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# International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

## A STUDY OF PROPERTIES OF SOFT SET AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Shamshad Husain 1, Km. Shivani 2
1M.Phil Student, Pure mathematics, Shobhit University, Meerut, Uttar Pardesh, India.
2Psot Graduate, Mathematics, CCS University, Meerut Uttar Pardesh, India.
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Abstract - In this paper the authors study the theory of soft In other words:- A soft set ( F , A) over U is parameterized
sets initiated by Molodtsov. Equality of two soft sets, subset, family of subsets U for e  A, F (e) , may be consider as the
superset of a soft set. Complement of soft set, null soft set, and
absolute of soft set and examples. Soft set operation like OR, soft set of e  elements or e  approximate Elements of
AND, union, intersection relative intersection, relative union, the soft set. ( F , A) , thus ( F , A) is defined as
symmetric difference, relative symmetric difference and
examples. Properties of soft sets, De Morgan’s law (with proof ( F , A)  {F (e)  P(U ) : e  E, F (e)   if e  A}
by particular example) associative, commutative, distributive,
etc. Example 2.1- Assume that U  {c1 , c2 , c3 , c 4 , c5 , c6 } be universal
set constricting of a set of Six Cars under sale. Now
Key Words: – Soft set, subset and superset of soft set, E  {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 , e5 } be the set of parameters with respect to U .
approximation, complement, relative Complement, NOT
set , Null set , Soft set operations, Where each parameters ei , i  1,2,3,4,5 stands for {Expensive,
Good design, Mileage, Modern, Space capacity} respectively
1. INTRODUCTION
and A  {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 , e5 }  E suppose a soft set ( F , A) .
Most of the traditional tools for formal modelling, and Describe the attraction by costumer for cars.
computing are crisp, deterministic, and precise in character.
However, there are many complicated problems in F (e1 )  {c1 , c4 } , F (e2 )  {c1 , c3 , c5 } , F (e3 )  {c3 , c 4 , c5 } ,
economics, engineering environment, social science, medical
F (e4 )  {c 2 , c3 } , F (e5 )  {c 2 , c 4 , c6 }
science, etc. that involve data which are not always crisp. We
cannot successfully use classical methods because of various
Then the soft set ( F , A) is a parameters family
types of uncertainties present in these problems. There are
theories theory of probability theory, fuzzy set theory, F (ei ), i  1,2,3,4,5 of a subset U defined as
intuitionistic fuzzy sets theory, vague set theory, interval ( F , A)  {F (e1 ), F (e2 ), F (e3 ), F (e4 ), F (e5 )} i.e.
mathematics theory, rough set theory, which can considered
mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties. But all
these theories have their inherent difficulties as pointed out
 (F, A)  {(c1, c2 ), (c1, c3, c4 ), (c3, c4,c5 ), (c2 , c3 ), (c2 , c4 , c6 )}
.the reason for these difficulties is, possibly, the inadequacy
The soft set ( F , A) can also represented as a set ordered
of the parameterization tools of theories. Consequently,
Molodtsov initiated the concept of soft set theory as a pair as follows
mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties which is ( F , A)  {( e1 , F (e1 )), (e2 , F (e2 )), (e3 , F (e3 )), (e4 , F (e4 )), (e5 , F (e5 ))} 
free from the above difficulties. ( F , A)  {(e1, (c1, c2 )), (e2 , (c1, c3, c4 )), (e3, (c3, c4,c5 )), (e4 , (c2 , c3 )),

(We are aware of the soft sets defined by Pawlak, which is (e5 , (c2 , c4 , c6 ))}
different concept and useful to solve some other type of
Notation- ( F , A) or (FA ) and ( FA , E )
problems). Soft set theory has a rich potential for application
in several directions, few of which had been shown by
Molodtsov in his pioneer work in the present paper, we By Tabular form (Table1)
make a theoretical study of the Soft Set Theory in more U e1 e2 e3 e4 e5
detail.
Expensive Good Design Mileage Modern Space
1 1 0 0 0
2. SOFT SET c1
c2 0 0 0 1 1
Let U be an initial universe set E is the set of parameters c3 0 1 1 1 0
or attributes with respect to U . Let P(U ) Denote the power 1 0 1 0 1
c4
set of U and A  E , then pair ( F , A) is called a soft set 0 1 1 0 0
c5
over U , where F is a mapping given by F : A  P(U ) . 0 0 0 0 1
c6

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 363
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

## For the purpose of storing a soft set in computer, we could

G (e1 )  (c 2 , c3 , c 4 ) , G (e3 )  (c1 , c5 ) for B .
represent a soft set in the form of table 1 (corresponding to
the soft set in the above example). (G, B)  {( e1 , (c2 , c3 , c 4 )), (e3 , (c1 , c5 ))}

## 2.1 Soft Sub-set ~

Then e  A, F (e)  G(e) and A  B Hence ( F , A) (G, B) .
Definition- For two soft set ( F , A) and (G, B) over a
Clearly, (e1 , F (e1 ))  F ( A) and (e1 , F (e1 ))  G( B)
common universe U we say that ( F , A) is a soft subset
of (G, B) if 2.3 Not set of a set of parameters

(a) A  B and Let E  {e1 , e2 , e3 .......... ., en } be the set of Parameters the Not set
(b)   A, F ( ) and G ( ) are identical
~ of E denoted by  E is defined by
approximation, we write ( F , A) (G , B ) . E  {e1 , e2 , e3 .......... ., en } where ei  Not (ei )i  1,2,3,4,......... ..n .

## If ( F , A) is said to be a soft supper set of (G, B) ,if (G, B) is Proposition 2.1

~ (a) (A)  A
a soft subset of ( F , A) . We Denote if ( F , A) (G , B ) . (b) ( A  B)  A  B

## Definition – Two soft set ( F , A) and (G, B) over a common

Remark 2.2 it has been proved that A  Ac and the
A  E and so proposition hold but new assumption that
universe U are said to be soft equal if ( F , A) is soft subset
of (G, B) and (G, B) is soft subset of ( F , A) .
A  E and came up with the following proposition
(a) ( A  B)  A  B
Example2.2 - Previous example 2.1
(b) ( A  B)  A  B (De Morgan’s law)
E  {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 , e5 } , be the set of parameters with respect to
Example 2.4 – Consider the above example here
U and A  {e1 , e3 , e5 }  E , B  {e1 , e2 , e3 , e5 }  E clearly A  B
E  {Expensive, Good design, Mileage, Modern, Space
Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over the same universe capacity} then the Not set of this is
U  {c1 , c 2 , c3 , c 4 , c5 , c6 } such that
E  {Not Expensive, Not Good design, No Mileage, No
G(e1 )  {c2 , c4 } , G (e2 )  {c1 , c3 } , G (e3 )  {c3 , c 4 , c5 } , Modern, No Space capacity} i.e. E  {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 , e5 } , then Not

## G (e4 )  {c 2 , c 4 , c6 } set is E  {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 , e5 } .

and
F (e1 )  {c2 , c4 } , F (e3 )  {c3 , c 4 , c5 } , F (e5 )  {c 2 , c 4 , c6 } 2.4 Compliment of soft set

Therefore
~
( F , A) (G, B) A  B and F (e)  G(e)e  A but The complement of a soft set ( F , A) is denoted by
(F, A) C and defined as
(G, B)  ( F , A) i.e. ( F , A)  (G, B)
(F , A)C  (F C , A), where F C : A  P(U ) is a mapping given
Remark 2.1 – let soft set ( F , A) and (G, B) over a by
~
common universe U . ( F , A) (G, B) Does not imply that every F C ( )  U  F ( )  A .

## element of ( F , A) is an element of (G, B) therefore Example- 2.5 by Example 2.1

definition of classical Subset does not hold for soft subset.
Then the soft set (F, A) C is a parameters family
Example 2.3 – let U  {c1 , c2 , c3 , c 4 , c5 , c6 } be universal and C
F (ei ) , i  1,2,3,4,5 of a subset U defined
E  {e1 , e2 , e3 } be the set of parameters with respect to U . If
C C
as F (e1)  F (e1)  {c1, c3 , c5 , c6} , F (e2 )  F (e2 )  {c2 , c4 , c6}
A  {e1} and B  {e1 , e3 }
F (e3 )C  F (e3 )  {c1, c2 , c6 } , F (e4 )C  F (e4 )  {c1, c4 , c5 , c6 }
F (e1 )  (c2 , c4 ) for A . ( F , A)  {e1 , (c2 , c4 )}

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 364
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

## F (e5 )C  F (e5 )  {c1, c3 , c5} 2.6 Null set

( F , A) C  {F (e1 )C , F (e2 ) C , F (e3 ) C , F (e4 )C , F (e5 )C }
A soft set ( F , A) over universal set U is said to be a null
soft set defined by  if F (e)   , e  A .

( F , A)C  {( c1, c3 , c5 , c6 ), (c2 , c4 , c6 ), (c1, c2 , c6 ), (c1, c4, , c5 , c6 ), (c1, c3 , c5 )} Example – 2.7 suppose that,

The soft set (F, A) C can also represented as a set ordered pair
U is the set of wooden houses under the consideration
as follows
A is the set of parameters
( F , A)C  {(e1, F (e1)C ), (e2 , F (e2 )C ), (e3 , F (e3 )C ), (e4 , F (e4 )C ),
(e5 , F (e5 )C )} Let there be five houses in the universe U given by

 (F, A)C  {(e1, (c1, c3, c5, c6 )), (e2, (c2, c4, c6 )), (e3, (c1, c2, c6 )) , U  {h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 } and A ={brick, muddy, steel, stone}.
(e4 , (c1, c4, , c5, c6 )), (e5, (c1, c3, c5 ))}
The soft set ( F , A) describe the “construction of the
houses”. The soft set ( F , A) is
2.5 Relative complement
Defined, as
The relative complement of a soft set ( F , A) denoted by
(F , A) r and defined as (F , A) r  (F r , A), where F r : A  P(U ) , is F (brick ) =means the brick built houses

## a mapping given by F r ( )  U  F ( )  A . F (muddy ) = means the muddy houses

Example 2.6 –by example 2.1 F (steel ) = means the steel built houses

Then the soft set (F , A) r is a parameters family F (stone) = means the stone built houses
r
F (ei ) , i  1,2,3,4,5 of a subset U defined
The soft set ( F , A) is the collection of approximations as
as F (e1 ) r  {c1, c3 , c5 , c6 } , F (e2 ) r  {c2 , c4 , c6 } , F (e3 ) r  {c1, c2 , c6 } , below:
F (e4 ) r  {c1, c4 , c5 , c6 } , F (e5 ) r  {c1, c3 , c5 }
( F , A) = {brick built houses =  , muddy houses=  steel
(F , A) r  {F (e1 ) r , F (e2 ) r , F (e3 ) r , F (e4 ) r , F (e5 ) r }
built houses=  stone built houses=  }.

##  2.7 Absolute soft set

( F , A) r  {( c1, c3 , c5 , c6 ), (c2 , c4 , c6 ), (c1, c2 , c6 ), (c1, c4, , c5 , c6 ), (c1, c3 , c5 )} A soft set ( F , A) over universal set U is said to be a
~
The soft set (F , A) r can also represented as a set ordered pair absolute soft set denoted by A , if F (e)  U , e  A
as follows ~ ~
.Clearly A C   and A   C
(F , A) r  {(e1, F (e1) r ), (e2 , F (e2 ) r ), (e3 , F (e3 ) r ), (e4 , F (e4 ) r ), (e5 , F (e5 ) r )}
Example 2.8 – Suppose that,
 (F , A)r  {(e1, (c1, c3, c5, c6 )), (e2 , (c2 , c4 , c6 )), (e3, (c1, c2, c6 ))
U is the set of wooden houses under the consideration.
(e4 , (c1, c4, , c5 , c6 )), (e5 , (c1, c3 , c5 ))} .
B is the set of parameters.
Proposition 2.1- let U be the universe, ( F , A) is soft set
Let there be five houses in the universe U given by
over U . Then

## (a) (( F , A) C ) C  ( F , A) U  {h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 } And B = {not brick, not muddy, not steel,

(b) (( F , A) r ) r  ( F , A) not stone}.
~ ~ ~
(c) (U A ) C   A  (U A ) r The soft set (G, B) describe the “construction of the
~ ~ ~ houses”. The soft set (G, B) is defined as
(d) ( A ) C  U A  ( A ) r

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 365
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 05 Issue: 01 | Jan-2018 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

F (brick ) =means the houses not built by brick Proposition 2.2- let U be the universe, Ea set of
parameters, A, B, C  E .if ( F , A) , (G, B) and
F (muddy ) = means the houses not by muddy
( H , C ) are soft set over U . Then
F (steel ) = means the houses not built by steel ~ ~
(e) ( F , A)  U A
F (stone) = means the houses not built by stone ~ ~
(f)   ( F , A)
The soft set (G, B) is the collection of approximations as ~
(g) ( F , A) ( F , A)
below:
~ ~
(h) ( F , A) (G, B) and (G, B) ( H , C ) implies
(G, B) = {not brick built houses = {h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 } , not ~
muddy houses= {h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 } , not steel built houses= ( F , A) ( H , C )
{h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 } , not stone built houses= {h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 } } .
( F , A)  (G, B) and (G, B)  ( H , C ) implies
( F , A)  ( H , C )
The soft set (G, B) is the absolute soft set
3 SOFT SET OPERATIONS
2.8 Relative null soft set
3.1 Union
Let U be a universe, E be a set of parameters
and A  E . ( F , A) is called a relative Null soft set with Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
~ universe U .then the union of ( F , A) and (G, B) , denoted
respect to A denoted by  A if F (e)   , e  A . ~
( F , A) (G, B ) by is a soft set ( H , C ) , where
2.9 Relative whole soft set C  A  B and e  C
Let U be a universe, E be a set of parameters  F (e), e  A  B 
and A  E . ( F , A) is called relative whole soft set or A   
H (e)  G (e), eB  A 
 F (e)  G (e), e  A  B 
~  
universal with respect to A denoted by U A ,if
F (e)  U , e  A Example 3.1 – Consider the soft set ( F , A) which describes
the “cost of the houses” and the soft set (G, B) which
2.10 Relative Absolute soft set
~ describes the “attractiveness of the houses”.
The relative whole soft set with respect to E denoted U E
b is called the relative absolute soft set over U . Suppose that U  {h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 , h6 , h7 , h8 , h9 , h10 } ,

Example 2.9 – let E  {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 } if A  {e2 , e3 , e4 } such A  {Very costly, Costly, Cheap} And
that F (e2 )  {c2 c4 }, F (e3 )   ,
B  {Cheap, Beautiful, in the green surroundings}
F (e 4 )  U , then soft
 A  {e1 , e2 , e3 } And A  {e3 , e4 , e5 } respectively.
set ( F , A)  {(e2 , (c2 , c4 ), (e4 ,U )} .
Let F (e1 )  {h2 , h4 , h7 , h8 } , F (e2 )  {h1 , h3 , h5 } , F (e3 )  {h6 , h9 , h10 } , And
if B  {e1 , e3 } such that the soft set (G, B)  {( e1 ,  ), (e3 ,  )} then the
~
G (e3 )  {h6 , h9 , h10 } G (e4 )  {h2 , h3 , h7 } , G (e5 )  {h5 , h6 , h8 } , then
soft set (G, B) is a relative null soft set (G, B)   B .
~
if C  {e1 , e2 } such that H (e1 )  U , H (e2 )  U then the ( F , A) (G, B) = ( H , C )  C  A  B , where
~
soft set ( H , C ) is a relative whole soft set ( H , C )  U c . H (e1 )  {h2 , h4 , h7 , h8 } , H (e2 )  {h1 , h3 , h5 } ,

if D  E such that F (e1 )  U , ei  E , i  1,2,3,4 then the soft set H (e3 )  {h6 , h9 , h10 } ,
~
( F , D)  U E is an absolute soft set. H (e 4 )  {h2 , h3 , h7 } , H (e5 )  {h5 , h6 , h8 }

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 6.171 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 366
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
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3.2 Intersection ~ ~
Again, ( F , A)C (G, B)C  ( F C , A) (G C , B),
Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
universe U .then the intersection of ( F , A) And (G, B) ,  ( K , A  B) (Say)
~
denoted ( F , A) (G, B) by is a soft set ( H , C ) where C  A B
K ( )  F C ( ), if   A  B,
e  C , H (e)  F (e) or G(e) (as both are same set). Where,  G ( ),
C
if   B  A
 F ( )  G C ( ), if   A  B.
C
Example 3.2 by example 3.1

##  H C and K are same function . Hence proved.

~
( F , A) (G, B ) = ( H , C )  C  A  B , Where
~
H (e1 )   , H (e2 )   , H (e3 )  {h6 , h9 , h10 } , (b) Suppose that, ( F , A) (G, B)  ( H , A  B)
~
H (e4 )   , H (e5 )   Therefore (( F , A) (G, B)) C  ( H , A  B)C
 ( H C , A  B)
Proposition 3.1 -let U be the Universe, ( F , A) is soft set Again
over U . Then ~ ~
( F , A) C (G, B) C  ( F C , A) (G C , B),
~
(a) ( F , A) ( F , A)  ( F , A)
~  ( K , A  B ) (Say)
(b) ( F , A) ( F , A)  ( F , A)
~
Where,    A  B , we have
(c) ( F , A)     ,where  is a null set
~
(d) ( F , A)     where  is a null set K ( )  F C ( ) or GC ( )
~ ~ ~ = F ( ) or G( ) , Where   A  B
(e) ( F , A)  A  A ,where A is absolute set
~ ~ = H ( ) = H C ( )
(f) ( F , A)  A  ( F , A)
 H C And K are same function. Hence proved.
Proposition 3.2
~ ~
Proposition 3.3 if ( F , A) , (G, B) and ( H , C ) are three
(a) (( F , A) (G, B)) C  ( F , A)C (G, B)C
soft sets over U . Then
~ ~
(b) (( F , A) (G, B)) C  ( F , A)C (G, B)C
~ ~ ~ ~
(a) (( F , A) (G, B)) ( H , C)  ( F , A)  ((G, B) ( H , C))
Proof- ~ ~ ~ ~
(b) (( F , A) (G, B)) ( H , C)  ( F , A) ((G, B) ( H , C))
~
(a) Suppose that ( F , A) (G, B)  ( H , A  B) ,where
(c)
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
(( F , A) (G, B)) ( H , C)  (( F , A) (G, B)) (( F , A) ( H , C))
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
(d) (( F , A) (G, B)) ( H , C)  (( F , A) (G, B)) (( F , A) ( H , C))
H ( )  F ( ), if   A  B,
 G ( ), if   B  A 3.3 AND
 F ( )  G ( ), if   A  B.
Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
Therefore,
~
(( F , A) (G, B)) C  ( H , A  B) C universe U .then the AND operation of ( F , A) and (G, B) ,
denoted by ( F , A) AND (G, B) or ( F , A)  (G, B) by is a
 ( H C , A  B) soft set defined by ( F , A)  (G, B) = ( H , A  B) , where
H (a, b)  F (a)  G(b)(a, b)  A  B
Now, H C ( )  U  H ( ),   A  B
Example 3.3 –by example 3.1
H C ( )  F C ( ), if   A  B,
( F , A) (G, B ) = ( H , A  B) , where, H (e1 , e3 )   ,
Therefore,  G ( ),
C
if   B  A
H (e1 , e4 )  {h2 , h7 } , H (e1 , e5 )  {h8 } , H (e2 , e3 )   ,
 F C ( )  G C ( ), if   A  B.

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H (e2 , e4 )  {h3 } , H (e2 , e5 )  {h5 } , H (e3 , e3 )  {h6 , h9 , h10 }  HC And K are same function. Hence proved.
H (e3 , e4 )   H (e3 , e5 )  {h6 }
(d) Suppose that ( F , A)  (G, B)  ( H , A  B) ,

3.4 OR ~
Therefore, (( F , A) (G, B)) C  ( H , A  B) C
Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
 ( H C , ( A  B))
universe U .then the AND operation of ( F , A) and (G, B) ,
denoted by ( F , A) )OR (G, B) , therefore Now, ( F , A) C  (G, B) C  ( F C , A)  (G C , B),
( F , A)  (G, B) by is a soft set defined by
( F , A)  (G, B) = ( H , A  B) ,where  ( K , A  B) , where
H (a, b)  F (a)  G(b)(a, b)  A  B . K ( x, y )  F C ( x)  G C ( y ),  ( K , ( A  B ))

## Example 3.4 –by example 3.1 Now take  ( ,  )  ( A  B))

K ( ,  )  U  H ( ,  ),
Then, ( F , A)  (G , B ) = ( H , A  B) , where
 U  [ F ( )  G (  ),
Therefore,  [U  F ( )]  [U  G (  )],
H (e1 , e3 ) = {h2 , h4 , h6 , h7 , h8 , h9 , h10 } , H (e1 , e4 )
 F C ( )  G C ( ),
 {h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 , h7 , h8 } , H (e1 , e5 )  {h2 , h4 , h5 , h6 , h7 , h8 } , H (e2 , e3 )  K ( ,  )
 {h1 , h3 , h5 , h6 , h9 , h10 } , H (e2 , e4 )  {h1 , h2 , h3 , h5 , h7 , h8 } , H (e2 , e5 )
 {h1 , h3 , h5 , h6 , h8 } , H (e3 , e3 )  {h6 , h9 , h10 } , H (e3 , e4 )  H C And K are same function. Hence proved
 {h2 , h3 , h6 , h7 , h9 } , H (e3 , e5 )  {h5 , h6 , h8 , h9 , h10 } .
3.5 Extended intersection
Remark 3.1 We also use the tabular form for AND, OR
Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
solving the examples.
universe U .then the extended intersection of
Proposition 3.4 ( F , A) and (G, B) , denoted by ( F , A)   (G, B) is a
~ soft set ( H , C ) , where C  A  B and e  C
(c) (( F , A)  (G, B)) C  ( F , A) C  (G, B) C
(d) ((F , A)  (G, B)) C  ( F , A) C  (G, B) C  F (e), e  A  B 
 
H (e)  G (e), eB  A 
Proof-  F (e)  G (e), e  A  B 
 
(c) Suppose that ( F , A)  (G, B)  ( H , A  B) ,
Example 3.5- Consider the soft set ( F , A) which describes
Therefore, the “cost of the houses” and the soft set (G, B) which
describes the “attractiveness of the houses”.
(( F , A)  (G, B)) C  ( H , A  B) C

 ( H C , ( A  B)) , now
Suppose that U  {h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 , h6 } , E  {e1 , e2 , e3 , e3 , e4 , e5 }
respectively.
( F , A) C  (G, B) C  ( F C , A)  (G C , B),
E  {Very costly, Costly, Cheap, beautiful, in the green
 ( K , A  B) , where K ( x, y )  F C ( x)  G C ( y ), surroundings}

##  ( K , ( A  B )) A  {Very costly, Costly, Cheap}, B  {cheap, beautiful, in

the green surroundings}
Now take  ( ,  )  ( A  B))
 A  {e1 , e2 , e3 }  E , B  {e3 , e4 , e5 }  E respectively.
Therefore,

## K ( ,  )  U  H ( ,  ), Let F (e1 )  {h2 , h4 } , F (e2 )  {h1 , h3 , h5 } , F (e3 )  {h3 , h4 , h5 } and

 U  [ F ( )  G (  ),
 F C ( )  G C ( ), G (e3 )  {h1 , h2 , h3 } G (e4 )  {h2 , h3 , h6 } , G (e5 )  {h2 , h3 , h4 } , then
 K (  ,  )

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## ( F , A)   (G, B) = ( H , C ) , where C  A  B e  C soft set ( H , C ) where C  A B

e  C , H (e)  F (e)  G(e)
 F (e), e  A  B 
  Example 3.8 –by example 3.5
H (e)  G (e), eB  A .
 F (e)  G (e), e  A  B 
 
Then, ( F , A)  R (G, B) = ( H , C ) , where

## H (e1 )  {h2 , h4 } , H (e2 )  {h1 , h3 , h5 } , C  A  B e  C , H (e)  F (e)  G(e) .

H (e3 )  {h3 } , H (e 4 )  {h2 , h3 , h6 } , H (e5 )  {h2 , h3 , h4 }
H (e1 )   , H (e2 )   , H (e3 )  {h4 , h5 } ,
3.6 Restricted Intersection
H (e4 )   , H (e5 )  
Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
3.9 Restricted symmetric difference
universe U .then the restricted intersection of

( F , A) and (G, B) , denoted by ( F , A)  R (G, B) is a soft Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
set ( H , C ) where C  A B universe U .then the restricted symmetric difference of
~
e  C , H (e)  F (e)  G(e) ( F , A) and (G, B) , denoted by ( F , A)  (G , B ) is a soft
set ( H , C ) where C  A B
Example 3.6 –by example 3.5
e  C , H (e)  F (e)G(e)
Then, ( F , A)  R (G, B) = ( H , C ) , where C  A B
In other words
e  C , H (e)  F (e)  G(e) .
Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
H (e1 )   , H (e2 )   , H (e3 )  {h3 } , universe U .then the restricted symmetric difference of
~

## H (e4 )   , H (e5 )   ( F , A) and (G, B) , denoted ( F , A)  (G , B ) is a soft set

defined by
3.7 Restricted Union ~
( F , A) (G, B)  (( F , A)  R (G, B))  R ((F , A) (G, B))
~

## Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common ~

universe U .then the restricted union of ( F , A) (G, B)  (( F , A)  R (G, B))  R ((G, B)  R ( F , A))
( F , A) and (G, B) , denoted by ( F , A)  R (G, B) is a
Example 3.9 –by example 3.5
soft set ( H , C ) where C  A B
e  C , H (e)  F (e)  G(e) Then,
~
( F , A) (G, B)  (( F , A)  R (G, B))  R ((G, B)  R ( F , A)) .
Example3.7 – by example 3.5
now, ( F , A)  R (G, B) = ( H , C ) , where C  A B
Then, ( F , A)  R (G, B) = ( H , C ) , where e  C , H (e)  F (e)  G(e) .

## H (e4 )   , H (e5 )   (G, B)  R ( F , A) = ( K , D) , where D  A  B e  D ,

K (e)  G(e)  H (e)
3.8 Restricted difference
K (e1 )   , K (e2 )   ,
Let ( F , A) and (G, B) be two soft sets over a common
K (e3 )  {h1 , h2 } , K (e4 )   , K (e5 )   , now the value of
universe U .then the restricted difference of ~
( F , A) and (G, B) , denoted by ( F , A)  R (G, B) is a ( F , A) (G, B)  (( F , A)  R (G, B))  R ((G, B)  R ( F , A))

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= ( H , C )  R ( K , D) where, Z  C  D e  Z , ~
(b) (( F , A)   (G, B )) C  ( F , A) C (G, B ) C
J (e)  H (e)  K (e) ,
~

## J (e1 )   , J (e2 )   , J (e3 )  {h1 , h2 , h4 , h5 } , J (e4 )   , (c) (( F , A)  R (G, B)) r  ( F , A) r (G, B ) r

J (e5 )  
~
(d) (( F , A) (G, B)) r  ( F , A) r  R (G, B) r
4. PROPERTIES OF SOFT SET OPERATION
~
4.1 Idempotent properties (e) (( F , A) (G , B )) r  ( F , A) r   (G , B ) r
~

(a) ( F , A) ( F , A)  ( F , A)  ( F , A)  R ( F , A)
~
(f) (( F , A)   (G, B )) r  ( F , A) r (G, B ) r
~
(b) ( F , A) ( F , A)  ( F , A)  ( F , A)   ( F , A)
(g) ((F , A)  (G, B)) C  ( F , A) C  (G, B) C
4.2 Identity properties
(h) ((F , A)  (G, B))C  ( F , A) C  (G, B) C
~ ~ ~
(a) ( F , A)    ( F , A)  ( F , A)  R  (i) ((F , A)  (G, B)) r  ( F , A) r  (G, B) r
~ ~ ~
(b) ( F , A)  U  ( F , A)  ( F , A)   U
(j) ((F , A)  (G, B)) r  ( F , A) r  (G, B) r
~ ~ ~
(a) ( F , A)  R   ( F , A)  ( F , A)  
~ ~ Remark 4.2 De Morgan’s property does not hold for
(b) ( F , A)  R ( F , A)    ( F , A) ( F , A) restricted union and restricted intersection with respect to
complement in definition that means
4.3 Domination properties
~
~ ~ ~ ~ (a) (( F , A)  R (G, B)) C  ( F , A) C (G, B) C
(a) ( F , A) U  U  ( F , A)  R U
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
(b) ( F , A)      ( F , A)    (b) (( F , A) (G, B)) C  ( F , A) C  R (G, B) C

## 4.4 Complementation properties 4.9 Absorption properties

~ ~
~C ~r
(a) ( F , A) ((F , A) (G, B))  ( F , A)
~
(a)  U 
~ ~

(b) U
~ C ~
 U
~ r
(b) ( F , A) (( F , A) (G, B))  ( F , A)
(c) ( F , A)  R ((F , A)  (G, B))  ( F , A)
4.5 Double Complementation (involution)
property (d) ( F , A)  ((F , A)  R (G, B))  ( F , A)
Remark 4.3
(a) ((F , A) C ) C  ( F , A)  ((F , A) r ) r ~
(a)  And  do not absorb over each other
4.6 Exclusion property ~
~ ~ (b)  And  R do not absorb over each other
(a) ( F , A) ( F , A) r  U  ( F , A)  R ( F , A) r
4.10 Commutative properties
~ ~
(a) ( F , A) ( F , A)    ( F , A)   ( F , A)
r r (a) ( F , A) (G, B)  (G, B) ( F , A)
(b) ( F , A)  R (G, B)  (G, B)  R ( F , A)
Remark 4.1– Exclusion and contradiction properties do not ~ ~

## hold with respect to complement in definition 2.6. (c) ( F , A) (G, B )  (G, B ) ( F , A)

(d) ( F , A)  (G, B)  (G, B)  ( F , A)
4.8 De Morgan’s properties ~ ~

## ~ (e) ( F , A) (G, B)  (G, B) ( F , A)

(a) (( F , A) (G , B )) C  ( F , A) C   (G , B ) C

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## Remark 4.4 Remark 4.5

(a)  And  do not commute over each other
~
 And  do not distribute over each other
4.11 Associative properties  And  do not distribute over each other
~
~ ~ ~ ~  , R and  do not distribute over R
(a) ( F , A) ((G, B) ( H , C ))  ((F , A) (G, B)) ( H , C ) ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ,R , ,  And  R do not distribute over  and 
(b) ( F , A) ((G, B) ( H , C ))  ((F , A) (G, B)) ( H , C ) ~
R Distribute over  but converse is false
(c) ~
( F , A)  R ((G, B)  R ( H , C ))  ((F , A)  R (G, B))  R ( H , C )  Distribute over  but the converse is false

## (d) ( F , A)  ((G, B)  ( H , C ))  ((F , A)  (G, B))  ( H , C )

5. CONCLUSIONS

(e) ( F , A)  ((G, B)  ( H , C))  ((F , A)  (G, B))  ( H , C) In this paper, we have discussed in detail the fundamentals
of soft set theory such as equality of soft set, subset,
(f) ( F , A)  ((G, B)  ( H , C))  ((F , A)  (G, B))  ( H , C) Complement with examples. Its properties with solved
examples. It was observe that some properties does not hold
4.12 Complementation properties some classic result and soft set operation. In this paper we
discussed the De Morgan’s law. And all operation union,
(a) intersection, AND, OR, and also relative operations and its
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
( F , A) ((G, B) ( H , C ))  ( F , A) (G, B) ( F , A) ( H , C )
examples. Same as we proof the all properties in future.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~

## (b) ( F , A) ((G, B) ( H , C ))  ( F , A) (G, B) ( F , A) ( H , C )

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