Page No.
Introduction • II • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 •••••••••••• 1
References ........................................... 11
Tables ............................................... 12
by
R.C. MacCamy a.nd R. A. Fuch s
Introduction. This report contains two main resul t.s. In the firs t
section an exact mathematical solution is presented f or the l inearized
problem of water waves of small steepness incident on R circular cyl
inder. The nuid is assuIIled to be f r ictionless and the motion irro 
tational. This section includes, in a di tion to the f ormal mathematical
treatment, some simple deductions based on t he assumption of 'very
small ratio of cylinder diame ter to incident wavelength . The prin
cipal results of the theory are summarized, for c9nvenience in calcu
lations, in the secorn section. Also pre sented are some suggestions
as to POflS ible extensions of the theory to take care of more extreme
wave conditions and other obstacle shape s .
CD J (ka) ~
+2 I im(Jm(kr)  m t (2) (kr» cos mQ (5)
m=' H (2) (ka)Hm
m
where Hm(2)(kr) is the Hankel Function of tQ~ second kind and equals
Jmi Ym• This result is given by Havelock( 2 ) for the special case
of infinite depth.
2
The pressure exerted on the cylinder is computed from Bernoulli IS
equation,
(b ) ant
(6)
I Fz ~ Re 21o 7T
p (g) a coa (7T'  Q) de
Only the term in cos 9 will contribute to this integral and the result
after taking the real part may be written as,
F
z
• 2p g H cosh k (d+z) A (ka) cos
k cosh kd
«(j t  a)
where
J1 ' (ka)
tanO: .....:;. ;
Yll (ka)
mu , v • fv
TJ
(z  u) F z dz (8)
ffiu,v • 
~
7
( ) truk sinh
A ka
kd"sinh k(dv) .. v}c sinh k(dv)+cosh kd·
cosh kd
cosh k( dv)l
cosh kd J cos «(j t  a. ) (9)
3
(k d sinh kd  cosh kd  1)
cos (0 t  <1 ) (10)
cosh kd
An estimate _of the effect of second order terms on the moment l'flu'v
may be immediately obtained f1'om equation 6 by evaluating that portion
of the integral from zero to ~. To the second order, for,
H
T7. ='2 sin tT t • (11)
b. mu I
o
~
(z  u) Fz dz ..
k
2
pg H u A(ka) sin~t cos (0" t c%) (12)
1 . (\
sJ.n fT t max =
1~l+2 [~\~d)]2

nt
b
1 (14)
k 2Hd
2 D (kd)
and has the value obtained by ~mbstituting (at)max into equation 13.
A(ka) ~~ (ka)2}
this gives
_HeiG" t Q:)
1
(,,),= a = " ka .2 'rn=1 Hn (2) I (ka)
cos n9]
(21)
In the same notation the pressure, at the surface of the pile, is,
p': .Kl!! 1
~
+2
Q)
I in 1 cos n Q
J cosh k (d+z)
cosh kd e iat
""1fl«i [ (2)' 1\1\ (2) I
Ho (ka) Hn (ka) ~ .r (24)
I t can easily be shown t..~at the pressure due "00. the incident wave
only is to the same degree of approximation,
(i). cosh k (d+z)
p = gPH (sl.ncrt .. k a cos Q cos tr t) cosh kd (26)
rl.
6
It is observed ~~ut the first, and largest, term of equation 26
is independent of Q and hence will contribute nothing to the force,
F z. Hence the "effective" pressures due to the incident wave and
the reflected I.l aves are identical. This is in contrast to the effect
on the surface elevation, since equation 23 shows that the deviation
from that of the incident wave alone is small.
tan a=
Jl and Yl are the Bessel's Functions of ~~e first and second kinds,
respectively, and primes indicate differentation. The functions A
and c:t are plotted in Figures 1 and 2. Additional values can be ob
tained from a set of tables published by the Mathematical Tables
Project(4).
7
In the special case of a cylinder extending to tile bottom and
hinged at the bottom, u =  d and v = d and equation 30 becomes
where
1  cosh kd + kd si~h kd
D (kd) :I
cosh kd
A (Q)
L
and C1 (~) may be replaced by
A (Q)
L
'" + (~) 2
; d (1
D ) '"
=""4
.,,3 (Q/
L
(32)
7f' 2 P ~
D2
( !! ) cosh k (d + z)
Fz ~ cos at (28' )
2 L cosh kd
and the surface elevation at the circumference of the pile may be
written,
where
H
"J = 2" V 1 +
r?D2
L2
cos
2
9 sin (cr t  t) (3)
8
where
__ 2.".n f"\
tan 8 L cos"
In t..l1e formulas t..l1us far presented the linear theory has been
strictly followed. Approximations to the effects of steeper waves may
be obtained by making some additional assumptions. It has been shown
previo~~ly that in the case of small piles the force, F z , given by
equation l' is exactly twice that of the incident wave alone. Assuming
that this is a general result, the second and higher order terms in
the parameter (!i) may be introduced into the force calculations. To
L
the second order, t..l1e force obtained in this manner is,
2 Fz
sin~t + ~H) (3 cosh 2 k (d+z)
P 7Tg
~===
DH = coshcosh
k (d+z) (!.D)
kd L L 4 sinh 3kd cosh kd
1
'=2S1":"'"'nh~~2~k:d: ) C2lrLD) sin 2 tr t (34)
TJ/H = ~ (~)
3
cos a t + '[ .". ctnh kd (1 + 2    ) cos 2 cr t
sinh2.•~ kd
9
2
6m = pg
u
H
k
u A ( LD ) cos (0 t  a.) sin 0" t (36)
In Table III the results for the first two types of waves are
presented. The first three entries correspond to moderately steep
waves in shallo\l water, and the last three to st.eep waves in deep water.
The deviations here are seen to be quite large, reflecting the fact
that the waves cannot be closely approximated by sine waves in this
range of Hand d.
L L
Conclusions and Recommendations for Further Work. The rather large
deviations of the experimental results from calculated values, which
are indicated in Table III, give rise to ~he need for a consideration
of possible sources of error together with possible modifications.
In order to obtain agreement with experiment }iorisonO) has intro
duced a Recond component of force on the pile which he designates as
a "drag" force. It has been previously pointed out ~hat his accelera
tive force, in the special case of small piles, may be identified
wi th the diffraction theory of "this report, provided em is taken
equal to two. The introduction of the drag force is then equivalent
to the assumption that drag and diffraction forces may be separated,
each being considered to act independently of the other, an assumption
which may not be vlell justified o
10
in pressure behind the cylinder. The wake behind the cylinder is
then essentially a region of nomotion except for the possible forma
tion of vortices. The exact nature of ~~is wake is not well . under
stood even for the case of steady flow and very little is known
about periodic motion, for then there is continual change with in
creasing and decreasing velocity.
REFEREl~CES
1
"2 0.41 0.038 0.0203 0.0207 0.0211
1 0.40 0.036 0.0903 0.0804 0.0816
l. 0.40 0.037 0.0998 0.0813 0.0825
2 0.40 0.037 0.2910 0.314 0.320
2 0.40 0.037 0.2905 0.310 0.315
TABLE II
D· • 2 inches
z d H (Illo) expo }I!'o) theo. (Inc +D.mo)
<t r r (ft. lbs.) ( t. lbs.) (ft. lbs.)
•
12
TABLE III

D d H (mo) expo (mo) theo. (m?.6.m)
(in. )
r L (ft . Ibs.J. i£t. l b s . ) _(ft . Ib s. )
1
"'2 0.15 0.044 00:1158 0.0650 0.0703
1 0.16 0.044 0 0785
0 0.oL~08 0.0428
TABLE IV
J 0 : (x) x
J o (x) "V 1 ""  ·Z
J 1 (x) tV
x Jlf (x) ""\J 1
7 2
ml
J m (x)rv 1m (~)m
2
J mI (X)N em : 1) ! eX )
2.
2
Yo (x),..., if (In x ~ r) Y ;
0
(x',~=.
J
7TX
'")
'( :: 0.11 59
2 YI I" ?
Yl (x) 'V (x),V~'i
TTX TT xc..
(m ~ 1)! ? m I "
m ~ 1
Ym (x) rv ~
(i) Y ! (X)IV ~ ( ~ )
rr m" 2 11 x
ill > 0
20
,6
a (OIL} '"
J,' (7T"OIL)
YI (TrOlL>
f
L
I,
,'
10
0.9
A(D/L):: '(Cn:D/L) sec
Ji'11fD/L H Yo"tmM..l
. e
8._ 1+
I '1 /
V
''I' (7rDlL)
/ 1 _ Yts.ec 1 1/
/7
  +
'II' (?TD/L) / I 0& I Je.2 y,,2 I
16 
+ f I V
~
 __ 1L: (OIL)
4
S 2.
I
!
I
I
I
/
/ I
0.7
 ~ .JE(D/Ll
2.
Z
r 
I
;' /1 t .f'
~ t
310
12
// ~ 0.5
0.6
I
I
/1/
I
"
S
0
8
// Q
"<
0.4 /
1/'
6 / 0.3
/! I
4
/1
IV 0.2 .
V
I
) 0.1  "
/
/ /
~0.05 I ~/ ~
0./0 0.15 O.ZO 0.25 0.30 Q35 0.05 010 0.15 0.20 0.25 030 0.35
OIL /:> O/L
FIGURE \ fiGURE 2..
4.00  08
D(lCd):.!::COSh kd+ kd si~~ _ ,  I I I I
_ cosh kd
II d/T =2.5 Daep Waler(d/L::: 0.500>1
2
3.60  To within 10% 
D(kd)= 112 (kd)2 for dlL <0.050 I
Q7
i
O(kd) =(kdI) for d/L >0A80
3.20 r r I
2.80
I I
I 1 !
I
/ I
I V
/
I/
Z,40
: I 1

11I
A
!
I
,.... 2.00
,
I
I
I
i
1 f 0.4 r
V
i
0
"0
......
~
1.60
I I
V ~I~
, ,
I
I
1. 20
i/
y
i
I
0.3 l 
II
/
V 
0.80 I
t ,
/ Q2
V
X 0.'
L
0.40 '   
o0
/
/
0.10 0.20 030
d/L  
FIGURE. 3
I
0.40 0,50 USO 0.10
Vl 0.5 1.0
d/r
as2

FIGURE. 4
2.0
. ~
2.5
    
0.040
CURVES Of CONSTANT mo,/Hd 3
a035~~++~~~~~~
<1 0.02.0
C>
O.OI51~~~~~~+~~+~~+~~~~
0.0 10 fff+1f+"7'4~*""~.L.b.Lp.~t1
7

~: Force per Urlt lenqtn ~
~/L~C2 d/L~a~
v~  ~
02
0.1
in t
i
d~ection
, ot depth ~ 7/r v
o L ~
~
I ~
vi
./
0.1
t 0.2
I /V~ II
:0 0.3
I '/ V / I
~ 0.4 I / / I I
05
1/ / / 7 I
l
06 J /1
V II I
/1 Ii /
Q7
Q.8 7 r I I
I
09 i ~
1.0 i
0 0.2 Off 06 08 _ I 10 1.2 I A 1.6 1.8 2D
Fi/31.2 7r2.oZ( H/L)
FIGURE 6
o A
0./'
7 J
17
V d/l=OI
v
0.2
/ II 1/ V
~ 0.3 / 17
7
/'
V
Ilol
0:4 J / .J
I
I I
I
/
0.5
06
If /v
/ 7 I
Q7 I
7
~
~I
0 8 .. I
II I
09 i
I
1.0 j
2 :3 4
~y624 71"2D2(H/Lr __
FIGURE 7
17
,.
9622, 005