smaller diameter Less elastic 1 A spring of 10 cm length extends by 6 cm when a load of 30 N is

spring Big diameter More elastic attached to it. When two identical springs are used to carry a 20

Type of Alloy Less elastic N loads, as shown in Diagram below, what is the length of the

material Metal More elastic spring system?

Arrangement Parallel Less elastic

Series More elastic

Series

A 2 cm B 4 cm C 6 cm D 12 cm E 15 cm

length of each spring is 10 cm. It is stretched to 13 cm when it

is loaded with mass of 50 g.

Tension in each spring = W

Extension of each spring = x

Total extension = 2x

If n springs are used: The total extension = nx

Spring constant = k

2 What is the total length of spring, X cm ?

Parallel A 26 cm B 29 cm C 32 cm D 39 cm

3 Diagram shows a spring of length 20 cm is compressed to a 7. Figure 2 shows the arrangement of an apparatus in an

length of 10 cm when a load of 12 kg is put on top of it. When experiment to determine the relationship between the

the load M is put on top of it, the spring compressed to a length extension e of a spring T with weight W. The relationship of e

of 15 cm. What is the value of M? with W is shown in the graph in Figure 2.1

A 4 kg B 6 kg C 8 kg D 9 kg

springs. Each spring extends by 4 cm when a 200 g load is

hung at its end. Which arrangement produces the largest

extension?

A B C D

Figure 2.1

(a)(i) A law state that “extension of spring directly proportional to

force applied if the elastic limit is not exceeded”. Name the

law.

400 ……………………………………………………………………..

g 400

g (ii) What is meant by elastic limit.

400

400

g …..………………………………………………………………..

g

5 Figure (a) shows a spring P extends by 5 cm when it hung with a (iii) Mark with a cross (x) the elastic limit of the spring on the

0.5 kg weight. Figure (b) shows four springs P are arranged in graph.

a system and it hung with a 1.0 kg load. What is the total

extension of the spring system? (b) Based on the graph in figure 14.1, determine the force

constant of a spring, k.

energy stored in the spring when it is extended by 4 cm.

(e) Another spring, identical to spring T, is added to the

6 Diagram 1 shows spring P is compressed to a distance x ,

arrangement in Figure 2.1. This new arrangement is shown in

when a load of mass, m is placed onto it. Another identical

Figure 2.2. The experiment is then repeated.

spring is then arranged parallel to spring P and a load of mass

2m is placed onto the spring system as shown in Diagram

below

Figure 2.2

Sketch the graph of x against F for this experiment in Figure

2.1.

What is the compression of the spring system in Diagram b? on the force applied to the spring. Diagram 5.1 shows the

A. ½ x B. x C. 2x D. 4x spring before and after a force had been applied.

(d) The student has loaded the spring beyond its elastic limit.

Mark on Diagram 5.2 the elastic limit of the spring. Label

the point P. Give the reason for choosing your point P.

………………………………..…………………….…[2 marks]

When the student hangs a stone from this spring, its

extension is 72 mm. The spring does exceed its elastic

limit. Calculate the force exerted by the stone on the spring

if the spring constant of the spring is 25Nm-1.

Diagram 5.1

D, from the diagram. The extension of the spring is the

distance between the positions labelled .......and .....on the

metre rule. [1 mark]

….............................................................................[1 mark]

(c) The results from the investigation are plotted on the graph

as shown on Diagram 5.2.

Diagram 5.2

(i)The graph shows that the student has made an error

throughout the investigation. What error has the student

made?

………………..…………………..…………………[1 mark]

..........................................................................[1 mark]

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