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Unit Components

Student Book

Grammar Station Practice


This section introduces the main Various exercises allow students to
grammar points in the units. It provides reinforce and gradually expand their
clear explanations and charts showing understanding of the grammar rules
grammatical forms, meanings, and that they have learned. This section
usages. There are also corresponding involves correction exercises that train
pictures and simple examples to help students to recognize and correct
students easily understand the basic grammar errors in sentences.
grammar structures and rules that are
presented. Simple check-up exercises
are provided at the bottom of the Grammar in Writing
page. They are helpful in checking This section provides a variety of writing
students’ initial understanding of the types such as letters, diaries, book
key grammar points. reports, advertisements, news reports,
instructions, etc. This allows students to
apply their knowledge of the grammar
Check Up rules in a meaningful context.
Guided exercises and drills are
presented to help students practice
the basic grammar structures. Students Review
get a chance to learn how to properly
At the end of each unit, students
apply the grammar rules through these
have the opportunity to review and
exercies.
internalize what they have learned.

Supplementary Material

Review Test Appendix: Grammar Station


After every four units, students will take a review Grammar charts from each unit’s Grammar Station are
test. These tests aim to access and evaluate students’ included in the back of the book. They allow students
understanding of the grammar points that they have to easily access the book’s main grammar points.
learned.
Contents
Nouns & Articles Present Simple
01 Harry is my dog. Nouns 6 13 He eats bread every day. Present Simple: Subject-Verb Agreement 54

02 This is a dress. Articles 10 14 She brushes her teeth. Present Simple: Positive 58

03 He has three watches. Plural Nouns 14 15 We don’t play soccer. Present Simple: Negative 62

04 He wants some water. Count & Noncount Nouns 18 16 Do you like carrots? Present Simple: Yes/No Questions 66

The Verb Be Modal Verbs & Imperatives


05 He is Bob. Subject Pronouns & The Verb Be 22 17 What does he like? Present Simple: Wh-questions 70

06 I'm not a teacher. The Verb Be: Negative & Yes/No Questions 26 18 He can play the piano. Modal Verb: Can (Ability) 74

07 Who is she? The Verb Be: Wh-questions 30 19 May I sit here? Modal Verbs: Can / May (Permission) 78

08 There is a table. There + The Verb Be 34 20 Clean your room. Imperatives 82

Pronouns & Adjectives Supplementary Material


09 This is a bat. Demonstrative Pronouns 38 • Review Tests 1 - 5 88 - 97
• Appendix: Grammer Station 98 - 102
10 These are my sneakers. Possessive Adjectives 42 • Scope & Sequence 103

11 My bag is green. Adjectives 46

12 They are on the sofa. Prepositions of Place 50


01 Harry is my dog.
Grammar Station
A Match the pictures with the correct nouns and categories.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Nouns
Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns.
Common nouns are words for people, animals, places, or things. • • • •
‌Proper nouns are the names of particular people, animals, places, or things.
They begin with a capital letter. • • • •
hamster museum balloon magician
People Animals Places Things • • • •
boy girl dog kitten school library desk flower • • • •
teacher student rabbit elephant park house movie soccer people animals places things
Common
brother sister tiger cheetah bank airport milk rain
singer friend zebra snake city country month holiday
B Choose and write the nouns.
Proper Chris Jessica Harry Kiki Paris France May Christmas
king China sheep bike
bottle mother Chicago wallet
zebra police officer library giraffe
My teacher is
Harry is my dog.
Mr. Smith.
1. People king

2. Animals

May is my favorite
This city is London.
month. 3. Places

4. Things

C Circle the correct words.


Circle the nouns.
1. bag, a, city 2. rabbit, Snoopy, is 1. This is a ( bag / Bag ). 2. I have a ( monkey / Monkey ).

3. the, month, girl 4. London, holiday, my 3. My name is ( tom / Tom ). 4. Today is ( Sunday / sunday ).

5. snake, an, Chris 6. are, school, teacher 5. I’m from ( america / America ). 6. James is a ( Student / student ).

7. sister, run, Paris 8. cute, monkey, June 7. The kitten is ( Mimi / mimi ). 8. My father is a ( farmer / Farmer ).

6 Unit 1 7
ail, you can
When you write an em
Grammar in Writing use common and pro
pe r nouns to
give information.
A Underline the nouns and write them in the correct boxes.
1. Jack is a driver.
Choose and complete the email.
Common Noun Proper Noun
2. Today is Wednesday. driver Jack
3. This train goes to London. Dear Ken,

4. Ken is my new classmate. I’m Amy’s friend. My name is Jane .

I am an elementary school student .


5. Jasmine has a hamster.
My father is a cook . My mother is an .
6. Madrid is a beautiful city.
I have one brother . His name is .

I have a monkey . His name is .


B Choose and complete the sentences. Paris
We live in . It is a beautiful .
1 2 3 4
I hope we can be friends!

Jane

1. Susan lives in New York .


( the city )

Snoopy Spider - Man monkey brother cook Sam city


2. I play with .
( the puppy ) Snoopy Paris actress Tom student Jane
3. is my teacher. New York
( The man )
Mr. Smith
4. We watch .
( the movie )

• Complete the chart.


C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
People Animals Places Things
1. Brian loves france. Brian loves France.
Common Proper Common Proper Common Proper Common Proper
2. My mother is a Teacher. boy Chris Snoopy New York March

3. My birthday is in march. Susan kitten country holiday

4. His name is gary.


Kiki Christmas dog month France Chris city girl
5. The man has a big Dog.

8 Unit 1 9
02 This is a dress.
Grammar Station
A Choose and write a or an before each noun.

candle igloo bookshelf eraser scientist


roof ant party umbrella office
Articles
The words a, an, and the are articles. We put them before nouns.
a an
We use a or an before singular nouns.
We use the before a specific thing or only one of something.
a candle
Article Article + Noun
a consonant sounds a bike a dress a park a test a coat
vowel sounds
an
(a, e, i, o, u) an artist an elephant an island an octopus an umbrella

specific thing I see a boy. The boy is handsome.


the
only one of
something the sun the moon the sky

B Complete the sentences with a or an.


1. I have a bike. 2. You wear dress.

3. This is onion. 4. I see elephant.


This is a dress. My aunt is an artist. 5. There is iguana. 6. She has coat.

7. Tom has backpack. 8. He is engineer.

C Circle the correct words.


I see a boy. The boy is handsome. The sun is bright. 1 2 1. I see ( a / an ) man.
( A / The ) man is tall.

Circle a or an for each noun. 2. He has ( a / an ) owl.

1. ( a / an ) pencil 2. ( a / an ) artist ( An / The ) owl is cute.

3. ( a / an ) girl 4. ( a / an ) octopus 3 4 3. There is ( a / an ) snake.


( A / The ) snake is long.
5. ( a / an ) iguana 6. ( a / an ) park
4. ( An / The ) sky is dark.
7. ( a / an ) desk 8. ( a / an ) eraser
( A / The ) moon is yellow.

10 Unit 2 11
ry, you need
When you write a sto
Grammar in Writing to use the right article
s before
nouns.
A Choose and complete the sentences.
Complete the story with a, an, or the.
doll eraser ruler orange
umbrella robot kite jacket
The circus is in town. We are at the circus!
1. The girl has a doll , , a
There is monkey, bear,

, and . and an elephant.


The monkey juggles balls.
2. The boy has , ,
bear rides a bike.
, and .
elephant stands on a big ball.

People cheer for animals.

There is a clown, too.


B Complete the sentences with a, an, or the.
clown has an umbrella.
1. Susan has a coat. The coat is pretty.
It is big and old. People
2. There is elephant. elephant is very huge. the
cheer for clown, too.
3. Mr. Brown has truck. truck is old.

4. My sister has iguana. iguana is cute.

5. I have bike. bike is red.

6. sky is blue, and sun is bright.

• Complete the chart.

consonant sounds a truck coat bookshelf test


C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
1. Jack has a aunt. Jack has an aunt. artist eagle island owl
vowel sounds
(a, e, i, o, u)
2. My uncle has an garden. uncle

3. I have a idea. specific thing He has a camera. camera is very nice.

4. There is a eagle. only one of


sun moon sky
something
5. An sun is hot.

12 Unit 2 13
03 He has three watches.
Grammar Station
A Choose and write the plural nouns in the correct boxes.

glass tree wolf story


bench cherry balloon leaf
Plural Nouns
We use singular nouns when we talk about one person or thing.
-s -es -ies -ves
We use plural nouns when we talk about two or more people or things.
We usually add -s or -es to make plural nouns.
trees
Singular Plural
most nouns + -s ball balls
bench benches
dish dishes
-ch, -sh, -s, -x, -o + -es bus buses
fox foxes B Write the correct plural nouns.
tomato tomatoes
1. 2.
baby babies
consonant + -y y + -ies
cherry cherries
leaf leaves
-f, -fe f + -ves
knife knives
one eraser two erasers one dish three

There are two birds.


She has a watch. 3. 4.
He has three watches.

one scarf four one butterfly five


He wants a cherry.
They see leaves.
She wants four cherries.

C Circle the correct words.


1. I have two ( wallets / walletes ).
Check the correct plural nouns.
2. There are three ( boxs / boxes ).
1. three friends 2. two buss
3. Hillary needs seven ( potatoes / potatos ).
3. four leafs 4. four students
4. My aunt has two ( babys / babies ).
5. six tomatoes 6. three knives
5. Matthew wants three ( sandwiches / sandwichs ).
7. two dishs 8. four babys
14 Unit 3 15
vertisement,
When you write an ad
Grammar in Writing you can describe thi
ngs for sale
using plural noun s.

A Choose and complete the sentence.


Complete the advertisement using plural nouns.
brush knife dress watch box

Garage Sale
I am at a shop. We’re having a garage sale! Don’t miss this chance to buy great things!
I see many things there: -When: Saturday, October 4 -Where: 3404 Jewel Ave.
watches -Things to sell: -Time: 9 a.m. – 3 p.m.
1. five ,

2. three , $ 15
0
$3 $ 12
3. four ,

4. two , and
two watches

5. six . $ 10
$5
0
$2

B Change and complete the sentences using plural nouns.


1. The girl has a puppy. The girls have two puppies . *No discounts! No refunds! See you there!

2. The lady wants a strawberry. The ladies want five strawberries.

3. The baby sees an elf. The babies see seven elves .


• Complete the chart.
4. The rabbit meets a lamb. The rabbits meet three lambs .
Rule Singular Plural
5. The student needs a bench. The students need four benches . most nouns friend friends
bench
brush
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
-ch, -sh, -s, -x, -o glass
1. Tony has seven peachs. Tony has seven peaches.
box
2. There are ten citis. potato

3. My uncle has two buss. consonant + -y baby


shelf
4. I need four hamburgeres. -f, -fe
knife
5. Chris wants five shelvs.

16 Unit 3 17
04 He wants some water.
Grammar Station
A Write a, an, or X.
1. X milk 2. firefighter

3. eraser 4. oil
Count & Noncount Nouns
Count nouns are nouns that we can count. They have singular and plural forms. 5. flour 6. shampoo
Noncount nouns are nouns that we can’t count. They only have singular forms.
We can use some with both plural count nouns and noncount nouns. 7. post office 8. egg

Count Noncount

a song three songs a music three musics B Circle the correct words.
a dollar four dollars a money four moneys
a sandwich some sandwiches a bread some breads
1 2 1. ( a / an / some ) honey
a leaf some leaves a tea some teas
an orange some oranges a juice some juices
2. ( a / some / three ) bread
an onion some onions a soup some soups

3 4 3. ( a / an / some ) toothpaste

I eat an orange. 4. ( a / an / two ) cooks


She eats two apples.
He eats some grapes.
5 6 5. ( a / an / two ) sandwiches

6. ( a / some / two ) cheese


He wants some water.
She wants some bread.

C Circle the correct words.


1. I have ( a soup / some soup ).

Draw a around the count nouns and a around the noncount nouns. 2. We want ( two butters / some butter ).

soup water brother 3. There are ( two buildings / some building ).


milk
orange money juice 4. Julie sees ( an eagle / some eagle ).

artist bread tea box 5. Ken needs ( three moneys / some money ).

butter shirt cheese


6. My mom wants ( an oil / some oil ).

18 Unit 4 19
s in a story,
When you use noun
Grammar in Writing check first whether the
y are
un s.
count or noncount no

A Choose and complete the sentence.


Choose and complete the story.
butter rice cheese onion meat egg

Hansel and Gretel are in the woods.


My mom is in a grocery store.
They are hungry and thirsty.
She needs:
Hansel finds a house.
1. some onions ,
The house is full of food.
2. some , Hansel has some cheese ,

3. some , two bananas , three


and some . Gretel has
4. some ,
two pears , some ,
5. some , and some , and some .

6. some . Now they are full and happy.

cheese ham juice bread


B Complete the sentences with a, an, or X. milk banana sandwich pear
1. Emily needs X yogurt. 2. Jerry eats orange.

3. Holly has sugar. 4. My dad wants tea.

5. Scott drinks water. 6. He sees bug.

7. There is vet. 8. Alice needs chair.


• Complete the chart.
Count Noncount pilot sugar
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
oil basket
1. There is some sands. There is some sand. pilot bug yogurt
rice onion
2. Brenda listens to musics.
chair picture
3. I need some orange. meat coffee
eagle honey
4. Larry has some moneys.
money brother
5. Wendy needs some spoon.

20 Unit 4 21
05 He is Bob.
Grammar Station
A Write the correct subject pronouns.
1. (Mary) She is a singer. 2. (My sisters) are pretty.

3. (The pot) is heavy. 4. (Ben) is a smart boy.


Subject Pronouns & The Verb Be
Subject pronouns replace subject nouns. 5. (Ken and Bill) are actors. 6. (The giraffes) are tall.
We use I, you, he, she, we, and they for people, and it and they for animals or things.
The verb be (am, are, is) changes its form according to the subject. 7. (You and I) are very rich. 8. (Amy and you) are kind.

Singular Plural
Subject Subject
Pronoun
Be Short Form
Pronoun
Be Short Form B Complete the sentences using the verb be.
I am = I’m We = We’re are
1 2 1. They my teachers.
You are = You’re You = You’re
People
He = He’s are 2. I sleepy.
They
She is = She’s = They’re
Animals/Things It = It’s They 3 4 3. He fat.

4. We angry.
I am Kelly. He is Bob.
I’m a student. He’s my friend.
5 6 5. Mrs. Hunter an actress.

6. You very smart.


We are friends. They are my parents.
We’re hardworking. They’re kind.

C Write the short forms.

1. They are 2. He is
Match the subject pronouns with their forms of the verb be. my friends. a good person.
They’re
1. They am 2. You
3. It is 4. We are
very cute. busy.
3. He / She are 4. It

5. I am 6. She is
5. I is 6. We hungry. beautiful.

22 Unit 5 23
ok report, you
Grammar in Writing When you write a bo
can use the verb be
to describe the
an d story.
characters, setting,
A Write the correct subject pronouns.
1. Sandy is my cousin. She is very tall.
Complete the book report using the verb be.

2. My name is Matthew. am 11 years old.


3. Jim and Fred are my uncles. are dentists. Title The Wizard of Oz
4. Dennis is an actor. is handsome. Characters Dorothy is a girl.
5. Jodie and I are friends. are students. Her red shoes magical.
Toto her dog.

The Tin Man unhappy.


B Complete the sentences.
The Lion shy.
1 2 3 The Scarecrow foolish.

Setting They in the Land of Oz.


4 5 6
Story Dorothy and Toto lost in the Land of Oz.
The Tin Man, the Lion and the Scarecrow her friends.
They help Dorothy go back home. They very kind.
1. David is brave. 2. Your shirt pretty.

= He’s brave. = pretty.

3.  Mrs. Houston old. 4. Paul and I classmates.

= She’s old. = classmates.

5. The cookies delicious. 6. Harry and Bill musicians.

= delicious. = They’re musicians. • Complete the chart.


Singular Plural
I am I’m We
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. You You
1. They is happy. They are happy. He

2. My dad are scared. She They

3. We’s busy. It

4. Helen and Jack is cooks.

24 Unit 5 25
06 I’m not a teacher.
Grammar Station
A Complete the negative sentences.
1. I am Canadian. I am not French.

2. You are smart. You stupid.


The Verb Be: Negative & Yes/No Questions
3. It is a duck. It a chicken.
We put not after the verb be to make negative sentences.
We put the verb be before the subject to make yes/no questions. 4. They are my brothers. They my friends.

Negative Yes/No Question 5. He is handsome. He ugly.


Subject Be + Not Short Form Question Answer
6. We are police officers. We firefighters.
I am not = I’m not Am I ... ? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
You are not = You aren’t Are you ... ? Yes, I am. No, I’m not.
He = He isn’t Is he ... ? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.
B Change the sentences into questions.
She is not = She isn’t Is she ... ? Yes, she is. No, she isn’t. 1. You are diligent. Are you diligent?
It = It isn’t Is it ... ? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.
2. She is American. American?
We = We aren’t Are we ... ? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
3. They are cooks. cooks?
You are not = You aren’t Are you ... ? Yes, we are. No, we aren’t.
They = They aren’t Are they ... ? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. 4. It is a dragonfly. a dragonfly?

5. We are happy. happy?

I am a student. Are you a firefighter? 6. He is Jack. Jack?


I’m not a teacher. - Yes, I am.

C Complete the answers.


Is he hardworking? 1. A Is she your mother?
They are pretty.
- ‌No, he isn’t. she is
They aren’t ugly. B Yes, .
He is lazy.

2. A Are they your brothers?


B Yes, they are .

Check the correct sentences. 3. A


A Is he your father?

1. You are not short. 2. She am not here. B No, he . He’s my uncle.

3. I is not tired. 4. They are not angry. 4. A


A Is it a hamster?

5. We are not hungry. 6. It are not scary. B No, it . It’s a kitten.

26 Unit 6 27
someone,
Grammar in Writing When you interview
you can use the verb
be to ask
/she is.
about who or how he

A Change and complete the sentences using the short negative forms.
1. My parents are angry. My parents aren’t angry.
Complete the interview.

2. I am a mailman. a mailman. Let’s welcome Fred, an actor, to our show.

Fred, let’s talk about your family first. Is your wife an actress?
3. Greg and I are singers. Greg and I singers.
No, . She is a lawyer.
4. You are my friend. You my friend.
You have a son. he nine years old?
5. The table is heavy. The table heavy.
No, . He is eight years old.

these your daughters?


B Write the questions. Yes, . They are really lovely.
1 2 3 4
Oh, what is this? it your kitten?

Yes, . It’s very smart.

you happy?
hungry old hairdressers your scarf
Yes, !
1. A Are you hungry? 2. A
B No, I’m not. B Yes, she is.

3. A 4. A
• Complete the chart.
B Yes, they are. B No, it isn’t.
Negative Yes/No Question
I am not = I’m not Am I ... ? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
You = ... ?
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
He = ... ?
1. I are not Jasmine. I am not Jasmine.
She = ... ?
2. Ralph and Fred isn’t swimmers. It = ... ?
We = ... ?
3. It not is your kite.
You = ... ?
4. Karen aren’t my cousin.
They = ... ?
5. You am not a princess.

28 Unit 6 29
07 Who is she?
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct words.
1. A ( Who / What ) is the old woman? B She is my grandmother.

2. A ( Who / What ) is that small animal? B It is a spider.


The Verb Be: Wh-questions
3. A ( Who / What ) are they? B They are my cousins.
We use who to ask for information about people.
We use what to ask for information about animals or things. 4. A ( Who / What ) are you? B I’m Andy’s brother.
The question words who or what come before the verb be.
5. A ( Who / What ) are they? B They are lizards.
Question Answer
am I? You are the king.
B Match the questions with the correct answers.
are you? I am Alice.
People Who
is he? He is my uncle. 1. What is that building? • • He is the chef.
are they? They are Tony and Beth. 2. Who is that man? • • They are zebras.
Animals/ is it? It is a basket.
Things What
are they? They are giraffes.
3. Who are those girls? • • It is a post office.

4. What are they? • • She is Holly.

Who are you?


What is it?
5. Who is she? • • It is a bike.
- ‌I’m Kelly.
I’m a student.
- ‌It is a pumpkin. 6. What is it? • • They are Tracy’s sisters.

C Complete the questions.


Who is she?
What are they?
- ‌She is Mrs. Wood.
- ‌They are pears. 1. A Who is he?
She is my teacher.
B He is Jerry. He is a mail carrier.

2. A they?
B They are blueberries.
Match the pictures with the correct question words.

1. 2. 3. A the boxes?

Who B They are presents.

3. 4.
What 4. A you?
B I’m Mr. White. I am your new teacher.
5. 6.

30 Unit 7 31
logue, you
When you write a dia
Grammar in Writing can use question wo
rds to ask for
on .
specific informati
A Circle the correct words and complete the answers.
1. A Who are they? B They are ( Jill and Bob / my gloves ). Complete the dialogue in the comic strip.

2. A What are they? B ( my kite / skunks ). I am Abracadabra!


Look at this. What are they?
a magician.
What is it?
3. A Who is that lady? B ( tomato pasta / my aunt ). Who are you? a box.
They are twins.
4. A Who are they? B ( my parents / sandwiches ).

5. A What is it? B ( a swimmer / my phone ).

6. A Who is that boy? B ( my cousin Sam / Tom’s house ).

Abracadabra Abracadabra!
B Write the questions using who or what. !Who is he? What are they?
1 2 1. A Who is he?
B He is Dan. He is my uncle.

2. A
Wow, they
B It’s a robot. I like it. an old man.
are doves.

3. A
3 4
B They are flags.

4. A
• Complete the chart.
B ‌They are Fred and Jessica.
They’re my classmates. Question Answer
am I? You are the chef.
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. you? your teacher.
1. What is that woman? Who is that woman? People
the girl? my cousin Jane.
2. What is it? – They is a catalog.
the men? Tom and Brad.
3. Who is the boys? it? a skunk.
Animals/
4. What am she? Things
they? chairs.

5. What are they? – It is my puppies.

32 Unit 7 33
08 There is a table.
Grammar Station
A Choose and write the words in the correct boxes.
a room some butter three buses
two babies some dolphins some water
There + The Verb Be
We use there is for singular nouns and noncount nouns. There is There are
We use there are for plural nouns.
a room
There Be Noun
a chair.
Singular
an umbrella.
There is
some bread.
Noncount
some milk.
two clowns.
seven butterflies.
There are Plural
three rabbits. B Complete the sentences with is or are.
some dishes.
1. There is some juice.

There is a table. There are two clowns. 2. There a peach.

3. There two melons.

4. There some ham.


There is some bread. There are some dishes.

5. There four cucumbers.

6. There two tomatoes.


Circle the correct words.

is is C Circle the correct words.


1. There a big house. 2. There many stars.
are are 1. There is ( two swings / a swing ). 2. There are ( some trees / a tree ).

is is 3. There are ( a river / two rivers ). 4. There are ( a cow / some cows ).
3. There some flowers. 4. There some rice.
are are
5. There is ( a tent / some tents ). 6. There is ( some money / a money ).
is is
5. There two children. 6. There a hospital. 7. There are ( some bowls / a bowl ). 8. There is ( a farm / two farms ).
are are
34 Unit 8 35
ry, you can
When you write a sto
Grammar in Writing use there is or there
are to say
.
that something exi sts

A Complete the sentences with there is or there are.


1. There are some shoes.
Complete the story with there is or there are.

2. some rice.
Alice sees a strange rabbit.
3. a child.
She follows the rabbit.
4. two lambs. There is a garden.

5. some soup. many

strange things in the garden.


There is a fat queen.
B Write the sentences using there is and there are.
some soldiers.

1 vase sofa a white rose.


4
monkey some milk some soda

on the table.
2 This is the living room.
She drinks the soda.
3
1. There are three monkeys.
Look! The soldiers chase her.
2. Alice runs away.

3.

4.

C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. • Complete the chart.
1. There are some jam. There is some jam.
There Be Noun There Be Noun

2. There are a queen. There is a swing. three dolphins.


a bowl. four men.
3. There is three airplanes.
some honey. nine airplanes.
4. There are a station. some oil. some cookies.

5. There are some flour.

36 Unit 8 37
09 This is a bat.
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct words.
1. ( This / That ) is my desk.

2. ( This / That ) is my bed.


Demonstrative Pronouns
We use this and these to talk about people or things that are near us. 3. ( This / That ) is my chair.
We use that and those to talk about people or things that are far from us.
This and that are for singular nouns, and these and those are for plural nouns. 4. ( This / That ) is my dresser.

5. ( This / That ) is my computer.


Singular Plural

This is a bat. These are gloves.


Positive
That is a jar. Those are pears.
B Circle the correct words.
This isn’t a stick. These aren’t mittens.
Negative 1 2
That isn’t a vase. Those aren’t peaches. These is
1. melons.
Is this 〔that〕 a bowl? Are these 〔those〕 gloves?
Those are
Question
- Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. - Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.
This is
2. a bucket.
That are
3 4
These is
This is a bat. That is a baseball. 3. socks.
This isn’t a stick. That isn’t a soccer ball. Those are

This is
4. a frog.
These are
Are those gloves? 5 6 That is
These are pears.
- ‌No, they aren’t. 5. a bottle.
These aren’t peaches.
They are mittens.
Those are

These is
6. scissors.
Those are

Match the pictures with the correct words.


C Change the sentences into questions.
1. 2.
this 1. That is spinach. Is that spinach?

that 2. These are new pants. new pants?


3. 4.
these 3. Those are Kate’s kittens. Kate’s kittens?

those 4. This is Fred’s bike. Fred’s bike?

38 Unit 9 39
nstrative
When you use demo
Grammar in Writing pronoun s in wr itin g, it should be
to.
clear what they refer
A Complete the sentences.
1 2 3 4
Complete the narration using demonstrative pronouns.

Welcome to my spacecraft!

Come on in and look around.


1. This is a notebook. This isn’t a book. These are computers.

2. bees. ants. a telescope.

3. a mouse. a hamster. telephones.

aren’t onions. my robot dog.


4. mushrooms.
It is very cute and smart!

a microwave.
B Complete the dialogues.
windows.
1 1. A Is this an orange? a sink.
B Yes , it is . a toilet.
A melons? Oh, I have to use the toilet. Bye!
B No, .

2 2. A monkeys?
B Yes, .
• Complete the chart.
A a hippo?
Singular Plural
B No, .
This is my vase. These are my vases.
Positive
Those are zebras.

C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. These aren’t pears.
Negative
These are my sunglasses. That isn’t a car.
1. These is my sunglasses.
Is this your backpack?
2. That are her umbrellas. −Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t . –
Question
3. Are this the post office? Are those your coats?
– −Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.
4. Are this your truck?

40 Unit 9 41
10 These are my sneakers.
Grammar Station
A Circle the possessive adjectives.
1. They have two daughters. Their daughters are pretty.

2. He has new shoes. These are his new shoes.


Possessive Adjectives
We use possessive adjectives before nouns to show who owns something. 3. I have some comic books. These are my comic books.
We add ’s to someone’s name to show that he or she owns something.
4. We have a puppy. We love our puppy.
Subject Possessive Adjective Subject Possessive Adjective
5. Sally has a wallet. Her wallet is expensive.
I my name it its tail
you your book we our house 6. Look at the parrot. Its feathers are beautiful.

he his hair they their children


she her shoes David David’s car B Circle the correct words.
1. It is ( she / her ) house. 2. Those are ( his / he ) glasses.
I have sneakers. She has a kitten.
These are my Her kitten is 3. This is ( our / our’s ) farm. 4. He is ( my / I ) grandfather.
sneakers. very cute.
5. They love ( they / their ) school. 6. That is ( you / your ) sandwich.

7. Is this ( Jeff’s / Jeff ) ruler? 8. ( It’s / Its ) legs are short.


They have a computer. David has a car.
I like their computer. David’s car is great.
C Complete the sentences with his, her, its, or their.
1.
His hair is brown.

sweater is green.

Match the subject pronouns with the correct possessive adjectives.


2.
1. I 2. you 3. he 4. she skirts are yellow.
• • • •
hair is blond.
its their her his
3.
my your our bow tie is red.

• • • ears are big.


5. it 6. we 7. they

42 Unit 10 43
ing online,
When you write someth
Grammar in Writing you can show who ow
ns
tive
things
s.
using possessive adjec

A Complete the sentences using possessive adjectives.


1. Mrs. Ward has a baby. Her baby is very cute.
Complete the sentences on Julieˇs webpage using possessive adjectives.

2. Look at the giraffe. neck is long.


Julie Lowland
3. I know James. brother is my classmate.
These are my family’s pets.

4. Lisa and Paul have a truck. truck is great.


Ken Williams Oh, I love your dad’s
5. My sister and I have a piano. We like piano. dog. His dog is very big.
Its fur is nice.
6. You look tired. eyes are red.
Brenda Miller I like your brothers’
turtles. Their turtles are cute. I
Dad and Mom and
Complete the sentences. want to see them.
B his dog cat
1 2 1. ( he / brother ) James Wards Wow, owl is
His brother is tall. great. Its eyes are very big
and beautiful.
2. ( she / car )
is old. Amy Lorenz Your mom’s cat is
beautiful. I like its long tail.
My brothers and Me and
3 4 3. ( we / shoes ) their turtles owl
are red.

4. ( they / parents )
are kind.
• Complete the chart.
Subject Possessive Adjective Subject Possessive Adjective
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
I my bike it eyes
1. This is he’s pencil case. This is his pencil case.
you hands we school
2. It wings are very long.
he mother they parents
3. Welcome to I house.

4. Is this Steve jacket? she coat Sam puppy

5. Are they she brothers?

44 Unit 10 45
11 My bag is green.
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct adjectives.
1 2 1. It is a ( thin / fat ) cat.

Adjectives 2. I see ( tall / short ) buildings.


We use adjectives to describe nouns. Adjectives tell us more about nouns.
3 4
3. It is a ( red / green ) dress.
Color Size & Shape Feeling Look
red yellow big small happy sad pretty ugly
blue green long short angry hungry beautiful cute 4. There are many ( clean / dirty ) dishes.
white black thin fat thirsty sleepy clean dirty
pink brown round square sick tired old young

We can use adjectives before nouns or after the verb be.


B Put the adjectives in the correct places.
1. small There is a small house.
Adjective + Noun The Verb Be + Adjective
Adjective Noun Subject Be Adjective 2. cute Look at the baby.
I have a green bag. My bag is green.
They are old cars. The cars are old. 3. long This is a snake.

4. big She has eyes .

I have a green bag. It’s a big house. 5. pink Brenda has a coat .
My bag is green. The house is big.
6. young There are boys.

She is a happy girl. These are cute kittens. C Change and complete the sentences.
The girl is happy. The kittens are cute.
1. I have a purple coat. My coat is purple .

2. She has long fingers. Her fingers .

3. It has a sharp beak. Its beak .


Circle the adjectives.
4. He has strong arms. His arms .
1. I have a brown bag. 2. You are beautiful.
5. It has beautiful eyes. Its eyes .
3. There is a round table. 4. These pants are short.
6. She has an expensive ring. Her ring .
5. The clown is happy. 6. She wears a big hat.

46 Unit 11 47
and contrast
When you compare
Grammar in Writing in writing you can use
s.
adjectives
to describe two thi ng

A Choose and complete the sentences.


Choose and complete the comparative writing.
blue hungry big long round thirsty

1. There is a thirsty boy.

2. The girl is .

3. The woman has hair.

4. The sky is .
The pig has a short neck. The deer has a neck.
5. The tree is .
The pig’s skin is pink . The deer’s fur is brown .
6. There is a table. The pig’s eyes are small . The deer’s eyes are .

The pig has fat legs. The deer has legs.

The pig eats all kinds of food. The deer eats fresh grass.
B Change and complete the sentences.
1. The boy is tall. He is a tall boy .

2. Her face is round. She has . fresh long big pink thin short brown small fat

3. Ralph’s hands are big. Ralph has .

4. Your pants are pretty. You have .

5. This book is thick. This is . • Complete the chart.


Adjective + Noun The Verb Be + Adjective

C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. He is a tall boy . The boy is tall.

1. There is rectangular a tray. There is a rectangular tray. She is an angry woman. The woman .

2. Stacy likes the socks red. It is a yellow taxi. The taxi .

3. The dinosaur huge has a body. They are . The children are noisy.

4. Jason and Tina angry are. They are square dishes. The dishes .

5. Ian has old an Jeep.

48 Unit 11 49
12 They are on the sofa.
Grammar Station
A Write T (true) or F (false).

1. The cup is on the desk. T

2. The dresser is behind the desk.


Prepositions of Place
We use prepositions of place to say where people or things are. 3. The red sweater is in the dresser.
Prepositions usually come before nouns.
4. The newspaper is under the chair.
Subject Be Preposition Noun

He / She in B Circle the correct prepositions.


Tom / Your sister on
Singular is
It 1 2 3 4 5
under
The melon the box.
in front of
We / You / They behind
Plural are
My pencils next to
My dog Gus is 1. ( in / under ) the bone.

2. ( on / next to ) the table.


He is in the box. They are on the sofa.
3. ( under / in front of ) the man.

4. ( in / next to ) his doghouse.


The shoes are under The car is in front of 5. ( on / behind ) the mail carrier.
the table. the house.

C Complete the answers with the correct prepositions.


Where is your sister? Where are my books? 1. A Where is the girl?
- She is behind the door. - They are next to the lamp.
B She is behind the tree.

2. AAWhere are the dogs?B


B They are on the car.
Write the correct ball numbers.
3. A Where is the car?B
3
1. in 2. behind B It’s in front of the house.
3. on 4. next to 4. A Where is the man?
5. under 6. in front of B He is in the car.

50 Unit 12 51
ere things
When you explain wh
Grammar in Writing or people are in a no
te, you can
ce.
use prepositions of pla

A Look at the two pictures and complete the sentences.


Complete the note with the correct prepositions.

Dear Jenny,

Dad and I are out today. There


is some pizza
in the
Picture A Picture B
refrigerator. You can see an
1. The toy duck is in the bathtub. The toy duck is the basket. orange behind the pizza. You
can see some cookies
2. The soap is the sink. The soap is the bathtub.
the table. There is some candy
3. The comb is the toilet. The comb is the sink. next to the cookies.
Oh, there is also some money
4. The towel isin front of the toilet. The towel is the basket.
the lamp. Please don’t
forget to close the door!

B Look at Picture A and complete the answers. Love, Mom

1. A Where is the cup? B It’s on the sink.

2. A Where are the toothbrushes? B the cup.

3. A Where is the basket? B the toilet.


• Complete the chart.
4. A Where are the dogs? B the mat.
Subject Be Preposition Noun
5. A Where is the mat? B the floor.
She is in
He
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
Monica is behind the tree. The rabbits
1. Monica is the tree behind.
the box.
The oranges
2. The pillow is the bed under.

3. My books are the desk on. The boy

4. The peach is the in refrigerator. The baskets

5. The monkeys next to are the tree. The monkeys are next to the tree.

52 Unit 12 53
13 He eats bread every day.
Grammar Station
A Circle the subjects and underline the verbs.
1. We drink milk every day. 2. My father works hard.

3. It rains a lot in summer. 4. I write a letter to my friend.


Present Simple: Subject-Verb Agreement
These verbs show action, so they are called action verbs. 5. The rabbits run fast. 6. She looks at the blackboard.

7. Chris climbs the tree. 8. You dance very well.


eat drink walk run swim play
look sleep read write sing dance

B Circle the correct verbs.


The subject and the verb must agree with each other in a sentence.
We add -(e)s to the verb when the subject is he, she, or it. 1. I ( like / likes ) chocolate and ice cream.

Subject Verb Subject Verb 2. She ( help / helps ) sick people.


I He
eat eats 3. The boy ( kick / kicks ) a soccer ball.
You She
run runs
We dance It dances 4. Mary ( read / reads ) books every day.
play plays
They The boy
sleep sleeps 5. They ( speak / speaks ) English very well.
My sisters My sister
6. We ( wear / wears ) our coats in winter.

I eat rice every day. We play soccer.


He eats bread every day. She plays golf. C Choose and complete the sentences.

dance smiles walks swim draw plays

You run fast. The babies sleep at night.


Sam runs slowly. Their mom sleeps, too. 1. The child plays in the park. 1 2

2. They on weekends.

3. A turtle slowly. 3 4
Circle the verbs.
4. Jim and Ann well.
jump baby smile drink fast
5. She at her children. 5 6
read draw orange climb
6. The students pictures.
green sit rice listen write

54 Unit 13 55
tence, the
When you write a sen
Grammar in Writing subject and the verb
mu st agree
in number.
A Circle the correct subjects.
1. ( She / They ) walks to school.
Complete the information signs about the animals.

2. ( My friend / My friends ) live in Paris.


Dolphins swim very well.
3. ( The duck / The ducks ) swims on the lake. (swim)
Dolphins small fish.
4. ( This lady / These ladies ) sits on the sofa. (eat)
Some dolphins high.
5. ( That kangaroo / Those kangaroos ) jump high. (jump)
A mother dolphin care of her babies.
Dolphins (take)

B Choose and complete the sentences.

cut read draw play paint bake Honeybees in a hive.


(live)
A queen bee the bee family.
(rule)
1. The girl paints a picture.
She eggs.
(lay)
2. The boys cars.
Worker bees hard for the family.
Honeybees (work)
3. The teacher the paper.

4. The kids a board game.

5. Their dad a book.

6. Their mom cupcakes. • Complete the chart.

Subject Verb Subject Verb

C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. sing I sing He sings
1. She drink coffee every day. She drinks coffee every day. drink You She

2. The boys plays soccer. walk We It

3. My grandma tell a story. clean They The boy

4. Monkeys likes bananas. play My sisters My sister

5. The cats climbs the tree.

56 Unit 13 57
14 She brushes her teeth.
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct verbs.
1. She ( like / likes ) books. 2. I ( helps / help ) poor people.

3. Chris ( eates / eats ) beef. 4. Wendy ( lovies / loves ) animals.


Present Simple: Positive
We use the present simple to talk about facts and regular actions. 5. They ( catches / catch ) bugs. 6. We ( want / wants ) juice.
We use the base verb with I, you, we, or they.
We add -s or -es to the base verb with he, she, or it. 7. Bill ( study / studies ) math. 8. He ( teachies / teaches ) English.

Rule I/You/We/They He/She/It


most verbs + -s like likes B Complete the sentences with have or has.
catch catches 1 2 1. I have blue eyes.
brush brushes
-ch, -sh, -s, -x + -es
kiss kisses
mix mixes 2. The monkey a long tail.
consonant + -y y + -ies fly flies
have has 3 4 3. My parents a farm.
exceptions go goes
do does
4. Melissa a pretty dress.

5 6 5. Wayne a new computer.


I like tennis. I brush my hair.
He likes soccer. She brushes her teeth.
6. We dinner at 7 p.m.

We fly kites. They have robots.


Patrick flies a kite. My sister has a doll. C Complete the sentences in the present simple.
1. wash She washes her hair in the morning.

2. play My brothers tennis every day.


Check the correct forms of the verbs.
3. go He goes to the library after school.
1. loves 2. kissies
4. mix Stephanie flour and eggs to make bread every day.
3. plaies 4. has

5. cries 6. flys 5. cry My cat at night.

7. reades 8. brushes 6. watch We movies on Sundays.

58 Unit 14 59
sent simple,
When you use the pre
Grammar in Writing don’t forget to add
-s or -es to
it.
verbs after he, she, or

A Choose and complete the sentences in the present simple.


1 2 3 4 5
Choose and complete the postcard.

Dear Emily,
How are you? I’m in Paris.

1. Nick does his homework after dinner. I’m in front of the Eiffel Tower now.
have There are many people here. A boy flies
2. My mom me every day.
fly a kite. An old man kisses his
3. She a kite on Saturdays. kiss granddaughter. A man rides a bike.
Three women sing together. A baby
4. Mark science class on Mondays. brush
cries . I love this city very much.
do
5. Mr. Gibson his teeth at night. I hope you are well. See you soon.
From,
Lynn
B Change and complete the sentences.
gets up cry kiss love sing fly ride hope
1. I get up at 6 a.m. He at 6 a.m.

2. I have breakfast every day. Alex every day.

3. I brush my teeth at 7 a.m. Ms. Rollins brushes her teeth at 7 a.m.

4. I go to school at 8 a.m. Lucy at 8 a.m.


• Complete the chart.
5. I study hard at school. My brother at school.
Rule I/You/We/They He/She/It
6. I watch TV after dinner. She after dinner. most verbs help helps
teach
wash
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. -ch, -sh, -s, -x
kiss
1. They eats bread for breakfast. They eat bread for breakfast.
fix
2. My uncle fixs bikes well. consonant + -y study
have
3. You studies hard every day.
exceptions go
4. Bruce plaies computer games. do

5. I often washes my hands.

60 Unit 14 61
15 We don’t play soccer.
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct words.
1. She ( don’t / doesn’t ) like cheese. 2. Tim ( don’t / doesn’t ) play soccer.

3. We ( don’t / doesn’t ) eat meat. 4. He ( don’t / doesn’t ) read books.


Present Simple: Negative
5. It ( don’t / doesn’t ) have a tail. 6. They ( don’t / doesn’t ) buy soda.
We put do not or does not before the base verb to make negative sentences.
7. Ken ( don’t / doesn’t ) watch TV. 8. I ( don’t / doesn’t ) speak Spanish.
Positive Negative
Subject Verb Subject Do/Does + Not Base Verb

I I B Complete the sentences with don’t or doesn’t.


You You do not 1. We don’t play baseball. 2. Jill doesn’t read storybooks.
run.
We We (=don’t)
3. It doesn’t eat fish. 4. I like milk.
They They run.
He He 5. You need the book. 6. He doesn’t drink apple juice.
does not
She runs. She
(=doesn’t) 7. Rob and Bill don’t work. 8. Justin doesn’t know her.
It It

C Complete the negative sentences.


I don’t eat rice. She doesn’t study science. 1. 2.
I eat bread. She studies math.

We don’t play soccer. It doesn’t eat meat.


We play baseball. It eats leaves. Mike studies music. She drives a car.

He doesn’t study art. She doesn’t a truck.

3. 4.
Match the subject pronouns with don’t or doesn’t.

1. you 2. it
don’t
3. he 4. we The fish has fins. They wash peaches.
doesn’t
5. they 6. she It doesn’t wings. They don’t pears.

62 Unit 15 63
journal, you
Grammar in Writing When you write in a
can use the present
simple to talk
about regular actions.
A Complete the sentences.
1 2 3 4
Complete the journal using negative forms.

I have a twin sister named Pam.


We look the same, but we are very different.
drink eat sell wear I like horror movies.

drinks coffee. But she doesn’t like them.


1. My mom 2. We vegetables.
I play the flute every day.
She doesn’t drink tea. We meat.
She doesn’t play the flute.
3. The store mangoes. 4. I pants. She reads books every day.
I any vegetables.
It doesn’t lemons. I skirts.
She eats all kinds of vegetables.
Oh, we have one thing in common.
We always study hard.
B Change and complete the sentences in negative forms.
But we on Sundays.
1. I wash my hair at night. I don’t wash my hair at night.

2. Mary works on Saturdays. Mary doesn’t on Saturdays.

3. We exercise every day. We exercise every day.

4. My parents enjoy skiing. My parents enjoy skiing. • Complete the chart.


5. Aaron studies hard. Aaron doesn’t hard. Positive Negative

I play soccer. I don’t play soccer.

You work hard. You hard.


C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
We listen to the radio. We to the radio.
1. My uncle don’t drinks cola. My uncle doesn’t drink cola.
They enjoy skiing. They skiing.
2. I doesn’t listens to the radio.
He exercises every day. He exercise every day.
3. They doesn’t has any money.
She drinks coffee. She coffee.
4. Sarah don’t wants spicy food.
It eats fish. It fish.
5. Kevin and I doesn’t rides bikes.

64 Unit 15 65
16 Do you like carrots?
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct words.
1. ( Do / Does ) you have boots? 2. ( Do / Does ) she know Jerry?

3. ( Do / Does ) they eat plants? 4. ( Do / Does ) it have wings?


Present Simple: Yes/No Questions
We put do or does before the subject to make yes/no questions. 5. ( Do / Does ) Ken get up early? 6. ( Do / Does ) he teach English?
We don’t repeat the main verb in short answers.
7. ( Do / Does ) Jill live in France? 8. ( Do / Does ) we need pencils?
Question Answer
Do/Does Subject Base Verb Yes No

I Yes, you do. No, you don’t.


B Match the questions with the correct answers.
you Yes, I do. No, I don’t.
Do
we Yes, you do. No, you don’t. 1. Do you listen to the radio? • • Yes, they do.
they like birds? Yes, they do. No, they don’t.
he Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t.
2. Does your sister like music? • • No, she doesn’t.

Does she Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t.


3. Does Brian have a bike? • • Yes, it does.
it Yes, it does. No, it doesn’t.
4. Do they speak English? • • No, I don’t.

Do you like carrots? Do they play soccer? 5. Does the bird eat worms? • • Yes, he does.
- Yes, I do. - No, they don’t.

C Complete the answers.


Does he have a pig? Does it bark?
- No, he doesn’t. - Yes, it does. 1 2 3 4

Circle the correct words.


1. A Do you exercise? 2. A Does Brad want the vest?
Do have Do play
1. you a bike? 2. he soccer? B Yes, I do . b Yes, he .
Does has Does plays

3. A Do Sam and Jim play baseball? 4. A Does Lisa have long hair?
Do run Do watch
3. it fast? 4. they TV?
Does runs Does watches b No, they . b No, she .

66 Unit 16 67
estionnaire
When you make a qu
Grammar in Writing about habits, you ca
n use the
present simple.
A Complete the dialogues.
1 2 1. A Do we have math class today?
Complete the questionnaire.

B Yes, you do.


We have some questions about you and your family’s habits.
2. A it have legs?
Please check the answer for each question.
B
Yes No
3 4 3. A the students study hard? 1. Do you get up early?

B No, they don’t. 2. early?

4. A Cleo live in New York? 3.

B 4. your parents books every day?

5. you eat snacks every day?

6. your brother or sister snacks every day?


B Change the sentences into questions.
Do you wear a uniform? 7. you do your homework in the evening?
1. You wear a uniform.
8. your mom help you with your homework?
2. Sarah dances well. Does Sarah dance well?

3. He drives his car every day. Does he drive his car every day?

4. She speaks two languages.


Does she speak two languages?

5. We take a walk at night.


Do we take a walk at night?

Do they swim after school? • Complete the chart.


6. They swim after school.
Question Answer

Do I Yes, you do. No, you don’t.


C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
you
1. Does they have a house? Do they have a house?
we
2. Does Lucy has a Jeep? they like soccer?
he
3. Does pandas eat leaves?
she
4. You do study every day?
it
5. Do your aunt play golf?

68 Unit 16 69
17 What does he like?
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct words.
1. What ( do / does ) you want? 2. What ( do / does ) she like?

3. What does ( he / you ) hate? 4. What do ( you / she ) practice?


Present Simple: Wh-questions
5. What does she ( wear / wears )? 6. What do they ( need / needs )?
We use what to ask for information about animals or things.
The question word what comes before do or does.

Question Answer B Match the questions with the correct answers.


do you I like chicken. 1. What do you enjoy? He has a toy car.
do they They like chocolate cake.
What like? 2. What do the boys learn? It likes bananas.
does he He likes animals.
does she She likes flowers. 3. What does Ken have? They learn math.

4. What do you collect? I collect stamps.

5. What does the monkey like? We enjoy singing.


What do you have? What does he like?
- I have a kite. - He likes chicken.

C Complete the questions.


1.
What does she need? What do they want? A What do you like ?
- She needs some milk. - They want new bikes.
B I like beautiful flowers.

2.
A What he ?
Circle the correct words.
B He eats delicious spaghetti.
do do
1. What you like? 2. What he need? 3.
does does
A What she ?

do do B She hates big dogs.


3. What they want? 4. What she hate?
does does
4.
A What they practice ?
do do
5. What it eat? 6. What we have?
does does B They practice dancing.

70 Unit 17 71
text messages,
When you exchange
Grammar in Writing you can use question
words to ask
on .
for specific inform ati

A Change and complete the questions.


does she write? Complete the text messages.
1. What do you write? she What

2. What does she teach? they What teach?


Hey, Scott. Tomorrow is Nancy’s birthday.

3. What do they play? he What does play?


Wow! Tomorrow is my birthday, too.
4. What do you want? your sister What does your sister want?
What do
Oh, really? you want for your birthday?
5. What does a rabbit eat? rabbits What rabbits eat?
I some jigsaw puzzles. I collect them.
What about Nancy? she like?
B Complete the questions. likes
She pretty hairpins. That’s my present for her.
1. A What does Mr. White teach ?
Great. Anything else? she need?
B He teaches P.E.
Well, she needs a new pen. Her pen is old.
2. A What does Ron have ?
Okay. Thanks a lot. See you tomorrow.
B He has a bat.
See you at school. Bye.
3. A What does Jennypractice ?

B She practices jumping rope.


send
4. A What Paul and Peter ?

B They play catch.

• Complete the chart.


C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences.
Question Answer
1. What is she have? What does she have?
What do you practice? I practice taekwondo.
2. What does they play?
he like? He fresh bread.
3. What are you need? What she wear? She a raincoat.
4. What does he wants? What we learn? You English.
5. What do she collect? What they love? They magic shows.

6. What you enjoy?

72 Unit 17 73
18 He can play the piano.
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct words.
1. I ( can / cans ) jump high. 2. He ( can / cans ) run fast.

3. We ( cannot / don’t can ) ski. 4. I ( cann’t / can’t ) speak French.


Modal Verb: Can (Ability)
5. It can ( climb / climbs ) trees. 6. They can ( play / plays ) chess.
We use can to talk about ability. It comes before the base verb.
We use can’t (= cannot) to make negative sentences. 7. A ( Can you fly / Do you can fly ) a kite? B Yes, I ( can / can’t ).
We put can before the subject to make yes/no questions.
8. A ( Can they ride / Do they can ride ) bikes? B No, they ( can / can’t ).
Positive Negative
Subject Modal Verb Base Verb Subject Modal Verb Base Verb

I / You I / You B Complete the sentences with can or can’t.


can’t
He / She / It can dance. He / She/ It dance. can’t
We / They We / They
(=cannot) 1. The eagle swim.

2. The monkeys climb trees.


Question Answer
Modal Verb Subject Base Verb Yes/No Subject Modal Verb 3. The zebra run fast.

I / You Yes, you / I can. 4. The lion fly.


Can He / She / It dance? he / she / it
We / They No, you / they can’t. 5. The hippos jump high.

I can ride a bike. He can play the piano.


I can’t drive a car. He can’t play the violin. C Complete the answers.
1.
A Can he swim?
Can you swim? Can they speak Chinese?
- Yes, I can. - No, they can’t. B No, he can’t .

2.
A Can she sing well?

Write the correct letters. b Yes, .

1. a I can skate. c

b
2. An eagle can fly. 3.
a A Can the boys skate?

3. My friend can’t skate. d


b No, .
4. A penguin can’t fly.
74 Unit 18 75
someone,
Grammar in Writing When you interview
you can use can or ca
n’t to ask
ies.
about his or her ab ilit

A Choose and complete the sentences using can or can’t.


Complete the interview.
speak open walk carry play
Ability Amy Alex Paula Billy Tim

can’t open pass the ball well


1. I don’t have the key. I the door.
dribble the ball well
2. We practice the violin every day. We can the violin well. jump high

3. He the box. He needs some help. shoot the ball well

4. My friend Mika is from Japan. She Japanese. Let’s start, Amy. Can you pass the ball well?

walk yet. Yes, I can .


5. My baby brother is six months old. He
you dribble the ball well?

No, I can’t. Paula dribble the ball well.


B Complete the answers.
Can she jump high?
1.
A Can Cathy snowboard? (ski) , .

B No, she can’t . But she can ski . Billy and Tim jump high.
they shoot the ball well?
2.
A Can the parrot sing? (talk) No, they can’t. Alex and I can well.

b No, it can’t . But it can . Great! You’re a good team.

3.
A Can the girls play chess? (play soccer)

b No, they can’t . But they can play soccer. • Complete the chart.
Positive Negative Question

C Change and complete the sentences. You can fly a kite. You can’t fly a kite. Can you fly a kite?

1. You can drive a car. Question Can you drive a car? He can ride a bike. He a bike. Can he ride a bike?

2. I can answer the question. Negative I can’t answer the question. She can cook very well. She can’t cook very well. Can she cook very well?

3. They can speak Chinese. Question Can they speak Chinese? We can catch balls. We can’t catch balls. Can we catch balls?

4. She can draw her dog. Negative She can’t draw her dog. They can play the guitar. They the guitar. Can they play the guitar?

5. He can make cookies. Question Can he make cookies?

76 Unit 18 77
19 May I sit here?
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct words.
1. You ( can / cans ) go out. 2. You ( can’t / don’t can ) run here.

3. You ( may / mayn’t ) sit here. 4. You ( mays / may ) leave now.
Modal Verbs: Can/May (Permission)
5. You can ( eats / eat ) the snacks. 6. You may ( sit / sits ) on the sofa.
We use can or may to give or ask for permission.
The modal verbs can and may come before the base verb. 7. You ( cannt / can’t ) use the computer.
May is more formal than can. We don’t use a short form for may not.
8. You ( may not touch / may touch not ) the vase.
Positive Negative
Subject Modal Verb Base Verb Subject Modal Verb Base Verb

I / You I / You
He / She / It
can
watch TV. He / She / It
can’t
watch TV. B Complete the sentences with can or can’t.
may may not
We / They We / They can’t
1 2 1. You listen to music here.
Question Answer
Modal Verb Subject Base Verb Yes No 2. You use the bathroom.
Can Yes, you can/may. No, you can’t/may not.
I sit here?
May Sure. / Of course. Sorry, you can’t. 3 4 3. You sit on the bench.

4. You read the books.


You can use my phone. You may not come in.
5 6
5. You borrow my umbrella.

Can I drink the milk? May I take your picture? 6. You wear my new coat.
- Yes, you can. - No, you may not.

Circle the correct words. C Check the correct answers.


1. Can I sit here? Yes, you can. Yes, you can’t.
can may
1. You sit down. 2. You read it.
can’t may not 2. May I play outside? No, you may. No, you may not.

3. Can I take a break? Yes, you can. Yes, you may not.

can may 4. May I open the door? No, you can’t. No, you can.
3. You eat this. 4. You run.
can’t may not 5. Can I use your scissors? Yes, you may not. No, you may not.

78 Unit 19 79
Grammar in Writing When you ask for pe
rmission,
you can use can or ma
y.

A Complete the sentences.


1. ( may / jump )
Complete the comic strip dialogue using can or may.

You may not jump in the elevator. Santa, may I have


a candy house? get a pet
( can / open ) Um … can I get
2. monkey?
a robot?
You can No,you
the window.
may not .
No! No,
you can’t.
3. ( may / speak )

You may loudly.


No! No, you
4. ( can / use )
may not.
You can my pencil.
No! No! Can I have a
get a new
No, you can’t. new Santa?
computer, please?

B Match the questions with the correct answers.


1. May I go now? Sure, come in and take a seat.

2. Can I swim here? Yes. What is your question?

3. Can I use your phone? Of course. Here you are.

4. May I come in? Sure. See you tomorrow.

5. Can I ask a question? No, you can’t. It’s too deep.


• Complete the chart.
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. Positive Negative Question

1. You use can my smartphone. You can use my smartphone. You can eat snacks. You can’t eat snacks. Can I eat snacks?

2. You mayn’t touch this painting. You can go home. You home. home?

3. You brings may your pet. You may sit here. You may not sit here. here?

4. Can I borrows your scarf? You may watch TV. You may not watch TV. May I watch TV?

5. May uses I your computer?

80 Unit 19 81
20 Clean your room.
Grammar Station
A Circle the correct words.
1. ( Be / Do ) careful. 2. ( Do / Be ) honest.

3. ( Be close / Close ) the door. 4. ( Wait / Be wait ) a minute.


Imperatives
5. ( Not / Don’t ) move. 6. ( Don’t do / Don’t be ) late.
‌We use imperatives to tell someone to do or not to do something.
They usually begin with the base verb. 7. ( Let / Let’s ) play soccer. 8. ( Let’s not / Let’s don’t ) go out.
We can add please to make imperatives more polite.
We use imperatives with let’s to make suggestions to people.

Positive Negative B Match the sentences.


Base Verb Don’t Base Verb 1. It’s a nice day. Be quiet, please.
Imperative Open the door. cry.
Do not 2. The baby is sleeping. Put on your coat.
Clean your room. speak loudly.
(=Don’t)
Be careful. be late.
3. It’s cold outside. Let’s go on a picnic.
Let’s Base Verb Let’s not Base Verb
Suggestion go to the park. go out.
4. I can’t hear you. Don’t worry.
Let’s Let’s not
sing together. play soccer.
5. It’s not a big problem. Let’s not buy it.

6. This bag is expensive. Speak loudly.

Be quiet. Don’t touch the vase, please. C Complete the sentences with Don’t or Let’s.
1 2 1. Let’s have dinner.

2. dance.

Let’s dance together. Let’s not play soccer.


3 4
3. sit down.

Check the imperative sentences. 4. be lazy.


1. Be quiet. 2. She can dance well.
5 6
5. not hurry.
3. Can you swim? 4. We’re late.

5. Try again. 6. Don’t talk in class. 6. touch it.

82 Unit 20 83
n or notice,
When you write a sig
Grammar in Writing you can use imperat
ives to give
vic e.
instructions or ad
A Complete the sentences.
Be kind Choose and complete the sign using imperatives.
1. ( be kind ) Imperative to others.

2. ( meet ) Suggestion after school. 1

3. ( drink ) Imperative some water. Here are some simple camp rules.

4. ( not / take ) Suggestion not a taxi. 1. Let’s follow the safety rules.
Prepare 2
- a first aid kit.
5. ( not / be late ) Imperative .
-_______ _______ the camp alone.
2. Let’s respect other campers.
B Choose and complete the sentences.
-_____ __ noise.
3
open walk do make - a good neighbor.

3. Let’s protect nature and animals.


1. Do your homework. 2. Open your mouth, please. - ______ the plants.
Do
-_____ the animals.
- your campsite. feed leave
clean be
make prepare
pick
Don’t make noise! Don’t walk on the grass!
3. 4.

• Complete the chart.


Positive Negative
C Correct the underlined words and rewrite the sentences. Be lazy. Don’t be lazy.
1. Not run in the classroom! Don’t run in the classroom! Don’t close the window.
Close the window.

2. Let’s don’t eat fast food. Wait for me. Don’t wait for me.

3. Be raise your hand quickly. Let's hurry. Let’s not hurry .

4. Don’t talks in class! Let’s take a taxi. Let's not take a taxi.

5. Do let’s climb the mountain.

84 Unit 20 85
Supplementary
Material
Review Test 1 Units 01-04

A Circle the correct words. D Complete the sentences using plural nouns.

1. My name is ( Kelly / kelly ). 1. watch My dad has five .

2. She has ( a / an ) orange. 2. dish I need ten .

3. There is ( a / an ) bear. ( A / The ) bear is big. 3. knife There are three .

4. The boy wants three ( peachs / peaches ). 4. wolf Kate sees two .

5. There is ( a / some ) salt. 5. tomato We want four .

E Choose and complete the sentences.


B Complete the sentences with a, an, or some.
some an August peaches a
1. Jack has idea.
1. His birthday is in .
2. There is bike.
2. My aunt has car. The car is new.
3. My mom wants tea.
3. There is elf.
4. I see owl.
4. We need butter.
5. Pam needs cheese.
5. The woman has three .

C Choose the wrong words and correct them. F Unscramble the sentences.

1. Beth and Scott live in london. 1. uncle / farmer / a / is / My / .

2. There is a octopus, an iguana, and a hamster. 2. girl / That / is / Monica / .

3. The ladies have two scarfes and three brushes. 3. umbrella / is / There / an / .

4. Sam wants some milk and some breads. 4. sandwiches / Sean / two / wants / .

5. I see a man. A man is angry. 5. see / I / yogurt / some / .

88 Review Test 1 89
Review Test 2 Units 05-08

A Circle the correct words. D Complete the dialogues. Use the short forms if necessary.

1. He ( are / is ) my father. 1. A you hardworking? B No, .

2. They ( aren’t / isn’t ) baseball players. 2. A she an artist? B Yes, .

3. ( Am / Are ) you angry? 3. A I late? B No, .

4. There ( is / are ) some juice. 4. A ( Who / What ) are they? B my parents.

5. A ( Who / What ) is she? B She is my sister. 5. A ( Who / What ) is it? B an eraser.

E Choose and complete the sentences.


B Complete the negative sentences using the verb be.
who is what are I’m
1. Anita a nurse.
1. The man a pilot.
2. They my parents.
2. There some stores.
3. You ugly.
3. A Are you American? B No, not.
4. I lazy
4. A is that woman? B She is my aunt.
5. My cat . hungry.
5. A is that animal? B It’s a fox.
not

C Choose the wrong words and correct them. F Change and rewrite the sentences.

1. It is not a mango. They is an apple. 1. We are hungry. Short Form

2. There are some water. 2. My brothers are not students. Short Form

3. Kate is my sister. She’re very kind. 3. He is my friend. Negative

4. A Am I wrong? B No, you isn’t. 4. Mary is thin. Question

5. A What is that girl? B She is Emily. 5. Who is the boy? Plural

90 Review Test 2 91
Review Test 3 Units 09-12

A Circle the correct words. D Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.

1. ( This / These ) are my shoes. 1 2 3 4

2. This ( isn’t / aren’t ) your sandwich.

3. It is ( he / his ) jacket.

4. I know ( you / your ) brother. 1. The dog is the bone. 2. The dog is the mail carrier.

5. The girl ( is / are ) tall. 3. The dog is his doghouse. 4. The dog is the table.

E Choose and complete the sentences.


B Complete the sentences using the possessive adjectives.
my behind are cute is
1. you coat is pretty.
1. Those penguins.
2. I Brian is cousin.
2. this your bike?
3. it eyes are red.
3. This is wallet.
4. we We like school.
4. I see a baby.
5. she house is very big.
5. Ken and Jerry are the tree.

C Choose the wrong words and correct them. F Change and rewrite the sentences.

1. Those isn’t my bag. 1. That is her ruler. Plural

2. This are a duck. This isn’t a goose. 2. Those are pine trees. Negative

3. He is handsome a man. 3. These aren’t my glasses. Positive

4. Your books are next the bag. 4. This is their room. Question

5. A Are they he friends? B No, they aren’t. 5. These are white swans. Singular

92 Review Test 3 93
Review Test 4 Units 13-16

A Circle the correct words. D Complete the sentences in the present simple.

1. She ( swim / swims ) in the morning. 1. watch Alex TV at 7 p.m.

2. My mom ( mixes / mixs ) eggs and butter to make bread every day. 2. go She to the park on Sundays.

3. Sean ( doesn’t / don’t ) study on Sundays. 3. have The gorilla long arms.

4. ( Do / Does ) Jill and her brother like onions? 4. love Liz her family.

5. Nicole ( studys / studies ) math after school. 5. fix My dad my robots well.

E Choose and complete the sentences.


B Complete the negative sentences using the short forms.
don’t do helps brushes doesn’t
1. Mr. Gibson teaches science. He English.
1. Craig his teeth after lunch.
2. We like classical music. We hip-hop music.
2. The singer poor people.
3. She lives in Madrid. She in Sydney.
3. Eddie and I play computer games.
4. The students play tennis. They badminton.
4. A Does he work on Saturdays? B No, he .
5. The parrot has wings. It fins.
5. A they live in Seoul? B Yes, they do.

C Choose the wrong words and correct them. F Change and rewrite the sentences.

1. My sister drink blueberry juice every day. 1. We study English after dinner. Subject He

2. The boys fly kites, and the girl flys a model plane. 2. I catch bugs every day. Subject She

3. She don’t eat ham. She eats salad. 3. The cat eats cucumbers. Negative

4. A Does Jay want a hamburger? B No, he isn’t. 4. Fred doesn’t like horror movies. Positive

5. A Does you need an umbrella? B Yes, I do. 5. She has a big farm. Question

94 Review Test 4 95
Review Test 5 Units 17-20

A Circle the correct words. D Complete the questions.

1. What ( do / does ) she want? 1. A What ? B I like spaghetti.

2. Derek can ( climb / climbs ) trees. 2. A What ? B She needs some garlic.

3. You ( may not / not may ) touch the picture. 3. A What ? B They enjoy skiing.

4. ( Be clean / Clean ) your room. 4. A What ? B He wants a new bike.

5. ( Don’t be / Don’t ) shy. 5. A What ? B It eats grass.

E Choose and complete the sentences.


B Complete the sentences using can or can’t.
what may can don’t can’t
1. drink I’m very thirsty. I this water?
1. Justin is a singer. He sing well.
2. eat Sorry! You food in the library.
2. This watch is very expensive. touch it.
3. run here.
3. A does Ms. Hunt teach? B She teaches science.
4. open I the window?
4. A Can you jump high? B No, I can’t .
5. watch TV now.
5. A I use your phone? B Yes, you may.

C Circle the wrong words and correct them. F Change and rewrite the sentences.

1. Let’s not eats pizza today. 1. You may come in. Negative

2. Don’t do sad. Be happy. 2. He can run fast. Question

3. A May I use your pencil? B Yes, you can’t. 3. Feed the squirrels. Negative

4. A What do Jane have? B She has an umbrella. 4. Carol can play the flute. Question

5. A Can Tony speaks French? B No, he can’t. 5. Let’s watch the movie. Negative

96 Review Test 5 97
Nouns Subject Pronouns & The Verb Be
People Animals Places Things Singular Plural
boy girl dog kitten school library desk flower Subject Subject
Common Be Short Form Be Short Form
teacher student rabbit elephant park house movie soccer Pronoun Pronoun
I am = I’m We = We’re
Proper Chris Jessica Harry Kiki Paris France May Christmas
People You are = You’re You = You’re
are
He / She = He’s / She’s
is They = They’re
Animals/Things It = It’s
Articles

Article Article + Noun


a consonant sounds a bike a dress a park a test a coat
The Verb Be: Negative & Yes/No Questions

vowel sounds Negative Yes/No Question


an
(a, e, i, o, u) an artist an elephant an island an octopus an umbrella
Subject Be + Not Short Form Question Answer
specific thing I see a boy. The boy is handsome.
the I am not = I’m not Am I ... ? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
only one of something the sun the moon the sky
You are not = You aren’t Are you ... ? Yes, I am. No, I’m not.
He is not = He isn’t Is he ... ? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.
They are not = They aren’t Are they ... ? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t.
Plural Nouns
Singular Plural
most nouns + -s ball balls

bench benches The Verb Be: Wh-questions


dish dishes
-ch, -sh, -s, -x, -o + -es bus buses Question Answer
fox foxes
tomato tomatoes am I? You are the king.
People Who are you? I am Alice.
baby babies
consonant + -y y + -ies
cherry cherries is he? He is my uncle.
is it? It is a basket.
leaf leaves Animals/ Things What
-f, -fe f + -ves
knife knives are they? They are giraffes.

Count & Noncount Nouns There + The Verb Be


Count Noncount There Be Noun
a song three songs a music three musics
a chair. Singular
a dollar four dollars a money four moneys There is
a sandwich some sandwiches a bread some breads some bread. Noncount
a leaf some leaves a tea some teas
an orange some oranges a juice some juices two clowns.
an onion some onions a soup some soups There are Plural
some dishes.

98 99
Demonstrative Pronouns Present Simple: Subject-Verb Agreement

Singular Plural Subject Verb Subject Verb

This is a bat. These are gloves. I eat He eats


Positive
That is a jar. Those are pears. run runs
You She
dance dances
This isn’t a stick. These aren’t mittens. We It
Negative play plays
That isn’t a vase. Those aren’t peaches.
They sleep The boy sleeps
Is this 〔that〕 a bowl? Are these 〔those〕 gloves?
Question
- Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. - Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.

Present Simple: Positive


Rule I/You/We/They He/She/It
most verbs + -s like likes
Possessive Adjectives
catch catches
Subject Possessive Adjective Subject Possessive Adjective brush brushes
-ch, -sh, -s, -x + -es
kiss kisses
I my name it its tail mix mixes
you your book we our house consonant + -y y + -ies fly flies
he his hair they their children have has
exceptions go goes
she her shoes David David’s car
do does

Adjectives Present Simple: Negative

Adjective + Noun The Verb Be + Adjective Positive Negative


Subject Verb Subject Do/Does + Not Base Verb
Adjective Noun Subject Be Adjective
I / You I / You do not
I have a green bag. My bag is green. run.
They are old cars. The cars are old. We / They We / They (=don’t)
run.
He / She He / She does not
runs.
It It (=doesn’t)

Prepositions of Place

Subject Be Preposition Noun Present Simple: Yes/No Questions


He / She in
Question Answer
Tom / Your sister on
Singular is Do/Does Subject Base Verb Yes No
It
under
The melon the box. I / you Yes, you / I do. No, you / I don’t.
in front of Do
We / You / They behind we / they like birds? Yes, you / they do. No, you / they don’t.
Plural are
My pencils next to Does he / she / it Yes, he / she / it does. No, he / she / it doesn’t.

100 101
Scope & Sequence
Present Simple: Wh-questions
Grammar Space Beginner Book 01
Question Answer 1 Nouns 11 Adjectives
do you I like chicken. 2 Articles 12 Prepositions of Place
What do they like? They like chocolate cake. 3 Plural Nouns 13 Present Simple: Subject-Verb Agreement
does she She likes flowers. 4 Count & Noncount Nouns 14 Present Simple: Positive
5 Subject Pronouns & The Verb Be 15 Present Simple: Negative

Modal Verb: Can (Ability) 6 The Verb Be : Negative & Yes/No Questions 16 Present Simple: Yes/No Questions
7 The Verb Be : Wh-questions 17 Present Simple: Wh-questions
Positive Negative
8 There + The Verb Be 18 Modal Verb: Can (Ability)
Subject Modal Verb Base Verb Subject Modal Verb Base Verb
9 Demonstrative Pronouns 19 Modal Verbs: Can / May (Permission)
I / You I / You
can’t 10 Possessive Adjectives 20 Imperatives
He / She / It can dance. He / She / It dance.
(=cannot)
We / They We / They

Question Answer Grammar Space Beginner Book 02


Modal Verb Subject Base Verb Yes/No Subject Modal Verb
1 Types of Sentences 11 Adjectives: Comparatives
I / you Yes, you / I can. 2 Articles 12 Adverbs
Can he / she / it dance? he / she / it
we / they No, you / they can’t. 3 Plural Nouns 13 Present Continuous: Positive
4 Pronouns 14 Present Continuous: Negative
5 Possessives 15 Present Continuous: Questions
Modal Verbs: Can/May (Permission)
6 The Verb Be 16 Prepositions of Time
Positive Negative 7 There + The Verb Be , Some & Any 17 Past Simple: The Verb Be
Subject Modal Verb Base Verb Subject Modal Verb Base Verb 8 It + The Verb Be 18 Past Simple 1: Regular Verbs
I / You I / You 9 Present Simple: Positive & Negative 19 Past Simple 2: Irregular Verbs
can can’t
He / She / It watch TV. He / She / It watch TV.
may may not 10 Present Simple: Questions 20 Modal Verbs: Must / Have To
We / They We / They

Question Answer
Modal Verb Subject Base Verb Yes No Grammar Space Beginner Book 03
Can Yes, you can/may. No, you can’t/may not. 1 Parts of a Sentence 11 Past Simple: Positive & Negative
I sit here?
May Sure. / Of course. Sorry, you can’t.
2 Quantifiers 1: Many / Much / A Lot Of 12 Past Simple: Questions
3 Quantifiers 2: Noncount Nouns 13 Future (Will ): Positive & Negative
Imperatives 4 Conjunctions 14 Future (Will ): Questions
Positive Negative 5 Present Simple 15 Future: Be Going To
Base Verb Don’t Base Verb 6 Frequency Adverbs 16 Question Words: How / Why
Imperative Open the door. Do not cry. 7 Present Continuous: Positive & Negative 17 Adjectives & Adverbs
Be careful. (=Don’t) be late.
8 Present Continuous: Questions 18 Adjectives: Comparatives
Let’s Base Verb Let’s not Base Verb
Suggestion 9 Past Simple (The Verb Be ): Positive & Negative 19 Adjectives: Superlatives
Let’s go to the park. Let’s not go out.
10 Past Simple (The Verb Be ): Questions 20 Prepositions of Place & Movement

102 103