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Original Title: Comparision between FOC and DTC

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A.D. Karlis*, K. Kiriakopoulos*, D.P. Papadopoulos* and E.L. Bibeau**

*Laboratory of Electrical Machines, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

Democritus University of Thrace

12, V. Sofias street, 67100 Xanthi, Greece, tel: (+30)-25410-79721,2, fax: (+30)-25410-79722,4,

e-mail: akarlis@ee.duth,gr, konkgr@hotmail.com, dpapadop@ee.duth.gr

**Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, University of Manitoba

Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada, eric_bibeau@umanitoba.ca

I. INTRODUCTION

The DTC technique is intrinsically sensorless.

In the last decade, the increasing restrictions imposed Therefore it is more suitable for the comparison to consider

on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines a direct field oriented control (DFOC) scheme, instead of a

and the traffic limitations in the urban areas have given a general FOC scheme.

strong impulse toward the development of electrical Starting from this basis, the DTC scheme is

propulsion systems for automotive applications. The goal characterized (in comparison with the DFOC) by the

of electrical and hybrid vehicles is the reduction of global absence of:

emissions, which in turn leads to a decrease of fuel 1) PI regulators;

resources exploitation. 2) coordinate transformations;

The major components of an electric vehicle system are 3) current regulators;

motor, controller, power source, charger and drivetrain. 4) PWM signals generators (no timers).

The majority of electric vehicles (EV) developed so far are So, only the control schemes, which meet all these

based on dc machines, induction machines or permanent requirements, should be considered as real DTC schemes.

magnet machines. The disadvantages of dc machines According to these considerations, the analysis is carried

turned EV developers to look into various types of ac out with reference to a basic DTC scheme characterized by

machines. The power density of permanent magnet the above mentioned features. A block diagram of a basic

machines together with the high cost of permanent DFOC scheme is presented in Fig. 1.

magnets makes these machines less attractive for EV

applications. The maintenance-free low-cost induction

machines became an attractive alternative to many

developers. However, high-speed operation of induction

machines is only possible with a penalty in size and

weight. The maintenance-free low-cost induction machines

became an attractive alternative to many developers.

Three-phase cage-rotor induction motors are best suited to

electric vehicle drive applications. Induction motors are

cost-effective, and are suitable in terms of size and weight,

speed of rotation, efficiency, controllability and reliability.

The durable rotor and high-speed operation under easily

implemented field-weakening control enable the use of

large reduction gear ratios that limit maximum torque

requirements, allowing the incorporation of smaller motors

driven by compact low-current inverters.

In this paper, two different control schemes are Figure 1. Basic DFOC scheme.

investigated to determine their suitability for electric

vehicle application. A brief overview of the operation of Field Oriented Control refers to induction motor

each scheme is presented followed by results from Matlab- operation in a synchronously rotating dq reference frame

Simulink simulations. A comparison of the advantages and that is aligned with one of the motor fluxes, typically the

disadvantages of the two schemes is included. rotor flux. In this mode of operation, control of the torque

and flux is decoupled such that the d-axis component of

II. CONTROL METHODS the stator current controls the rotor flux magnitude and the

q-axis component controls the output torque. A

Field Oriented Control (FOC) and Direct Torque proportional-integral controller regulates the stator voltage

Control (DTC) were chosen for simulation as they are to achieve the calculated stator current. The required

standard induction motor control techniques. voltage is then synthesised by the inverter using space

vector modulation (SVM). During motor operation the

actual rotor resistance and inductance can vary, for REFERENCES

example with temperature. The resulting errors between

[1] Bose B.K., Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives,

the values used and the actual parameters cause an Prentice Hall, 2002.

incomplete decoupling between torque and flux. [2] Michael Filippich “Digital control of a 3-phase induction

In principle, the DTC method selects one of the motor”. The University of Queensland, October 2002

inverter’s six voltage vectors and two zero vectors in order [3] Akin A., “State Estimation Techniques for Speed

to keep the stator flux and torque within a hysteresis band Sensorless Field Oriented Control of Induction Motors”,

around the demand flux and torque magnitudes. The torque August 2003

[4] “Sensorless Direct Torque Control of Induction Motors

produced by the induction motor can be expressed as used in Electric Vehicle”, IEEE Transactions on Energy

Equation: Conversion, March 2003

3 P L [5] “Different Techniques for Real Time Estimation of an

T = ψ ψ sin p (1)

m

e

( ) s r Induction Motor Rotor Resistance in Sensorless Direct

'

2 2 LL r s Torque Control for Electric Vehicle”, IEEE Transactions

which shows the torque produced is dependent on the on Energy Conversion, March 2001.

stator flux magnitude, rotor flux magnitude, and the phase [6] “Comparative Analysis of Torque-Controlled IM Drives

with Applications in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles”, IEEE

angle between the stator and rotor flux vectors. The Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol 16, No 2, March

induction motor stator equation can be approximated as 2001.

Equation (2) over a short time period if the stator [7] “Comparative Investigation of PWM Techniques for a

resistance is ignored. This means that the change in the New Drive for Electric Vehicles”, IEEE Transactions on

stator flux vector is determined by the applied voltage Industry Applications, Vol 39, No 5, September/October

vector. If a voltage vector is applied that changes the stator 2003.

[8] Siemens AG, “Highly dynamic and speed sensorless

flux to increase the phase angle between the stator flux and control of traction drives”

rotor flux vectors, then the torque produced will increase. [9] Faiz J., Hossieni S.H., Ghaneei M., Keyhani A., Proca A.,

r dψ “Direct Torque Control of Induction Motors for Electric

V = (2)

s

s Propulsion Systems, Electric Power Systems Research, pp.

dt 95-101, Vol 51, 1999.

Since a two-level inverter is only capable of producing

six non-zero voltage vectors and two zero vectors, it is

possible to create a table that determines the voltage vector

to apply based on the position of the stator flux and the

required changes in stator flux magnitude and torque. This

is called the optimal vector selection table. It is possible to

expand the optimal vector selection table to include the

larger number of voltage vectors produced by a three-level

inverter. The estimated stator flux magnitude and torque

output is compared to the demand values. A voltage vector

is then selected that will drive the torque and flux towards

the demanded values (see Fig.2).

Inverter

simulated using Matlab-Simulink. The first results show

that the behaviour of DFOC scheme is characterized by

lower values of the three-phase rms current ripple with

respect to the DTC scheme. A disadvantage of DTC is its

comparatively high current distortion and torque ripple.

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