Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review
N.L. Panwar a,∗ , S.C. Kaushik b , Surendra Kothari a
a
Department of Renewable Energy Sources, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur 313 001, India
b
Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology – Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Renewable technologies are considered as clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources
Received 12 August 2010 minimize environmental impacts, produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on
Accepted 12 November 2010 current and future economic and social societal needs. Sun is the source of all energies. The primary forms
Available online 12 January 2011
of solar energy are heat and light. Sunlight and heat are transformed and absorbed by the environment
in a multitude of ways. Some of these transformations result in renewable energy flows such as biomass
Keywords:
and wind energy. Renewable energy technologies provide an excellent opportunity for mitigation of
Greenhouse gases
greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming through substituting conventional energy sources.
CO2 mitigation
Sustainable development
In this article a review has been done on scope of CO2 mitigation through solar cooker, water heater, dryer,
Renewable energy sources biofuel, improved cookstoves and by hydrogen.
© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
2. Renewable energy sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
3. Climate change scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
4. Solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
4.1. Solar thermal application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
4.2. Solar thermal power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1516
4.3. Solar photovoltaic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1516
5. Wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517
6. Bioenergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517
6.1. Biogas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517
6.2. Biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519
6.3. Biomass gasifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1520
6.4. Gasifier based power generation system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1520
6.5. Improved cookstoves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
7. Hydrogen as fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
7.1. Production of hydrogen from biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
8. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523

1. Introduction [2,3]. Large-scale hydropower supplies 20 percent of global elec-
tricity. Wind power in coastal and other windy regions is promising
Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world source of energy [1,4]. Main renewable energy sources and their
energy demand [1]. RES includes biomass, hydropower, geother- usage forms are given in Table 1. RESs are also called alternative
mal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewable are the energy sources. The share of RESs is expected to increase very signif-
primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources icantly (30–80% in 2100) [4]. The global renewable energy scenario
by 2040 is presented in Table 2.
Sustainable development requires methods and tools to mea-
∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 294 2471068; fax: +91 294 2471056. sure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities
E-mail address: nlpanwar@rediffmail.com (N.L. Panwar). for various products [7]. At present, consumption of fossil fuels

1364-0321/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.037

5 19 49 106 189 Wind 4. water of the countries with regard to fulfilling the international agree- heaters ments relating to environmental protection [16]. halons. Development and Wind Power generation.7 .g. solar energy. Increasing global temperature ulti- energy. pyrolysis. has been made to find out the scope of renewable energy gadgets Table 3 reveals Humankind is contributing with a great many to meet out energy needs and mitigation potential of greenhouse economic activities to the increase atmospheric concentration of gases mainly carbon dioxide. Arctic sea ice thinned by 40% and that meet domestic energy requirements have the potential to pro. reduced air pollution from vehicles. and increase of the world population. solar dryers. gasification. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 Table 1 vide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air Main renewable energy sources and their usage form [5].6 23. sustainable way [18. ance of effects on health is likely to be negative and populations distributed energy generation. Renewable energy sources Many scientific studies reveal that overall CO2 levels have increased 31% in the past 200 years.425 12. Climate change scenario sive fossil fuel consumption not only leads to an increase in the rate of diminishing fossil fuel reserves.4 3 16 68 Marine (tidal/wave/ocean) 0. Excessive use of fossil the greenhouse effect).5 2. ity of life. ensuring sustainable development of the remote regions in dry rock the desert and mountain zones. Society droughts. solar cookers Direct solar Photovoltaic. heat waves.05 0. Table 2 Global renewable energy scenario by 2040 [6]. therefore. Changes ways.1514 N. CFCs. was made with the overall pollution prevention targets.11]. Renewable energy sources of 1–2 mm over the last century. In this paper. 2001 2010 2020 2030 2040 Total consumption (million tons oil equivalent) 10. but it also has a signifi. pollutants and greenhouse gases.7 44 266 542 688 Solar thermal 4. hot lation. conservation of native forests. It has long been recognized that this exces. CH4 . The increasing concentration of greenhouse fuels has caused global warming by carbon dioxide. changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases and is slowly moving towards seeking more sustainable production effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition. ozone. 1.549 11. The experience of the 2003 heat wave in Increasing consumption of fossil fuel to meet out current energy Europe showed that high-income countries may also be adversely demands alarm over the energy crisis has generated a resurgence of affected [21].745. and in low income countries are likely to be particularly vulnerable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions [9]. The energy resources have been split into three centration of methane gas which is responsible for ozone layer categories: fossil fuels. omy.964. lem relating to energy is global climate change (global warming or ing world’s growing energy needs [10. affordable and environmentally is dramatically increasing along with improvements in the qual. implementation of the obligations Solar Solar home system.038 10. biomass energy.6 16. tidal stream urban areas [17]. attempt is illustrated in Fig. hydrothermal. to the adverse effects. thermal power generation.1 15 66 244 480 Photovoltaic 0.8 ◦ C in the last century used to produce energy again and again. It may affect health through a range of path- health risks and the threat of global climate change [8].5 1. industrialization of developing nations. etc. reduction in cold related deaths. wind generators. windmills. increasing digestion the standard of living and level of employment of the local popu- Geothermal Urban heating.1 0. Climate change is one of the primary concerns for humanity in cant adverse impact on the environment. The overall bal- methods.1 2 24 221 784 Solar thermal electricity 0.4–0.365.1 0.4 3 20 Total RES 1. solving problems of local energy and water supply.310 Biomass 1080 1313 1791 2483 3271 Large hydro 22. gases such as CO2 . increased floods and cally acceptable globally. power generation. Current situation and the role of various greenhouse gases are given in Table 3.6 34. the objec. and peroxy- renewable promotion of clean energy is eagerly required [12]. Panwar et al.352 13. decreased in extent by 10–15% in summer since the 1950s [25]. To acetylnitrate in the atmosphere is acting to trap heat radiated from monitor emission of these greenhouse emissions an agreement Earth’s surface and is raising the surface temperature of Earth [22].7 266 309 341 358 Geothermal 43. 3. implementations of renewable energy project in rural areas can water pumps create job opportunities and thus minimizing migration towards Wave Numerous designs Tidal Barrage. waste minimization.L. renewable resources and nuclear resources depletion has more than doubled since then. e. Renewable energy sources are those resources which can be face temperature has increased by 0.7 47. Harvesting the renewable energy in decentral- ized manner is one of the options to meet the rural and small scale energy needs in a reliable. for example as a result of increased frequency and intensity of towards environmental improvements are becoming more politi. 20 Gt of Carbon added to Renewable energy resources will play an important role in the environment since 1800 only due to deforestation and the con- world’s future. and are also often mately increases global mean sea levels at an average annual rate called alternative sources of energy [15]. geothermal energy. Renewable energy system devel- Energy source Energy conversion and usage options opment will make it possible to resolve the presently most crucial Hydropower Power generation tasks like improving energy supply reliability and organic fuel econ- Modern biomass Heat and power generation.19]. N2 O. resulting in increased the 21st century [20]. The global mean sur- [14]. The potentially most important environmental prob- interest in promoting renewable alternatives to meet the develop. wind above the baseline of 14 ◦ C.4 4289 6351 Renewable energy source contribution (%) 13.2 86 186 333 493 Small hydro 9. various greenhouse gases. A schematic representation of this global climate change problem tives of the Kyoto Protocol agreement [13]. especially in developed countries. 2.

hygienic and sanitary conditions mal energy is the most abundant one and is available in both to national and international standards with zero energy costs. out of them box type solar cooker (Fig.500 0 0.2 18 9 ± 2 R-11 17. Total energy-related emissions.2% per year. improves product quality. time. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 1515 Fig. of advantages and limitations of solar ovens with conventional fire- which over 80% is from energy use. Various types World 14. approximately 1.25 0.1. the vegetables and fruits in clean. roughly 16. 2) is widely used all over the world.8 × 1014 kW is inter- CO2 emission by region (million tons of CO2 [28]. and then compared the consumption) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions.8 × 1023 kW.00040 5. at 2. A study was conducted Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through electricity in Costa Rica and in the world as a whole. cepted by the earth [29].0 2 13 ± 3 Table 4 of 3. etc.163 of the leading energy sources for cooking [30–32]. OECD 9031 10. prevented [33]. It is esti- account for half of global CO2 emissions. It direct as well as indirect forms. Solar energy at 50% capacity utilization and in hot and sunny region it is about 1410. The outlook the hot water needs of a family of four persons.35 0.65 1. even if used 6–8 months a year. Solar energy is a promising option capable of being one Rest of the world 1436 4791 8034 11.4 million tons of carbon dioxide per year can also be meeting route is promoted [27].37]. Table 4 reveals that over the period from 1971 to 1995.0 1 13 ± 3 R-12 20. 1. is around 12–14 There is ample scope to minimize emission of greenhouse gases if months.763 13. mated that a domestic solar water heating system of 100 l per day capacity can mitigate around 1237 kg of CO2 emissions in a year 4. water heating. A schematic of solar water heater is illustrated 4.189 37.5 kg [36.8 million tons of firewood can be saved and the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources in actual energy emission of 38.9 Gt CO2 in 2004.4 71 50 ± 5 CH4 25 0. type solar oven.848 of solar cookers are available. 3 Solar-drying technology offers an alternative which can process As far as renewable energy sources is concerned solar ther.476 crop drying.75 1. There is vast scope to utilize available solar 1971 1995 2010 2020 energy for thermal applications such as cooking. Table 3 Role of different substances in the greenhouse effect [24]. The payback period of a common hot box which were 9. of which. suitable to satisfy most of emissions grew at an average rate of 1.427 14. wood and electric stoves. the developing countries could possible in order to achieve a sustainable future [35].00023 5.L. A schematic illustration of greenhouse effect [23]. .7% per year.150 31.000 0 0. occupies less area. By 2020.732 22.0 8 15 ± 5 N2 O 250 0. Panwar et al. Solar thermal application in Fig. Substance Ability to retain Pre industrial Present concentration Annual growth rate (%) Share in the Share in the greenhouse infrared radiations concentration greenhouse effect due increase due to human compared to CO2 to human activity (%) activity (%) CO2 1 275 346 0. CO2 Solar water heater of domestic size. offers significant projects a faster growth rate of CO2 emissions for the period to protection to the environment and should be employed whenever 2020. Transition economic 3029 3135 3852 4465 Solar cooking is the most direct and convenient application of China 875 3051 5322 7081 solar energy. have grown by 65% since 1971 [26]. The Sun emits energy at a rate saves energy. N.

The primary component a drying system using 100 kWh day−1 of electricity. Schematic diagram of a solar thermal conversion system. although prices are starting to come down. 2. 4. Panwar et al. noise.3. which makes use of the photovoltaic (PV) effect.44]. basically collected mitigation potential is higher in the case of diesel substitution as solar energy is converted to electricity through the use of some sort of heat to electricity conversion device as shown in Fig. the environmen- tal impact due to the emission of pollutants and the consumption of conventional energy resources [47]. The major component of any solar thermal system is the solar Table 5 Economics and emissions of conventional technologies compared with solar power collector. [48]. It came to around produced by PV array into AC power consistent with the voltage 14. It was estimated that 1m2 aper. low energy density: PV modules require a large surface area for Piacentini and Mujumdar [40] estimated CO2 production for small amounts of energy generation [49]. amount of material used in the solar cell and the system design for maxi- Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its mum use of recycled material will reduce the energy requirement advantages. Electricity production cost through solar energy is quite higher than that of conventional power station. for space and terrestrial applications. 4 [43. Some of the losses due to the band-gap limitations are avoided by cascading semiconductors of different band-gaps.8 kWp utilization of solar energy to produce electricity in these areas is solar photovoltaic pump at an average solar radiation of quite possible [42]. energy related problems are becoming more and more important and involve the ideal use of resources. Solar thermal power [50. parabolic trough. with energy equal to. In the last decades.51]. The PV system is promis- ing source of electricity generation for energy resource saving and CO2 emission reduction. The CO2 emissions tricity through the solar thermal conversion. Fig. parabolic dish. even if current technologies are applied 4.5 kWh m−2 is about 2085 kg from diesel operated pumps and device which utilize the solar radiation for the generation of elec- about 1860 kg from petrol operated pumps. tricity is not available. over 25 days in grid connected PV systems is the inverter. Further study was conducted on solar crop and power quality requirement of the utility gird as illustrated in drying and CO2 emission potential. and . or vibra- tion. thus the Net annual CO2 emission mitigation potential from 1. Further the development in efficiency of solar cells. Solar thermal electricity power system is a 5. As far as carbon emission is concerned solar based power station released almost zero carbon as presented in Table 5.L. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 Fig.77 tons of CO2 year−1 . Fig. 4. or more than the band-gap of PV materials.1516 N. ture area can save 463 kg of carbon dioxide in life cycle embodied Silicon solar cells are perhaps the simplest and most widely used [41]. A historical introduction into the use of Electricity generation technology Carbon emissions Generation costs (gC/kWh) (US¢/kWh) solar energy was attempted followed by a description of the var- ious types of collectors including flat-plate. Sunlight is free but power generation cost is exceptionally makes the process more efficient and protects the environment high. Direct solar energy conversion to electricity is conventionally done using photovoltaic cells. Fresnel lens. A typical domestic-scale solar water heater [38]. 5. There are many remote areas in the world where elec- and greenhouse gas emissions [52]. but solar irradiation is plentiful. ers that transform solar radiation energy to internal energy of the transport medium. PV modules generate Fig. Box type solar cooker [34]. Solar thermal and solar PV systems 0 9–40 Pulverized coal–natural gas turbine 100–230 5–7 evacuated tube. heliostat field collectors [45]. Solar photovoltaic system Electrical energy is the pivot of all developmental efforts in both the developed and the developing nations because conven- tional energy sources are finite and fast depleting [46]. generation [42]. electricity directly from light without emissions. Solar energy collectors are special kind of heat exchang. Solar energy has [39]. 3. it convert DC power per month in 11 months of operation per year. compound parabolic.2. PV effect depends on interaction of photons.

wind energy ranks second only to hydroelectric in terms of for the same wind speeds. The world-wide raw materials and digestion technologies. However. the power from the wind by means of aerodynamically designed To prevent emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and leaching of blades and convert it into rotating mechanical power. while ious fields of application for the biogas and digested product result a capacity of 9000 TWh/yr may be utilized due to economical and in great differences in the environmental performance among the other reasons [57]. even in remote. today by the animal breeding sector as well as the wet organic vert the motion of the wind into rotational energy that can be used waste streams represent a constant pollution risk with a poten- to drive a generator. CO2 30–60%. the most promising countries for wind power development in the world [54]. potential biogas systems. Wind energy annual CO2 emission mitigation potential is the lowest (2874 kg) for GM-II model and highest (7401 kg) for SICO model in the case of Of the renewable energy technologies applied to electricity gen- diesel substitution. Some changes associ- ated with climate evolution will most likely benefit the wind energy 6. and virtually pollution-free technology widely used in crops. com. Biogas industry while other changes may negatively impact wind energy developments. ation to ensure continuity [56]. wind energy 6. Bioenergy is also susceptible to global climate change. but for maximum flexibility.5 m/s. Among the raw materials are organic Wind energy for electricity production today is a mature. 40–70%. dedicated energy petitive. eral billion barrels of oil and avoid many million tons of carbon and other emissions [62]. it has been evaluated as one of the most energy-efficient and envi- should be used in conjunction with other methods of power gener. if not managed optimally. viable source of electricity. and agricultural waste products. 5. India is one of respectively. It small power needs in isolated sites. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 1517 Fig. such as crop residues and many areas of the world [58]. available in wind to electricity or mechanical power through the The large amounts of animal manure and slurries produced use of wind turbines [59]. and other gases 1–5%.L. compared to the petrol substitution. for the case of electricity substitution eration. ronmentally beneficial technology for bioenergy production [63]. N. At a mean wind speed of 4. essary to close the loops from production to utilization by optimal In the power-starved developing countries. Wind power may prove practical for nificant advantages over other forms of bioenergy production. the estimated value of net 5.1. for the above-mentioned two models [36]. it is estimated at 2194 kg and 5713 kg. Wind turbines capture tial negative impact on the environment. This is primarily due to low in price. Expansion of wind energy installed capacity is poised to play a key role in climate change mitigation. Elec. The calorific value of tricity generation from wind never depletes and never increases biogas is about 16–20 MJ m−3 [67]. Grid connected photovoltaic system. The electricity produced by these systems could save sev- efficiency of fuel utilization in the diesel engine pump [53]. inaccessible and hilly areas [61]. Panwar et al. as illustrated in Fig. waste from households and the food industry. Wind turbine nutrients and organic matter to the natural environment it is nec- blades use airfoils to develop mechanical power [60]. Wind energy potential studies show For the production of biogas it is possible to use several different that the world-wide wind resources are abundant. Similarly.000 TWh/yr. installed capacity and is experiencing rapid growth. which can be installed and transmitted Biogas is a mixture of gases that is composed mainly of CH4 very rapidly. The function of a wind turbine is to con. This variety and the var- potential for wind energy is estimated to be 26. Wind technology converts the energy manure [64]. with such ‘gains and losses’ depending on the region The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion offers sig- under consideration [55]. 7. wind power is the recycling measures [65] and it is as shown in Fig. Methane fermentation is a com- . 6.

Schematic representation of the sustainable cycle of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and organic wastes [66]. since it is assumed to be cultivated primarily for biogas production. and none of the input used in the production of the main product. It can be produced when needed and can easily be stored. Borjesson and Berglund [64] present an overview of biogas sys- tems as shown in Fig. acetogenesis/dehydrogenation and methanation as shown in Fig. 6. the handling of raw materials. The stages of the methane fermentation process [68]. the analysis does not treat the production of food or fodder replacements. that is. transportation fuel or distributed on the natural gas grid Fig. Panwar et al. 8. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 Fig. These crops are assumed to be cultivated on set-aside arable land. the digestion of the raw materials in farm-scale and large-scale biogas plants.L. Handling of energy crops includes the entire energy input and emissions from the cultivation and harvesting of the crop. 7. plex process. and the final use of the digestates and bio- gas. the analysis includes only the additional energy input and emissions associated with the handling and trans- port of these waste products.1518 N. . Fig. 8. Consequently. The other raw materials are assumed to be waste products. It can be distributed through the existing natural gas infrastructure and used in the same applications like the natural gas [13]. acidogenesis. Conversion from wind power to electrical power in a wind turbine. Biogas has definite advantages. 9. which can be divided up into four phases: hydrolysis. It include emissions from the energy input in the entire biogas production chain. and hence. for end application [69]. The biogas can directly be used for domestic cooking. even if compared to other renewable energy alternatives.

These reactions are often catalyzed by the addi- [72]. Biogas systems are considered to be strong alternatives to the tion.0 ? 485 5.7 tons CO2 equiv. Biodiesel has the potential to reduce emissions from the trans- increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions and port industry. The global warming mitiga.7 37. Pongamia pinnata oil [77]. Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913).3 75 525 4. it is known that oil is a finite resource and that its price tends run engine. “The use of vegetable oils as engine fuel with traditional heating systems fuelled by wood. kerosene for lighting showed performance characteristics close to diesel [83]. car. Biodiesel acids can catalyze the reaction by donating a proton to the carbonyl group. Transesterification is the bon credit of US $97 year−1 could be earned from such reduction in process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by greenhouse gas emission under the clean development mechanism another alcohol. energy flows. At the same time rising petroleum prices.L.10 58 436 Tall oil (Scandinavia) 51.” Nowa- gas is quite possible in both duel fuel mode and 100 percent biogas days. such oils may become. Power generation from bio. The overall engine performance was improved when to increase exponentially. as its reserves are fast depleting [74]. which is the largest producer of greenhouse gases.3 37. Diesel said. tial benefits to human health [87].60 47 453 Sunflower (EU) 34.1 38. palm oil [78]. The physical properties With reference to world energy scenario [73]. Nevertheless. duck tallow [81] and castor seed oil [82] and its blends through substituting firewood for cooking. N. The arrows represent material flows. the passing years. Biodiesel is being extracted from Mahua oil [75]. Panwar et al.7 535 4. scrubbed biogas was used in duel fuel engine as compared to raw Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel that is renewable and biodegrad- gas duel fuel engine [71]. able.80]. A study was reported in Indian Table 6 Comparison of physical properties of vegetable oil and their methylester preparation via transesterification [86]. Jatropha curcas gation of greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming [79. Properties Oil or fat (refined) Methyl ester Viscosity (mm2 /s at 311 K) Cetane number Flash point (K) Viscosity (mm2 /s at 311 K) Cetane number Flash point (K) Soyabean (US) 33. In 1912. and cooking and chemical fertilizers. Overview of the biogas systems analysed. common methods used to reduce oil viscosity in the biodiesel year−1 and with the current price of US $10 tons−1 CO2 equiv. The use of into the atmosphere as a result of burning fuels.94 62 431 Rapeseed (EU) 37. in mixture.2. tion of a base and acid. while 6.16 49 439 Cottonseed (China) 33. creator of the diesel cycle engines.5 531 4. 9. traditional space heating systems (stoves) in rural Turkey. Straight vegetable oil has higher viscosity and one of the most tion potential of a family size biogas plant was 9. some 85–90% of of the primary chemical products of transesterification are given in world primary energy consumption will continue (until 2030) to Table 6. thus making it more reactive [85]. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 1519 Fig.7 65 576 3.4 36. oil [76]. and emissions from the system. and dried animal waste [70]. Bases can catalyze the reaction by removing a proton from the alcohol.. as important as oil and coal tar presently. be based on fossil fuels. global warming have generated intense international interest in The use of biodiesel also reduces the particulate matter released developing alternative non-petroleum fuels for engines.1 548 4. thus making it more reactive. coal and wood may seem negligible today.08 46 441 Palm (Malaysia) 42. rubber seed Biogas technology provides an excellent opportunity for miti.30 50 461 .1 524 3. Biogas used peanut vegetable oil to demonstrate his invention in Paris in systems for heating was found economical viable when compared 1900. providing poten- vegetable oil in internal combustion engines is not a recent innova. industry is called transesterification [84].75 42 433 Tallow (US) 32.

therefore. Over 3000 h of operation gasifier has resulted However. Study was conducted on open core downdraft option for the increase of energy production with the increase of gasifier in small scale industries to produce process heat in the efficiency.15 tons of CO2 in 1800 working hours [106].39 MW thermal capacities was car.L.5 kg of LPG was replaced by 38 kg biomass combustion products would damage the turbine blades.. thus a promising candidate for clean development gasification technology. This industry is working for concentration technologies available in India are based on downdraft gasification of about 500 l/day of phosphoric acid.3. [104]. which is required to be brought 50%. A biomass-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle. decrease of environment degradation and waste utiliza- temperature range of 200–350 ◦ C for backing bakery items. i. 10. Ltd. biomass gets converted in high grade fuel known as charcoal and further into low calorific gas called producer gas [98. The marigold flower with open top downdraft gasifier. it is feasible to operate gas turbines with biomass Fig.1520 N. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has taken initiative to develop research group within India for technology and man power development. Biomass use for power generation has become an attractive ture applications. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly 11 h per day. 6. etc. Biomass gasifier Gasifier is a device which converts solid fuel into gaseous fuel through thermo chemical conversion route. cumulative installed capacity of over 13 MWth [101]. The developed system is operating for about 6 h every day and consumes approx- gasifier is in position to replace 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day imately 48 kg/h of sized fuel per hours against 50 kg/h wood for completely. been successfully installed in the field throughout India with a Similar design of gasifier was tested at M/s Phosphate India Pvt. To disseminate the gasifica- tion technology in actual uses. of woody biomass. . More than 350 TERI gasifier systems have mechanism [105].782 tons of CO2 emission can be saved on annual basis. Bangalore (IISc) [100]. Gas turbines cannot be fired directly with biomass. In the gasifier low grade fuel. 10. Udaipur. 20%. ence. The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI). Dur. as a consequence Indian premier institute like Indian Institute of Sci- Fig. Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI). The CO2 released during combustion of biodiesel can be recycled through next crop production. The gas thus produced by gasifier can be utilized to produce process heat for thermal application. Panwar et al.99]. Required process heat Package of practice was developed by IISc. no additional burden on environment [88]. have been involved in the field of biomass combustion and 33 tons of CO2 . by first gasifying the biomass and cleaning the gas before in a saving of about 19. implying a saving of about combustion. Gasifier based power generation system ried out by Pathak et al.5 tons of LPG. Bangalore to dry is meeting through combustion of biomass in open furnace. 6. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 context that if 10% of total production of castor seed oil is transes- terfied into biodiesel. The gasifier Limited.4. Udaipur Fig. The initial gravity of acid is and designed primarily for woody biomass [102]. Gasifier installed at M/s Phosphate India Pvt. then about 79. completely [103]. 11. because the ing the study it was found that 6. Work on development of modular throat type down draft gasifier having 1. The developed system is in position to save about nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel 24. tion.e. There is huge scope to utilize the gasification technology in small scale industries for low tempera.

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). 12. Engine-generator efficiency at dual fuel operation was lower with economic and time saving benefits to the household and than that of diesel fuel operation. increase sustainability of the natural resources base. At the optimal (Fig. Improved cookstove is best solution to overcome this Study report that almost all of the tar content in producer gas could type of emission problems. 40 ◦ C.5. (2) reduced engine-generator efficiency of 14. 13. The combustion process in traditional cooking stove is non-ideal This process gives high efficiency of electricity production in and favoring incomplete combustion. ing stove released carbon monoxide (CO). Improved cookstoves gasifier (BIG)/gas turbine (GT) combined cycle. better indoor air environment and clean kitchen safely run a diesel engine without any tar problems. Fig. producer gas could be cooled down to less than potentially bring three kinds of benefits: (1) reduced fuel demand. Emission study was also conducted of biopower plant is 75MW and total efficiency would be  = 36%. [109] conduct a study on a multi-stage hybrid methane (CH4 ). this process ties of products of incomplete combustion (PIC) comprising of fine enables considerably lower emission of harmful gases and particles. size tial (GWP) than CO2 [110].7% was achieved at a maximum human exposure to health damaging air pollutants. 13). Improvements in households biomass burning stoves water flow rate. N. the CO2 emission by 161 kg per year. It helps to improve health stan- Fig. probability of global climate change [112]. a leading first- generation candidate for BIG/GT systems [107]. Single stove can save put for dual fuel operation was about 79% of that for diesel fuel about 700 kg of fuel wood per year and at the same time it reduces operation. Incomplete and inefficient a gaseous power plant than in the classic power plant during combustion by traditional cookstoves produce significant quanti- the combustion of biomass and steam cycle. With the experimental system. by Bhattacharya and Salam Abdul [111] and it was concluded Cost of this power plant is estimated to be 2750$/kW and electricity that incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cook- costs of 0. particles biomass–charcoal gasification to produce low tar content gas for composed of elemental carbon or black carbon. Double pot improved cookstove. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 1521 Fig. and (3) reduced electrical power output (11:44 kWe) with 81% of the total energy emission of the greenhouse gases that are thought to increase the input coming from producer gas. and other organic engine application using coconut shell as a fuel as shown in Fig. 11 is a schematic representation of a biomass-integrated 6. Besides.L. Panwar et al. compounds. fuels. Improved cookstoves performed bet- be removed by passing it through the spray tower so that it could ter fuel economy. nitrous oxide (N2 O). 12.03$/kWh [108]. Maximum electrical power out. Experimental gasifier–engine system. Bhattacharya et al. and ultra fine particles which have more global warming poten- For this attractive biopower option based on gasification. .

The system 3. pump. heaters. The closed loop system of hydrogen production and its utiliza- put. and to lessen dependence on insecure fossil energy sources [92]. The fuel cell is connected to the storage tank via pressure hydrogen from woody biomass is mainly carried out via two reduction valves to generate electricity.5–2. which are integrated in one system. Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in the world’s energy future by replacing fossil fuels. only water. Table 8 shows the conditions of thermal treatment of electrolysis may come eventually from clean renewable sources biomass. elec- resources are constrained. ing of the syngas. Biodiesel from nonedible vegetable . Most H2 is currently produced from nonrenewable sources Catalyticsteamreformingofbiomass → H2 + CO2 + CO such as oil. and coal [91]. The costs of getting rid of municipal wastes are mounting as land consists of a solar plant (photo-voltaic energy stand-alone). natural gas. Producing age tanks. also reduces the burden of fuel collection [113]. storage unit. biomass gasifiers. or The main gaseous products from biomass are [94] the following: geothermal heat. Table 7 shows 8. pressure resistance and hydrogen aging dard of women and child. solar cookers. The residues conversion increases the value of agricultural out.1–1. Its conversion to heat or power is simple and clean. liquefier.1522 N. by electrolysis from water or by chemical processes from hydrocarbons or other hydrogen carriers. produced gases are pumped intermediately into high pressure stor- eral advantages compared to that of fossil fuels [93]. tion to generate electrical energy is shown in Fig. Production of hydrogen from biomass electrolyzer with a limited DC current flow to de compose the water electrochemically into gases. which Hydrogen from organic wastes has generally been based on the is beneficial to exploit biomass resources. trolyzer. does not exist in nature in its elemental form. The Production of hydrogen from renewable biomass has sev.0 600–2000 mitigation for clean and sustainable development. The main advan. 14. in a closed loop production thermochemical processes: (a) gasification followed by reform. biogas technology. and utilization cycle of hydrogen and oxygen [97]. Structure of production and utilization of hydrogen gas. The use of biomass reduces CO2 emissions. such as solar radiation. to develop a highly effi- following reactions: cient clean way for large-scale hydrogen production. Solidwaste → CO + H2 tages of biomass to hydrogen are: Biomass + H2 O + Air → H2 + CO2 1. and thus replacing fossil fuels with sustainable biomass fuel is one option that needs Cellulose + H2 O + Air → H2 + CO + CH4 consideration in reducing CO2 emissions.0 vation in developing nations.95]. However. When burnt with oxygen. pounds. 7. and (b) fast pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil [94. hydrogen may become an important Pyrolysisofbiomass → H2 + CO2 + CO + Hydrocarbongases link between renewable physical energy and chemical energy car- riers [90].1. Fig. 14. Hydrogen as fuel Hydrogen has fascinated generations of people for centuries. and fuel cell. ionizer. kinetic energy of wind and water. The PV energy powered the 7. which can return to nature. Hydrogen is gaining increasing attention as an encouraging future energy [89]. Therefore.L. It has to be separated from chemical com. hydrogen. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 1513–1524 Table 7 Main Advantage and limitation of biomass to hydrogen [92]. Process Temperature (K) Heating rate (K/s) Solid residence time (s) The review gives an overview of the development and scope of CO2 Pyrolysis 675–875 0. Thermochemical conver- sion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification of biomass have Gasificationofbiomass → H2 + CO2 + CO + N2 considerable potential for producing renewable hydrogen. including visionaries like Jules Verne. Advantages Use of biomass reduces CO2 emissions Crop residues conversion increases the value of agricultural output Replacing fossil fuels with sustainable biomass fuel Costs of getting rid of municipal solid wastes Limitations Seasonal availability and high costs of handling Nontotal solid conversion (char formation) and tars production Process limitations: corrosion. the most common chemical element on the planet. 2. The use of solar Fast pyrolysis 975–1225 250–300 1–3 drying of agricultural produce has good potential for energy conser- Gasification 975–1225 300–500 0. hydrogen generates no pollutants. Panwar et al. Conclusion the main advantages and limitations of converting biomass to A comprehensive literature survey of major renewable energy gadgets for domestic and industrial applications such as solar water Table 8 Conditions of thermal treatment of biomass [96]. wind energy. dryers. improved cookstoves and biodiesel was made. cooler. hydrogen and oxygen (H2 and O2 ). The electricity for the hydrogen.

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