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# ENGINE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

## EFFICIENCIES OF VARIOUS ENGINES

ASSIGNMENT : 1

Submitted By
T. HEMA KUMAR (31372)
NARESH.M(31376)
various engines with volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency,

## 1) four stroke si engine:

volumetric efficiency : 75-95 % more than 100%(turbo charged
or super charged)
mechanical efficiency: 75-85%
thermal efficiency: 30-40%
2) four stroke ci engine:
volumetric efficiency : 75-95 % more than 100%(turbo charged
or super charged)
mechanical efficiency: 75-85%
thermal efficiency: 35-45%
3) two stroke si engines:
volumetric efficiency : 55%
mechanical efficiency: 80-90%
thermal efficiency: 30-40%
4)two stroke ci engines:
volumetric efficiency : 55 %
mechanical efficiency: 80-90%
thermal efficiency: 35-45%

## for ci engines the thermal efficiency is greater than si engine

because compression ratio is more
for 2 stroke engines the mechanical efficiency is greater than 4

## stroke engine because of absence of valves and timing gears

Given Data: 4S-4cylinder SI Engine
Bore=12cm
Stroke=13.5cm
Speed=3000rpm
Bp=38kW
IP= 46kW
ma=10kg/min
mf=12.4 kg/hr
cv=44000kJ/kg
0
Solution: atm Temp=27 c Pr=1bar
1) Brake Thermal efficiency:
= BP x 3600
mf x CV
= 38 x 3600
12.4 x 44000
= 25.07%
2) Mechanical efficiency:
= BP/IP
= 38/46
= 82.6%
3) Volumetric Efficiency:
= Volume of air actually inhaled
Swept Volume
= ma R T / p
π/4 d2 L n K
= 10 x 287 x 300 / 1x105
π/4 x 0.122 x 0.135 x 3000/2
x 4 = 93.99%
The above values are in the span of ranges of various

efficiencies of a 4S SI Engine.
1. EFFECT OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL ON EFFICIENCY OF THE

DIESEL FUEL

## PROPERTIES OF DIESEL AND N-PROPANOL USED

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

## Brake specific energy consumption Vs Load

OBSERVATION
The blending of n-propanol with diesel shows almost same brake thermal efficiency at low and medium

The blending of n-propanol with diesel reduces the brake specific energy
consumption at medium and high loads.

The addition of n-propanol with diesel results in the reduction in engine operating
temperature which in turn increases the life of the engine.
The addition of n-propanol with diesel appreciably reduces the CO emission over the

## Engine With 10% Iso Butanol at Different Injection Pressures

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

Properties of Isobutanol
OBSERVATION

1. Brake thermal efficiency increased with all blends when compared to the
conventional diesel fuel. Maximum Brake thermal efficiency obtained was 33.5% with
B40 blend with 10% isobutanol against 28% with conventional diesel.
2. Brake specific fuel consumption decreased with the blends with isobutanol when
compared with diesel fuel.
3. Cylinder pressure of the blends increase with increase in injection pressure.
4. CO emissions and smoke density decrease significantly with the blends and isobutanol and further

decrease with the increasing injection pressure when compared with diesel. NOx emissions decrease

marginally with the blends and isobutanol which however increase with injection pressure

## 3. Effect of injection pressure on emission and performance

characteristics of Karanja biodiesel and its blends in C.I. Engine
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
Graphs showing the variation of CO, HC, CO2, NOx, efficiency and brake specific

## energy consumption at different loads at an injection pressure of 190 bar

Graphs showing the variation of CO, HC, CO2, NOx, efficiency and brake specific

## energy consumption at different loads at an injection pressure of 200 bar.

Graphs showing the variation of CO, HC, CO2, NOx, efficiency and brake specific

## energy consumption at different loads at an injection pressure of 210 bar.

OBSERVATION
1. The hydrocarbon (HC) emissions decreased for B20 and B40 blends by
1525% at an
injection pressure of 190 bar. NOx emissions showed a drop of 24% for B20
blend and 16% for B40 blend.
2. HC emissions at 200 bar injection pressure decreased by upto 3% for B20
and B40 whereas NOx decreased by 3039%
in comparison with diesel.
3. At an injection pressure of 210 bar, HC emissions were unchanged for B20 blend

and decreased by 18% for B40 blend whereas NOx showed an increasing trend