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VFA AGREEMENT from any political activity in the Philippines.

from any political activity in the Philippines. The Government of the United States shall take all
measures within its authority to ensure that this is done.
Between the Article III
GOVERNMENT OF THE Entry and Departure
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
and the 1. The Government of the Philippines shall facilitate the admission of United States personnel
GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and their departure from the Philippines in connection with activities covered by this agreement.
Regarding the Treatment of United States Armed Forces Visiting the Philippines
Preamble 2. United States military personnel shall be exempt from passport and visa regulations upon
The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the entering and departing the Philippines.
Republic of the Philippines,
3. The following documents only, which shall be presented on demand, shall be required in
Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and respect of United States military personnel who enter the Philippines:
their desire to strengthen international and regional security in the Pacific area;
(a) personal identity card issued by the appropriate United States authority showing full name,
Reaffirming their obligations under the Mutual Defense Treaty of August 30, 1951; date of birth, rank or grade and service number (if any), branch of service and photograph; and

Noting that from time to time elements of the United States armed forces may visit the Republic (b) individual or collective document issued by the appropriate United States authority,
of the Philippines; authorizing the travel or visit and identifying the individual or group as United States military
personnel.
Considering that cooperation between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines
promotes their common security interests; (c) the commanding officer of a military aircraft or vessel shall present a declaration of health,
and when required by the cognizant representative of the Government of the Philippines, shall
Recognizing the desirability of defining the treatment of United States personnel visiting the conduct a quarantine inspection and will certify that the aircraft or vessel is free from
Republic of the Philippines; quarantinable diseases. Any quarantine inspection of United States aircraft, or vessels, or
cargoes thereon, shall be conducted by the United States commanding officer in accordance
Have agreed as follows: with the international health regulations as promulgated by the World Health Organization, and
mutually agreed procedures.
Article I
Definitions 4. United States civilian personnel shall be exempt from visa requirements but shall present,
upon demand, valid passports upon entry and departure of the Philippines.
As used in this Agreement, "United States personnel" means United States military and civilian
personnel temporarily in the Philippines in connection with activities approved by the Philippine 5. If the Government of the Philippines has requested the removal of any United States
Government. Within this definition: personnel from its territory, the United States authorities shall be responsible for receiving the
person concerned within its own territory or otherwise disposing of said person outside of the
1. The term "military personnel" refers to military members of the United States Army, Navy, Philippines.
Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. Article IV
Driving and Vehicle Registration
2. The term "civilian personnel" refers to individuals who are neither nationals of nor ordinarily
resident in the Philippines and who are employed by the United States armed forces or who are 1. Philippine authorities shall accept as valid, without test or fee, a driving permit or license
accompanying the United States armed forces, such as employees of the American Red Cross issued by the appropriate United States authority to United States personnel for the operation of
and the United Services Organization. military or official vehicles.

Article II 2. Vehicles owned by the Government of the United States need not be registered, but shall
Respect for Law have appropriate markings.
Article V
It is the duty of United States personnel to respect the laws of the Republic of the Philippines Criminal Jurisdiction
and to abstain from any activity inconsistent with the spirit of this agreement, and, in particular,
1. Subject to the provisions of this article: except in cases of particular importance to the Philippines. If the Government of the
Philippines determines that the case is of particular importance, it shall
(a) Philippine authorities shall have jurisdiction over United States personnel with communicate such determination to the United States authorities within twenty (20)
respect to offenses committed within the Philippines and punishable under the law days after the Philippine authorities receive the United States request.
of the Philippines.
(e) When the United States military commander determines that an offense charged
(b) United States military authorities shall have the right to exercise within the by authorities of the Philippines against United States personnel arises out of an act
Philippines all criminal and disciplinary jurisdiction conferred on them by the or omission done in the performance of official duty, the commander will issue a
military law of the United States over United States personnel in the Philippines. certificate setting forth such determination. This certificate will be transmitted to
the appropriate authorities of the Philippines and will constitute sufficient proof of
2. (a) Philippine authorities exercise exclusive jurisdiction over United States performance of official duty for the purposes of paragraph 3(b)(2) of this article. In
personnel with respect to offenses, including offenses relating to the security of the those cases where the Government of the Philippines believes the circumstances of
Philippines, punishable under the laws of the Philippines, but not under the laws of the case require a review of the duty certificate, United States military authorities
the United States. and Philippine authorities shall consult immediately. Philippine authorities at the
highest levels may also present any information bearing on its validity. United States
(b) United States authorities exercise exclusive jurisdiction over United States military authorities shall take full account of the Philippine position. Where
personnel with respect to offenses, including offenses relating to the security of the appropriate, United States military authorities will take disciplinary or other action
United States, punishable under the laws of the United States, but not under the against offenders in official duty cases, and notify the Government of the Philippines
laws of the Philippines. of the actions taken.

(c) For the purposes of this paragraph and paragraph 3 of this article, an offense (f) If the government having the primary right does not exercise jurisdiction, it shall
relating to security means: notify the authorities of the other government as soon as possible.

(1) treason; (g) The authorities of the Philippines and the United States shall notify each other of
the disposition of all cases in which both the authorities of the Philippines and the
(2) sabotage, espionage or violation of any law relating to national defense. United States have the right to exercise jurisdiction.

3. In cases where the right to exercise jurisdiction is concurrent, the following rules 4. Within the scope of their legal competence, the authorities of the Philippines and
shall apply: the United States shall assist each other in the arrest of United States personnel in
the Philippines and in handing them over to authorities who are to exercise
(a) Philippine authorities shall have the primary right to exercise jurisdiction over all jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of this article.
offenses committed by United States personnel, except in cases provided for in
paragraphs l (b), 2 (b), and 3 (b) of this Article. 5. United States military authorities shall promptly notify Philippine authorities of
(b) United States military authorities shall have the primary right to exercise the arrest or detention of United States personnel who are subject to Philippine
jurisdiction over United States personnel subject to the military law of the United primary or exclusive jurisdiction. Philippine authorities shall promptly notify United
States in relation to: States military authorities of the arrest or detention of any United States personnel.

(1) offenses solely against the property or security of the United States or offenses 6. The custody of any United States personnel over whom the Philippines is to
solely against the property or person of United States personnel; and exercise jurisdiction shall immediately reside with United States military authorities,
if they so request, from the commission of the offense until completion of all judicial
(2) offenses arising out of any act or omission done in performance of official duty. proceedings. United States military authorities shall, upon formal notification by the
Philippine authorities and without delay, make such personnel available to those
(c) The authorities of either government may request the authorities of the other authorities in time for any investigative or judicial proceedings relating to the
government to waive their primary right to exercise jurisdiction in a particular case. offense with which the person has been charged. In extraordinary cases, the
Philippine Government shall present its position to the United States Government
(d) Recognizing the responsibility of the United States military authorities to regarding custody, which the United States Government shall take into full account.
maintain good order and discipline among their forces, Philippine authorities will, In the event Philippine judicial proceedings are not completed within one year, the
upon request by the United States, waive their primary right to exercise jurisdiction United States shall be relieved of any obligations under this paragraph. The one year
period will not include the time necessary to appeal. Also, the one year period will United States authorities. United States personnel serving sentences in the
not include any time during which scheduled trial procedures are delayed because Philippines shall have the right to visits and material assistance.
United States authorities, after timely notification by Philippine authorities to
arrange for the presence of the accused, fail to do so. 11. United States personnel shall be subject to trial only in Philippine courts of
ordinary jurisdiction, and shall not be subject to the jurisdiction of Philippine
7. Within the scope of their legal authority, United States and Philippine authorities military or religious courts.
shall assist each other in the carrying out of all necessary investigations into
offenses and shall cooperate in providing for the attendance of witnesses and in the Article VI
collection and production of evidence, including seizure and, in proper cases, the Claims
delivery of objects connected with an offense.
1. Except for contractual arrangements, including United States foreign military sales letters of
8. When United States personnel have been tried in accordance with the provisions offer and acceptance and leases of military equipment, both governments waive any and all
of this article and have been acquitted or have been convicted and are serving, or claims against each other for damage, loss or destruction to property of each other's armed
have served their sentence, or have had their sentence remitted or suspended, or forces or for death or injury to their military and civilian personnel arising from activities to
have been pardoned, they may not be tried again for the same offense in the which this aggreement applies.
Philippines. Nothing in this paragraph, however, shall prevent United States military
authorities from trying United States personnel for any violation of rules of discipline 2. For claims against the United States, other than contractual claims and those to which
arising from the act or omission which constituted an offense for which they were paragraph 1 applies, the United States Government, in accordance with United States law
tried by Philippine authorities. regarding foreign claims, will pay just and reasonable compensation in settlement of meritorious
claims for damage, loss, personal injury or death, caused by acts or omissions of United States
9. When United States personnel are detained, taken into custody, or prosecuted by personnel, or otherwise incident to the non-combat activities of the United States forces.
Philippine authorities, they shall be accorded all procedural safeguards established
by the law of the Philippines. At the minimum, United States personnel shall be Article VII
entitled: Importation and Exportation
1. United States Government equipment, materials, supplies, and other property imported into
(a) To a prompt and speedy trial; or acquired in the Philippines by or on behalf of the United States armed forces in connection
with activities to which this agreement applies, shall be free of all Philippine duties, taxes and
(b) To be informed in advance of trial of the specific charge or charges made against other similar charges. Title to such property shall remain with the United States, which may
them and to have reasonable time to prepare a defense; remove such property from the Philippines at any time, free from export duties, taxes, and other
similar charges. The exemptions provided in this paragraph shall also extend to any duty, tax, or
(c) To be confronted with witnesses against them and to cross examine such other similar charges which would otherwise be assessed upon such property after importation
witnesses; into, or acquisition within, the Philippines. Such property may be removed from the Philippines,
or disposed of therein, provided that disposition of such property in the Philippines to persons or
(d) To present evidence in their defense and to have compulsory process for entities not entitled to exemption from applicable taxes and duties shall be subject to payment
obtaining witnesses; of such taxes, and duties and prior approval of the Philippine Government.

(e) To have free and assisted legal representation of their own choice on the same 2. Reasonable quantities of personal baggage, personal effects, and other property for the
basis as nationals of the Philippines; personal use of United States personnel may be imported into and used in the Philippines free of
all duties, taxes and other similar charges during the period of their temporary stay in the
(f) To have the services of a competent interpreter; Philippines. Transfers to persons or entities in the Philippines not entitled to import privileges
may only be made upon prior approval of the appropriate Philippine authorities including
(g) To communicate promptly with and to be visited regularly by United States payment by the recipient of applicable duties and taxes imposed in accordance with the laws of
authorities, and to have such authorities present at all judicial proceedings. These the Philippines. The exportation of such property and of property acquired in the Philippines by
proceedings shall be public unless the court, in accordance with Philippine law, United States personnel shall be free of all Philippine duties, taxes, and other similar charges.
excludes persons who have no role in the proceedings.
10. The confinement or detention by Philippine authorities of United States Article VIII
personnel shall be carried out in facilities agreed on by appropriate Philippine and Movement of Vessels and Aircraft
1. Aircraft operated by or for the United States armed forces may enter the Philippines upon
approval of the Government of the Philippines in accordance with procedures stipulated in
implementing arrangements.

2. Vessels operated by or for the United States armed forces may enter the Philippines upon
approval of the Government of the Philippines. The movement of vessels shall be in accordance
with international custom and practice governing such vessels, and such agreed implementing
arrangements as necessary.

3. Vehicles, vessels, and aircraft operated by or for the United States armed forces shall not be
subject to the payment of landing or port fees, navigation or overflight charges, or tolls or other
use charges, including light and harbor dues, while in the Philippines. Aircraft operated by or for
the United States armed forces shall observe local air traffic control regulations while in the
Philippines. Vessels owned or operated by the United States solely on United States Government
non-commercial service shall not be subject to compulsory pilotage at Philippine ports.
Article IX
Duration and Termination

This agreement shall enter into force on the date on which the parties have notified each other
in writing through the diplomatic channel that they have completed their constitutional
requirements for entry into force. This agreement shall remain in force until the expiration of
180 days from the date on which either party gives the other party notice in writing that it
desires to terminate the agreement.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized by their respective
governments, have signed this agreement.

DONE in duplicate at Manila, The Philippines, this 10th day of February, 1998.
REPUBLIC ACT No. 75 the discretion of the court, in addition to the penalties that may be imposed under the Revised
AN ACT TO PENALIZE ACTS WHICH WOULD IMPAIR THE PROPER OBSERVANCE BY Penal Code.
THE REPUBLIC AND INHABITANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES OF THE IMMUNITIES, Section 7. The provisions of this Act shall be applicable only in case where the country of the
RIGHT, AND PRIVILEGES OF DULY ACCREDITED FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC AND diplomatic or consular representative adversely affected has provided for similar protection to
CONSULAR AGENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES duly accredited diplomatic or consular representatives of the Republic of the Philippines by
prescribing like or similar penalties for like or similar offenses herein contained.itc-alf
Section 1. Any person who shall falsely assume and take upon himself to act as a diplomatic, Section 8. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.
consular, or any other official of a foreign government duly accredited as such to the Approved: October 21, 1946
Government of the Republic of the Philippines with intent to defraud such foreign government or
the Government of the Philippines, or any person, or in such pretended character shall demand
or obtain, or attempt to obtain from person or from said foreign government or the Government
of the Philippines, or from any officer thereof, any money, paper, document, or other thing, of
value, shall be fined not more than five thousand pesos, or shall be imprisoned for not more
than five years, or both, in addition to the penalties that may be imposed under the Revised
Penal Code.
Section 2. Any person, other than a diplomatic or consular officer or attaché, who shall act in
the Republic of the Philippines as an agent of a foreign government without prior notification to,
and registration with, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs shall be fined not more than five thousand
pesos, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, aside from other penalties that may be
imposed by law.
Section 3. Any person, who with intent to deceive or mislead, within the jurisdiction of the
Republic, wear any naval, military, police, or other official uniform, decoration, or regalia of any
foreign State, nation or government with which the Republic of the Philippines is at peace, or
any uniform, decoration or regalia so nearly resembling the same as to be calculated to deceive,
unless such wearing thereof be authorized by such State, nation, or government, shall upon
conviction, be punished by a fine not exceeding two hundred pesos or imprisonment not
exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.1awphil-itc-alf
Section 4. Any writ or process sued out or prosecuted by any person in any court of the
Republic of the Philippines, or by any judge or justice, whereby the person of any ambassador
or public minister of any foreign State, authorized and received as such by the President, or any
domestic or domestic servant of any such ambassador or minister is arrested or imprisoned, or
his goods or chattels are distrained, seized, or attached, shall be deemed void, and every person
by whom the same is obtained or prosecuted, whether as party or as attorney, and every officer
concerned in executing it, shall upon conviction, be punished by imprisonment for not more
than three years and a fine of not exceeding two hundred pesos in the discretion of the court.
Section 5. The provisions of section four hereof shall not apply to any case where the person
against whom the process is issued is a citizen or inhabitant of the Republic of the Philippines, in
the service of an ambassador or a public minister, and the process is founded upon a debt
contracted before he entered upon such service; nor shall the said section apply to any case
where the person against whom the process is issued is a domestic servant of an ambassador or
a public minister, unless the name of the servant has, before the issuing thereof, been
registered in the Department of Foreign Affairs, and transmitted by the Secretary of Foreign
Affairs to the Chief of Police of the City of Manila, who shall upon receipt thereof post the same
in some public place in his office. All persons shall have resort to the list of names so posted in
the office of the Chief of Police, and take copies without fee.
Section 6. Any person who assaults, strikes, wounds, imprisons or in any other manner offers
violence to the person of an ambassador or a public minister, in violation of the law of nations,
shall be imprisoned not more than three years, and fined not exceeding two hundred pesos, in
Republic Act No. 7055 June 20, 1991
AN ACT STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN SUPREMACY OVER THE MILITARY RETURNING
TO THE CIVIL COURTS THE JURISDICTION OVER CERTAIN OFFENSES INVOLVING
MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES, OTHER PERSONS SUBJECT
TO MILITARY LAW, AND THE MEMBERS OF THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE,
REPEALING FOR THE PURPOSE CERTAIN PRESIDENTIAL DECREES

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress


assembled::
Section 1. Members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and other persons subject to
military law, including members of the citizens Armed Forces Geographical Units, who commit
crimes or offenses penalized under the Revised Penal Code other special penal laws, or local
government ordinances regardless of whether or not civilians are co-accused, victims, or
offended parties which may be natural or juridical persons, shall be tried by the proper civil
court except when the offense, as determined before arraignment by the civil court, is service-
connected, in which case the offense shall be tried by court-martial: provided, that the President
of the Philippines may, in the interest of justice, order or direct at any time before arraignment
that any such crimes or offenses be tried by the proper civil courts.
As used in this Section, service-connected crimes or offenses shall be limited to those defined in
Articles 54 to 70, Articles 72 to 92, and Articles 95 to 97 of Commonwealth Act No. 408, as
amended.
In imposing the penalty for such crimes or offenses, the court-martial may take into
consideration the penalty prescribed thereforee in the Revised Penal Code, other special laws, or
local government ordinances.
Section 2. Subject to the provisions of Section 1 hereof, all cases filed or pending for filing with
court-martial or other similar bodies, except those where the accused had already been
arraigned, shall within thirty (30) days following the effectivity of this Act transferred to the
proper civil courts: provided, that the Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines shall, upon
petition before commencement of trial and with the written consent of the accused, order the
transfer of such excepted case or cases to the proper civil courts for trial and resolution.
Section 3. Presidential Decrees Nos. 1822, 1822-A, 1850 and 1952, and all acts, general
orders, executive orders, and other presidential issuances, rules and regulations inconsistent
with this Act are hereby repealed or amended accordingly.
Section 4. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days following its publication in the Official
Gazette or in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation
hereby empowered to appoint general, special and summary courts-martial for the trial of
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1850 uniformed members of the Integrated National Police. The Constabulary Regional
PROVIDING FOR THE TRIAL BY COURTS-MARTIAL OF MEMBERS OF THE Commanders/Directors, Integrated National Police may appoint special and summary courts-
INTEGRATED NATIONAL POLICE AND FURTHER DEFINING THE JURISDICTION OF martial, and when empowered by the President, they may also appoint general courts-martial.
COURTS-MARTIAL OVER MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES Other subordinate field commanders of the Philippine Constabulary/Integrated National Police
may appoint summary courts-martial when empowered by the President.
WHEREAS, under Section 12, Article XV of the Constitution, the State shall establish and (b) Where military personnel and Integrated National Police members are commonly charged. –
maintain an integrated national police force whose organization, administration, and operation The court-martial shall be appointed by the appointing authorities specified in Articles 8, 9, 10
shall be provided by law; and 11 of Commonwealth Act No. 408, as amended.
WHEREAS, under and pursuant to existing laws, the various municipal/city police and fire SECTION 4. Composition of Courts-Martial. – Membership, whether military personnel or
departments and jails have been integrated into law-enforcement units under the operational Integrated National Police members, in a general or special court-martial for the trial of a
control and organization set-up of the Philippine Constabulary; member of the Integrated National Police shall be in a ratio as determined by the appointing
WHEREAS, in the interest of discipline and public service, it is desirable that members of the authority; Provided, however, that the number of Integrated National Police personnel detailed
Integrated National Police be subject to trial by courts-martial under Commonwealth Act No. shall not be less than one-third of the total membership of the court.
408, as amended, otherwise known as the “Articles of War for the Armed Forces of the SECTION 5. Administrative Action. – Court-martial action against uniformed personnel of the
Philippines,” for all crimes of offenses which are heretofore cognizable by the civil courts; Integrated National Police as herein provided shall not preclude the taking of administrative
WHEREAS, as a complementary measure, there is a need to clarify existing provisions of law action against said personnel as may be warranted pursuant to the provisions of existing law.
relating to jurisdiction of courts-martial and the Tanodbayan/Sandiganbayan and the regular SECTION 6. Transitory Provisions. – All cases pending before the civil courts against military
civil courts over crimes and offenses committed by members of the Armed Forces of the personnel in the active service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or against Integrated
Philippines; National Police personnel where, on the effective date of this Decree, the accused have been
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E, MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the arraigned, shall continue to be tried and decided by said civil courts. All other cases against such
powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby order and decree: personnel shall be tried by courts-martial or disposed of pursuant to this Decree.
SECTION 1. Court-Martial Jurisdiction over Integrated National Police and Members of the SECTION 7. Promulgation of Rules. – The Chief of Staff, AFP shall formulate rules and
Armed Forces. – Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding – (a) uniformed members regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this Decree, which shall, upon
of the Integrated National Police who commit any crime or offense cognizable by the civil courts recommendation of the Minister of National Defense, be subject to the approval of the
shall henceforth be exclusively tried by courts-martial pursuant to and in accordance with President.
Commonwealth Act No. 408, as amended, otherwise known as the Articles of War; (b) all SECTION 8. Appropriations. – The amount of two million pesos (P2,000,000.00) is hereby
persons subject to military law under Article 2 of the aforecited Articles of War who commit any authorized to be appropriated out of the funds in the National Treasury not otherwise
crime or offense shall be exclusively tried by courts-martial or their case disposed of under the appropriated to carry out the purpose of this Decree and, thereafter, such amounts as may be
said Articles of War; Provided, that, in either of the aforementioned situations, the case shall be necessary for this purpose shall be included in the annual appropriation of the Integrated
disposed of or tried by the proper civil or judicial authorities when court-martial jurisdiction over National Police.
the offense has prescribed under Article 38 of Commonwealth Act Numbered 408, as amended, SECTION 9. Repealing Clause. – All laws, rules and regulations, or portions thereof, which are
or court-martial jurisdiction over the person of the accused military or Integrated National Police contrary to, or inconsistent with, the provisions of this Decree, are hereby repealed or modified
personnel can no longer be exercised by virtue of their separation from the active service accordingly.
without jurisdiction having duly attached beforehand unless otherwise provided by law. SECTION 10. Effectivity. – This Decree shall take effect immediately.
As used herein, the term uniformed members of the Integrated National Police shall refer to Done in the City of Manila, this 4th day of October, the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and
police officers, policemen, firemen and jail guards. eighty-two.
SECTION 2. Segregation of Criminal Cases of Armed Forces and Integrated National Police from
Civilian Co-accused. – In cases where there are two or more accused one or some of whom is or
are civilian(s), the case against the latter shall be segregated from accused Armed Forces of
Integrated National Police member, and filed with the appropriate civil court for trial in
accordance with existing laws; Provided, however, that should such civilian accused waive in
writing civil court jurisdiction and submit himself to court-martial jurisdiction, then the whole
case involving members of the Armed Forces or the Integrated National Police as well as the
civilian(s) shall be referred for trial to a court-martial.
SECTION 3. Appointing Authorities. –
(a) Where uniformed member(s) of the Integrated National Police are charged. – The President
of the Philippines and the Chief of Constabulary/Director General, Integrated National Police are
Republic Act No. 9372 March 6, 2007
AN ACT TO SECURE THE STATE AND PROTECT OUR PEOPLE FROM TERRORISM

SEC. 58. Extra-Territorial Application of this Act. - Subject to the provision of an existing
treaty of which the Philippines is a signatory and to any contrary provision of any law of
preferential application, the provisions of this Act shall apply: (1) to individual persons who
commit any of the crimes defined and punished in this Act within the terrestrial domain, interior
waters, maritime zone, and airspace of the Philippines; (2) to individual persons who, although
physically outside the territorial limits of the Philippines, commit, conspire or plot to commit any
of the crimes defined and punished in this Act inside the territorial limits of the Philippines; (3)
to individual persons who, although physically outside the territorial limits of the Philippines,
commit any of the said crimes on board Philippine ship or Philippine airship; (4) to individual
persons who commit any of said crimes within any embassy, consulate, or diplomatic premises
belonging to or occupied by the Philippine government in an official capacity; (5) to individual
persons who, although physically outside the territorial limits of the Philippines, commit said
crimes against Philippine citizens or persons of Philippines descent, where their citizenship or
ethnicity was a factor in the commission of the crime; and (6) to individual persons who,
although physically outside the territorial limits of the Philippines, commit said crimes directly
against the Philippine government.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10173]


AN ACT PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PERSONAL INFORMATION IN INFORMATION
AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS IN THE GOVERNMENT AND THE PRIVATE
SECTOR, CREATING FOR THIS PURPOSE A NATIONAL PRIVACY COMMISSION, AND
FOR OTHER PURPOSES

SEC. 6. Extraterritorial Application. – This Act applies to an act done or practice engaged in and
outside of the Philippines by an entity if:
(a) The act, practice or processing relates to personal information about a Philippine citizen or a
resident;
(b) The entity has a link with the Philippines, and the entity is processing personal information in
the Philippines or even if the processing is outside the Philippines as long as it is about
Philippine citizens or residents such as, but not limited to, the following:
(1) A contract is entered in the Philippines;
(2) A juridical entity unincorporated in the Philippines but has central management and control
in the country; and
(3) An entity that has a branch, agency, office or subsidiary in the Philippines and the parent or
affiliate of the Philippine entity has access to personal information; and
(c) The entity has other links in the Philippines such as, but not limited to:
(1) The entity carries on business in the Philippines; and
(2) The personal information was collected or held by an entity in the Philippines.