Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review
N.L. Panwar a,∗ , S.C. Kaushik b , Surendra Kothari a
a
Department of Renewable Energy Sources, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur 313 001, India
b
Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology – Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Renewable technologies are considered as clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources
Received 12 August 2010 minimize environmental impacts, produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on
Accepted 12 November 2010 current and future economic and social societal needs. Sun is the source of all energies. The primary forms
Available online 12 January 2011
of solar energy are heat and light. Sunlight and heat are transformed and absorbed by the environment
in a multitude of ways. Some of these transformations result in renewable energy flows such as biomass
Keywords:
and wind energy. Renewable energy technologies provide an excellent opportunity for mitigation of
Greenhouse gases
greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming through substituting conventional energy sources.
CO2 mitigation
Sustainable development
In this article a review has been done on scope of CO2 mitigation through solar cooker, water heater, dryer,
Renewable energy sources biofuel, improved cookstoves and by hydrogen.
© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
2. Renewable energy sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
3. Climate change scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
4. Solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
4.1. Solar thermal application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
4.2. Solar thermal power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1516
4.3. Solar photovoltaic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1516
5. Wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517
6. Bioenergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517
6.1. Biogas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517
6.2. Biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519
6.3. Biomass gasifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1520
6.4. Gasifier based power generation system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1520
6.5. Improved cookstoves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
7. Hydrogen as fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
7.1. Production of hydrogen from biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
8. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523

1. Introduction [2,3]. Large-scale hydropower supplies 20 percent of global elec-
tricity. Wind power in coastal and other windy regions is promising
Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world source of energy [1,4]. Main renewable energy sources and their
energy demand [1]. RES includes biomass, hydropower, geother- usage forms are given in Table 1. RESs are also called alternative
mal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewable are the energy sources. The share of RESs is expected to increase very signif-
primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources icantly (30–80% in 2100) [4]. The global renewable energy scenario
by 2040 is presented in Table 2.
Sustainable development requires methods and tools to mea-
∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 294 2471068; fax: +91 294 2471056. sure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities
E-mail address: nlpanwar@rediffmail.com (N.L. Panwar). for various products [7]. At present, consumption of fossil fuels

1364-0321/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.037

affordable and environmentally is dramatically increasing along with improvements in the qual.964. for example as a result of increased frequency and intensity of towards environmental improvements are becoming more politi. It may affect health through a range of path- health risks and the threat of global climate change [8].1514 N. Renewable energy sources Many scientific studies reveal that overall CO2 levels have increased 31% in the past 200 years. Society droughts. pyrolysis. Climate change is one of the primary concerns for humanity in cant adverse impact on the environment. It has long been recognized that this exces. Current situation and the role of various greenhouse gases are given in Table 3.6 16. lem relating to energy is global climate change (global warming or ing world’s growing energy needs [10. etc. ance of effects on health is likely to be negative and populations distributed energy generation.5 1. implementations of renewable energy project in rural areas can water pumps create job opportunities and thus minimizing migration towards Wave Numerous designs Tidal Barrage.1 15 66 244 480 Photovoltaic 0.19]. The global mean sur- [14]. The overall bal- methods.6 34. has been made to find out the scope of renewable energy gadgets Table 3 reveals Humankind is contributing with a great many to meet out energy needs and mitigation potential of greenhouse economic activities to the increase atmospheric concentration of gases mainly carbon dioxide.6 23. to the adverse effects. Renewable energy sources of 1–2 mm over the last century. 20 Gt of Carbon added to Renewable energy resources will play an important role in the environment since 1800 only due to deforestation and the con- world’s future. decreased in extent by 10–15% in summer since the 1950s [25].7 44 266 542 688 Solar thermal 4. biomass energy.745. ity of life. reduction in cold related deaths. reduced air pollution from vehicles. Changes ways. increasing digestion the standard of living and level of employment of the local popu- Geothermal Urban heating. Increasing global temperature ulti- energy. 2. pollutants and greenhouse gases.g. renewable resources and nuclear resources depletion has more than doubled since then. e.1 2 24 221 784 Solar thermal electricity 0.5 19 49 106 189 Wind 4.5 2. The increasing concentration of greenhouse fuels has caused global warming by carbon dioxide. ensuring sustainable development of the remote regions in dry rock the desert and mountain zones. heat waves. gases such as CO2 . implementation of the obligations Solar Solar home system. and in low income countries are likely to be particularly vulnerable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions [9]. A schematic representation of this global climate change problem tives of the Kyoto Protocol agreement [13].8 ◦ C in the last century used to produce energy again and again. Climate change scenario sive fossil fuel consumption not only leads to an increase in the rate of diminishing fossil fuel reserves.7 . especially in developed countries.4 4289 6351 Renewable energy source contribution (%) 13. 2001 2010 2020 2030 2040 Total consumption (million tons oil equivalent) 10.05 0.549 11. The experience of the 2003 heat wave in Increasing consumption of fossil fuel to meet out current energy Europe showed that high-income countries may also be adversely demands alarm over the energy crisis has generated a resurgence of affected [21]. N2 O. the objec. Renewable energy system devel- Energy source Energy conversion and usage options opment will make it possible to resolve the presently most crucial Hydropower Power generation tasks like improving energy supply reliability and organic fuel econ- Modern biomass Heat and power generation. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 Table 1 vide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air Main renewable energy sources and their usage form [5].038 10. windmills. The potentially most important environmental prob- interest in promoting renewable alternatives to meet the develop. but it also has a signifi. and increase of the world population. wind above the baseline of 14 ◦ C.1 0.11]. resulting in increased the 21st century [20]. 3. increased floods and cally acceptable globally.2 86 186 333 493 Small hydro 9.4–0.7 47. hot lation. and peroxy- renewable promotion of clean energy is eagerly required [12]. various greenhouse gases. was made with the overall pollution prevention targets. CH4 . tidal stream urban areas [17]. solar cookers Direct solar Photovoltaic. Excessive use of fossil the greenhouse effect).7 266 309 341 358 Geothermal 43. 1. and are also often mately increases global mean sea levels at an average annual rate called alternative sources of energy [15]. sustainable way [18. Panwar et al.352 13. Arctic sea ice thinned by 40% and that meet domestic energy requirements have the potential to pro.365. Harvesting the renewable energy in decentral- ized manner is one of the options to meet the rural and small scale energy needs in a reliable. water of the countries with regard to fulfilling the international agree- heaters ments relating to environmental protection [16].425 12.L.4 3 16 68 Marine (tidal/wave/ocean) 0. changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases and is slowly moving towards seeking more sustainable production effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition. therefore. solving problems of local energy and water supply. attempt is illustrated in Fig.1 0. Development and Wind Power generation. solar energy. geothermal energy. wind generators. solar dryers. hydrothermal. gasification.4 3 20 Total RES 1. omy. ozone. industrialization of developing nations. waste minimization. halons. conservation of native forests. thermal power generation. power generation. CFCs. Table 2 Global renewable energy scenario by 2040 [6]. Renewable energy sources are those resources which can be face temperature has increased by 0.310 Biomass 1080 1313 1791 2483 3271 Large hydro 22. To acetylnitrate in the atmosphere is acting to trap heat radiated from monitor emission of these greenhouse emissions an agreement Earth’s surface and is raising the surface temperature of Earth [22]. In this paper. The energy resources have been split into three centration of methane gas which is responsible for ozone layer categories: fossil fuels.

wood and electric stoves. of advantages and limitations of solar ovens with conventional fire- which over 80% is from energy use. of which.4 71 50 ± 5 CH4 25 0. out of them box type solar cooker (Fig.00023 5.00040 5. and then compared the consumption) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions. roughly 16. the vegetables and fruits in clean.763 13.1. mated that a domestic solar water heating system of 100 l per day capacity can mitigate around 1237 kg of CO2 emissions in a year 4. Total energy-related emissions. The Sun emits energy at a rate saves energy.189 37. type solar oven. Substance Ability to retain Pre industrial Present concentration Annual growth rate (%) Share in the Share in the greenhouse infrared radiations concentration greenhouse effect due increase due to human compared to CO2 to human activity (%) activity (%) CO2 1 275 346 0.8 × 1023 kW.0 8 15 ± 5 N2 O 250 0. Solar energy at 50% capacity utilization and in hot and sunny region it is about 1410. A schematic illustration of greenhouse effect [23].9 Gt CO2 in 2004.476 crop drying. A schematic of solar water heater is illustrated 4. Solar energy is a promising option capable of being one Rest of the world 1436 4791 8034 11.4 million tons of carbon dioxide per year can also be meeting route is promoted [27]. cepted by the earth [29]. Transition economic 3029 3135 3852 4465 Solar cooking is the most direct and convenient application of China 875 3051 5322 7081 solar energy. hygienic and sanitary conditions mal energy is the most abundant one and is available in both to national and international standards with zero energy costs. OECD 9031 10. 3 Solar-drying technology offers an alternative which can process As far as renewable energy sources is concerned solar ther. etc.500 0 0. 1. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 1515 Fig. occupies less area. It direct as well as indirect forms.25 0.848 of solar cookers are available.37]. Various types World 14.163 of the leading energy sources for cooking [30–32].35 0. A study was conducted Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through electricity in Costa Rica and in the world as a whole. even if used 6–8 months a year.8 × 1014 kW is inter- CO2 emission by region (million tons of CO2 [28]. is around 12–14 There is ample scope to minimize emission of greenhouse gases if months. prevented [33].0 2 13 ± 3 Table 4 of 3. approximately 1. Table 4 reveals that over the period from 1971 to 1995.65 1.0 1 13 ± 3 R-12 20. offers significant projects a faster growth rate of CO2 emissions for the period to protection to the environment and should be employed whenever 2020. N. improves product quality.8 million tons of firewood can be saved and the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources in actual energy emission of 38. The outlook the hot water needs of a family of four persons.7% per year. have grown by 65% since 1971 [26]. at 2. Table 3 Role of different substances in the greenhouse effect [24]. time.732 22. There is vast scope to utilize available solar 1971 1995 2010 2020 energy for thermal applications such as cooking. 2) is widely used all over the world.75 1. Solar thermal application in Fig. Panwar et al.2 18 9 ± 2 R-11 17. the developing countries could possible in order to achieve a sustainable future [35].000 0 0.2% per year. suitable to satisfy most of emissions grew at an average rate of 1. By 2020. It is esti- account for half of global CO2 emissions. .5 kg [36. water heating. The payback period of a common hot box which were 9.150 31.L. CO2 Solar water heater of domestic size.427 14.

Fresnel lens. A typical domestic-scale solar water heater [38]. Fig.3. As far as carbon emission is concerned solar based power station released almost zero carbon as presented in Table 5. amount of material used in the solar cell and the system design for maxi- Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its mum use of recycled material will reduce the energy requirement advantages. energy related problems are becoming more and more important and involve the ideal use of resources. for space and terrestrial applications. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 Fig. Electricity production cost through solar energy is quite higher than that of conventional power station.1516 N. The major component of any solar thermal system is the solar Table 5 Economics and emissions of conventional technologies compared with solar power collector. Solar energy collectors are special kind of heat exchang.44]. Box type solar cooker [34]. Sunlight is free but power generation cost is exceptionally makes the process more efficient and protects the environment high. Schematic diagram of a solar thermal conversion system. 4 [43. Panwar et al. which makes use of the photovoltaic (PV) effect. Solar energy has [39]. Further the development in efficiency of solar cells. although prices are starting to come down. The CO2 emissions tricity through the solar thermal conversion. tricity is not available. and . Some of the losses due to the band-gap limitations are avoided by cascading semiconductors of different band-gaps.77 tons of CO2 year−1 . but solar irradiation is plentiful. Solar photovoltaic system Electrical energy is the pivot of all developmental efforts in both the developed and the developing nations because conven- tional energy sources are finite and fast depleting [46]. 5.8 kWp utilization of solar energy to produce electricity in these areas is solar photovoltaic pump at an average solar radiation of quite possible [42]. PV effect depends on interaction of photons. The PV system is promis- ing source of electricity generation for energy resource saving and CO2 emission reduction.2. over 25 days in grid connected PV systems is the inverter. electricity directly from light without emissions. ture area can save 463 kg of carbon dioxide in life cycle embodied Silicon solar cells are perhaps the simplest and most widely used [41]. Further study was conducted on solar crop and power quality requirement of the utility gird as illustrated in drying and CO2 emission potential. 4.51]. It came to around produced by PV array into AC power consistent with the voltage 14. parabolic dish. Solar thermal electricity power system is a 5. The primary component a drying system using 100 kWh day−1 of electricity. In the last decades. the environmen- tal impact due to the emission of pollutants and the consumption of conventional energy resources [47]. It was estimated that 1m2 aper. ers that transform solar radiation energy to internal energy of the transport medium. compound parabolic. parabolic trough. 4. even if current technologies are applied 4. it convert DC power per month in 11 months of operation per year. There are many remote areas in the world where elec- and greenhouse gas emissions [52]. or more than the band-gap of PV materials. heliostat field collectors [45]. with energy equal to. A historical introduction into the use of Electricity generation technology Carbon emissions Generation costs (gC/kWh) (US¢/kWh) solar energy was attempted followed by a description of the var- ious types of collectors including flat-plate. or vibra- tion. Solar thermal power [50. [48]. 3. basically collected mitigation potential is higher in the case of diesel substitution as solar energy is converted to electricity through the use of some sort of heat to electricity conversion device as shown in Fig.5 kWh m−2 is about 2085 kg from diesel operated pumps and device which utilize the solar radiation for the generation of elec- about 1860 kg from petrol operated pumps. Direct solar energy conversion to electricity is conventionally done using photovoltaic cells. noise. thus the Net annual CO2 emission mitigation potential from 1.L. 2. Solar thermal and solar PV systems 0 9–40 Pulverized coal–natural gas turbine 100–230 5–7 evacuated tube. Fig. PV modules generate Fig. low energy density: PV modules require a large surface area for Piacentini and Mujumdar [40] estimated CO2 production for small amounts of energy generation [49]. generation [42].

The function of a wind turbine is to con. India is one of respectively.L. today by the animal breeding sector as well as the wet organic vert the motion of the wind into rotational energy that can be used waste streams represent a constant pollution risk with a poten- to drive a generator. N. Wind turbines capture tial negative impact on the environment.000 TWh/yr. Wind power may prove practical for nificant advantages over other forms of bioenergy production. Expansion of wind energy installed capacity is poised to play a key role in climate change mitigation. Bioenergy is also susceptible to global climate change. while ious fields of application for the biogas and digested product result a capacity of 9000 TWh/yr may be utilized due to economical and in great differences in the environmental performance among the other reasons [57]. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 1517 Fig. Biogas industry while other changes may negatively impact wind energy developments. The world-wide raw materials and digestion technologies. wind energy 6. available in wind to electricity or mechanical power through the The large amounts of animal manure and slurries produced use of wind turbines [59]. if not managed optimally. even in remote. it has been evaluated as one of the most energy-efficient and envi- should be used in conjunction with other methods of power gener. Wind energy annual CO2 emission mitigation potential is the lowest (2874 kg) for GM-II model and highest (7401 kg) for SICO model in the case of Of the renewable energy technologies applied to electricity gen- diesel substitution. the most promising countries for wind power development in the world [54]. wind energy ranks second only to hydroelectric in terms of for the same wind speeds. which can be installed and transmitted Biogas is a mixture of gases that is composed mainly of CH4 very rapidly.5 m/s. and agricultural waste products. wind power is the recycling measures [65] and it is as shown in Fig. the estimated value of net 5. inaccessible and hilly areas [61]. CO2 30–60%. with such ‘gains and losses’ depending on the region The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion offers sig- under consideration [55]. essary to close the loops from production to utilization by optimal In the power-starved developing countries. This variety and the var- potential for wind energy is estimated to be 26. However. dedicated energy petitive. Similarly. Elec. as illustrated in Fig.1. compared to the petrol substitution. Wind turbine nutrients and organic matter to the natural environment it is nec- blades use airfoils to develop mechanical power [60]. It small power needs in isolated sites. for the case of electricity substitution eration. 6. Some changes associ- ated with climate evolution will most likely benefit the wind energy 6. ation to ensure continuity [56]. The calorific value of tricity generation from wind never depletes and never increases biogas is about 16–20 MJ m−3 [67]. Grid connected photovoltaic system. Panwar et al. Among the raw materials are organic Wind energy for electricity production today is a mature. potential biogas systems. installed capacity and is experiencing rapid growth. The electricity produced by these systems could save sev- efficiency of fuel utilization in the diesel engine pump [53]. Wind energy potential studies show For the production of biogas it is possible to use several different that the world-wide wind resources are abundant. 5. This is primarily due to low in price. Wind technology converts the energy manure [64]. for the above-mentioned two models [36]. waste from households and the food industry. such as crop residues and many areas of the world [58]. but for maximum flexibility. it is estimated at 2194 kg and 5713 kg. eral billion barrels of oil and avoid many million tons of carbon and other emissions [62]. ronmentally beneficial technology for bioenergy production [63]. viable source of electricity. and other gases 1–5%. com. At a mean wind speed of 4. 40–70%. 7. the power from the wind by means of aerodynamically designed To prevent emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and leaching of blades and convert it into rotating mechanical power. Methane fermentation is a com- . and virtually pollution-free technology widely used in crops.

plex process. The other raw materials are assumed to be waste products. Conversion from wind power to electrical power in a wind turbine. acetogenesis/dehydrogenation and methanation as shown in Fig. even if compared to other renewable energy alternatives. Panwar et al. for end application [69]. transportation fuel or distributed on the natural gas grid Fig. the analysis includes only the additional energy input and emissions associated with the handling and trans- port of these waste products. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 Fig. . Handling of energy crops includes the entire energy input and emissions from the cultivation and harvesting of the crop. that is. the handling of raw materials. The stages of the methane fermentation process [68]. the digestion of the raw materials in farm-scale and large-scale biogas plants. Consequently. Fig. and none of the input used in the production of the main product. acidogenesis. Borjesson and Berglund [64] present an overview of biogas sys- tems as shown in Fig. the analysis does not treat the production of food or fodder replacements.1518 N. and hence. The biogas can directly be used for domestic cooking. 8. and the final use of the digestates and bio- gas. It can be produced when needed and can easily be stored. since it is assumed to be cultivated primarily for biogas production. which can be divided up into four phases: hydrolysis.L. 9. 7. 8. Schematic representation of the sustainable cycle of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and organic wastes [66]. 6. Biogas has definite advantages. It include emissions from the energy input in the entire biogas production chain. It can be distributed through the existing natural gas infrastructure and used in the same applications like the natural gas [13]. These crops are assumed to be cultivated on set-aside arable land.

3 75 525 4.94 62 431 Rapeseed (EU) 37. Panwar et al. be based on fossil fuels. global warming have generated intense international interest in The use of biodiesel also reduces the particulate matter released developing alternative non-petroleum fuels for engines. 9. while 6. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 1519 Fig.16 49 439 Cottonseed (China) 33. kerosene for lighting showed performance characteristics close to diesel [83].2. Biodiesel is being extracted from Mahua oil [75]. The overall engine performance was improved when to increase exponentially. Overview of the biogas systems analysed. Biodiesel acids can catalyze the reaction by donating a proton to the carbonyl group. car.3 37. These reactions are often catalyzed by the addi- [72]. The global warming mitiga.30 50 461 . The arrows represent material flows. creator of the diesel cycle engines. common methods used to reduce oil viscosity in the biodiesel year−1 and with the current price of US $10 tons−1 CO2 equiv. some 85–90% of of the primary chemical products of transesterification are given in world primary energy consumption will continue (until 2030) to Table 6. “The use of vegetable oils as engine fuel with traditional heating systems fuelled by wood.4 36. Power generation from bio. rubber seed Biogas technology provides an excellent opportunity for miti.80]. tial benefits to human health [87].1 548 4. Nevertheless. as important as oil and coal tar presently. Transesterification is the bon credit of US $97 year−1 could be earned from such reduction in process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by greenhouse gas emission under the clean development mechanism another alcohol. Biogas used peanut vegetable oil to demonstrate his invention in Paris in systems for heating was found economical viable when compared 1900. duck tallow [81] and castor seed oil [82] and its blends through substituting firewood for cooking. in mixture. Diesel said.7 37. and dried animal waste [70]. and cooking and chemical fertilizers. Properties Oil or fat (refined) Methyl ester Viscosity (mm2 /s at 311 K) Cetane number Flash point (K) Viscosity (mm2 /s at 311 K) Cetane number Flash point (K) Soyabean (US) 33. which is the largest producer of greenhouse gases..75 42 433 Tallow (US) 32. oil [76]. coal and wood may seem negligible today. Pongamia pinnata oil [77].60 47 453 Sunflower (EU) 34. N. A study was reported in Indian Table 6 Comparison of physical properties of vegetable oil and their methylester preparation via transesterification [86]. At the same time rising petroleum prices. such oils may become. Biodiesel has the potential to reduce emissions from the trans- increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions and port industry.5 531 4. Biogas systems are considered to be strong alternatives to the tion. energy flows.10 58 436 Tall oil (Scandinavia) 51. and emissions from the system. Jatropha curcas gation of greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming [79. able. as its reserves are fast depleting [74]. In 1912. thus making it more reactive [85]. thus making it more reactive. The use of into the atmosphere as a result of burning fuels. The physical properties With reference to world energy scenario [73]. traditional space heating systems (stoves) in rural Turkey.1 38. it is known that oil is a finite resource and that its price tends run engine.7 tons CO2 equiv.” Nowa- gas is quite possible in both duel fuel mode and 100 percent biogas days. industry is called transesterification [84].1 524 3. scrubbed biogas was used in duel fuel engine as compared to raw Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel that is renewable and biodegrad- gas duel fuel engine [71]. Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913). Bases can catalyze the reaction by removing a proton from the alcohol.7 65 576 3.0 ? 485 5.L. the passing years.7 535 4. tion of a base and acid.08 46 441 Palm (Malaysia) 42. providing poten- vegetable oil in internal combustion engines is not a recent innova. Straight vegetable oil has higher viscosity and one of the most tion potential of a family size biogas plant was 9. palm oil [78].

To disseminate the gasifica- tion technology in actual uses.e.1520 N. More than 350 TERI gasifier systems have mechanism [105].782 tons of CO2 emission can be saved on annual basis.4. The gasifier Limited. ence. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 context that if 10% of total production of castor seed oil is transes- terfied into biodiesel. by first gasifying the biomass and cleaning the gas before in a saving of about 19. Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI). In the gasifier low grade fuel. A biomass-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle. been successfully installed in the field throughout India with a Similar design of gasifier was tested at M/s Phosphate India Pvt. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly 11 h per day. The developed system is in position to save about nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel 24.3. The gas thus produced by gasifier can be utilized to produce process heat for thermal application. Bangalore (IISc) [100]. This industry is working for concentration technologies available in India are based on downdraft gasification of about 500 l/day of phosphoric acid. There is huge scope to utilize the gasification technology in small scale industries for low tempera. Study was conducted on open core downdraft option for the increase of energy production with the increase of gasifier in small scale industries to produce process heat in the efficiency. The initial gravity of acid is and designed primarily for woody biomass [102].5 kg of LPG was replaced by 38 kg biomass combustion products would damage the turbine blades. Work on development of modular throat type down draft gasifier having 1. Dur. Required process heat Package of practice was developed by IISc. Gas turbines cannot be fired directly with biomass. which is required to be brought 50%. completely [103]. [104]. Biomass use for power generation has become an attractive ture applications. then about 79. Ltd. Udaipur. Udaipur Fig.15 tons of CO2 in 1800 working hours [106]. 6. it is feasible to operate gas turbines with biomass Fig. The developed system is operating for about 6 h every day and consumes approx- gasifier is in position to replace 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day imately 48 kg/h of sized fuel per hours against 50 kg/h wood for completely. The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI).L. Gasifier based power generation system ried out by Pathak et al. cumulative installed capacity of over 13 MWth [101]. Bangalore to dry is meeting through combustion of biomass in open furnace. have been involved in the field of biomass combustion and 33 tons of CO2 . 20%. tion.39 MW thermal capacities was car. decrease of environment degradation and waste utiliza- temperature range of 200–350 ◦ C for backing bakery items. etc. 11.99]. therefore. thus a promising candidate for clean development gasification technology. 6. 10. The marigold flower with open top downdraft gasifier. Over 3000 h of operation gasifier has resulted However. biomass gets converted in high grade fuel known as charcoal and further into low calorific gas called producer gas [98. Panwar et al.5 tons of LPG.. as a consequence Indian premier institute like Indian Institute of Sci- Fig. The CO2 released during combustion of biodiesel can be recycled through next crop production. of woody biomass. implying a saving of about combustion. Biomass gasifier Gasifier is a device which converts solid fuel into gaseous fuel through thermo chemical conversion route. because the ing the study it was found that 6. i. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has taken initiative to develop research group within India for technology and man power development. 10. Gasifier installed at M/s Phosphate India Pvt. . no additional burden on environment [88].

Experimental gasifier–engine system. and other organic engine application using coconut shell as a fuel as shown in Fig. the CO2 emission by 161 kg per year. nitrous oxide (N2 O). Besides. Improved cookstoves performed bet- be removed by passing it through the spray tower so that it could ter fuel economy. probability of global climate change [112]. ing stove released carbon monoxide (CO). 40 ◦ C. Fig. The combustion process in traditional cooking stove is non-ideal This process gives high efficiency of electricity production in and favoring incomplete combustion. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 1521 Fig. Double pot improved cookstove. fuels. and ultra fine particles which have more global warming poten- For this attractive biopower option based on gasification. by Bhattacharya and Salam Abdul [111] and it was concluded Cost of this power plant is estimated to be 2750$/kW and electricity that incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cook- costs of 0. compounds. and (3) reduced electrical power output (11:44 kWe) with 81% of the total energy emission of the greenhouse gases that are thought to increase the input coming from producer gas.5.L. (2) reduced engine-generator efficiency of 14. 13). producer gas could be cooled down to less than potentially bring three kinds of benefits: (1) reduced fuel demand. Bhattacharya et al. Incomplete and inefficient a gaseous power plant than in the classic power plant during combustion by traditional cookstoves produce significant quanti- the combustion of biomass and steam cycle. particles biomass–charcoal gasification to produce low tar content gas for composed of elemental carbon or black carbon. It helps to improve health stan- Fig. Emission study was also conducted of biopower plant is 75MW and total efficiency would be  = 36%. Panwar et al. Single stove can save put for dual fuel operation was about 79% of that for diesel fuel about 700 kg of fuel wood per year and at the same time it reduces operation. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). N. . 12.7% was achieved at a maximum human exposure to health damaging air pollutants. 11 is a schematic representation of a biomass-integrated 6. this process ties of products of incomplete combustion (PIC) comprising of fine enables considerably lower emission of harmful gases and particles. size tial (GWP) than CO2 [110]. a leading first- generation candidate for BIG/GT systems [107]. At the optimal (Fig.03$/kWh [108]. Improvements in households biomass burning stoves water flow rate. Engine-generator efficiency at dual fuel operation was lower with economic and time saving benefits to the household and than that of diesel fuel operation. 13. Improved cookstove is best solution to overcome this Study report that almost all of the tar content in producer gas could type of emission problems. better indoor air environment and clean kitchen safely run a diesel engine without any tar problems. [109] conduct a study on a multi-stage hybrid methane (CH4 ). increase sustainability of the natural resources base. Maximum electrical power out. Improved cookstoves gasifier (BIG)/gas turbine (GT) combined cycle. 12. With the experimental system.

14. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 Table 7 Main Advantage and limitation of biomass to hydrogen [92]. elec- resources are constrained. tion to generate electrical energy is shown in Fig. The closed loop system of hydrogen production and its utiliza- put.1522 N. wind energy. However. or The main gaseous products from biomass are [94] the following: geothermal heat. to develop a highly effi- following reactions: cient clean way for large-scale hydrogen production. Process Temperature (K) Heating rate (K/s) Solid residence time (s) The review gives an overview of the development and scope of CO2 Pyrolysis 675–875 0. hydrogen. does not exist in nature in its elemental form. Hydrogen is gaining increasing attention as an encouraging future energy [89]. kinetic energy of wind and water. Panwar et al. which are integrated in one system. The main advan. the most common chemical element on the planet. which can return to nature. which Hydrogen from organic wastes has generally been based on the is beneficial to exploit biomass resources. pump. by electrolysis from water or by chemical processes from hydrocarbons or other hydrogen carriers. hydrogen may become an important Pyrolysisofbiomass → H2 + CO2 + CO + Hydrocarbongases link between renewable physical energy and chemical energy car- riers [90]. When burnt with oxygen. The fuel cell is connected to the storage tank via pressure hydrogen from woody biomass is mainly carried out via two reduction valves to generate electricity. The costs of getting rid of municipal wastes are mounting as land consists of a solar plant (photo-voltaic energy stand-alone). liquefier. The use of solar Fast pyrolysis 975–1225 250–300 1–3 drying of agricultural produce has good potential for energy conser- Gasification 975–1225 300–500 0. Table 7 shows 8. Thermochemical conver- sion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification of biomass have Gasificationofbiomass → H2 + CO2 + CO + N2 considerable potential for producing renewable hydrogen. ionizer. storage unit. pounds. Fig. and coal [91].0 vation in developing nations. The use of biomass reduces CO2 emissions. Its conversion to heat or power is simple and clean. Hydrogen as fuel Hydrogen has fascinated generations of people for centuries. hydrogen and oxygen (H2 and O2 ).0 600–2000 mitigation for clean and sustainable development. in a closed loop production thermochemical processes: (a) gasification followed by reform. produced gases are pumped intermediately into high pressure stor- eral advantages compared to that of fossil fuels [93]. heaters. biogas technology. such as solar radiation. natural gas.L. The PV energy powered the 7. trolyzer. 7. The electricity for the hydrogen. also reduces the burden of fuel collection [113]. biomass gasifiers. cooler. The residues conversion increases the value of agricultural out. 14. Solidwaste → CO + H2 tages of biomass to hydrogen are: Biomass + H2 O + Air → H2 + CO2 1. only water. pressure resistance and hydrogen aging dard of women and child. and fuel cell. Therefore. The system 3.1. and thus replacing fossil fuels with sustainable biomass fuel is one option that needs Cellulose + H2 O + Air → H2 + CO + CH4 consideration in reducing CO2 emissions. dryers.5–2. Conclusion the main advantages and limitations of converting biomass to A comprehensive literature survey of major renewable energy gadgets for domestic and industrial applications such as solar water Table 8 Conditions of thermal treatment of biomass [96].1–1. Biodiesel from nonedible vegetable . Production of hydrogen from biomass electrolyzer with a limited DC current flow to de compose the water electrochemically into gases. ing of the syngas. It has to be separated from chemical com. Producing age tanks. Most H2 is currently produced from nonrenewable sources Catalyticsteamreformingofbiomass → H2 + CO2 + CO such as oil. The Production of hydrogen from renewable biomass has sev. and to lessen dependence on insecure fossil energy sources [92].95]. hydrogen generates no pollutants. solar cookers. Advantages Use of biomass reduces CO2 emissions Crop residues conversion increases the value of agricultural output Replacing fossil fuels with sustainable biomass fuel Costs of getting rid of municipal solid wastes Limitations Seasonal availability and high costs of handling Nontotal solid conversion (char formation) and tars production Process limitations: corrosion. 2. and (b) fast pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil [94. improved cookstoves and biodiesel was made. Structure of production and utilization of hydrogen gas. Table 8 shows the conditions of thermal treatment of electrolysis may come eventually from clean renewable sources biomass. and utilization cycle of hydrogen and oxygen [97]. Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in the world’s energy future by replacing fossil fuels. including visionaries like Jules Verne.

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