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September 2010 
 
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bykgkckn ,Òkjr 
Civil Aviation Training College 
ALLAHABAD,INDIA 
 
INDEX

1. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE 03


INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL
TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICE

2. LOCATION INDICATORS 07

3. ICAO THREE-LETTER DESIGNATORS 12

4. DEFINITIONS 16

5. AERONAUTICAL FIXED TELE-COMMUNICATION 20


NETWORK-AFTN

6. AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT 25

7. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES (ATS) MESSAGES 38

8. TELETYPEWRITER OPERATING PROCEDURE 59

9. AFTN ROUTING 72

10. PREDETERMINED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 76

11. ACCEPTANCE, TRANSMISSION AND DELIVERY OF 78


MESSAGES

12. AFTN TRAFFIC RECORD 80


AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 3 GENERAL/ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

Objective: The objective of the Aeronautical Telecommunication


service is to ensure the Telecommunication and Radio Aids to Air
navigation necessary for the Safety, regularity & efficiency of
international air navigation.

Chapter 1. ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE


INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION
SERVICE

1.2 DIVISION OF SERVICE :

The International Aeronautical Telecommunication Service shall be


divided into four parts:

1) Aeronautical fixed service

2) Aeronautical mobile service

3) Aeronautical radio navigation service

4) Aeronautical broadcasting service

1.3 TELECOMMUNICATIONS - CHARGES :

Recommendation: the exchange of communications necessary for


ensuring safety of air navigation and the regularity of air traffic between
aeronautical fixed stations of different states and between aeronautical
stations should be handled without specific message charge unless
otherwise provided.

1.4 HOURS OF SERVICE :


a) The competent authority shall give notification of the normal hours
of service of stations and offices of the international aeronautical
telecommunication agencies designated to receive this information
by another administrations concerned.

b) Whenever necessary and practicable, the competent authority shall


give notification of any change in the normal hours of service,
before such a change is effected, to the aeronautical
telecommunication agencies designated to receive this information
by other administrations concerned. Such changes shall also,
wherever necessary, be promulgated in NOTAM.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 4 GENERAL/ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

c) If a station of the international aeronautical telecommunication


service, or an aircraft operating agency, requests a change in the
hours of service of another station. Such change shall be requested
as soon as possible after the need for change is known. The station
or aircraft operating agency requesting the change shall be
informed of the result of its request as soon as possible.

1.5 SUPERVISION :

a) Each state shall designate the authority responsible for ensuring


that the international aeronautical telecommunication service is
conducted in accordance with the procedures mentioned in Annex
10 Volume II.

Recommendation : occasional infringements of the procedure contained


in, when not serious, should be dealt with by direct communication
between the parties immediately interested either by the correspondence
or by personal contact.

b) When a station commits serious or repeated infringements,


representations relating to them shall be made to the authority
designated in a) of the state to which the station belongs by the
authority which detects them.

Recommendations : the authorities designated in a) should exchange


information regarding the performance of systems of communication,
radio navigation, operation and maintenance, unusual transmission
phenomena, etc.

1.6 SUPERFLUOUS TRANSMISSION :

Each state shall ensure that there is no wilful transmission of unnecessary


or anonymous signals, messages or data by any station within that state.

1.7 INTERFERENCE :
Before authorizing tests and experiments in any station, each
administration, in order to avoid harmful interference, shall prescribe the
taking of all possible precautions, such as the choice of frequency and of
time, and the reduction or, if possible, the suppression of radiation. Any
harmful interference resulting from tests and experiments shall be
eliminated as soon as possible.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 5 GENERAL/ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

1.8 EXTENSION OF SERVICE AND CLOSING DOWN OF STATION :

Station of the international aeronautical telecommunication service shall


extend their normal hours of service as required to provide for traffic
necessary for flight operation.

Before closing down, station shall notify its intention to all other stations
with which it is in direct communication, confirm that the extension of
service is not required and advise the time of reopening, if other than its
normal hours of service.

When it is working regularly in a network on a common circuit, a station


shall notify its intention of closing down either to the control station, if
any, or to all stations in the network. It shall continue watch for two
minutes and may then close down if it has received no call during this
period.

Stations other than continuous hours of operation, engaged in, or


expected to become engaged in distress, urgency, unlawful interference,
or interception of traffic, shall extend their normal hours of service to
provide the required support to those communications.

1.9 USE OF ABBREVIATIONS AND CODES :


Abbreviations and codes shall be used in the international aeronautical
telecommunication service whenever they are appropriate or their use will
shorten or otherwise facilitate communication.

Where abbreviations and codes other than approved by ICAO are


contained in the text of messages, the originator shall, if so required by
aeronautical telecommunication station accepting the message for
transmission, make available to that station a decode form for the
abbreviations and codes used.

The use of ICAO approved abbreviations and codes whenever


appropriate, for example those contained in DOC8400 - ICAO
ABBREVIATIONS AND CODES - obviates the need for the application of
the provisions of above.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 6 GENERAL/ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

The Various volumes of Annex 10 are as follows:

Annex 10: Aeronautical Telecommunication (Volume I to V)

Volume I: Radio Navigation Service

Volume II: Communication Procedures

Volume III: Part 1: Voice Communication System


Part 2: Digital Data Communication System

Volume IV: Surveillance Radar And Collision avoidance system


(ACAS and TCAS)

Volume V: Aeronautical Radio frequency Spectrum Utilisation

Annex 10 Volume II Chapter 1 to 4 deals with AFS.

Concerned other documents on this subject are

DOC 7910 Location Indicators

DOC8585 Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical


Authorities and Services.

DOC8400 ICAO Abbreviations and Codes

DOC9399 Manual of Teletypewriter Operating practices.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 7 LOCATION INDICATOR

Chapter 2. LOCATION INDICATOR

2.1 DEFINITION : Four letter code group formulated in accordance with the
rules prescribed by ICAO and assigned to a location of an aeronautical
fixed station.

FORMULATION : Four letter location indicator formulated and assigned


to a geographical location where there is situated a station forming a part
of aeronautical fixed service.

ICAO DOC7910 contains a list of four letter code group location indicator
for use in aviation only as a location of an aeronautical fixed station in
address, originator text etc. and not repeat not as a radio call sign of ships
which is only four letter one.

2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE (AFS)


ROUTING AREAS :
1 The world is divided into 22 non over lapping AFS routing areas,
each of which is assigned a separate identifying letter. I,J,Q and X
are not allocated.

2 The boundaries of these areas need not necessarily coincide with


the boundaries of any state, territory or FIR but are decided solely
from a consideration of the requirements of the AFS, so as to assist
message traffic routing processes to the maximum possible extent.

3 Each separate state or territory is assigned a separate identifying


letter to permit differentiation between that state or territory and
other states or territories in the same AFS routing areas.

4 Separate identifying letters are assigned to parts of a state or


territory.

(a) Where a separate state or territory is itself an AFS routing


area and
(b) Where routing uncertainties can exit at stations feeding
traffic into that states or territory and
(c) Where by so doing these routing uncertainties can be
removed or alleviated.

5 No separate identifying letter is assigned where a separate state or


territory contains only tributary stations.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 8 LOCATION INDICATOR

6 Unallocated letters within each AFS routing area may be assigned


as additional letters, by ICAO, at the request of a state having
jurisdiction at location(s) within such area, in instances where
additional assignment will facilitate the processes of message
routing.

2.3 ASSIGNMENT OF LOCATION INDICATORS :

1 Assignment of the first letter of a location indicator :


The first letter of the location indicator shall be the letter assigned
to the AFS routing area within which the location is situated except
that where the location is served only by a single communication
centre situated in another AFS routing area, the first letter shall be
that assigned to the area in which that communication centre is
situated.

NOTE : An AFS Routing area can consist of a single state.

2 Assignment of the second letter of a location indicator :

The second letter of the location indicator shall be letter assigned to


the state or territory (or portion there of) within which the location is
situated, except that where the location is served only by a single
communication centre situated in another state or territory in which
that communication centre is situated.

3 Assignment of the third letter of a location indicator :

Where in a state or territory, aeronautical fixed telecommunication


stations are connected to a communication centre, the third letter of
the location indicator should be so assigned as to assist in the
process of routing to that communication centre.

4 Assignment of the fourth letter of a location indicator :

In respect of the fourth letter, and in instances where assignment of


the second and third letters is not prescribed under 1.3 and 1.5 the
state concerned shall assign the letters as desired, except that
those states assigned the identifying letter N in accordance with 2.2
should arrange their national allocation of specific four letter
location indicators so as to avoid the use of the combination NN for
the third and fourth letters.

NOTE: It is intended that NNN should not be used as the second,


third and fourth letters of a location indicator.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 9 LOCATION INDICATOR

2.4 OTHER ASSIGNMENT :

1 In exceptional cases, geographical location other than those served


by the AFS may be given a location indicator of the discretion of the
state having jurisdiction over the location concerned.

2 States which have introduced the predetermined distribution


system for AFTN messages may assign for that purpose location
indicators constituted as follows:-

First and second letters - the first two letters of the location
indicator for the AFTN communication centre
designated as the international terminal centre for the
receiving country.

Third and fourth letters - the letters ZZ indicating a requirement for


special distribution. Those location indicators are not listed in this
document.

2.5 CHANGES IN THE ASSIGNMENT OF LOCATION INDICATORS :

1 Location indicator once assigned should only be amended after


paying due regard to the world-wide repercussions of such
changes upon all users of the communication services.

2 A location indicator should not be reassigned to another location


for a period of at least six months after cancellation of its previous
assignment.

3 Changes in the assignment of location indicators should be


promulgated by NOTAM or AIP as far in advance of the effective
date as practicable.

2.6 USE OF LOCATION INDICATORS :

1 Location indicators which are assigned to location to which


messages can not be addressed over the AFTN should be identified
by an asterisk (*).

2 A location indicator alone does not constitute an addressee


indicator or an originator indicator in AFTN message. The
aeronautical authority, service, unit or aircraft operating agency
originating the message, or to whom the message is addressed,
should be identified by adding to the location indicator the
appropriate ICAO three-letter designator.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 10 LOCATION INDICATOR

3 Identification of radio transmission :

ICAO location indicators should not be used for the identification of


radio transmissions in lieu of call signs which are prescribed for
this purpose in article 19 of the ITU Radio Regulations (Geneva
1959).

2.7 LIST OF THE SOME IMPORTANT LOCATION INDICATORS :

NATIONAL

Mumbai Region Delhi Region

VAAH AHMEDABAD VIAL ALLAHABAD


VABB MUMBAI VIAR AMRITSAR
VABM BELGUM VIBN VARANASI
VABO VADODARA VIDP DELHI
VABP BHOPAL VIGR GWALIOR
VAID INDORE VIJO JODHPUR
VANP NAGPUR VILK LUCKNOW

Kolkata Region Chennai Region

VEAT AGARTALA VOBG BANGLORE


VEBS BHUVNESHWAR VOHY HYDERABAD
VEGT GAUHATI VOMM CHENNAI
VEPT PATNA VOCI COCHIN
VEGT GAUHATI VOML MANGLORE
VEGY GAYA VOTR TIRUCHIRAPALLI
VERC RANCHI VOTV TRIVENDRUM

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 11 LOCATION INDICATOR

INTERNATIONAL

1. OBBI BAHRAIN
2. OYAA ADEN
3. OOMS MUSCAT
4. OMAA ABU-DHABI

5. OMDB DUBAI
6. OEJD JEDDAH
7. OEDR DAHRAN
8. OPLA LAHORE
9. OPKC KARACHI
10. OAKB KABUL
11. OAKN KANDHAR
12. OIII TEHRAN
13. ORBS BAGDAD
14. OKBK KUWAIT
15. OLBA BAIRUT
16. OTBD DOHA
17. EGLL LONDON
18. FIMP MAURITIUS
19. FJDC DIEGO GARCIA
20. FSSS MAHE/SEYCHELLES
21. HAAB ADDIS- ABABA
22. HECA CAIRO
23. HKNA NAIROBI
24. HSSS KHARTOUM
25. HTDA DAR ES-SALAAM
26. LCNC NICOSIA
27. LFPO PARIS/ORLY
28. LTBA ISTANBUL
29. RJTT TOKYO
30. UUEE MOSCOW
31. UTTT TASKENT
32. VTBD BANGKOK
33. VCBI COLOMBO
34. VHHH HONGKONG
35. VYYY YANGOON
36. VGZR DHAKA/ZIA
37. WSSS SINGAPORE
38. ZBBB BEIJING CITY

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 12 ICAO THREE LETTER DESIGNATORS

Chapter 3. ICAO THREE-LETTER DESIGNATORS

3.1 GENERAL :

Requests for the registration of or change in a three-letter or telephony


designator will only be recognized by ICAO when received from the state
having jurisdiction over the aircraft operating agency, aeronautical
authority or service concerned. Such requests should be addressed to the
Secretary General ICAO.

The same designator will not be registered for more than one aircraft
agency, aeronautical authority or service.

No more than one three-letter or telephony designator will be registered


for each aircraft operating agency, aeronautical authority or service.

When a designator is no longer required, ICAO should be informed


immediately. Any such designator so released will not be reassigned until
a period of at least 60 days elapsed.

Each contracting state should review, at least annually, all of the


designators and associated information in DOC8585 for which it is
responsible and advise ICAO of any changes which should be made to
this document in order to bring up to date.

The rules governing the registration or change of three-letter and


telephony designators are as follows :

3.2 THREE LETTER DESIGNATORS :

Three letter designator is registered only for :

Aircraft operating agency engaged in air transport operation, which in the


opinion of the state of jurisdiction have a need for an exclusive
designator.

Government authority and services, which use and/or provide air


navigation, communication and other facility and services for international
civil aviation.

Organisation other than government organisation, which provide service


for international civil aviation.

A three letter designator should reflect to the maximum extent practicable,


the name of the aircraft operating agency or its radiotelephony designator
or the aeronautical service for which it is requested.

Designators for government organisations which provide civil aviation


facilities and services are allocated only in the Y series.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 13 ICAO THREE LETTER DESIGNATORS

Designators for government organisations which provide air traffic


services are allocated only in the Z series except ZXA to ZXZ.

The following three letter designators are reserved for national allocation
by contracting states to national authorities and services and will not be
used for other assignment by ICAO. The state may select and use any of
these without referring the matter to ICAO.

YEY YGY YHY YIY YJY YKY YQY YRY YUY YVY and ZXA to ZXZ groups.

The following three letter designator when appearing in the address,


origin parts of an AFTN message must be complemented with further
identification of the aircraft operating agency, aeronautical authority or
service concerned in the beginning of the text part of the message.

YXY - Military service or organisation

YYY - Aircraft operating agency or organisation that has not allocated


ICAO 3 letter designator on an exclusive basis.

ZZZ - Aircraft in flight.

3.3 RESTRICTIONS :

Following restriction will apply in the registration of three letter designator


:

a. Combination of ZC or CZ to avoid conflict with the start of message


signal.
b. Combination of NN to avoid conflict with the end of message signal.
c. PAN SOS UNO will not be used.
d. QTA, SVC shall not be used to avoid confusion with communication
service codes.
E. To avoid potential AFTN routing problems,
1. No further allocation of aircraft operating agency designator will
be included in the Y and Z series and
2. No further allocation of any designator will be included in the Y
series and ZAA to ZIZ, ZOA TO ZUZ AND ZYA TO ZZY groups.

States which have introduced the predetermined distribution system for


AFTN messages should inform each state from which AFTN messages for
predetermined distribution are to be received of the three designator are
to be used for addressing such messages. These designator are not listed
in this document.

YAY GOVERNMENT CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY


YFY AERONAUTICAL FIXED STATION

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 14 ICAO THREE LETTER DESIGNATORS

YLY AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT AUTHORITY


YMY METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE
YNY INTERNATIONAL NOTAM OFFICE
YOY AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICE UNIT
YPY ROBEX COLLECTION CENTRE
YSY AERONAUTICAL STATION
YTY TELECOMMUNICATION AUTHORITY
YXA AIRPORTS AUTHORITY OF INDIA
YXY MILITARY SERVICE ORGANIZATION
YYY ORGANIZATION NOT ALLOCATED A DESIGNATOR ON AN
EXCLUSIVE BASIS
ZAZ AERODROME CONTROL OFFICE
ZBZ REPETITIVE FLIGHT PLAN OFFICE
ZFZ CENTRE IN CHARGE OF A FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION
OR AN UPPER FLIGHT INFORMATION "WHETHER ACC OR
FIC" WHEN THE MESSAGE IS RELEVANT TO VIP FLIGHT.
ZGZ AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
ZIZ FLIGHT INFORMATION CENTRE
ZPZ AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES REPORTING OFFICE
ZQZ CENTRE IN CHARGE OF FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION
ZRZ AREA CONTROL CENTRE
ZTZ AERODROME CONTROL TOWER
ZUZ UPPER AREA CONTROL CENTRE
ZYZ AERODROME SECURITY SERVICES
ZZZ AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT

YXAC CHAIRMAN,AAI
YXAO MEMBER (OPS)
YXAE MEMBER (ENGG.)
YXAP MEMBER (PERSONNEL)
YXAF MEMBER (FINANCE)
YVYX PRINCIPAL C.A.T.C.

3.4 Telephony Designators :

Telephony designators for aircraft operating agencies may be used


as part of the aircraft radiotelephony call sign followed by the flight identification
in radiotelephony communications, in accordance with the ICAO radiotelephony
procedures. Example : “AEROFLOT 301”.

In the registration of telephony designators the following rules will apply :

(a) The telephony designator should resemble the name of the aircraft
operating agency or its function and be distinct and dissimilar from any
other telephony designator in DOC8585. Ideally it should reflect
correlation between the three-letter designator, the telephony
designator and the name of the aircraft operating agency or its function.

(b) In order to reduce the length of transmission the telephony designator


should be brief, comprising if possible one word of two or three

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 15 ICAO THREE LETTER DESIGNATORS

syllables. It should not exceed two words.

(c) Three-letter designator may not be used in phonetic form as telephony


designators. However, telephony designators of long standing ( such as
KLM or TWA) may be retained, provided that an acceptable alphabetic
representation is used ( example : KAY-ELL-EMM)

(d) Three letter designator should be easily and phonetically


pronounceable in at least one of the following languages : English,
French, Russian, Spanish.

NOTE : In the interest of safety, simple procedures should be developed by


states and aircraft operating agencies for detecting, reporting and eliminating
those call signs which, because of their similarities to other call signs, may
cause confusion or mistakes in identification. When call sign similarity
difficulties concern the telephony designator, the civil aviation authority
concerned should coordinate efforts to resolve the problem. This may require
submission to ICAO for a change in one or both of the conflicting telephony
designators.

In the selection of the flight identification number the following is


recommended :

(a) Flight numbers should be kept as short as possible and usually be limited
to three figures.

(b) Flight numbers should be selected bearing in mind the flight numbers
already in use by other operating agencies in the intended control
environments.

(c) When practicable flight numbers other than those ending in a zero or five
should be used.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 16 DEFINITIONS

Chapter 4. DEFINITIONS
SERVICES :

AERONAUTICAL BROADCASTING SERVICE A broadcasting service intended


for the transmission of information relating to air navigation.

AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE "AFS" A telecommunication service between


specified fixed points provided for the safety of air navigation and for the
regular, efficient and economical operation of air services.

AERONAUTICAL FIXED TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK "AFTN" A world-


wide system of aeronautical fixed circuits provided, as part of the aeronautical
fixed service, for the exchange of messages and/or digital data between
aeronautical fixed stations having the same compatible communications
characteristics.

AERONAUTICAL MOBILE SERVICE A mobile service between aeronautical


stations and aircraft stations, or between aircraft stations, in which survival
craft stations may participate, emergency position-indicating radio beacon
stations may also participate in this service on designated distress and
emergency frequencies.

AERONAUTICAL RADIO NAVIGATION SERVICE A radio navigation service


intended for the benefit and for the operation of aircraft.

AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICE A telecommunication


service provided for any aeronautical purpose.

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICE A telecommunication


service between offices or stations of different states, or between mobile
stations which are not in the same state, or are subject to different states.

STATIONS :

AERONAUTICAL FIXED STATIONS A station in the aeronautical fixed service.

AERONAUTICAL STATION A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In


certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board
ship or on a platform at sea.

AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION STATION A station in the aeronautical


telecommunication service.

AFTN COMMUNICATION CENTRE An AFTN station whose primary function is

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 17 DEFINITIONS

the relay or retransmissions of AFTN traffic from "or to" a number of other AFTN
stations connected to it.

AFTN DESTINATION STATION An AFTN station to which messages and/or


digital data are addressed for processing for delivery to the addressee.

AFTN STATION A station forming part of the aeronautical fixed


telecommunication network "AFTN" and operating as such under the authority
or control of a state.

COMMUNICATION CENTRE An aeronautical fixed station which relays or


retransmits telecommunication traffic "FROM" or "TO" a number of other
aeronautical fixed stations directly connected to it.

REGULAR STATION A station selected from those forming an en-route air-


ground radiotelephony network to communicate with or to intercept
communications from aircraft in normal conditions.

TRIBUTARY STATION An aeronautical fixed station that may receive or transmit


messages and/or digital data but which does not relay except for the purpose of
servicing similar stations connected through it to a communication centre.

COMMUNICATION METHODS :

AIR GROUND COMMUNICATION Two way communication between aircraft and


stations or locations on the surface of the earth.

AIR TO GROUND COMMUNICATION One-way communication from aircraft to


stations or locations on the surface of the earth.

BROADCAST A transmission of information relating to air navigation that is not


addressed to a specific station or stations.

DUPLEX A method in which telecommunication between two stations can take


place in both directions simultaneously.

SIMPLEX A method in which telecommunication between two stations take


place in one direction at a time.

TELECOMMUNICATION Any transmission, emission or reception of signs,


signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio,
optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 18 DEFINITIONS

TYPES OF RELAY INSTALLATIONS :

SEMI-AUTOMATIC RELAY INSTALLATION A teletypewriter installation where


interpretation of the relaying responsibility in respect of an incoming message
and the resultant setting-up of the connexions required to effect the appropriate
retransmissions require the intervention of an operator but where all other
normal operations of relay are carried out automatically.

FULLY - AUTOMATIC RELAY INSTALLATION A installation where interpretation


of the relaying responsibility in respect of an incoming message and the
resultant sitting-up of the connexions required to effect the appropriate
retransmissions is carried out automatically, as well as all other normal
operations of relay, thus obviating the need for operator intervention, except for
supervisory purposes.

MESSAGE FIELD DATA An assigned area of a message containing specified


elements of data.

"TORN-TAPE" RELAY INSTALLATION A teletypewriter installation where


messages are received and relayed in teletypewriter tape form and where all
operations of relay are performed as the result of operator intervention.

TELETYPEWRITER TAPE A tape on which signals are recorded in the 5-unit


start-stop code by completely serve perforations "chad type" or partially served
perforations "chadless type" for transmission over teletypewriter circuits.

AGENCIES :

AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION AGENCIES An agency responsible for


operating a station or stations in the aeronautical telecommunication service.

AIRCRAFT OPERATING AGENCY The person, organization or enterprise


engaged in, or operating to engage in, an aircraft operation.

MISCELLANEOUS :

AERONAUTICAL FIXED CIRCUIT A circuit forming part of the aeronautical fixed


service "AFS".

AERONAUTICAL FIXED TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK CIRCUIT A circuit


forming part of the aeronautical fixed telecommunication network "AFTN".

AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION LOG A record of activities of an


aeronautical telecommunication station.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 19 DEFINITIONS

INCOMING CIRCUIT RESPONSIBILITY LIST A list, for each incoming circuit of a


communication centre, of the location indicators for which relay responsibilities
are to be accepted in respect of messages arriving on that circuit.

LOCATION INDICATOR A 4-letter code group formulated in accordance with


rules, prescribed by ICAO and assigned to the location of an aeronautical fixed
station.

METEOROLOGICAL OPERATIONAL CHANNEL A channel of the aeronautical


fixed service "AFS" for the exchange of aeronautical meteorological information.

METEOROLOGICAL OPERATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK An


integrated system of meteorological operational channels, as part of the
aeronautical fixed service "AFS" for the exchange of aeronautical fixed station
within the network.

NOTAM A notice containing information concerning the establishment condition


or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely
knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.

ROUTING DIRECTORY The combination of the incoming circuit responsibility


lists and the routing list of given communication centre.

ROUTING LIST A list in a communication centre indicating for each addressee


the outgoing circuit to be used.

SNOWTAM Special series NOTAM notifying the presence or removal of


hazardous condition due to snow, slush, ice or standing water associated with
snow, slush and ice on the movement area by means of a specific proforma.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE AFTN

Chapter 5. AERONAUTICAL FIXED


TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK - AFTN
CATEGORIES OF MESSAGES :

Following categories of messages shall be handled by the AFTN :

a) Distress messages ;

b) Urgency messages ;

c) Flight Safety Messages ;

d) Meteorological Messages ;

e) Flight Regularity Messages ;

f) Aeronautical Information Service Messages ;

g) Aeronautical Administrative services messages;

h) Service messages.

DISTRESS MESSAGES : ( priority indicator SS )


This message category shall comprise those messages sent by mobile stations
reporting that they are threatened by grave and imminent danger and all other
messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in
distress.

URGENCY MESSAGES : ( priority indicator DD )


This category of messages shall comprise messages concerning the safety of
ship, aircraft, or other vehicles, or of some person on board or within sight.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. 20 SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE AFTN

FLIGHT SAFETY MESSAGES :


shall comprise the following :

Type of Messages Priority


Indicator

1. Movement and control messages as defined in FF


PANS-RAC(DOC4444),Part VIII
FF
2. Messages originated by aircraft operating
agency of immediate concern to an aircraft in
flight or about to depart.

3. Meteorological messages restricted to FF


information, special air-reports, AIRMET
messages, volcanic ash and tropical cyclone
advisory information and amended forecasts.

METEOROLOGICAL MESSAGES :

shall comprise the following :

Type of Messages Priority


Indicator

1. Messages concerning forecast e.g. terminal GG


aerodrome forecasts (TAFs), area and route
forecasts.

GG
2. Messages concerning observations and reports
e.g.
METAR, SPECI.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. 21 SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE AFTN

FLIGHT REGULARITY MESSAGES :


shall comprise the following :

Type of Messages Priority


Indicator
1. Aircraft load messages. GG

2. Messages concerning change in aircraft GG


operating schedule.

3. Messages concerning aircraft servicing. GG

4. Messages concerning changes in collective


requirement of passengers, crew and cargo GG
covered by deviation from normal operating
schedule.
GG
5. Messages concerning non routine landings .

6. Parts and material urgently required for the GG


operation of aircraft.

7. Pre flight arrangement of air-navigation service GG


and operational servicing for non-schedule
aircraft operations, e.g. overflight clearance
requests.
GG
8. Originated by aircraft operating agency
reporting time of arrival and departure from
aerodrome.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. 22 SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE AFTN

AERONAUTICAL ADMINISTRATIVE MESSAGES :


shall comprise the following :

Type of Messages Priority


Indicator
1. Operation and maintenance of facilities KK
essential for safety or regularity of aircraft
operation.
KK
2. Essential to efficient functioning of
aeronautical telecommunication service.
KK
3. Exchanged between government civil aviation
authorities relating to aircraft operation

Aeronautical Information Services messages :


(Priority indicator GG)

Shall comprise
a) Messages concerning NOTAM,
b) Messages concerning SNOWTAM.

SERVICE MESSAGES : ( Priority indicator as appropriate )

Originated by aeronautical fixed station to obtain information or verification


concerning other messages which appear to have been transmitted incorrectly
by the aeronautical fixed service, confirming the channel sequence numbers etc.

Service message shall be prepared in the format, addressed to aeronautical fixed


station identified only by a location indicator, immediately followed by the ICAO
3 letter designator YFY, followed by an appropriate 8th letter.

When service messages refer to messages previously transmitted, the priority


indicator assigned should be that used for message(s) to which they refer.

A service message, other than one acknowledging receipt of SS messages, shall


be further identified by the use of abbreviation SVC as the first item in the text.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. 23 SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE AFTN

ORDER OF PRIORITY :

The order of priority for the transmission of messages in the aeronautical fixed
telecommunication network shall be as follows:

Transmission Priority Indicator


Priority
1 SS

2 DD FF

3 GG KK

Messages having the same priority indicator should be transmitted in the order
in which they are received for transmission.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. 24 SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 25 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

Chapter 6. AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT


MESSAGE FORMAT:

All messages other than,

1. Channel check transmission, test transmission, message formated


in accordance with INTERNATIONAL ALPHABET NO. 5 (IA-5).

2. Messages originated in the Aero Mobile Service by an aircraft in


flight and which requires transmission over aeronautical fixed service and where
prior arrangements have been made between the aeronautical
Telecommunication agency and the aircraft operating agency concerned for
predetermined distribution of messages form Aircraft.

3. Messages which do not require handling on AFTN circuits for any


part of their routing.

4. Messages which are caused to be incomplete as a result of


inserting QTA QTA.

shall have the components specified below:

1. HEADING
2. ADDRESS
3. ORIGIN
4. TEXT
5. ENDING

NOTE:- In relation to message format following symbols have been used in


making reference to the mechanical functions assigned to certain signals in the
International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 (ITA-2) code. In certain administration
some of these symbols are also printed by teletypewriter tape machines. There
is however, no international requirement that this should be done.

SYMBOL SIGNIFICATION
< Carriage return (Signal No. 27)

≡ Line feed (Signal No. 28)

↓ Letter shift (Signal No. 29)

↑ Figure shift (Signal No. 30)

Space (Signal No. 31)


CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 26 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

HEADING:
The heading shall comprise in the following sequence:

1. The start of message signal consisting of: The characters ZCZC.

2. The transmission identification comprising:

(a) Circuit identification : The circuit identification shall consist of three letters
selected and assigned by the transmitting station.

The first letter identifying the transmitting terminal, the second letter the
receiving end of the circuit and the third letter to identify the channel, where
there is only one channel between the transmitting and receiving stations,
channel letter A shall be assigned, where more than one channels between the
stations is provided the channels shall be identified as A, B, C etc. in respective
order.

(b) Channel sequence number : It shall consists of three digit channel sequence
numbers from 001 to 000 (representing 1000) shall be assigned sequentially by
telecommunication station to all messages transmitted directly from one station
to another. A separate series of these numbers shall be assigned for each
channel and a new series shall be started daily at 0000 hrs.

Recommendation:- The use of the 4 digit Channel sequence number, to preclude


the duplication of the same numbers during the 24 hours period, is permitted
subject to agreement between the authorities responsible for the operation of the
circuit.

(c) Spacing Signal Comprising

a. Five SPACES
b. One letter shift
The transmission identification shall be sent in the following sequence :

Teletypewriter Circuit :
(a) Space [→]
(b) Transmitting-terminal letter
(c) Receiving terminal letter
(d) Channel identification letter
(e) Figure shift [↑]
(f) Channel Sequence number (three digits).
(g) Spacing Signal ( →→→→→↓ )

EXAMPLE : ZCZC→AOA↑039→→→→→↓

(Basic form of the heading this is the minimum which must exist)

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 27 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

This indicates that 39th message of the day transmitted on channel


A of the circuit from station A to station O.

(d) Additional Service Information(if necessary): comprising

1) One SPACE
2) No more than 10 characters

Additional Service information shall be permitted to be inserted


following the transmission identification subject to agreement between the
authorities responsible for the operation of the circuit. Such additional service
information shall be preceded by a SPACE followed by not more than 10
characters and shall not contain any alignment function.

EXAMPLE : ZCZC→AOA↑039→091500→→→→→↓

USES AND REASON OF ZCZC :


Characters ZCZC have been chosen because Z and C are complementary to
each other in the sense that one has a MARKING impulse where the other has a
SPACING impulse.

Their transmission in combination provides a convenient means by which the


teletypewriter equipment at the next station can be made to check both its own
adjustments and the distortion in the incoming signal. If the ZCZC is received
without error, it is probable that the rest of the message will also be received
correctly.

It also activates the sequence switches in automatic relay centres ready for the
analysis of subsequent components of the message.

USE AND REASON OF SPACING SIGNAL :

To save using un-necessary channel time, it is desirable to remove the heading


that it present on a message as it arrives at a relay station, before the message is
retransmitted with new HEADING. This does not normally mean that it is
physically torn-off some thing. In some types of automatic operation it is
performed out of sight by electrical means, where as torn tape stations usually
do it by slipping the part of the tape which contains the OLD HEADING through
the tape transmitter before commencement of its retransmissions.

This torn tape practice is to some extent hit-or miss, and it is essential that the
material following, the HEADING can be left intact, an error in tape positioning
can then be tolerated without damage to the essential parts of the message. This
room for manoeuvre provided by a sequence of five spaces.

As it is essential that the receiving machine, which was set up in the Figure case,
by the figure shift before the sequences number, should be returned to letter

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 28 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

case ready to receive the next part of the message, a letter shift is inserted at the
end of the heading, by a provision of letter shift [↓] in the spacing signal.

USE AND REASON OF Additional Service Information:


Some administration wish to attach a little more reference material to each
transmission. By inserting in the HEADING a date/time group of the instant at
which the retransmissions of the message took place from the particular station.
(This is quite different from the date/time group in the ORIGIN). Using such an
arrangement a station could compare instantaneously the transmission time on
its incoming message with those on its outgoing messages and assess its own
station performance.

NOTE : THE HEADING MUST BE DONE WITHOUT ERROR. If an error is made


during preparation of tape, it must be discarded. If the messages is flowing
directly into the AFTN during preparation the following should be typed into the
channel and followed by a complete ENDING

↓<≡QTA→QTA↓<≡

QTA - QTA means this is not a proper message _ _ _ _ IGNORE IT.

ADDRESS :

The address shall comprise:

Teletypewriter circuits :

(A) Alignment Function [<≡] ;


(B) Priority Indicator ;
(C) Addressee Indicator(s) ;
(D) Alignment Function [<≡] .

PRIORITY INDICATOR :

The priority indicator shall consist of the appropriate two letter group assigned
by the originator in accordance with the category of the message as shown in
the table.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 29 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

S.No MESSAGE CATEGORY PRIORITY


. INDICATOR
01 Distress messages, SS

02 Urgency messages DD

03 Flight Safety messages FF

04 Meteorological messages GG

05 Flight Regularity messages GG

06 Aeronautical Information Service GG


Messages

07 Aeronautical Administrative Messages KK

08 Service messages As
appropriate

ADDRESSEE INDICATOR :
1. Addressee indicator shall comprise the location indicator of the
place of the destination followed immediately by the ICAO 3-letter designator
identifying the organization (Aeronautical authority, service or Aircraft operating
agency) addressed, followed by filler letter X, unless some other letter is
assigned to facilitate the internal distribution of the message within the
organization addressed. In teletypewriter operation, the addressee indicator
shall immediately preceded by a space [→].

2. Where the message is to be addressed to an organization that has


not been allocated an ICAO 3-letter designator of the type prescribed above, the
location indicator of the place of the destination shall be followed by the ICAO 3-
letter designator YYY (or the ICAO 3-letter designator YXY in the case of military
service/organization) immediately followed by 8th letter X. The name of the
addressee organization shall then be included in the first item of the text of the
message.

3. Where a message is to be addressed to an aircraft in flight and,


therefore, requires handling over the AFTN for part of its routing before
retransmission over the Aeronautical mobile Service, the location indicator of
the Aeronautical station which is to relay the message to aircraft shall be
followed by the ICAO 3-letter designator ZZZ, immediately followed by letter X.
The identification of the aircraft shall then be included in first item of the TEXT of
the message.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 30 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

The complete addressee shall be restricted to three lines of page copy and a
separate addressee indicator shall be used for each addressee whether at the
same or at different locations.

Application of the foregoing standard will result in message addressee


indicators being restricted to not more than seven in each line, accommodating
maximum of twenty one addressee indicators in each message.

Whenever the messages are offered in page-copy form for transmission and
contain more addressee indicators that can be accommodated on a three line of
page-copy, such messages shall be converted, before transmission, into two or
more message, each of which shall conform with the provisions given in the
previous para. During such conversions, the addressee indicator shall, in so for
as practicable be positioned in the sequence which will ensure that the minimum
number of retransmission will be required at subsequent Comm. centre.

The completion of each line of the addressee indicator group(s) in the address of
a message shall be immediately followed by the alignment function.

EXAMPLES :

VABBZRZX Area Control Centre (ZR) at Mumbai.

VABBYMYC Section (C) of Meteorological office at Mumbai.

VABBKLMN Department (N) of the aircraft operating agency KLM at


Mumbai

VABBYYYX The aircraft operating agency whose name appears in


the beginning of the message TEXT whose office
location is served by Mumbai.

VABBZZZX The aeronautical station Mumbai is required to relay


this message in the Aeronautical Mobile Service to the
Aircraft whose identification appears in the beginning
of the message TEXT.

YYY ICAO 3-LETTER DESIGNATOR :

Example of message addressed to JAMAIR Airline at Mumbai by the Chennai


office of the same aircraft operating agency, which is not allotted ICAO 3-letter
designator. The Heading and Ending of the message are not shown in this
example of teletypewriter page copy form.

ADDRESS GG VABBYYYX
ORIGIN 150643 VOMMYYYX
TEXT JAMAIR..........TEXT.............
ZZZ ICAO 3-LETTER DESIGNATOR :

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 31 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

Example of the addressed to the aircraft VTABC via aeronautical station Mumbai
from Area Control Centre at Chennai.

The heading and ending of the message is not shown.

ADDRESS FF VABBZZZX
ORIGIN 150643 VOMMZRZX
TEXT VTABC........TEXT...........

NOTE : THE ADDRESS OF THE MESSAGE MUST BE TYPED AT THE


ORIGINATION STATION WITHOUT MISTAKE. If error is made during preparation
of a tape, it must be discarded. If the message is flowing directly into the AFTN
during preparation, the following should be typed into the channel and followed
by complete ENDING.

↓<≡QTA→QTA↓<≡

ORIGIN :
The Origin shall comprise :

(A) Filing Time


(B) Originator indicator
(C) Priority Alarm (When necessary)
(D) Alignment Function

FILING TIME :

It shall comprise the 6 digit date time group indicating the date and time for filing
the message for transmission. In teletypewriter operation the filling time shall be
followed by one letter shift(↓).

ORIGINATOR INDICATOR :

1. The originator indicator shall comprise the location indicator of the


place at which the message is originated, followed immediately by ICAO 3-letter
designator identifying the organization (aeronautical authority, service or aircraft
operating agency, immediately by 8th letter X unless 8th letter is specified by the
organization which originated the message. In teletypewriter operation, the
originator indicator shall be immediately preceded by a space (→).

2. Where a message is originated by an organization that has not been


allocated in ICAO 3-letter designator, the location indicator of the place at which
the message is originated shall be followed immediately by the ICAO 3-letter

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 32 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

designator YYY or the ICAO 3-letter designator YXY (in the case of military
service) the name of the originating organization or Military service shall then be
included in the first item in the text of the message.

3. Where a message originated by an aircraft in flight requires


handling on the AFTN for part of its routing before delivery, the originator
indicator shall comprise of the Aeronautical station responsible for transferring
the message to the AFTN followed immediately by the ICAO 3-letter designator
ZZZ immediately followed by 8th letter X. The identification of the aircraft shall
then be included in the first item in the TEXT of the message.

EXAMPLE : A message from aircraft AIC132 addressed to the area


control centre at Mumbai, the message being handled via aeronautical station
Chennai. (Heading and Ending of the message are not shown in this example of
teletypewriter page copy form).

ADDRESS FF VABBZRZX

ORIGIN 150712 VOMMZZZX

TEXT AIC132 (Rest of the text received from aircraft)

PRIORITY ALARM : The priority alarm shall be used only for distress
messages, (Messages with SS priority). When used, it shall consist of the
following, in the order stated below.

(A) Figure shift (↑)


(B) Five transmissions of signal No. 10 (Figure case)
(C) Letter shift (↓)

NOTE 1 : The figure case of signal no. 10 of the international Telegraph alphabet
No.2 corresponds to the figure case of J, of teletypewriter equipment in use on
aeronautical fixed service circuits.

NOTE 2 : Use of priority alarm will actuate a bell (attention) signal at the receiving
teletypewriter station, other than at those fully automatic stations which may
provide a similar alarm on receipt of priority indicator SS, there by alerting
supervisory personnel at relay centres and operators at tributary stations, so
that immediate attention may be given to the message.

The originator indicator group, or if a priority alarm has been used then that
component part in the origin of a message, shall be immediately followed by the
alignment function (<≡)
NOTE : THE TYPING OF THE ORIGIN MUST BE DONE WITHOUT ERROR. If an
error is made during the preparation of a tape, it must be discarded. If the
message is flowing directly into the AFTN during preparation, the following
should be typed into the channel and followed by a complete ending.

↓<≡QTA→QTA↓<≡

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 33 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

TEXT :

The text of the message shall be drafted in accordance with the following
provisions.

Letters ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Figures 1234567890
Other signs - Hyphen.
? Question mark.
: Colon.
( Open Bracket.
) Closed Bracket.
. Full stop, period or decimal point.
, Comma.
= Double hyphen or equal sign.
/ Oblique.
+ Plus sign.
' Apostrophe.

Characters other than those listed above shall not be used in the TEXT. When
used, they shall be spelled out full. (When transmitting the + (plus sign) in the
text of a message in Morse signalling it shall either be transmitted as the full
word PLUS or in its accepted abbreviation form PS).

For the exchange of message over the teletypewriter circuits the following
signals of the international telegraph alphabet No.2 shall be permitted.

Signals No. 1 to 3 In letter and figure case


Signals No. 4 In letter case only
Signals No. 5 In letter and in figure case
Signals No. 6 to 8 In letter case only.
Signals No. 9 In letter and in figure case
Signals No. 10 In letter case only
Signals No. 11 to 31 In letter and figure case.

NOTE : Letter case and figure case are to be understood as the shift condition in
which the equipment associated with the channel was positioned prior to the
reception of the signal.
Roman numerals shall not be employed. If the originator of the message
wishes the addressee to be informed that Roman figures are intended, the
ARABIC figure or figures shall be written and preceded by the word ROMAN.
The text shall not contain :

1. Any uninterrupted sequence of signal Nos. 26, 3 (ZCZC in letter case or


figure case)

2. Any uninterrupted sequence of FOUR times signal No.14 (NNNN in letter


case or figure case)

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 34 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

The text of the message shall be drafted in plain language or in abbreviations


and codes. The originator shall avoid the use of plain language when reduction
in the length of the text by appropriate abbreviations and codes is practicable.

Words and phrases which are not essential, such as expressions of politeness,
shall not be used.

If the originator of the message wishes Alignment function (<≡) to be transmitted


at specific places in the text part of such message, the sequence shall be written
on each of those places.

When an originator reference is used, it shall appear at the beginning of the text,
except where the designator YXY, YYY, ZZZ comprise the second element of the
addressee indicator and/or originator indicator in a message. In such message
the originators reference shall follow the identification of the organization or the
aircraft.

When the ICAO 3-letter designator YXY, YYY, ZZZ comprise the second element
of the addressee indicator and it, therefore, becomes necessary to identify in the
text the specific addressees of the message, such identification group will
precede the originators reference (if used) and become the first item of the text.

When the ICAO 3-letter designator YXY, YYY, ZZZ comprise the second element
of the originator indicator and it thus becomes necessary to identify in the text,
the name of the organization (or Military service or the aircraft) which originated
the message, such identification shall be inserted in the first item of the text of
the message.

Where the ICAO 3-letter designator YXY, YYY, ZZZ is/are used to refer to TWO or
MORE different organization (or Military Service), the sequence of further
identification in the text shall correspond. In such instances, each address
identification shall be followed immediately by an alignment function (<≡). The
name of the (YXY, YYY, ZZZ) organization originating the message shall then be
preceded and followed by the word "FROM" and "STOP" followed by an
alignment function shall then be included in the TEXT at the end of these
identifications to precede the remainder of the text wording.

An alignment function (<≡) shall be transmitted at the end of each printed line of
the text except for the last.

When it is desired to CONFIRM a portion of the text of a message (excepting ATS


messages intended for the use in ATC computer) such confirmations shall be
separated from the last text group by the abbreviation CFM followed by the
portion being confirmed.

When it has been discovered that an error has been made in the text of a
message (excepting ATS message intended for the use in ATC computer), the

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 35 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

correction shall be separated from the last text group by confirmation, if any, by
an alignment function (<≡). This shall be followed by the abbreviation COR and
the correction.

In message containing ATS DATA intended for use in ATC computer, is the
message field identified as FIELD TYPE 5 and 18 TO 21, the confirmation and
correction (as provided above) if used, shall be performed prior to transmission
of the END-OF-ATS-DATA signal.

Stations shall make all indicated corrections on the copy prior to local delivery
or a transfer to manually operated circuit .

At the end of the text the following END-OF-TEXT signal shall be transmitted.

On Teletypewriter Circuit One Letter Shift (↓), Alignment Function (<≡).

TRANSMISSION OF LONG MESSAGES ON THE AFTN

The requirement for the transmission of separate messages over AFTN when a
text exceeding 1800 characters is encountered. The message have to be divided
into two or more parts, the following procedure should be applied.

1. Each message part should carry the same address and origin with the
sequence of each part indicated on the last line of text as follows :

( End of first message ) / / END PART 01 / /

(End of second message) / / END PART 02 / /

….etc…..

(End of last message) / / END PART XX/XX / /

Note : The following example illustrates the application of the above


procedure, for a three part message. The message part sequence information is
included in the Text character count.

A) First message :

(Address) GG VABBYNYX
(Origin) 011030 VIDPYNYX
(Text) text
/ / END PART 01 / /
(Ending) NNNN

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 36 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

B) Second message :

(Address ) GG VABBYNYX
(Origin) 011030 VIDPYNYX
(Text) text continued
/ / END PART 02 / /
(Ending ) NNNN

C) Third and last message :

(Address) GG VABBYNYX
(Origin) 011030 VIDPYNYX
(Text) remainder of the text
/ / END PART 03/03 / /
(Ending ) NNNN

ENDING

The ending of message shall comprise the following the order stated:

On Teletypewriter Circuit :

(A) The PAGE FEED SEQUENCE consisting of 7 LINE FEEDS


(≡≡≡≡≡≡≡)

NOTE : This together with the 1 line feed of the preceding


Alignment function will provide sufficient separation between messages when
appearing in page copy form.

(B) The END-OF-MESSAGE-SIGNAL, consisting of the letter N


(letter case of signal No.14), appearing FOUR TIMES in UNDIVIDED sequence.

NOTE : This component, transmitted intact from the moment


of the first transmission of the message until ultimate delivery, is required so
that the connections set up for cross-office transmission, at a semi automatic or
fully automatic relay installation, can be cleared for following message traffic
and in addition on message traffic transmitted to torn-tape relay station only.

(c) The message-separation signal, consisting of a letter shift (↓)


transmitted 12 times in uninterrupted sequence.

PURPOSE OF MESSAGE SEPARATION SIGNAL :

This is required only on messages traffic transmission to TORN-TAPE relay


station. Message separation signal on Torn-Tape System is required to give an
adequate separation between the End- of-message signal of one message and

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 37 AFTN MESSAGE FORMAT

the Heading of the next when two messages are run together on a receiving tape
machine.

NOTE : Nothing but letter shifts are to be transmitted in message traffic between
the End-of-message signal of one message and the start-of-message signal of
the next.

TAPE FEED : Tape feed consists of additional letter shifts.

Recommendations: In torn tape installations, and in semi automatic installations


using continuous tape technique, Tape feed is required to ensure that the tape is
adequately advanced from the Reperforator at the receiving station. When the
ending of the one message is not followed immediately by the start-of-message
signal of another message, local arrangements should be made at the receiving
station to avoid the need for transmission of these signals by the transmitting
station.

NOTE : In Torn-Tape station, a facility is normally necessary whereby the


tape can be fed from the receiving reperforator to an extent that permits the
receiving operator to tear through the Message separation signal at the correct
point, on occasions when the operator is ready to tear the tape but there has
been no following messages to cause this tape-feed to take place.

In-semiautomatic stations using continuous-tape techniques, a similar process


may be necessary in similar circumstances to advance the tape to an extent that
permits the End-of-Message signal to reach the transmitter.

When receiving station can not apply the above mentioned provisions,
arrangements shall be made with the transmitting station for the later to send at
the end of a single message or following the last message of a series, an agreed
number of LETTER SHIFTS (↓) in addition to the components prescribed for
ENDING.

NOTE : ENDING MUST BE TYPED WITHOUT ERROR.

An AFTN Communication Centre shall omit from the address all the addressee
indicators not required for:

1. Onward transmission by the AFTN Communication Centre to which


the message is transmitted;

2. Onward transmission or local delivery by the aggregate of stations


on a multipoint circuit.

AFTN Message entered by the AFTN origin station shall not exceed 2100
characters in length.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 38 ATS MESSAGES

Chapter 7. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS) MESSAGES

MESSAGE CONTENTS, FORMATS AND CONVENTIONS :


Air Traffic Service messages exchanged or interchange between
i. Units without data Processing equipment
ii. ATC computers
Elements of data grouped into FIELDS.
FIELDS contain single element or group of related elements.

COMPOSITION - STANDARD TYPES OF MESSAGE :

i. Expressed as standardized sequence of fields of data.


ii. Each message shall contain all the fields prescribed.

STANDARD TYPES OF FIELD :

Standardized sequence of elements of data or a simple element as prescribed.

STRUCTURING AND PUNCTUATION :

i. ( Start - Of - ATS - Data - Signal


Field 3 shall always preceded by this signal.

ii. - Start - of - ATS - Field - Signal


All fields except field 3 shall always preceed this signal.

iii. / or Space separation of elements within the field

iv. ) End - of - ATS - Data - Signal


Last field of ATS message immediately followed by this signal.

ACCURACY IN THE ATS MESSAGES :

Where the standard ATS messages are transmitted by teletypewriter channels in


areas where ATC computers are known to be in use, the formats and data
conventions shall be adhered to rigorously.

ATS data fields type 1 to 4, 6 to 17 and 22 to 25 shall be transmitted free of


errors, except that it may contain redundant letter shifts providing these are
separated from following figures case characters by a figure shift.

ATS data fields type 5 and 18 to 21, the confirmation and correction techniques,
if used, shall be performed prior to transmission of the end-of-ATS-data signal.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 39 ATS MESSAGES

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS) MESSAGES :

S.No. Type of Message Designator

01 Alerting Message ALR

02 Radio Communication Failure Message RCF

03 Field Flight Plan message FPL

04 Delay Message DLA

05 Modification Message CHG

06 Flight Plan Cancellation Message CNL

07 Departure Message DEP

08 Arrival Message ARR

09 Current Flight Plan Message CPL

10 Estimate Message EST

11 Co-ordination Message CDN

12 Acceptance Message ACP

13 Logical Acknowledgement Message LAM

14 Request Flight Plan Message RQP

15 Request Supplementary Flight Plan Message RQS

16 Supplementary Flight Plan Message SPL

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 40 ATS MESSAGES

FIELDS OF THE AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE MESSAGES :

S.No. Message Type Field Type Numbers

01 ALR 3, 5, (7), 8, (9), 10, (13), (15), (16), (18), (19), (20)

02 RCF 3, 7, (21)

03 FPL 3, 7, 8, (9), 10, (13), (15), (16), (18)

04 DLA 3, 7, 13, 16

05 CHG 3, 7, 13, 16, {22}

06 CNL 3, 7, 13, 16

07 DEP 3, 7, 13, 16

08 ARR 3, 7, 13, 16, 17

09 CPL 3, 7, 8, (9), 10, (13), (14), (15), (16), (18)

10 EST 3, 7, 13, 14, 16

11 CDN 3, 7, 13, 16, {22}

12 ACP 3, 7, 13, 16

13 LAM 3

14 RQP 3, 7, 13, 16

15 RQS 3, 7, 13, 16

16 SPL 3, 7, 13, (16), (18), (19)

() This field begins a new line when the message is printed in page
teletypewriter form.
{} This field is repeated as necessary.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 41 ATS MESSAGES

Table 7.1 Composition of ATS messages

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 42 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE AND DATA


Field Type Data
1 Not currently used

2 Not currently used

3 Message type, number and reference data

4 Not currently used

5 Description of emergency

6 Not currently used

7 Aircraft Identification and SSR Mode and code

8 Flight Rules and Type of flight

9 Number and type of aircraft and wake turbulence Category

10 Equipment

11 Not currently used

12 Not currently used

13 Departure aerodrome and Time

14 Estimate Data

15 Route

16 Destination aerodrome and total estimated elapsed


time, alternate aerodrome(s)

17 Arrival aerodrome and time

18 Other information

19 Supplementary information

20 Alerting search and rescue information

21 Radio failure information

22 Amendment

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 43 ATS MESSAGES

MESSAGE CATEGORY/TYPE/DESIGNATOR :

Message Category Message Type Msg Type


Designator

Emergency Alerting ALR


Radio communication Failure RCF

Filed flight plan and Filed flight plan FPL


associated update Modification CHG
Cancellation CNL
Delay DLA
Departure DEP
Arrival ARR

Co-ordination Current flight plan CPL


Estimate EST
Co-ordination CDN
Acceptance ACP
Logical Acknowledgement LAM

Supplementary Request flight plan RQP


Request supplementary flight plan RQS
Supplementary flight plan
SPL

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 44 ATS MESSAGES

DISCRIPTION OF FIELDS :

FIELD TYPE 3

MESSAGE TYPE, NUMBER & REFERENCE DATA

(a) Message type : Three letters.

(b) Message Number : Letter(s) identifying the sending ATS unit


(maximum 4 letters).
Oblique Stroke (/)
Letter(s) identifying the receiving ATS Unit
(Maximum 4 letters) followed by 3 decimal
Numerics giving the serial number of this
message in the sequence of messages
transmitted by this unit to the indicated
receiving ATS Unit.

(c) Reference Data : 1 to 4 letter(s) followed by OBLIQUE STROKE (/)


followed by 1 to 4 letter(s) followed by 3 decimal
numerics, giving the message number
contained in element (b) of the operational
message which began the sequence of
messages of which this message is a part.

Note : Element (a) is mandatory. Element (b) (c) are generated by


computers when used whenever messages exchanged
between the computer systems of ATS units.
Examples : (FPL
(CHGA/B234A/B231
(CPLA/B002

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 45 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 5

DESCRIPTION OF EMERGENCY

SINGLE HYPHEN

(a) Phase of Emergency : One of the following words


INCERFA or ALERFA or DETRESFA

INCERFA: Uncertainty Phase


ALERFA: Alerting Phase
DETRESFA: Distress Phase

OBLIQUE STROKE

(b) Originator of Message : 8 letters

OBLIQUE STROKE

(c) Nature of Emergency : Short plain language text.

Example : -ALERFA/VABBZQZX/REPORT OVERDUE

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 46 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 7

AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND SSR MODE AND CODE

SINGLE HYPHEN

(a) Aircraft Identification : Not more than 7 characters.

OBIQUE STROKE

(b) SSR Mode : 1 letter.

(c) SSR Code : 4 numerics.

This field may be terminated after element (a).

Example : -AIC102
-AIC102/A3001

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 47 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 8

FLIGHT RULES AND TYPE OF FLIGHT

SINGLE HYPHEN

(a) Flight Rules : 1 letter ( I V Y Z )

I IFR flights

V VFR flights

Y IFR first*

Z VFR first*
*(Specify in field No.15(Route) the point where a change of flight rules is
planned)

(b) Type of Flight : 1 letter ( S N G M X )

S-Scheduled Air Services

N-Non-Scheduled air transport

G-General Aviation

M-Military

X-Others flights

This field may be terminated after element (a).

Example : -V
-IS

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 48 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 9

NUMBER AND TYPE OF AIRCRAFT AND WAKE TURBULENCE


CATEGORY

SINGLE HYPHEN

(a) Number of Aircraft ( if more than one ) : Maximum 2 numerics


except number 1.

(b) Type of Aircraft : 2 to 4 characters or ZZZZ

OBLIQUE STROKE

(C) Wake Turbulence Category : 1 letter ( H M L )

H-Heavy : Take-off mass of more than 1,36,000Kgs

M-Medium: Take-off mass less than 1,36,000Kg but


more than 7000kg

L-Light: Take-off mass less than 7000Kgs.

Element (a) shall be used only when number of aircraft are more
than one.

In Element (b) when ZZZZ used, the type of aircraft(s) to be shown


in field 18.

Examples : B707/H
2FK27/M
ZZZZ/L
3ZZZ/L

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 49 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 10

EQUIPMENT

(a) Radio Communication, Navigation and Approach Aid Equipment :


1 letter N or S
and/or one or more of the following letters from A TO Z except N
and S.

C LORAN C D DME
F ADF G GNSS
H HFRTF I INERTIAL NAVIGATION
J DATA LINK K MLS
L ILS M OMEGA
O VOR R RMP
T TACAN U UHF RTF
V VHF RTF Z OTHERS

Standard equipment is considered to be VHF RTF, ADF, VOR and ILS

If letter Z is used the equipment carried is to be specified in item 18


preceded by COM/ and or NAV/ as appropriate.

If letter J is used, specify in item 18 the equipment carried, preceded by


DAT/ followed by one or more letters as appropriate.

OBLIQUE STROKE

(b) SSR Equipment : 1 or 2 letters to describe serviceably surveillance


equipment carried.
N NIL

A Transponder Mode A(4digits)

C Transponder Mode A and Mode C

D ADS capability.

Examples : S/N
SCH/C

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 50 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 13

DEPARTURE AERODROME AND TIME

SINGLE HYPHYEN

(a) Departure Aerodrome : Four letter Location Indicator or ZZZZ or


AFIL

(b) Time : 4 numerics.

This filed shall be terminated after element (a) in message types CHG,
CNL, ARR, CPL, EST, CDN, ACP, RQS AND RQP (if off block time is not
known)

In element (a) if ZZZZ or AFIL is used the name of departure aerodrome or


ATS unit form which supplementary flight data can be obtained is to be
shown in field 18.
(AFIL-Flight plan filed in Air)

Examples : VABB0030
AFIL1625

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 51 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 14

ESTIMATE DATA

SINGLE HYPHEN

(a) Boundary Point : 2 to 5 characters.

(b) Time at Boundary point : 4 numerics

(c) Cleared level : letter F or A followed by 3 numerics or S or M


followed by 4 numerics.

(d) Supplementary Crossing Data : as expressed in (c).

(e) Crossing Condition : 1 letter ( A or B )

This field may be terminated after ( c )

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 52 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 15

ROUTE

SINGLE HYPHEN

(a) Cruising Speed or Mach Number : letter K or N or M

K-Kilometres per hours followed by 4 figures

N-Knots followed by 4 figures

M-Mach Number followed by 3 figures.

(b) Requested Cruising Level : letter F or A followed by 3 numerics or


letter S or M followed by 4 numerics or VFR.

SPACE

(c) Standard Departure Route


ATS Route Designator
Significant Point
Significant point/Cruising Speed and Cruising Level
Indicator
Cruise Climb
Standard Arrival Route
( As per requirement)

Examples : K0410S1500 A4 CCV 411


N0420F310 R10 UB19 CGC UA25 DIN/N0420F330 UR14 IBY
UR1 MID

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 53 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 16

DESTINATION AERODROME AND TOTAL ESTIMATED ELAPSED


TIME, ALTERNATE AERODROME(S)

SINGLE HYPHEN

(a) Destination Aerodrome : Four letter Location Indicator or ZZZZ

(b) Total Estimated Elapsed Time : 4 numerics

SPACE

(c) Alternate Aerodrome(s) : Four letter location indicator or ZZZZ

In any element when ZZZZ is used the destination/alternate


aerodrome name is to shown in field 18.

Examples : VABB0630
VABB0730 VAAH
VABB0730 VAAH VANP

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 54 ATS MESSAGES

FIELD TYPE 18

OTHER INFORMATION

SINGLE HYPHEN

(a) 0 (zero) if no other information

OR

Any other information as required.

TYP/ DEP/ DEST/ ALTN/ if ZZZZ is used in appropriate field.

Examples : -0
-EET/15W0315
-EET/VABF0414 REG/VTDME SEL/EAMH

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 55 ATS MESSAGES

ANNEXURE - I

EXAMPLE OF ATS TYPE OF MESSAGES

CATEGORY : EMERGENCY

1. ALERTING (ALR)

(ALR-ALERFA/VECCZQZX/REPORT OVERDUE
-BAW664/A5045-IS
-B747/H-S/N
-VECCO605
-N0495F310 G450
-VABB0320 OPKC
-REG/GABCD SEL/ABEK RMK/NO POSITION REPORT SINCE DEP
-E/0530 P/135 R/VE S/MJ/L D/8 150 C YELLOW A/SILVER C/SMITH
-BAW VECCZRZX 0610 126.7 JS 0610 POLOT REPORTED OVER NDB ATS
UNITS CALCUTTA FIR ALERTED NIL)

2. RADIO COMMUNICATION FAILURE (RCF)

(RCF-IAC175
-0532 121.3 ALPHA 0532 TRANSMITTING ONLY 126.7
LAST POSITION CONFIRMED BY RADAR)

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 56 ATS MESSAGES

CATEGORY : FILED FLIGHT PLAN AND ASSOCIATED UPDATE

1. FILED FLIGHT PLAN (FPL)

(FPL-IAC176-IS
-A300/H-S/N
-VECC1345
-K0541F330 G450
-VABB0115 VAAH
-EET/VABF0050 REG/VTEFL SEL/DEAM)

2. MODIFICATION (CHG)

(CHG-AIC103/A4500-VABB-VECC-14/NIPAD/1730F290F270A)

3. CANCELLATION (CNL)

(CNL-VTEAH-VIDP-VILK)

4. DELAY (DLA)

(DLA-ALK342-VOMM1940-VCCC)

5. DEPARTURE (DEP)

(DEP-AFR182-VIDP0135-VTBD)

6. ARRIVAL (ARR)

(ARR-AFL552-UUEE-VIDP0237)

(ARR-VTDNT-VECC-ZZZZ0532 GRASS MORE)

(ARR-VUDXF-VIJO-VIDP-VILK1233)

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 57 ATS MESSAGES

CATEGORY : CO-ORDINATION

1. CURRENT FLIGHT PLAN (CPL)

(CPL-KLM182/A5045-IS
-DC10/H-SR/C
-VABB-NIPAD/0610F290F330B
-N0450F330 G450
-0)

2. ESTIMATE (EST)

(EST-RNA212/A5150-VIDP-KUSMI/0450F330F290A-VNKT)

3. CO-ORDINATION (CDN)

(CDNP/D075P/D039-JAL345/A0506-VIDP-0PKC 14/TIGERO145F290)

4. ACCEPTANCE (ACP)

(ACP-ILVUAVA-VOCC-VOBG)

5. LOGICAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (LAM)

(LAMA/B124)

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 58 ATS MESSAGES

CATEGORY : SUPPLEMENTARY

1. REQUEST FLIGHT PLAN (RQP)

(RQP-DLH801-0AKB2145-VIDP)

2. REQUEST SUPPLIMENTARY FLIGHT PLAN (RQS)

(RQS-BBC301/A5100-VGZR-VECC)

3. SUPPLEMENTARY FLIGHT PLAN (SPL)

(SPL-DLH665/A4100-VTBD
-VECC0315 VEPH
-EET/VECCF0135 REG/DABYP SEL/FMEL
-E/0745 P/315 R/VU S/M J/L D/S 280 C YELLOW A/SILVER BLUE TAIL
LUFTHANSA C/MATSCHKE)

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 59 TTW OPERATING PROCEDURE

Chapter 8. TELETYPEWRITER OPERATING


PROCEDURE
GENERAL :

RECOMMENDATION : When equipment for automatic transmission is installed,


manual transmission should not be used except when transmitting
acknowledgements, correcting errors or when making other short transmissions
of a similar character.

STATION IDENTIFICATION : An identification shall be assigned to each


Teletypewriter station. When a Radio Teletypewriter station is a part of an
Aeronautical Telecommunication station which has an assigned Radio Call Sign,
that call sign shall also identify the Radio Teletypewriter station.

CHANNEL CHECK TRANSMISSION :

1 Except as provided in para 4 and 7 below, the following periodic


transmission shall be sent on Teletypewriter circuits.

A) HEADING
B) ALIGNMENT FUNCTION <≡
C) PROCEDURE SIGNAL CH
D) ALIGNMENT FUNCTION <≡
E) END OF MESSAGE SIGNAL NNNN
F) MESSAGE SEPARATION SIGNAL ↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓
IF REQUIRED.

2 The receiving station shall then check the transmission identification of


this incoming transmission to ensure its correct sequence in respect of all
messages received over that incoming channel.

NOTE: Application of this procedure provided some measure of


assurance that channel continuity is maintained.

3 RECOMMENDATION : Where a circuit is unoccupied, the transmission of


the channel check transmission should be sent at H+00, H+20 and H+40.

4 When a teletypewriter channel is equipped with a system of continuous


control channel condition and following agreement between the
Administrations responsible the channel check transmission shall not be
made.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 60 TTW OPERATING PROCEDURE

SUPERVISION OF MESSAGE TRAFFIC :

I. CONTINUITY OF MESSAGE TRAFFIC:

The receiving station shall check the transmission identification of incoming


transmission to ensure the correct sequence of channel sequence number of all
messages received over that channel.

When the receiving station detects that one or more channel -sequence numbers
are missing, it shall send a complete SERVICE message to the previous station
rejecting receipt of any message that may have been transmitted with that
numbers. The TEXT of this service message shall comprise the signal QTA, the
procedure signal MIS followed by the missing transmission identification and the
end-of-text signal.

A) When ONE channel sequence number is missing

SVC→QTA→MIS→ABC↑123↓<≡

B) When several sequence numbers are missing

SVC→QTA→MIS→ABC↑123-126↓<≡

When the above provisions are applied, the station notified of the missing
message condition by the service message shall resume its responsibility for
transmission of any message that it had previously transmitted with the
transmission identification concerned, and shall retransmit that message with a
new (correct in sequence) transmission identification.

The receiving station shall synchronize such that the next expected channel-
sequence number is the last received channel sequence number plus one.

RECOMMENDATION : When the receiving station detects that a message has a


channel sequence number less than that expected, it should advise the previous
station using a service message with a text comprising

A) The Abbreviation Svc


B) The Procedure Signal LR Followed By The Transmission
Identification Of The Received Message.
C) The Procedure Signal EXP Followed By The Transmission
Identification Expected.
D) The End Of Text Signal.

NOTE : The following example illustrates application of the above


mentioned procedure.

SVC→LR→AIA↑123↓→EXP→AIA↑135↓<≡

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 61 TTW OPERATING PROCEDURE

RECOMMENDATION : When the above provisions are applied, the station


receiving the out of sequence message should synchronize such that the next
expected channel sequence number is the last received channel sequence
number plus one. The previous station should check its outgoing channel
sequence number and, if necessary, correct the sequence.

II MISROUTED MESSAGE :

NOTE : A message is considered to have been misrouted when it contains no


relaying instructions, expressed or implied, on which the receiving station can
take action.

1 When the receiving station detects that a message has been misrouted to
it, it shall either.

(A) send a service message to the previous station rejecting receipt of the
misrouted message.

OR

(B) itself resumes responsibility for transmission of message to all the


addressee indicators.

NOTE : The procedure of para (A) is preferable at stations using torn tape
relay methods or a semi-automatic relay technique with continuous tape.
The procedure in (B) may be preferred at stations using fully automatic
relay methods or a semi automatic relay technique without continuous
tape.

2 When the provisions of para 1.(A) are applied the text of the service
message shall comprise the abbreviation SVC, the signal QTA, the
procedure signal MSR followed by the transmission identification of the
misrouted message and the END of TEXT SIGNAL.

EXAMPLE : SVC→QTA→MSR→AIA↑123↓<≡

3 When, as a result of provisions contained in para 2, a sending station is


notified of the misrouted message condition by service message, it shall
resume responsibility for the message and shall retransmit as necessary
on the correct outgoing channel or channels.

III CIRCUIT INTERRUPTION :

When a circuit becomes interrupted and alternative facilities exist, the last
channel sequence number sent and received shall be exchanged between the
stations concerned. Such exchanges shall take the form of complete service
message with the text comprising the abbreviation SVC the procedure signal LR
and LS Followed by The Transmission Identification Of The Relevant channel

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and the End Of Text Signal.

EXAMPLE : SVC→LR→AIA↑123↓→LS→IAA↑321↓<≡

IV. FAILURE OF COMMUNICATION :

Should communication on any fixed service circuit fail, the station concerned
shall attempt to re-establish contact as soon as possible.

RECOMMENDATION : If contact can not be reestablished within a reasonable


period on the normal fixed service circuit, an appropriate alternative circuit
should be used. If possible, attempt should be made to establish communication
on any authorized fixed service circuit available.

If these attempts fail, use of any available air-ground frequency shall be


permitted only as exceptional and temporary measure when no interference to
aircraft in flight is ensured.

FORM OF TRANSMISSION TELETYPEWRITER OPERATION :

All transmission shall comprise in the following order as shown in the box
below.

Starting Heading Address Origin Text Ending


Pulse
(if necessary)

STARTING PULSE :

When the receiving station uses the equipment fitted with a time switch to stop
the teletypewriter machine motor when the channel is idle, a 20-30 millisecond
SPACING IMPULSE shall be transmitted when the channel has been at rest for 30
seconds or more and at least 1.5 seconds shall be permitted to elapse before the
transmission of heading.

NOTE 1 : This is equivalent to the transmission of a letter shift (↓) followed


by a pause (i.e.a continuous Marking IMPULSE) of at least 1.37 seconds.

NOTE 2 : Application of this procedure will allow the receiving equipment to


reach synchronization before transmission of the heading is commenced.

MESSAGE FORMAT :

All messages shall be prepared in accordance with the prescribed message


format.

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V. REPROCESSING PROCEDURES :

(A) A message requiring retransmission shall have its previous heading


deleted by the station which received such message for relay. The
retransmission shall commence with the new heading using the transmission
identification for the outgoing channel.

(B) Transmission of the address part of the message shall then commence at
some point during the 5 spaces, 1 LETTER SHIFT (→→→→→↓) immediately
preceding the first alignment function.

(C) At tributary and TORN TAPE relay stations not equipped with automatic
numbering machine devices and hence where it is necessary for a small number
of additional teletypewriter character to be perforated on a tape before the start-
of-message signal to preclude risk to mutilation of the latter signal during
retransmission, such additional characters, as required, shall consist of LETTER
SHIFT of SPACES. Subsequent transmission on the outgoing channel shall then
commence at a point as close as practicable to the start-of-message signal.

(D) At stations where the heading of a message is originated by automatic


equipment at the point of and time of transmission on the outgoing channel, but
where preparation of the other parts of a message is by the perforation of a tape
and where, therefore, it is necessary for a small number of additional
teletypewriter characters to be perforated before the alignment function (<≡) at
the commencement of the address, so as to preclude the risk of mutilation of
this alignment function, such additional character, as required, shall consist of
LETTER SHIFT OF SPACE. Subsequent transmission on the outgoing channel
shall then commence at a point as close as practicable to the first alignment
function (<≡) of the message.

(E) At a torn-tape station incoming tapes shall be torn at a position in the


message separation signal component so that the preceding End-of-message-
signal remain intact.

(F) The shortened message separation signal (i.e. less than 12 Letter shifts
remaining on the message tape) shall be deleted, if necessary by electronic
methods, before transmission to an automatic relay installation. If
retransmission is to another Torn-tape station then,

(1) the shortened message separation signal shall be reformed to complete


(↓X12) signal by transmission of the necessary number of additional LETTER
SHIFTS ↓ or
(2) the shortened message separation signal remaining on the tape shall be
removed and a new and complete message separation signal shall be added to
the message in the process of retransmission in accordance with the provisions.

When possible in TORN TAPE or semi-automatic installations, a correct tape


shall be obtained prior to onward relay when tape is illegible or mutilated the

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station shall not relay the message unless good judgment indicates that this is
not likely to result in malfunctioning of equipment at subsequent relay stations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT OF MESSAGES:

In teletypewriter operation a receiving station shall not transmit


acknowledgement of receipt of incoming message except the messages bearing
the priority indicator SS. In lieu thereof the receiving station shall check the
transmission identification of incoming transmissions to ensure the correct
sequence of channel sequence number of all messages received over the
channel.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RECEIPT OF DISTRESS MESSAGE DISTRESS


TRAFFIC (PRIORITY INDICATOR SS) :

The receipt of distress message, Distress Traffic (Priority Indicator SS) shall be
individually acknowledged by the AFTN destination station sending a service
message to the AFTN origin station. Such acknowledgement of receipt shall take
the format of a complete message addressed to the YF of the AFTN origin station
shall be assigned priority indicator SS and the associated priority alarm and
shall have TEXT comprising -

EXAMPLE : <≡SS→VECCYFYX<≡
↑260435↓→VIDPYFYX↑(5 bells)↓ <≡
R→↑160425↓→VECCZIZX↓<≡

INSTANCES OF SECOND REPETITION WITHOUT THE USE OF PROCEDURE


SIGNAL DUPE :

In the case where an addressee of a multi-address message request a repetition


of the message from the origin station, the origin station shall address the repeat
of the message only to the addressee requesting the repeat. Under these
conditions the procedure signal DUPE shall not be included.

MUTILATED MESSAGES :

ACTION ON MUTILATED MESSAGES DETECTED IN TELETYPEWRITER RELAY


STATIONS :

(A) If, before retransmission is commenced, a relay station detects that a


message has been mutilated at some point ahead of the END OF MESSAGE
SIGNAL, and it has reason to believe that this mutilation had occurred before the
message has been received by the previous station, it shall send a service

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message to the originator as identified by the originator indicator in the origin of


the mutilated message requesting repetition of the incorrectly received message.

EXAMPLE : <≡GG→VABBYFYX<≡
↑140436↓→VECCYFYX<≡
SVC→QTA→RPT→↑140430↓→VABBZRZX↓<≡
NOTE : This circumstances of detection of a mutilation may only be possible at
torn tape relay station.

When the above procedure is applied, the originator as identified by the


originator indicator in the origin of the mutilated message shall resume
responsibility for the mutilated message, and shall comply with the provisions
described below.

Reprocess the message before transmitting the unmutilated version of the


message to the same addressee in the following manner.

i)insert a new heading


ii)remove the ending of the message
iii)insert in lieu thereof the procedure signal DUPE, preceded by at least a letter
shift and followed by 1 carriage returns, 8 LINE FEEDS, END OF MESSAGE
SIGNAL and, if necessary the LETTER SHIFTS of the message separation signal
and tape feed.

(B)If, before retransmission is commenced, a relay station detects that one or


more messages have been mutilated at some point ahead of the END OF
MESSAGE SIGNAL, and has reason to believe that this mutilation had occurred
during or subsequent to its transmission from the previous station rejecting the
mutilate transmission and requesting a repetition of the incorrectly received
message(s).

NOTE : the following examples illustrates typical text of service message in


which the following procedure has been applied in respect of mutilated message
AIA245 and AIA261 to AIA265.

(i) In respect of a single mutilated message -

SVC→QTA→RPT→AIA↑245↓<≡

(ii) In respect of a several mutilated message -

SVC→QTA→RPT→AIA↑261-265↓<≡

NOTE : This circumstances of detection of a mutilation may only be


possible at TORN-TAPE relay station.

ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY THE PREVIOUS STATION ON RECEIPT OF A


SERVICE MESSAGE MENTIONED UNDER (B) :

A) The station receiving the service message shall reassume responsibility

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for the referenced message.

B) Retransmit the unmutilated copy of the referenced message with a new


(correct in sequence) transmission identification.

C) If the station receiving the service message is not in possession of an


unmutilated copy of the original message it shall then send a service
message to the originator of the message requesting repetition of the
incorrectly received message.

WHERE A RECEIVED MESSAGE HAS A RECOGNIZABLE BUT MUTILATED END


OF MESSAGE SIGNAL :

If, before retransmission is commenced, a relay station detects that a received


message has a recognizable but mutilated END OF MESSAGE SIGNAL, it shall,
where necessary repair this mutilated before retransmission.

NOTE : This circumstances of detection of a mutilation may only be


possible at TORN TAPE relay stations and the action prescribed will be essential
where messages are being transmitted to semi-automatic or fully automatic
station.

WHERE MUTILATION ARE DETECTED AT SOME POINT AHEAD OF END OF


MESSAGE SIGNAL DURING RETRANSMISSION :

If, during retransmission of a message, a relay station detects that the message
has been mutilated at some point ahead of the END OF MESSAGE SIGNAL and
is able to take action before a correct END OF MESSAGE SIGNAL has been
transmitted, it shall-

a) Cancel the transmission by inserting into the channel the sequence


↓<≡QTA→QTA↓<≡ followed by the complete ending,

b) Reassume the responsibility for the message,

c) Comply with the following provisions as appropriate-


(i) If, it has an unmutilated copy available, retransmit the message with a new
(correct in sequence) transmission identification,

OR

(ii) If unmutilated copy is not available, take appropriate action to obtain


unmutilated copy.

NOTE: This circumstances of detection of a mutilation may only be


possible at TORN TAPE relay stations or at semi-automatic stations using
continuous tape.

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CORRECTION OF MESSAGE TEXT FOLLOWING A COMPLETE TRANSMISSION


TOGETHER WITH NNNN SEQUENCE :

If, after a message has been transmitted in TOTO, a station detects that the text
or the origin of the message was mutilated or incomplete, it shall transmit to all
addressee concerned a service message with the following text if an unmutilated
copy of the message is available in the station.

SVC CORRECTION (the origin of the incorrect message) STOP


(followed by the correct message text).

ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY THE RELAY STATION DETECTING IMPROPER END


OF MESSAGE SIGNAL DURING RETRANSMISSION :

If, after transmission of the text of a message, a relay station detects that the
message has an obviously mutilated END OF MESSAGE SIGNAL, it shall insert
a proper END of MESSAGE SIGNAL in to the channel.

NOTE: This circumstances of detection of a mutilation may only be possible at


TORN-TAPE relay stations or at semi-automatic stations using continuous-tape.

ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY THE RELAY STATION DETECTING INCOMPLETE OR


NO END OF MESSAGE SIGNAL DUE TO WHICH THERE IS NO MEANS OF
CHECKING WHETHER THE MUTILATION MIGHT HAVE AFFECTED THE
PORTION OF THE TEXT :

If, after transmission of the text material of a message, a relay station can detect
that there is no complete END OF MESSAGE SIGNAL but has no practicable
means of discovering either the irregularity has affected only the END OF
MESSAGE SIGNAL or whether it may have also caused the part of the original
text to have been lost shall insert into the channel as mentioned below.

a) ↓<≡CHECK≡TEXT≡NEW→ENDING→ADDED
b) ITS OWN STATION IDENTIFICATION
c) ALIGNMENT FUNCTION (↓<≡)
d) FOLLOWED BY NORMAL ENDING.

NOTE1 : On the tape copy, this insertion will appear as follows

TEXT↓<≡CHECK≡TEXT≡NEW→ENDING→ADDED→VABBYFYX<≡
(followed by normal ending).

NOTE2 : On page copy, this insertion will appear as follows

CHECK
TEXT
NEW ENDING ADDED VABBYFYX
(followed by normal ending).

NOTE3 : The staggered presentation on copy is prescribed to ensure that the

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attention of the addressee is drawn immediately to the insertion.

NOTE4 : This circumstances of detection of mutilation may only be relevant


to fully automatic station or stations semi-automatic methods
without continuous tape.

ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY THE RELAY STATION DETECTING COMPLETELY


MUTILATED ADDRESS :

If, a relay station detects that a message was received with a completely
mutilated address line, it shall send a service message to the previous station
rejecting the mutilated transmission as shown below:

1 the abbreviation SVC

2 the procedure signal QTA

3 the procedure signal ADS

4 the TX identification of the rejected message

5 the indication CORRUPT

6 the END OF TEXT SIGNAL

Example :

SVC→QTA→ADS→AIA↑123↓→CORRUPT↓<≡

ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY THE STATION RECEIVING THE ABOVE MESSAGE

The station receiving such a message shall reassume responsibility for the
referenced message with a corrected address line, and a new transmission
identification.

ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY THE RELAY STATION DETECTING INVALID OR


UNKNOWN ADDRESSEE INDICATOR IN THE ADDRESS LINE :

If a relay station detects that a message was received with an invalid (i.e. length
other than 8 letters) or UNKNOWN addressee indicator it shall relay the message
to those valid addressees for which it has relay responsibility using the stripped
address procedure.

In addition, (except the procedure of sending SVC message direct to the

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 69 TTW OPERATING PROCEDURE

originator under the same circumstances) the station shall send a service
message to the previous station requesting correction of the error. In that case,
the text of the service message shall comprise-

1 the abbreviation SVC;


2 the procedure signal ADS;
3 the identification of the message in errors;
4 the line following the heading of the messages received;
5 an alignment function;
6 Either
(a) for the invalid address indicator the indication-CHECK
(b) for an unknown addressee indicator- the indication
UNKNOWN
7 the invalid or unknown addressee indicator
8 the unknown addressee indicator
9 the END OF TEXT SIGNAL.

EXAMPLE :

i) SVC→ADS→AIA↑123↓<≡
GG→VIDPYMYX→VILKYMYX→VIJPYMY<≡
CHECK→VIJPYMY↓<≡

ii) SVC→ADS→AIA↑124↓<≡
FF→VIJOZTZX→VISRZTZX→VIOPZRZX<≡
UNKNOWN→VIOPZRZX↓<≡

ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY THE RELAY STATION RECEIVING ABOVE TYPE OF


THE SVC MESSAGE :

A station receiving such a service message shall obtain a correct addressee


indicator and shall repeat the message to the addressee using the stripped
address procedure.
ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY FIRST RELAY STATION DETECTING A MUTILATION
IN ORIGIN LINE OR WITHOUT ANY ORIGIN :

1)When the first relay station detects that a message was received with a
mutilated origin line or without any origin it shall

a) stop processing the message

b) send a service message to the station from which the message was
received. In that case the text of the message shall comprise,

1 the abbreviation SVC


2 the procedure signal QTA
3 the procedure signal OGN
4 the transmission identification of the message
rejected,

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5 the indication CORRUPT


6 the END OF TEXT SIGNAL.
EXAMPLE

SVC→QTA→OGN→AIA↑125↓→CORRUPT↓<≡

2)When the first relay station detects that a message was received with an
incorrect originator indicator, it shall:
a) Stop processing the message, and
b) Send a service message to the station from which the message
was received.
The text of the service message shall comprise:

1) The abbreviation SVC


2) The Procedure signal QTA
3) The Procedure signal OGN
4) The Transmission Identification of the message rejected
5) The Indicator INCORRECT
6) The End of Text Signal
Example:
SVC→QTA→OGN→AIA↑127↓→INCORRECT↓<≡

The station receiving the above service message shall resume responsibility for
the referenced message and shall retransmit the message with a correct
originator indicator and if applicable, a new transmission identification.

CORRECTION OF ERRORS DURING MESSAGE ORIGINATION IN CASES


WHERE THE MESSAGE IS FLOWING INTO THE AFTN DURING PREPARATION :

1 Message flowing into the AFTN during preparation shall not be terminated
with an end-of-message-signal if they contain known uncorrected errors.

2 Where an error is made, in this circumstance, in any part of the message


which precedes the TEXT, the unfinished message shall be cancelled by
sending the sequence↓<≡QTA→QTA↓<≡ followed by a complete ENDING.

3 Errors made in the text and noticed immediately shall except in the case
of ATS MESSAGE CONTAINING fields type 3,7, to 10, 13 to 17 and 22, be
corrected by making the error sign (→E→E→E→), transmitted the last
correct word or group and then continuing with the message.

4 In case where errors are made in the text and not noticed until later in the
origination process, the correction shall be separated from the last TEXT
group or confirmation, if any, by an alignment function. This shall be
followed by the abbreviation COR or CFM as appropriate.

5 In case where it becomes obvious, during the origination of the text that
the message should be cancelled, the station shall cancel the unfinished
message by sending the sequence

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 71 TTW OPERATING PROCEDURE

↓<≡QTA→QTA↓<≡ followed by complete ENDING.

RETENTION OF AFTN TRAFFIC RECORD :

LONG TERM RETENTION OF AFTN TRAFFIC RECORD :

Copies of all messages in their entirely, transmitted by an AFTN ORIGIN station


shall be retained for a period of AT LEAST 30 days.

NOTE : The AFTN origin station, although responsible for ensuring that
AFTN traffic record, is not necessary the unit where the record are
made and retained. By local agreement the state concerned may
permit the originators to perform those functions.

AFTN destination stations shall retain for a period of at least 30


days a record containing the information necessary identification all
message received and the action taken there on.

NOTE : The provisions for identification of messages mentioned above may


be obtained by recording the heading, address and origin parts of
the messages.

RECOMMENDATION : AFTN communication centre shall retain for a period of at


least 30 days, a record containing the information necessary to identify all
message relayed or retransmitted and the action taken there on.

NOTE : The provisions for identification of message mentioned above may


be contained by recording the heading, address and origin parts of
the message.

SHORT TERM RETENTION OF AFTN RECORD :

AFTN communication centres shall retain, for a period of at least one hour, a
copy of all messages in their entirety, retransmitted or relayed by that
communication centre.

In case where acknowledgement is made between AFTN communication centre,


a relay centre shall be considered as having no further responsibility for
retransmission or repetition of a message.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 72 AFTN ROUTING

CHAPTER 9. AFTN ROUTING

A collection of individual circuits become a network when it is agreed mutually


that traffic can flow from circuit to circuit. The network works very well when
routings are determined for the normal flow of traffic and in case of interruption
due to circuit failure.

In order to route traffic in accordance with ICAO procedures, the elements of the
routing directory used by a communication centre are:

a. Normal routing list which indicates the correct outgoing circuit to be used
for every addressee indicator.

b. Alternate routing list which indicates the outgoing circuit when normal
route is lost.

NORMAL ROUTING :

This section looks at the normal routing procedures for single and multi-address
traffic.

SINGLE ADDRESS TRAFFIC

For single-address traffic, a communication centre accepts the responsibility of


relay of this message through circuits shown on normal routing list.

MULTI-ADDRESS TRAFFIC

In the case of multi-address traffic, a communication centre attempts to relay the


message to every address. Once the message is delivered to one of the
addressees, that addressee indicator is removed from any other copy going in
another direction to prevent against duplication of delivery. The method known
as 'Addressing Stripping', is used to ensure that correct action is taken.

ADDRESS STRIPPING :

This material is intended to provide information, guidance and clarification


related to the application of address stripping to the AFTN.

These provisions recommend the application of address stripping to those


elements of the AFTN other than CIDIN.

Description of address striping applied to messages in AFTN format.

Address stripping applied to messages in AFTN format is the process performed


by an AFTN communication centre in removing from the address those
addressee indicators not required for :

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 73 AFTN ROUTING

a. relay by the AFTN communication centre to which the message is transmitted;


b. processing or delivery to addressee(s) by AFTN destination station to which
the message is transmitted and
c. Processing or delivery to addressee(s) served by AFTN destination station on
a multi-point circuit to which the message is transmitted.

A demonstration of address stripping in this content is provided in figure 9.1

Consideration relative to the application of address stripping to messages in


AFTN format.

The advantage of address stripping will be realized on an evolutionary basis an


increasing number of AFTN communication centres apply address stripping
pending its eventual mandatory universal application. These advantages are
stressed in the interest of encouraging administrations to apply address
stripping in their existing, or to ensure its inclusion in defining specifications for
replacement for systems. These advantages include :

a) elimination of definition, storage and maintenance of incoming circuit


responsibility lists and associated processing on the basis that all
addressee indicators are to be processed for onward routing action, i.e.
none to ignored.

b elimination of the VVV diversion indicator

c elimination of multiple delivery or non-delivery caused by erroneous or


mis-applied incoming circuit responsibility list :

d reduction of overhead by progressively removing addressee indicators as


a messages transits the network ;

e simplification of implementation ; and

f simplification of the preparation, co-ordination, maintenance and


application of routing directories.

Figure 9.1 shows the method of address stripping on the conventional AFTN,
reflecting point-to-point and multipoint environments.

Message originated at VIAL and addressed to VEGT VAAH VANP VOHY VOTP.

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Figure 9.1 Address Stripping - Demonstration

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 75 AFTN ROUTING

The explanation of the numbers in figure 9.1 are given below:

A. Addressee indicators (abbreviated to location indicator only) as applied by


AFTN origin station (Allahabad) and input to the AFTN communication
centre (Varanasi) serving that station.

I. VEGT VAAH VANP VOHY VOTP

B. ii. through vii. demonstrates the addressee indicators (abbreviated)


retained on the message following address stripping as it travels the
circuit indicated.
ii. VEGT

iii. VAAH VANP VOHY VOTP

iv. VAAH

v. VANP VOHY VOTP

vi. VOHY

vii. VOTP

ALTERNATE ROUTING :

In stripped addressing, a communication centre receives messages addressed


to those addressee indicators for which any action can be taken by that centre
only. Hence a communication centre accepts relay responsibilities for all
messages transmitted to it. Whenever a normal circuit fails, messages meant for
that circuit are diverted by the communication centre via available alternate
circuits.

NORMAL TELETYPEWRITER TRANSMISSION PROCEDURE :

1 Message shall be transmitted in accordance with predetermined


responsibility for onward relay as agreed between the administrations
responsible for the operation of directly connected stations and also

(A) Follow instructions regarding routing of messages as explained under


the heading ROUTING OF MESSAGES.

(B) A station experiencing circuit or equipment failure shall notify other


stations with which it is in direct communication if the failure will
affect traffic routing by those stations. Restoration to normal shall
also be notified to the same stations.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 76 PREDETERMINED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Chapter 10. PREDETERMINED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


When it has been agreed between the Administrations concerned to make use of
a predetermined distribution system for AFTN messages, the system described
below shall be used.

The Predetermined Distribution Addressee Indicator (PDAI) shall be constructed


as follows :-

1 The first and second letter :

The first two letters of the Location Indicator of the communications centre of
the State which has agreed to implement the system and which receives
messages over a circuit for which it has a predetermined routing responsibility.

2 The third and fourth letter -

The letters ZZ, indicating a requirement for special distribution;

3 The fifth, sixth and seventh letter -

a) The fifth, sixth and seventh letters taken from the series A to Z and denoting
the national and/or international distribution list(s) to be used by the receiving
AFTN centre;

b) "N" and "S", as the fifth letter, are reserved for NOTAM and SNOWTAM
respectively.

4 The eighth letter -

Either the filler letter "X" or a letter taken from the series A to Z to further define
the national and/or international distribution list(s) to be used by the receiving
AFTN centre.

Note1 : To avoid conflict with the AFTN start-of- message signal,


combinations with ZC or CZ will not be used.

Note2 : To avoid conflict with the AFTN end -of- message signal,
combinations with NN will not be used.

PANS:- Predetermined Distribution Addressee Indicators (PDAIs) should be


used whenever possible on AFTN messages between States which
have agreed to make use of predetermined distribution system.

AFTN messages carrying Predetermined Distribution Addressee Indicator


allocated by the State receiving the message shall be routed to the addressee
listed on the associated list of Addressee Indicators described below.

States shall send their list of selected Predetermined Distribution Addressee

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 77 PREDETERMINED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Indicators together with the associated lists of Addressee Indicators to:

a) The states from which they will receive AFTN messages for predetermined
distribution, to assure correct routing; and

b) The states which will originate AFTN message for predetermined


distribution to facilitate the treatment of requests for retransmission and to
assist originators in using the predetermined Distribution Addressee
Indicators correctly.

The list of Addressee Indicators associated with a Predetermined Distribution


Addressee Indicator shall include either:

1) Addressee Indicators for national distribution; or

2) Addressee Indicators for international distribution; or

3) Predetermined Distribution Addressee Indicators for international distribution;


or

4) Any combination of 1), 2) and 3).

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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78
AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE ACCEPTANCE, TRANSMISSION
AND DELIVERY OF MESSAGES

CHAPTER 11. ACCEPTANCE, TRANSMISSION AND


DELIVERY OF MESSAGE
1 The responsibility for determining the acceptability of a message shall
rest with the station where the message is originally handed in, Once a
message is accepted, it shall be transmitted, relayed and (or) delivered in
accordance with the priority classification and without discrimination or
delay, on the understanding that the authority in control of any station
through which a message passes, may make representations at a later
date to the authority in control of the accepting station regarding any
message which is considered unacceptable.

2 Unless otherwise provided for in the following paragraphs, only those


messages coming within the categories of messages shall be accepted
for transmission by the aeronautical telecommunication service.

3 Only messages for stations forming part of the aeronautical


telecommunication service shall be accepted for transmission, except
where special arrangements have been made with the telecommunication
authority concerned.

4 Acceptance as a single message of a message intended for two or more


addresses, whether at the same station or at different stations, shall be
permitted subject, however, to the provisions prescribed (ie 8 letter
addressee indicators restricted to 7 addressees on the line).

5 Messages handled for aircraft operating agencies shall be accepted only


when handed to the telecommunication station in the form prescribed
herein and by an authorized representatives of that agency, or when
received from that agency over an authorized circuit.

6 For each station of the aeronautical telecommunication service from


which messages are delivered to one or more aircraft operating agencies,
a single office for each aircraft operating agency shall be designated by
the agreement between the aeronautical telecommunication agency and
the aircraft operating agency concerned.

7 Stations of the international aeronautical telecommunication service shall


be responsible for delivery of messages to addressee(s) located within
the boundaries of the aerodrome(s) served by that station and beyond
those boundaries only to such addressee(s) as may be agreed by special

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79
AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE ACCEPTANCE, TRANSMISSION
AND DELIVERY OF MESSAGES

arrangements with the administrations concerned.

8 Message shall be delivered in the form of a written record, except where


facilities for voice recording are in use.

Recommendation : In cases where telephone or loudspeaker systems are


used without recording facilities for the delivery of messages, a written
copy should be provided, as confirmation of delivery, as soon as
possible.

9 Messages originated in the aeronautical mobile service an aircraft in flight


and which require transmission over the AFTN to effect delivery, shall be
reprocessed by the aeronautical telecommunication station in to the
message format prescribed, prior to transmission on the AFTN.

10 Messages originated in the aeronautical mobile service by an aircraft in


flight and which require transmission over the AFS, other than to AFTN
circuits, shall also be reprocessed by the aeronautical telecommunication
station in the format prescribed except where, subject to the provisions
prior and other arrangements have been made between the aeronautical
telecommunication agency and the operating agency concerned for
predetermined distribution of message from aircraft.

11 Messages (including air-reports) without specific address containing air


traffic services information from aircraft in flight shall be forwarded
without delay to the air traffic services unit associated without the
communication station receiving the message.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 80 AFTN TRAFFIC RECORD

Chapter 12. AFTN TRAFFIC RECORD


GENERAL :

1. A Telecommunication log, written or automatic, shall be maintained in each


station of the aeronautical telecommunication service except that an aircraft,
when using radiotelephony in direct communication with an aeronautical station,
need not maintain a telecommunication log.

Note : The telecommunication log will serve as a protection, should the


operator's watch activities be investigated. It may be required as legal evidence.

Recommendation:- When a record is maintained in an aircraft station, either in


radiotelephone log or elsewhere, concerning distress communications, harmful
interference, or interruption to communication, such a record should be
associated with information concerning the time and position, and altitude of the
aircraft.

2. In written logs, entries shall be made only by operators on duty except that
other persons having knowledge of facts pertinent to the entries may certify in
the log the accuracy of operators entries.

3. All entries should be complete, clear, correct and intelligible. Superfluous


marks or notations shall not be made in the log.

4. In written logs, any necessary correction in the log shall be made only by the
person making the initial entry. The correction shall be accomplished by drawing
or typing a single line though the incorrect entry, initialling same, recording the
time and date of correction. The correct entry shall be made on the text line after
the last entry.

5. Telecommunication logs, written or automatic, shall be retained for a period of


at least thirty days. When the logs are pertinent to inquiries or investigations
they shall be retained for longer periods until it is evident that they will be no
longer required.

6. The following information shall be entered in written log.

A. the name of the agency operating the station.

B. the identification of the station.

C. the date.

D. the time of opening and closing the station.

E. the signature of each operator, with the time the operator assumes the
relinquishes a watch.

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AERONAUTICAL FIXED SERVICE 81 AFTN TRAFFIC RECORD

F. The frequencies being guarded and type of watch (continuous or


scheduled) being maintained on each frequency.

G. Except at intermediate mechanical relay stations where the


provisions of this paragraph need not be complied with a record of each
communication, test transmission, or attempted communication showing text of
communication time, communication completed, station(s) communicated with
and frequency used. The text of the communication may be omitted from the log
when copies of the messages handled are available and form part of the log;

H. All distress communications and action thereon;

I. A brief description of communication conditions and difficulties,


including harmful interference with time;

J. A brief description of interruption to communications due to


equipment failure or other trouble, giving the duration of the interruption and
action taken;

K. such additional information as may be considered by the operator to be


valued as a part of the record of the station's operations.

TIME SYSTEM :

1. Universal Co-ordinated Time (UTC) shall be used by all stations in the


aeronautical service. Midnight shall be assigned as 2400 for the end of the day
and 0000 for the beginning of the day.

2. A date-time group shall consist of six figures, the first two figures
representing the date of the month and the last four figures the hours and
minutes in UTC.

CANCELLATION OF MESSAGES: Messages shall be cancelled by a


Telecommunication station only when cancellation is authorised by the message
originator.

CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING COLLEGE, BAMRAULI, ALLAHABAD. SUNDAR/AMAR


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