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A STUDY ON OPERATIONAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN TOURIST


HOTELS IN SRI LANKA

JANGUGE THAMAL RAVINDU DE SILVA


(11/MST/007)

B.Sc. HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT (SPECIAL) DEGREE PROGRAMME


DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM MANAGEMENT
FACULTY OF MANAGAMENT STUDIES
SABARAGAMUWA UNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA
2017
A STUDY ON OPERATIONAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN TOURIST
HOTELS IN SRI LANKA

A Supervised Independent Study Submitted to the Faculty of Management Studies,


Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
the Special Degree of Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management

JANGUGE THAMAL RAVINDU DE SILVA


(11/MST/007)

© 2017 J.T.R. De Silva


Faculty of Management Studies
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
CERTIFICATION OF SUPERVISED INDEPENDENT STUDY
We, the undersigned, certify that
JANGUGE THAMAL RAVINDU DE SILVA
Candidate for the special degree of
Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management
Has presented his Supervised Independent Study entitled
A STUDY ON OPERATIONAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN TOURIST HOTELS IN SRI
LANKA
As it appears on the title page and the front cover of the
Supervised Independent Study
That the said Supervised Independent Study is acceptable in form and content and
displays a satisfactory knowledge of the field of study as demonstrated by the
candidate through the oral examination held on 24th of October 2017
OFFICAL STAMP OF THE

FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

………………………………………… ……………………….
Chairman for Viva Signature
………………………………………… ………………………..
Head of Department Signature
………………………………………… ……………………….
First Examiner Signature
…………………………………………… …………………........
Second Examiner Signature
PERMISSION TO USE

In presenting this Supervised Independent Study in fulfillment of the requirements for


a bachelor’s degree from Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, I agree that the
university library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that
permission for the copying of this Supervised Independent Study in any manner, in
whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted by my supervisor(s) or, in their
absence, by the Dean of the Faculty of Management Studies. It is understood that any
copying or publication or the use of this Supervised Independent Study or parts thereof
for financial gains shall not be allowed without my permission. It is also understood
that due recognition shall be given to me and to Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my Supervised
Independent Study.

Request for permission to copy or to make any other use of materials in this supervised
independent study, in whole or in part, should be addressed to:

Dean

Faculty of Management Studies

Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya –70140

SRI LANKA

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DECLARATION

I, Janguge Thamal Ravindu De Silva, declare that this Supervised Independent Study
and the work presented in it are my own and it has been generated by me as the result
of my own original research.

Title of Supervised Independent Study:

A STUDY ON OPERATIONAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF


ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN TOURIST HOTELS IN SRI
LANKA

I confirm that:

(1).This work was done wholly or mainly while in candidature for a research degree at
this University; (2). Where any part of this Supervised Independent Study has
previously been submitted for a degree or any other qualification at this University or
any other institution, this has been clearly stated; (3). Where I have consulted the
published work of others, this is always clearly attributed; (4). Where I have quoted
from the work of others, the source is always given. With the exception of such
quotations, this Supervised Independent Study is entirely my own work; (5). I have
acknowledged all main sources of help; (6). Where the Supervised Independent Study
is based on work done by myself jointly with others, I have made clear exactly what
was done by others and what I have contributed myself; (7). Either none of this work
has been published before submission.

Signature of Student: …………………….…………………Date: …………………….

Supervisor’s Recommendation:

This is to certify that this Supervised Independent Study has been prepared by J.T.R.
De Silva under my supervision.

Signature of Supervisor: ………………………………………………………………...

Name of Supervisor: ………………………………………. Date: ………………….....

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ABSTRACT

This research study identifies the operational issues and challenges associated with
Environmental Management System in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka. Multiple case study
design was used for the research. Primary data were collected through semi-structured
interviews. The evidences from sustainability reports and green directories of classified
and unclassified hotels were used as secondary data. Building structure, staff behaviour
and natural issues have been found as operational issues while lack of eco-licensed
contractors, guest behaviour and natural challenges have been found as operational
challenges associated with Environment Management System of tourist hotels in Sri
Lanka in areas of water and electricity consumption and solid waste management. The
building structure and natural issues are unavoidable but the staff behaviour issue can
be rectified through a methodical ideological transformation process. The guest
behaviour challenge can also be avoided through effective marketing campaign with a
thrust on hotel’s sustainability policy while lack of eco-licensed contractors can be
avoided through the support of competent authority and existing contractors with an
emphasis on developing own effective monitoring mechanism. The natural challenges
can be avoided through adoption of latest technology in the market. These operational
issues and challenges have created an impact on the organizational performance in a
finance perspective to some extent. The majority of actions already taken to mitigate
the abovementioned issues and challenges in areas of water, electricity and solid waste
have been successful to a greater extent but some of the actions have not yet been able
to mitigate the issues and challenges to a greater extent.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Let me express my deepest gratitude to Dr. W.K.A.C. Gnanapala who is my Academic


Supervisor and Dean of Faculty of Management Studies of Sabaragamuwa University
of Sri Lanka, for having provided me with unstinted academic support and prudential
inputs in order to bring my research to an end successfully. I am most grateful to him
for his kind assistance in this regard.

I am also thankful to the General Managers, Heads of Departments, Executives and


Supervisors of five tourist hotels who participated in interviews, for having provided
me with necessary information to complete my research successfully.

Let me commend Mr. Shanthadewa De Silva and his family for their unwavering
support to contact the tourist hotels and unforgettable hospitality shown during the data
collection. In addition, I offer my sincere thanks to Mr. Dheera- Excise OIC of Galle,
Mr. Roshan Abeygunawardena- Former member of Waskaduwa Pradeshiya Sabha, Mr.
Ramanayake – Excise OIC of Kandy, Mr. Wanagathunga – Excise OIC of
Anuradhapura and Mr. Upul – Superintendent of Excise of Nuwara Eliya District for
spending an enormous amount of time on my behalf in order to ensure the successful
collection of data for my research.

Finally, I offer my incalculable and never-ending gratitude to my beloved father who


gave me a good understanding on electricity and mother for the sacrifice they made on
my behalf to complete my research successfully.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

PERMISSION TO USE .................................................................................................. i


DECLARATION ...........................................................................................................ii
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................ iv
TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................................. v
LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................vii
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................... viii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................... ix
GLOSSARY .................................................................................................................. x
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 1
1.1Background ........................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Research problem ................................................................................................. 6
1.3 Research questions ............................................................................................... 7
1.4 Objectives of research .......................................................................................... 7
1.5 Significance of the Study ..................................................................................... 7
1.5.1 Academic Perspective.................................................................................... 8
1.5.2 Industrial Perspective .................................................................................... 8
1.5.3 Policy Making Perspective ............................................................................ 8
1.6 Chapter organization ............................................................................................ 8
1.7 Limitations ........................................................................................................... 9
CHAPTER TWO : LITERATUE REVIEW................................................................ 11
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 11
2.2. What is a Tourist Hotel?.................................................................................... 11
2.2.1 Tourist Hotels in the World ......................................................................... 11
2.2.2 Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka ......................................................................... 12
2.3 Environmental Management System (EMS)...................................................... 13
2.3.1. Basic Elements and Implementation of EMS ............................................. 14
2.3.2 Importance of EMS to Tourist Hotels ......................................................... 15
2.3.3 Operation of EMS in Tourist Hotels in the world ....................................... 16
2.3.4 Operation of EMS in Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka ....................................... 16
2.4. Issues and Challenges of EMS in Tourist Hotels in the world.......................... 17
2.5. Issues and Challenges of EMS in Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka ......................... 17
2.6 Research Gap Identification ............................................................................... 18

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CHAPTER THREE : METHODOLOGY ................................................................... 19
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 19
3.2 Research Approach ............................................................................................ 19
3.3 Research Design ................................................................................................. 20
3.3.1 Population & Sample ................................................................................... 20
3.3.2 Type of Data ................................................................................................ 21
3.3.3 Method of Data Analysis ............................................................................. 23
3.3.4 Rigor of Data Analysis ................................................................................ 23
3.3.5 Ethical Considerations ................................................................................. 24
CHAPTER FOUR : DATA PRESENTATION, DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS .... 26
4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 26
4.2 Data Presentation and Discussion ...................................................................... 26
4.2.1 Case 1 .......................................................................................................... 26
4.2.2 Case 2 .......................................................................................................... 30
4.2.3 Case 3 .......................................................................................................... 33
4.2.4 Case 4 .......................................................................................................... 36
4.3. Inter-Case Comparison with International and National Levels ....................... 38
4.3.1 Water Consumption ..................................................................................... 38
4.3.2 Electricity Consumption .............................................................................. 39
4.3.3 Solid Waste Management ............................................................................ 40
4.4 Findings .............................................................................................................. 41
4.4.1 Common Operational Issues and Challenges .............................................. 42
4.4.2 Specific Operational Issues and Challenges ................................................ 44
CHAPTER FIVE : CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................... 47
5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 47
5.2 Conclusion.......................................................................................................... 47
5.3 Recommendations .............................................................................................. 48
5.3.1 Common Recommendations........................................................................ 48
5.3.2 Case Specific Recommendations................................................................. 49
Reference ..................................................................................................................... 51
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................. 62
Appendix A: Preliminary Survey for Tourist Hotel ................................................. 62
Appendix B: Interview Protocol for Tourist Hotels ................................................. 65
Appendix C: List of Interviewees ............................................................................ 66
Appendix D: Interview with Chief Engineer of Hotel in Case 1 ............................. 67

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LIST OF TABLES
1.1 Global Tourism Income and Tourist Arrivals by Region ........................................ 1
1.2 Growth of Tourism Value and Volume in Sri Lanka – 2010 to 2016 ..................... 2
1.3 Water Consumption by Tourism in Different Countries ......................................... 2
1.4 Average hotel energy consumption per guest night by region ................................ 3
1.5 Solid Waste Generation by Hotels (Kg per Guest Room per Day) ......................... 3
1.6 Operational Issues & Challenges of EMS in tourist hotel in Hikkaduwa................ 6
2.1 Number of Existing 3-5 Star Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka on District Basis.......... 13
2.2 Number of Existing Unclassified Hotels in Sri Lanka on District Basis ............... 13
4.1 Case 1 Summary .................................................................................................... 27
4.2 Case 2 Summary .................................................................................................... 30
4.3 Case 3 Summary .................................................................................................... 33
4.4 Water Hardness Classification based on mg/L ...................................................... 34
4.5 Case 4 Summary .................................................................................................... 36
4.6 Inter-Case Comparison with International and National Levels ............................ 38
4.7 Summary of Operational Issues and Challenges of EMS in Tourist Hotels .......... 41

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LIST OF FIGURES

4.1 Conceptual Framework (developed by researcher) ............................................... 46

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Bn - Billion

BTU - British Thermal Unit

EMS - Environmental Management System

GJ - Giga Joule

ISO - International Organization for Standards

kWh - Kilowatt per hour

KVA - Kilovolt Ampere

LED - Light Emitting Diode

m3 - Cubic meters

Mg / L -Milligram per Litre

Mn -Million

PV - Photovoltaic

RO - Reverse Osmosis

SLTDA - Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority

UNWTO - United Nations World Tourism Organization

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GLOSSARY

British Thermal Unit (BTU) - A traditional unit of heat. It is the amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

Capacitor Bank - A group of capacitors used to counteract or correct a power factor


lag or phase shift in an alternating current (AC) power supply.

Hardness - Amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water

Reciprocating Chiller - Single-acting compressor using pistons that are driven by a


connecting rod from a crankshaft.

Reverse Osmosis – Liquid filtering process in which a contaminated (more


concentrated) liquid is forced to pass through a semi-permeable membrane that block
most dissolved or suspended contaminants.

Screw Chiller - Positive displacement machine that uses helical rotors to compress the
refrigerant gas

Ton (Refrigeration Ton) - The amount of heat required to melt one ton of ice in 24
hours. This is equal to 12000 BTUs.

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1Background

The global tourism industry has become the industrial nervous system to global service
export market generating a tourist income of $1260 billion and demonstrating 1186
million tourists at a consistent growth rate of 4.6% and 4.4% respectively (UNWTO,
2016). This has been ear-marked as one of the fastest growing service sectors to
strengthen the entire spectrum of export market amid slow grown pace after global
financial crisis (Birsan & Balan, 2010). The regional contribution to the global tourism
industry can be depicted in table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Global Tourism Income and Tourist Arrivals by Region


Region Tourism Income Contribution Tourist Arrivals Contribution
($Bn) (Mn)
Americas 304 24% 193 16%
Africa 33 3% 53 5%
Middle East 54 4% 53 4%
Europe 451 36% 608 51%
Asia Pacific 418 33% 279 24%
Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Tourism Highlights, 2016 (P. 02)

The tourism industry in Sri Lanka has demonstrated a significant growth after end of
30 year ethnic conflict characterized by 14% tourist arrival growth supported by US$
3518.5 million income in the year of 2016. In addition, contribution of tourism industry
to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has considerably been increased to 4.8 % during
2016 becoming an indispensable thrust on ensuring a sustainable economic growth
trajectory for Sri Lankan economy (Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2016).

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The growth of value and volume of Sri Lankan tourism industry from 2010 to 2016 can
be illustrated in table 1.2.

Table 1.2 Growth of Tourism Value and Volume in Sri Lanka – 2010 to 2016
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tourists 654,476 855,975 1,005,605 1,274,593 1,527,153 1,798,380 2,050,832
Arrivals
$Mn 575.9 838.9 1,038.3* 1,715.50 2,431.1 2,980.6 3,518.5*
*Estimated
Source: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority Annual Statistical Report, 2016 (P. 49)

Bohdanowicz (2006) and Muzambi (2013) mentioned that tourism industry is an


industry which consumes a lager base of scarce resources such as water, energy and so-
on. For instance, the water & energy consumption by tourism industry in some of the
countries can be mentioned in table 1.3 and 1.4.

Table 1.3 Water Consumption by Tourism in Different Countries

Estimated tourism Estimated tourism


Country Country
water use (m3 per annum) water use (m3 per annum)

Australia 43,332,088 Japan 23,537,235

China 362,448,794 Malaysia 87,148,207

Egypt 35,456,764 Mexico 123,144,660

Fiji 1,789,210 New Zealand 12,132,330

France 96,197,487 Philippines 22,649,695

Germany 34,479,004 Singapore 4,369,799

India 101,335,527 Spain 135,706,158

Indonesia 52,917,638 Thailand 53,461,049

Italy 68,720,204 UAE 21,487,710

Jamaica 929,735 United Kingdom 43,252,885

Source: Water equity – Contrasting tourism water use with that of the local community, 2014 (P. 16)

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Table 1.4 Average hotel energy consumption per guest night by region
Region Energy Consumption ( Mega Joules )
Africa 164
Middle East 225
Europe 226
Asia Pacific 237
Caribbean 240
North America 244
Source: Statista, 2007

This is also an industry which generates a larger portion of solid waste ( Padilla, 2015).
For instance, Lincoln Waste Solutions (2017) shows that American hotel industry
generates 13,600,000 tons of solid waste while waste generation in UK is 289,700 tons
incurring a waste management cost of 4000 Sterling Pounds per ton (Tuppen, 2014). In
addition, table 1.5 provides a concise idea regarding the solid waste generation by hotels
in different geographical locations.

Table 1.5 Solid Waste Generation by Hotels (Kg per Guest Room per Day)
Country/ Region 2 Star 3 Star 4 Star 5 Star
Vietnam 1.4 -1.9 2.3 -12 N/A N/A
Saudi Arabia 0.8 -2.1 2.5 -7.2 7.3 -12.2 14 - 33
Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A
Europe 0.5-1.5 0.5 -1.5 0.5 -1.5 1.2 - 2
Source: Ensuring Sustainability in Sri Lanka’s Growing Hotel Industry, 2013 (P.37)

Ceylon Electricity Board (2015) clearly indicates that the electricity consumption by
Hotels in Sri Lanka is 265 Giga Watt hours while National Water Supply & drainage
Board (2011) shows that water consumption by Hotels in Sri Lanka is 2,308,000 Cubic
Meters. In addition, International Finance Corporation (2013) indicates that solid waste
generated by Hotels in Sri Lanka is 6000 Metric Tons per Month. These statistics
clearly illustrate that there is a dire need of utilizing those scarce resources effectively
and efficiently to ensure a sustainable development.

The organizations across the globe adopted different strategies to mitigate the impact
created on environment by organizations. The adoption of different strategies, through
organizational experience over time, has developed into a sophisticated system which
considers the each and every aspect which impacts on environment. It ultimately paved
the way for the development of Environmental Management System (Carrow &
Fletcher, 2007).

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Environmental Management System (EMS) is a process of controlling and reducing the
organizational impact on the environment (Whitelaw, 2004). Mensah (2007) stated that
there were continuous developments in EMS to ensure the effective and efficient
environment management. The main objective of having an EMS is to ensure the
efficient and effective utilization of water, electricity with emphasis on solid waste
management system which are the grave matters of concerns for the hotels across the
globe (Fei-Baffoe et al., 2013). So, most of hotels across the globe have been interested
in adopting Environmental Management System (EMS) in areas of water , electricity
and solid waste management to ensure the effective and efficient utilization of resources
while preserving the environment (Sustainable Business Associates, 2008).

Considerable number of hotels has already been operating EMS in water, electricity
and solid waste management areas (Wickramasinghe, 2016). For instance , Solar power
generation, use of energy efficient lights, use of LED TVs, Key-card system, light
timers, use of energy efficient Air Conditioners have been implemented as electricity
conservation measures while dual-flush toilets, linen & towel reuse, low-flow showers
& taps, use of recycled water for watering gardens, rain water harvesting, have been
implemented as water conservative-measures . In addition, sewerage treatment plant,
bio gas generation, composting and recycling have been implemented as solid waste
management measures (Wickramasinghe, 2015). Ratnayake & Miththapala (2011)
stated that the EMS practices are being successfully implemented by especially large
tourist hotels in areas of water, electricity and solid waste management but there is room
for potential to improve the practices further.

There are different ways of implementing and operating an EMS (Holling, 1974).
Jordão, Antunes & Santos (1996) mentioned reactive environmental management
strategy which focuses on implementing and operating an EMS after organizations have
been affected by regulatory compliance and other critical environment issues while
proactive environmental management strategy is an anticipated long-term preventive
strategy which focuses on addressing the environment related issues before those are
arisen in order to ensure a sustainable operation.

EMS has enabled hotels to reduce the overall cost, improve the corporate identity,
communication and quality management culture (Nee & Wahid, 2010). Wang, Lin &
Weber (2016) stated that having EMS will enhance the operational efficiency while

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Abdullah & Fuong (2010) mentioned that EMS facilitates to develop the organizational
human resource potential, better relationship with government authorities and
suppliers. Sroufe, Melnyk & Vastag (1998) and Orsato (2006) noted that EMS provides
the hotel with creating a competitive advantage over its competitors through
differentiation in the case of ensuring the foreseeable future.

As noted by Famiyeh, Kuttu & Anarfo (2014), even though Environmental


Management System has become the focal point in the case of ensuring the continuous
growth in hotel industry the hotel can face the issues and challenges arisen from
Environment Management System.

Physical building structure is a matter of concern in EMS because EMS would not
deliver the desired outcomes unless physically suited EMS is designed for organization
(Statzer & Baldwin, 2011). In addition, organizations tend to replicate the EMS
practices in another organization without considering organizational specific
characteristics resulting in inefficient and ineffective EMS practices. Gough (1994) and
Deepak, Bishnoi & Sharma (2015) mentioned that there are costs associated with
implementation and maintenance of an EMS. The costs of implementation consist of
planning cost, compliance cost, documentation cost, preliminary training cost and
registration costs while costs of maintenance consist of monitoring cost, auditing cost,
continuous improvement cost, continuous training cost to mitigate the resistance to
change. Ahmad et al. (2009) argued that lack of integration of environment
management into strategic decision making needs to be considered because the
environment management has become a trend-setter as well as the game-changer to the
organizations. So, this needs to be a matter of concern in the case of ensuring the success
and survival of the organization in long-term.

It can be clearly observed and literally justified, having perused previous researches,
that general issues and challenges such as cost (Gough, 1994), physical structure
(Statzer & Baldwin ,2011; Bishnoi & Sharma, 2015) and strategic fit of EMS (Ahmad
et al.,2009) in addition to the proactive and reactive measures (Jordão, Antunes &
Santos, 1996; Orsato, 2006) taken associated with EMS have been taken into account
to carry out the researches but no researches have focused on elaborating on the
operational issues and challenges associated with Environmental Management System
faced not only by tourist hotels in Sri Lanka but also by overseas tourist hotels.

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So, the researcher conducted a preliminary survey (See Appendix A) in an ISO 14001
certified four star Hotel in Hikkaduwa in order to identify whether there are operational
issues and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka or not. The
preliminary survey was supported with the participation of six executives and one
supervisor from seven departments. The results of the preliminary survey can be
mentioned in table 1.6

Table 1.6 Operational Issues & Challenges of EMS in tourist hotel in Hikkaduwa
Department Operational issues and challenges
Front Office Department No
Kitchen Department Negative Employees’ Attitude towards EMS
No suitable wet garbage collectors
Human Resources Department No registered personnel to recycle dry & wet garbage
Difficulties in sewerage treatment and rainwater harvesting
due to structural issues
Corrosion due to sea breeze
Security Department No
Training &Development No
Department
Accounts Department No Certified Contractors for respective EMS practices
Housekeeping More time consuming in garbage segregation
Source: Pilot Survey Data, 2017

1.2 Research problem

It is clearly visible in table 1.6 that 3 departments such as Front Office Department,
Training & Development Department and Security Department indicated that they do
not face operational issues and challenges because the executives mentioned that they
are not exposed to issues and challenges during the operation of EMS. However, the
results demonstrate that 4 departments such as Kitchen, Human Resources, Accounts
and Housekeeping Departments face operational issues and challenges in EMS.

Kitchen department mentioned that there are no registered personnel to collect wet
garbage and employees have negative attitude towards EMS. Human Resources
Department mentioned that there are no registered personnel for recycling dry and wet
garbage and it is difficult to implement sewerage treatment and rain water harvesting
effectively and efficiently due to building structure. Corrosion is also a major
operational challenge in the hotel because the hotel is located close to the beach.

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Housekeeping Department mentioned that the Department has to consume more time
in garbage segregation because the garbage has to be taken out within a limited period
of time to make the room ready for next guest. After the collection of garbage, another
period of time has to be allocated to segregate garbage again. Accounts Department
mentioned that there are no certified contractors for respective EMS practices.

The results of the Preliminary Survey proved that hotel faces issues and challenges
during the operation of EMS. Further, the executives who are really exposed to EMS
operation 100% confirmed that hotel faces operational issues and challenges in EMS.
Accordingly, researcher developed the research problem as;
What are the operational issues and challenges associated with current
Environmental Management System (EMS) in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka?

1.3 Research questions

 What are the operational issues and challenges related to the consumption of
water and electricity and solid waste management in tourist hotels?
 What is the impact that operational issues and challenges create on
organizational performance?
 What actions can be used to mitigate the operational issues and challenges to
have a proper EMS?

1.4 Objectives of research

 To identify the operational issues and challenges associated with consumption


of water and electricity and solid waste management in tourist hotels.
 To discuss the impact of operational issues and challenges on the organizational
performance
 To identify the actions that can be used to mitigate the operational issues and
challenges to have a proper EMS

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research study will be significant endeavor in addressing the operational issues
and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka.

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1.5.1 Academic Perspective

This research study will serve as future reference for researchers on the subject of EMS
operation. As its result, the future researchers will be able to carry out improved
researches comprehensively.
Especially for the researcher, research study will enable researcher to obtain a better in-
depth knowledge and understanding whether the hotels address the operational issues
and challenges in EMS effectively or try to green wash the environment practices.

1.5.2 Industrial Perspective

The findings of this research study will be beneficial for tourist hotels to develop a
sustainable mitigative strategy to overcome the operational issues and challenges
associated with EMS. The findings of this study will be further beneficial to existing
tourist hotels to develop a coherent and consistent approach to ensure smooth hotel
operation having incorporated EMS as a strategic matter of concern in strategy
formulation for tourist hotels.

This research study is also beneficial for non-tourist hotels because the findings of this
research can be used as a benchmark to fine-tune their environmental practices to ensure
sustainable operation.

1.5.3 Policy Making Perspective

This will be beneficial for the government to realign and recalibrate the existing policy
frameworks in order to ensure the sustainable growth trajectory for tourism industry
through pragmatic, practical and implementable policy formulation by government in
short and long term.

1.6 Chapter organization

The chapter one demonstrates the background of operational issues and challenges
associated with EMS in tourist hotels through a proven justification. In addition, this
chapter indicates the research problem, research questions, research objectives and
significance associated with the research.

Chapter two emphasizes on the elaboration of the facts intended to be discussed


comprehensively in the chapter four based on a literal perspective. This chapter

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elaborates the facts based on the ideas and points of view of the experts and
professionals in the industry.

Chapter three focuses on the nature of the methodology to be used in this research. In
addition, this will provide a clear idea with regard to research approach and research
design including population, sample, research approach, types of data, methods of data
collection and method of data analysis with an emphasis on rigor and ethical
considerations..

Chapter four covers a comprehensive discussion using multiple case study design on
two ISO 14001 certified 5 Star tourist hotels in Kandy and Anuradhapura districts, one
ISO 14001 unclassified tourist hotel in Kalutara district and one 3 star tourist hotel in
Nuwara Eliya district in Sri Lanka. In addition, this will explain about the operational
issues and challenges based on relevance to water, electricity and solid waste
management, impact of operational issues and challenges on organizational
performance and assessment of the extent to which the actions taken by the Hotel are
successful followed by research findings.

Final chapter indicates the conclusion and recommendations. This will provide an
overall idea regarding the research study.

1.7 Limitations

This research study focuses only on three classified tourist hotels and one unclassified
tourist hotel in Sri Lanka because the researcher clearly identified in preliminary survey
that most of respondents had a fear of corporate espionage because the tourist hotels
are under impression that the sensitive information might be leaked to their rivalries.
Therefore, the researcher was compelled to purposefully select the interviewees who
can provide the best information. Even though the researcher contacted many tourist
hotels in Sri Lanka, only three classified tourist hotels and one unclassified tourist hotel
responded to the request to provide information for this research study. However, the
researcher was able to gather needful material information required for the research to
achieve the research objectives with proven justification.

Semi-structured interview was conducted to collect information for the research study
because this research was conducted qualitatively. So, the issues and challenges

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elaborated in this research study have not been numerically justified. This limitation
creates an avenue for future researchers to focus on this research quantitatively.

Data were collected from respondents. It is presumed that the respondents would
provide correct information for the research study. As its result, the researcher was
compelled to use the collected data at face value. So, the respondents’ bias might create
an impact on the overall comprehensiveness of the research study to some extent.

This research study has been carried in Sri Lanka. So, this could create a geographical
limitation because the conditions in Sri Lanka could not be as same as conditions in
overseas countries due to country specific conditions. This can be a matter of concern
in the case of adopting the findings of this research study for the same research in
another country.

The researchers’ interpretations are based on the information provided by the


interviewees and public documents. So, the findings would be difficult to generalize
across all industries and are best suited for hotels of similar characteristics.

10
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATUE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on providing a comprehensive literal platform to the research


topic. Tourist Hotel, Tourist Hotel in Sri Lanka, Environmental Management system,
Issues and Challenges of Environmental Management System in Hotels in the world
and Sri Lanka are the areas of concern to enable the researcher to have a basic idea of
the research topic.

2.2. What is a Tourist Hotel?

According to Baker, Bradley & Huyton (2000), tourist hotel is simply defined as a place
which offers services to people travelling for pleasure and leisure. However, Millar &
Baloglu (2009) mentioned that tourist hotels now provide services for both leisure and
business travelers. So, Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (2017) defines
tourist hotel as a commercial establishment which provides guests with lodging
facilities temporarily in return for a payment. In addition to lodging facilities, tourist
hotels provide facilities such as safe, laundry service, tea & coffee making equipment,
Wi-Fi, bathroom tubs, king-sized beds, mini-bar, Air Conditioning and so-on. Large
hotels provide guests with restaurants, swimming pools, coffee shop, kid play area,
babysitting, banquet and conference facilities and so-on.
2.2.1 Tourist Hotels in the World

There is a significant development in the tourist hotel industry in the recent past in spite
of uncertain geopolitical and economic situations (Kelly & McAuley, 2017). As its
result, each and every region in the world has demonstrated a sustainable growth in
terms of tourist accommodation capacity.

11
For instance, American Hotels & Lodging Association (2015) indicated that there are
3,716.306 rooms from 24,029 tourist hotels in United States of America. Eurostat
(2015) indicated that there are 7891 tourist hotels having more than 100 rooms in
European Union (EU). Spain and Germany lead the tourist hotel industry having 2436
and 1748 tourist hotels respectively.

There are 81100 rooms provided by three to five star tourist hotels in African continent.
Most of tourist hotels are located in South Africa, Nigeria, Mauritius, Kenya and
Tanzania. Most of five star tourist hotels are located in South Africa and Mauritius
while Nigeria and Kenya consist of three to four star hotels (PricewaterhouseCoopers,
2017).

There are more than 125,000 rooms in Middle East continent. Most of tourist hotels are
luxury and upper-upscale tourist hotels. Most of these tourist hotels are located in Abu
Dhabi, Riyadh, Doha, Jeddah, Dubai and Muscat. Table 2.4 depicts the number of
rooms in major cities in Middle East (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2015). Fox (2016)
indicates that there are 4,116,328 rooms available in Asia Pacific region.

2.2.2 Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka

In the case of Sri Lankan tourism industry, the hotel industry plays a pivotal role in
providing the tourist with accommodation ensuring an unforgettable experience to the
tourists. Sri Lankan hotel industry is an indicator of different types of accommodation
which consist of boutique hotels and villas, guest houses, home stay units and tourist
hotels. However in the recent past, there is a tremendous improvement in the
establishment of tourist hotels all over the country mainly concentrated on Colombo
and Down South. There are currently 120 classified tourist hotels and 250 unclassified
tourist hotels registered with SLTDA in Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka Tourism Development
Authority, 2017). Table 2.1 and 2.2 indicate the number of three star to five star hotels
and unclassified hotels in Sri Lanka located in each district respectively.

12
Table 2.1 Number of Existing 3-5 Star Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka on District
Basis
District *** **** ***** District *** **** *****
Ampara - - - Kilinochchi - - -
Anuradhapura 2 1 1 Kurunegala - - -
Badulla - - - Mannar - - -
Batticoloa - - - Matale 2 1 1
Colombo 5 3 5 Matara - - -
Galle 1 2 2 Monaragala - 1 -
Gampaha - 2 2 Mullaitivu - - -
Hambantota 1 1 1 Nuwara Eliya 2 2 -
Jaffna - - - Polonnaruwa - 1 -
Kalutara 1 1 2 Puttalam 1 1 -
Kandy 2 1 3 Rathnapura - - -
Kegalle - - - Trincomalee - 1 -
Vavuniya - - -
Source: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2017

Table 2.2 Number of Existing Unclassified Hotels in Sri Lanka on District Basis

District Number of Hotels District Number of Hotels


Ampara 4 Kilinochchi -
Anuradhapura 5 Kurunegala 1
Badulla 9 Mannar 1
Batticoloa 11 Matale 14
Colombo 24 Matara 11
Galle 43 Monaragala 5
Gampaha 31 Mullaitivu -
Hambantota 14 Nuwara Eliya 9
Jaffna 3 Polonnaruwa 5
Kalutara 26 Puttalam 10
Kandy 15 Rathnapura 2
Kegalle 2 Trincomalee 7
Vavuniya -
Source: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2017

2.3 Environmental Management System (EMS)

The environmental management system is a holistic structure made to manage the


impacts created by the organizational product and service portfolio and to ensure the
continuous improvement in environment performance and management (US
Environmental Protection Agency, 2017). This demonstrates a methodical process that
can be used to minimize the negative impacts created on environment by the
organization (TechTarget, 2017). Ann, Zailani & Wahid (2006) mentioned that EMS
has been developed to introduce environmental improvement into every aspect of a
company’s operations, and offers an organized approach to manage environmental
issues. Sammalisto (2007) stated that EMS increases the efficiency of operations,
focuses on customer requirements and facilitates communication between the

13
organisation and its interested parties. EMS can also provide opportunities and
demonstrate to regulators and stakeholders that continuous improvement can be
achieved through voluntary programmes (Maier & Vanstone, 2005).

2.3.1. Basic Elements and Implementation of EMS

EMS helps the organization with addressing its regulatory demands systematically and
cost-effectively. This proactive approach can help with reducing non-compliance risk
and improving health and safety practices for employees and the public. EMS can also
help with addressing unregulated issues such as energy conservation, and can promote
intensified operational control and ensure employee stewardship. Basic Elements
included in EMS are review of organizational environmental goals, analysis of
environmental impacts and regulatory compliances, environmental objectives and
targets setting to ensure reduced environmental impacts and regulatory compliance,
programme Development to meet these objectives and targets, monitoring and
measuring progress in achieving the objectives, ensuring employees' environmental
awareness and competence and review of EMS progress and making improvements
(US Environmental Protection Agency, 2017).

The abovementioned basic elements can be implemented systematically using five


important stages developed in International Organization for Standards (ISO) 14001:
2004 Standard as follows;

1. Commitment and Policy - Top management commits to environmental improvement


and establishes the organizational environmental policy. The policy is the platform for
EMS.

2. Planning – The organization fundamentally identifies environmental aspects of its


operations such as air pollutants or hazardous waste that can have negative impacts on
people and the environment. The organization thereafter decides which aspects are
significant having chosen the criteria considered the most important by the
organization. For instance, the organization can choose worker’s health and safety,
environmental compliance and cost as its criteria. After significant environmental
aspects are decided, an organization sets objectives and targets. An objective is an
overall environmental goal (e.g., minimize use of chemical X). A target is a detailed,
quantified requirement that arises from the objectives (e.g., reduce use of chemical X

14
by 25% by September 2018). The final part of the planning stage is to devise an action
plan for meeting the targets. This entails delegation of responsibilities, schedule
establishment, and outlining of clearly defined steps to meet the targets.

3. Implementation and Operation - The organization follows the action plan by using
the necessary resources (human, financial, etc.). An important component is employee
training and awareness for all employees. Other steps in the implementation stage
include documentation, operating procedures follow-up, and setting up internal and
external communication lines and so-on.

4. Evaluation – The organization monitors its operations to evaluate whether targets are
being met. If it is not so, the company takes corrective action.

5. Management Review - The management reviews the results of the evaluation to see
whether EMS is effectively operated or not. Management determines whether the
original environmental policy is consistent with the organizational values. The plan is
then revised to optimize the effectiveness of the EMS. The review stage creates an
avenue for continuous improvement for a company.

2.3.2 Importance of EMS to Tourist Hotels

Environmental management system will enable the hotels to reduce its overall cost
because sound Environmental management system lays the foundation for continuous
reduction of cost in the areas of water, electricity and solid waste through
implementable conservation practices and save the above resources to utilize
effectively and efficiently for future demand of the hotel (Katris, Kyrikou & Bentsou ,
2015). In addition, the saved cost can be re-invested to improve the overall cost
performance systematically in long term. This will in turn provide the hotel with an
impetus to improve its financial competitive advantage over time (Greenhotelier, 2014).

Furthermore, Chan (2008) mentioned that this has the ability to improve hotel image
and corporate identity in the hotel industry by differentiation thorough the commitment
to environmental protection and conservation. The most important aspect of this System
is the customer loyalty because the customers in modern world are so much interested
in dealing with organizations which are committed to environmental protection
(Vähätiitto, 2010). Vähätiitto (2010) further stated that having an environment system
can be used as a marketing tool to attract environment-conscious customers to the hotel.

15
This will ultimately to lead to ensuring a sustainable growth trajectory for the hotels in
long term (International Organization for Standardization, 2015)

2.3.3 Operation of EMS in Tourist Hotels in the world

The hotels across the globe are highly innovative to create new strategies to position
the hotels as responsible hospitality service providers before potential customers
(Rendón, Martínez & Flores, 2014). Staib (2005) stated that the hotels in the world are
highly committed to environment protection because environment management plays a
significant role in strategic decision making and law makers in developed countries
developed respective legislature to legally bind the hotels to protect environment.
However, the hotels have shown a genuine interest in protecting the environment
(Mbasera et al., 2016).

2.3.4 Operation of EMS in Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka

According to Wickramasinghe (2016), the hotel industry in Sri Lanka has so much
eager to adopt Environmental Management System. Some of large scale hotels in Sri
Lanka have already deployed efficient and effective Environmental Management
System through energy conservation, water conservation and waste management
measures to show their commitment to environment protection.

Jetwing Hotels

Jetwing hotels are one of the pioneers in implementing Environmental Management


System in Sri Lanka. The hotels have implemented number of innovative initiatives
such as rain-water harvesting, solar power generation, waste water treatment, biogas
generation etc. and to ensure the success and survival in Sri Lankan hotel industry such
as Jetwing Sustainability Policy which demonstrates the Hotels’ environmental
management strategy while Jetwing Eternal Earth Programme shows the environmental
management projects carried out (Jetwing Hotels, 2017).

John Keells Hotels

John Keells Hotels are also committed to environment management. These hotels have
initiated number of environmental management practices energy conservation using co-
generation, rainwater harvesting, waste minimization through deploying in-house
developed control systems, bio gas generation and especially Project Leopard Yala

16
which focuses on protecting both leopards and cattle in Yala by providing farmers with
Steel Pens to protect cattle from leopards (John Keells Hotels PLC, 2016).

Aiken Spence Hotels

Aiken Spence Hotels plays a pivotal role in environment management as a genuine


responsible hospitality service provider in Sri Lanka. The hotels have implemented
number of initiatives such as organic farming, biogas generation, waste water treatment,
solar power generation, sewerage treatment, rain water harvesting and so-on. Especially
in Solid waste management, the hotel has implemented a sound practice either by
handing over the food waste to piggeries as fodder or by using for biogas generation
(Aitken Spene Hotels Holdings PLC, 2016).

2.4. Issues and Challenges of EMS in Tourist Hotels in the world

Even though Environmental Management System is being implemented in hotels there


are issues and challenges associated with Environmental Management System
(Demajorovic & Antunes, 2004). Daughtry (2014) mentioned that most of staff in
hotels do not have a better knowledge and understanding on Environmental
Management System. In addition, Min (2011) mentioned that managers have a negative
attitude on EMS because they are under impression that implementation of
Environmental Management System is merely a regulatory compliance rather than
creating a competitive advantage. Watson et al. (2004) mentioned that the hotels have
to incur a higher expenditure on Environment Management System because a large
initial cost has to be incurred to purchase equipment and make the building suited for
EMS. Massoud et al. (2010) mentioned that there is an increased customer demand for
products made by organizations who implement Environment Management System.
So, the hotels are so much eager to implement EMS to attract customers who are willing
to pay a premium piece for EMS practising hotels (The United States Agency for
International Development, 2002).

2.5. Issues and Challenges of EMS in Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka

In the case of Sri Lanka, even though some of the large hotels have already implemented
Environmental Management System most of large hotels have not yet placed their top
priority on Environmental Management System due to lack of awareness of
sustainability among lower level staff. As its result, the hotels are unable to implement

17
the Environmental Management System efficiently and effectively. In addition, lack of
dedicated staff is also a matter of concern because deployment of current employees
for radical change may disturb the existing operation. Higher capital investment is also
a challenge because of longer payback periods. Low number of suppliers and vendors
are available in the market. So, people are sceptical to implement Environmental
Management System fully while poor after-sales service is also a matter of concern
(International Finance Corporation, 2013).

2.6 Research Gap Identification

According to Wickramasinghe (2012), there is a dearth of researches regarding


environmental practices in Sri Lanka but it is clearly visible that even though there are
many researches which focus on Environmental Management in the global context and
few researches in Sri Lankan context, no research has been carried out on the
operational issues and challenges in Environment Management System of tourist hotels
not only in Sri Lanka but also in the world. For instance, Daughtry (2014), Min (2011),
Watson et al. (2004) and Massoud et al. (2010) focused on the general issues and
challenges before implementation and after a specific problem has been arisen but no
research had been carried on issues and challenges faced during operation and no direct
reference has been made to the operational issues and challenges of EMS in tourist
hotels in the world. It can be further literally justified that International Finance
Corporation (2013) has addressed the issues and challenges associated with EMS
indirectly because the research focused on areas of water, electricity and solid waste
management of hotels in Sri Lanka on which the researcher also focus but no direct
reference has been made to EMS of tourist hotels in Sri Lanka. In addition, the research
has only focused on issues and challenges before implementation but no focus is made
on operational issues and challenges of EMS of tourist hotels in Sri Lanka.

Thus, a gap is identified to carry out a research study on the operational issues and
challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka. In a bid to bridge this
gap, this research study aims to identify the operational issues and challenges associated
with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka and impact of operational issues and challenges
on organizational performance . It also strives to evaluate the level of success of actions
already taken by hotels and recommend pragmatic, practical and implementable actions
to ensure effective and efficient EMS operation of tourist hotels in Sri Lanka.

18
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter demonstrates the research approach and research design associated with
the research study.

3.2 Research Approach

This research study focuses on grasping a comprehensive knowledge and understanding


regarding the operational issues and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels
in Sri Lanka. Based on the findings of the preliminary survey, researcher had a general
idea about operational issues and challenges associated with EMS. This research study
adopted qualitative approach because qualitative approach can be used to gain better
knowledge with regard to any phenomenon which is of less concern (Sanjari et al.,
2014).

Qualitative research method has been used for data collection because qualitative
methods provide a variety of empirical frameworks designed to analyze and interpret
the research participants’ experiences contextually ( Fink, 2000). Data were gathered
through semi-structured interviews with two General Managers, five Heads of
Departments, twelve Executives and one Supervisor in two ISO 14001 certified 5 Star
tourist hotels in Kandy and Anuradhapura districts, one ISO 14001 certified
unclassified tourist hotel in Kalutara district and one ISO 14001 certified 3 star tourist
hotel in Nuwara Eliya district in Sri Lanka in order to have a wide spectrum of
knowledge by providing the research participants with an opportunity to explore the
operational issues and challenges of EMS that they feel important (Longhurst, 2016).
Qualitative research has the ability to provide a comprehensive account of explanation
regarding people’s exposure to a research issue (Rwegoshora, 2014).
19
Qualitative method will also enable the researcher to interpret and have a better
knowledge and understanding regarding the complex reality of a given situation and
the implications of quantitative data (Zubin & Sutton, 2014). So, qualitative method
will enable researcher to effectively and efficiently have a meaningful idea regarding
the topic that is difficult to be delivered through quantitative method (Leung, 2015).

3.3 Research Design

Creswell (2009) stated that there are number of accepted research designs available in
qualitative method such as ethnography, phenomenological research, grounded theory,
case study research and narrative research. However, Yin (2009) stated that case study
offers the opportunity of discovering the real scenario of the research matter while this
is particularly more suitable for exploring a previously under-researched phenomenon.
Yin (2009) further stated that the case study design is able to identify the real meaning
through the analysis of rich innumerable information in respect of a particular case or
multiple cases. Herriott & Firestone (1982) stated that the findings of multiple case
study approach are more compelling and robust than single case study approach. In
addition, Herriott & Firestone (1982) further stated that multiple case study design has
the ability to take into account wider spectrum of ideas and behaviors to ensure the
justifiable symmetric information in the research. As the result of using multiple case
study design, researcher can have a comprehensive knowledge and understanding
regarding the operational issues and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels
in Sri Lanka.

3.3.1 Population & Sample

The aim of this research study is to identify the operational issues and challenges
associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Tourism Development
Authority (2017) indicates that there are 120 registered classified and 250 unclassified
tourist hotels in Sri Lanka. So, the selected population of the research consists of the
entire registered classified and unclassified tourist hotels in Sri Lanka. In the case of
deriving the sample from the population, the researcher used purposive sampling
method to select the sample.

Anderson (2010) stated that it is unnecessary to collect data from everyone in a


population in order to provide valid and reliable findings. In the case of qualitative
research, only sample of a population is selected for any given research. The research

20
objectives and the characteristics of the research population determine the sample
selection process. Having considered the objectives of this research, the researcher
selected two ISO 14001 Certified five star tourist hotels, one ISO 14001 Certified three
star tourist hotel and one ISO14001 certified unclassified tourist hotel based on 4
different geographical locations in Sri Lanka as the sample for the research. In the case
of collecting data from several sources, the researcher had been able to gather and to
identify rich and accurate data from the interviews.

Sekeran & Bougie (2016) stated that it could be crucial in obtaining information from
specific target groups in place of obtaining information from readily available sources.
The sampling in this research is confined to specific type of hotels which are willing to
provide the desired information. At the preliminary survey stage, the researcher clearly
identified that most of respondents had a fear of corporate espionage because the tourist
hotels are under impression that the sensitive information might be leaked to their
rivalries. Therefore, the researcher has to purposefully select the interviewees who can
provide the best information. So, the researcher used purposive sampling method for
selection of sample from the population.
3.3.2 Type of Data

This research is based on 2 types of data such as;

 Primary Data
 Secondary Data

Primary Data
Hox & Boeiji (2005) stated that Primary data are the data which are collected focusing
on a specific research problem by a researcher using mechanisms which are best suited
for research problem. Based on the type and the quality, primary data are mainly used
for this research. Tripathy & Tripathy (2015) mentioned that primary data are genuine
and focused fundamentally on the issue or problem while primary data can be collected
using different methods such as interviews, surveys, questionnaires and so-on. So, the
researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with two General Managers, five
Heads of Departments, twelve Executives and one Supervisor in two ISO 14001
certified 5 Star tourist hotels in Kandy and Anuradhapura districts, one ISO 14001
certified unclassified tourist hotel in Kalutara district and one ISO 14001 certified 3 star
tourist hotel in Nuwara Eliya district in Sri Lanka. Prior to the data collection, the
21
researcher clearly analysed preliminary survey data, previous research articles and
sustainability reports and green directories to have a general idea about the issue. The
interview protocol was developed consisting of five questions (Appendix B) and
conducted semi-structured interviews to gather primary data.

Research Site

The research site of this research study was four tourist hotels located in Kalutara,
Kandy, Anuradhapura and Nuwara Eliya Districts of Sri Lanka. The exact location of
tourist hotels cannot be divulged because the researcher had a verbal agreement with
tourist hotels not to disclose the name and location of tourist hotels. The researcher was
granted the verbal permission only to disclose the district in which tourist hotel is
located.

Primary Data Collection Technique

Primary data were mainly gathered through semi structured interview method to collect
the required information from two General Managers, five Heads of Departments,
twelve Executives and one Supervisor in two ISO 14001 certified 5 Star tourist hotels
in Kandy and Anuradhapura districts, one ISO 14001 certified unclassified tourist hotel
in Kalutara district and one ISO 14001 certified 3 star tourist hotel in Nuwara Eliya
district in Sri Lanka. This method was used as an instrument in collecting primary data
to investigate what are the operational issues and challenges associated with EMS in
tourist hotels in Sri Lanka. Semi-structured interview method is the most appropriate
for this research study because this method will enable the researcher to have the
discretion to ask questions in addition to the structured questions in case of an
ambiguity of response by the participant for a structured question in order to ensure that
correct information are collected for the research study (Harrell & Bradley, 2009). In
addition, the structured questions will ensure that the researcher gathers material
information required for the research study. This type of interview collects detailed
information conversationally because semi-structured interviews provide the research
participants with the opportunity to mention what is not covered by the structured
questions. This will enrich the research data needed for the research. Therefore, semi
structured interview method was selected for this research to collect primary data to
have a better knowledge and understanding regarding the operational issues and
challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka.

22
Secondary Data

Secondary data were collected throughout fieldwork to support and to authenticate


primary data. Secondary data were collected by referring to the annual reports of Aitken
Spence Hotels PLC and John Keells Hotels PLC, green directories of Jetwing Hotels,
previous research journal articles as cited in references and SLTDA Annual statistical
report 2016.

3.3.3 Method of Data Analysis

This is now a qualitative research study. So, researcher used interpretive description
method to analyze interviewed data. This method was originally developed to ensure
cohesiveness and comprehensiveness of qualitative clinical researches. The researcher
selected this method because Thorne, Kirkham & Emes (1997) stated that the
interpretive description method would enable the researcher to develop a coherent
logical reasoning throughout the analysis based on the routine experiences of
interviewees because the issues and challenges faced during the operation cannot be
identified without experience. In addition, since the data gathered through semi-
structured interviews were based on the routine works and experiences of interviewees,
this method orients the researcher toward the generation of practice-relevant findings
(Thorne, Kirkham, & Magee, 2004). Morse (1994) stated that this method further
capitalizes on reshaping and recontextualizing the data in order to develop a meaningful
interpretation throughout the analysis having focused on each and every case
individually rather than simply sorting and coding. Morse (1994) further stated that this
method allows the researcher to explore the facts rationally during the data analysis
without using pre-determined themes and codes. Therefore, interpretive description
method was best suited for this research to carry out data analysis to have a better
knowledge and understanding regarding the operational issues and challenges
associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka.

3.3.4 Rigor of Data Analysis

The evidences gathered through semi-structured interviews were primarily from


executive level and supervisor level staff. In order to verify whether the facts mentioned
by executive and supervisor were true or false, the researcher had informal discussions
with lower level staff because they are the persons who are really exposed to EMS

23
operation. They testified that facts mentioned by the executives and supervisor are true.
As its result, the researcher was able to develop a coherent justification to support
arguments exposed in the research. In addition, the positive aspects were also exposed
in the research in order to ensure the balance of findings.

The transcripts of interviews were checked continuously to avoid mistakes in analysis


and interpretation to ensure the compatibility and accuracy of the research findings.

Since the research study emphasizes on operational issues and challenges associated
with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka, any academic reader could argue that this
research does not focus on all the tourist hotels as reflected in the research topic itself.
It should be noted that all tourist hotels in Sri Lanka are classified by Sri Lanka Tourism
Development Authority (SLTDA). The Authority follows internationally recognized
standard criteria to classify tourist hotels. The tourist hotels subjected to this research
have been classified by SLTDA. In addition, all the tourist hotels classified by SLTDA
are legally required to maintain the standard practice specified by SLTDA irrespective
of geographical location. So, it is presumed that the standard of selected tourist hotels
is as same as the standard of tourist hotels located in other parts of Sri Lanka based on
SLTDA classification. As its result, findings of this research study can be replicated
across all tourist hotels in Sri Lanka.

The research was submitted on staggered basis to the Academic Supervisor who
decided the quality and comprehensiveness of each part of the research after which the
approval was granted for each part met with standard. This was continued until the
expected standard of final research was met.

3.3.5 Ethical Considerations

Before the beginning of this research, the interview protocol, information sheet for the
interview were subjected to supervisory approval after which the abovementioned
documents were used for data collection.

In the case of interview, the appointment for an interview was sought using a Letter of
Request enclosed with information sheet. The information sheet provided all the
information regarding the purpose of the interview for the research. Before the
interview is started, the researcher provided the interviewee with a brief introduction of

24
research. Thereafter, the interviewee was provided with the interview protocol to
understand the types of questions to be asked and the nature of the interview.

In the case of guarantee of confidentiality, the interviewees were invited to fill in the
discretionary Statement of Consent by Participant showing status of anonymity and
confidentiality. Every interviewee filled and handed over them to the researcher.

The interviewees were reluctant to show their identity. So, the names of interviewees
were coded to ensure reciprocity so that both researcher and participants were equally
benefitted from carrying out this research.

25
CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the data that the researcher assembled through the semi-structured
interviews. The purpose of this chapter is to present data to identify the operational
issues and challenges of EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka in areas of water and
electricity consumption and solid waste management. This research study attempts to
identify the impact of operational issues and challenges on organizational performance.
Finally, this assesses the extent to which the actions already taken by the Hotel are
successful. However, it should be noted that the hotel names and locations have not
been included because the respondents from participant hotels declined to show the
hotel identity.

4.2 Data Presentation and Discussion

4.2.1 Case 1

This case is associated with an ISO 14001 certified unclassified tourist hotel located in
Kalutara District. This case focuses on identifying and discussing the operational issues
and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka in areas of water,
electricity and solid waste and their impact on organizational performance. This further
assesses the extent to which the actions already taken by the hotel are successful or not.
Table 4.1 demonstrates the summary of water and electricity consumption and solid
waste generation of the hotel.

26
Table 4.1 Case 1 Summary
Areas of Concern Case 1
Water Consumption (m3) 275-280
Electricity Consumption (kWh/room/month) 118
Solid Waste Generation (Kg/room/day) 1.1
Source: Interview Data, 2017

Water Consumption

“The average water consumption of the hotel is approximately 275-280 m3 per day. The
water is withdrawn from one surface well and one tube well. The withdrawn water is
subjected to thorough treatment after which the water is fit for guest consumption. The
water flow rate of wash basin tap is 5 litres per minute while the water flow rate at
shower is 10 litres per but the abovementioned flow rates can be subjected to change
due to water pressure” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 03).

The control valves have been installed to control the water pressure but the guest
behaviour becomes an operational challenge in the case of controlling the water
consumption because the water consumption of one guest is different from another
guest. In this case, it is very much challenging operationally to ensure the sound water
management within the hotel due guest behaviour.

“In addition, there is laundry here. The linen of not only this hotel but also sister hotel
are laundered here. If we say, sister hotel has 175 rooms and we have 129 rooms. Sister
hotel has a banquet hall and we also have a banquet hall. Let assume if the two
weddings were held in two banquet hall, we would have to launder a large quantity of
linen such table cloth, serviette and so-on. So, we have to consume a large quantity of
water for laundry. The water level in machines cannot be controlled. The required level
of water has to be supplied to machines. This is one of the challenges faced during
water consumption” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 03).

“The staff behaviour is also an operational issue because the staff have been provided
with water facilities for their comfort but the staff use this carelessly. In addition, during
high and low tide, the saline water is mixed with potable water provided by National
Water Supply & drainage Board (Pers. Comm. Respondent 03).

27
As its result, the staff are unable to use the water at homes. So, staff have been used to
fulfill the water needs from the hotel. It should be pertinent to indicate that the guest
water consumption per room for the month of May 2017 is 2016 litres. In fact, this was
calculated having incorporated the staff use, kitchen, laundry and so-on but the actual
guest water consumption was between 100 and 125 litres per month. As its result, it is
very much challenging to control the water consumption operationally.

“The roofing structure of the building is also an operational issue for the
implementation of rainwater harvesting because the roof has been designed for the
architectural beautification of the hotel” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 03). As its result,
the hotel has to let the rainwater go unused. So, it is an issue operationally to implement
rainwater harvesting.

Assessment of Successfulness of Actions Already Taken for Water Consumption


by Hotel
“In staff use, the water meters have been installed to control the water consumption but
still they use the water above the required level” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 03).
However, it should be noted that even though the above measure has been deployed,
hotel is yet unable to reduce the water consumption by staff because this has been
provided to the staff as a privilege. So, this action taken by the hotel is not successful
to a certain extent.

Electricity Consumption

“The average monthly electricity consumption of hotel room is 118 units. The monthly
electricity consumption of the hotel is 6000-6200 kWh .The hotel consumes most of its
electricity for air conditioning purposes. This hotel has a 220 ton Chiller to cool the
entire hotel. So, at least one room consumes 1.5 tons or 1800 BTUs based on the room
capacity of hotel” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 03).

However, it should be noted by the researcher that the electricity demand has
considerably been increased in the recent past due to the increased capacity in office,
restaurants and banquet halls remaining the chiller capacity unchanged. The chiller
capacity is not sufficient to cool the entire hotel mainly due to the building structure
since this hotel was started 25 years ago. The hotel has large buildings consisting of
large arches designed based on the architectural trends at that time. So, the Chiller has
to consume more electricity to cool the entire hotel leading to increased cost. In

28
addition, buildings were constructed without considering the significance of energy
saving at that time. However, the hotel has to focus on energy saving since the hotel
has been practising EMS now. So, energy saving plays a crucial role during the
operation of EMS. In the case of increasing the energy saving in the area of electricity,
building structure has become an operational issue for the hotel.

The temperature in the area has also become a significant operational challenge because
the area in which the hotel is located has high humidity. As its result, the air
conditioning has to be increased to maintain a consistent temperature within the hotel
buildings.

In addition, the hotel has a Centralized Air Conditioning System. The room temperature
is currently being maintained at 22C0. The guest behaviour is also an operational
challenge in this connection because if the guest needs a more cooling environment
inside the room than other guest in the adjoining room, the room with high temperature
will be flooded because the room walls have not been insulated at the time of
construction.

“Both sewerage and other liquid waste are collected to sumps. The sewerage and other
liquid waste are pumped to the treatment plants by submersible pumps. The submersible
pumps are operated round the clock” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 03). As its results,
these pumps consume considerable level of electricity which is unavoidable. In
addition, all the sumps are under the basement. So, the sumps’ location cannot be
changed due to the building structure.

Assessment of Successfulness of Actions Already Taken for Electricity


Consumption by Hotel
“We have used solar powered lighting system for the garden and the garden lights for
which 40W bulbs were used, have been replaced with 5W bulbs thereby reducing 35W
from each bulb” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 03). However, it was clearly mentioned that
this reduction is comparatively low with overall electricity consumption. So, this action
taken by the hotel is successful to a certain extent but not to a greater extent.

“The reciprocating chiller has been replaced with screw type chiller. This chiller
consumes only 3050 KWh per day. If the reciprocating chiller were there, the electricity
consumption could have been more than 5000 KWh per day (Pers. Comm. Respondent
03). However, the chiller’s electricity consumption is accounted for more than 50% of

29
daily electricity consumption which is very much challenging operationally to reduce.
However, this action taken by the hotel is successful to a certain extent.

Solid Waste Management

“The hotel does not face any operational issue or challenge until now regarding solid
waste management. The hotel segregates the solid waste based on wet and dry
conditions. Each and every related process is operated smoothly. So, the hotel
successfully recycles its waste. No issue or challenge has yet been faced by the hotel”
(Pers. Comm. Respondent 02). It is clearly visible that this hotel do not face any
operational issue or a challenge in the case of EMS.

Impact of operational issues and challenges on organizational performance


It is clearly visible having considered the above facts that the above operational issues
and challenges in the areas of water and electricity consumption create an impact on
organizational performance to a certain extent because the hotel has to incur a
considerable level of cost due to the abovementioned operational uses and challenges.
Some of the costs are unavoidable due to staff and guest behaviour. However, the hotel
is able to improve its overall organizational performance considerably due to non-
financial benefits such as improved guest and staff satisfaction.

4.2.2 Case 2

This case is associated with an ISO 14001 certified Five Star tourist hotel located in
Kandy District. This case focuses on identifying and discussing the operational issues
and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka in areas of water,
electricity and solid waste and their impact on organizational performance. This further
assesses the extent to which the actions already taken by the hotel are successful or not.
Table 4.2 demonstrates the summary of water and electricity consumption and solid
waste generation of the hotel.

Table 4.2 Case 2 Summary


Areas of Concern Case 2
Water Consumption (m3) 180-190
Electricity Consumption (kWh/room/month) 108
Solid Waste Generation (Kg/room/day) 1.55
Source: Interview Data, 2017

30
Water Consumption

“The average water consumption per is 180-190m3. Actually, I don’t see the building
structure being affected to the EMS. We are doing like controlling things” (Pers.
Comm. Respondent 10). This clearly demonstrates that this hotel has successfully
operated the sound water management system. Hotel specially mentioned that the hotel
does not face any issue and challenge during the operation of EMS. The hotel further
mentioned that the hotel has already taken effective measures to avoid any issue or
challenge that could be arisen during the operation of EMS in the area of water
consumption.

Assessment of Successfulness of Actions Already Taken For Water Consumption


by Hotel
“We have given each department in the hotel saving targets to be achieved in the area
of water consumption at the start of each year. However, it is also challenging” (Pers.
Comm. Respondent 10). The researcher found that the saving targets based on water
consumption could not be achieved in some instances due to fluctuating occupancy
level but this action has enable the hotel to save water to a certain extent. The taps at
hotel have been replaced sensor taps. So this has enabled the hotel to reduce the water
consumption to a greater extent. So this action taken by the hotel is successful.

Electricity Consumption

“We are doing energy saving things. Actually, we are there” (Pers. Comm. Respondent
10). It is clearly mentioned that the hotel does not face any operational issue or a
challenge in the case of EMS in the area of electricity consumption. The researcher
found that hotel has successfully implemented electricity saving techniques to ensure
sound low cost electricity consumption. The hotel further mentioned that the hotel has
already taken effective measures to avoid any issue or challenges that could be arisen
during the operation of EMS in the area of electricity consumption.

Assessment of Successfulness of Actions Already Taken For Electricity


Consumption by Hotel
The LED bulbs have been used for hotel lighting system. So this has enabled the hotel
to reduce the electricity consumption to a greater extent in comparison with overall
electricity consumption. So this action taken by the hotel is successful.

31
Solid Waste Management

“What I believe actually the waste management we face it as a challenge because when
we want to get rid of waste, it is very difficult to find a person who is having the
environment licence to do that. Basically, garbage disposal you should have an
environment licence to do that. So, most of the contractors what we have over here they
don’t have that one. One challenge is this” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 10).

It is clearly visible that the area from which the main operational challenges are arisen
is solid waste because it is very difficult to find persons who have environment licence
in recycling. In addition, it should be noted that the current contractors who handle the
solid waste of the hotel are not eco-licensed contractors. It was clearly indicated that
the hotel faces finding eco-licensed contractors for solid waste management as an
operational challenge. The researcher found that there are no contractors who are
legally approved eco-friendly solid waste management contractors by government in
the area.

“Basically, when we give garbage whatever dry or wet garbage to somebody, you need
to see the end of that process. That actually we can’t monitor” (Pers. Comm.
Respondent 10).

It was further highlighted that the hotel is unable to monitor the outcome of solid waste
after handing over the solid waste to the contractors. The researcher was able to find
out that the hotel does not have an effective monitoring mechanism to check what
happen to the solid waste after it is delivered to the contractors. In this case, the hotel
needs to check whether the contractors follow the eco-friendly methodology in waste
recycling because if the contractors do not follow specified methodology, it would
definitely create an indirect impact on the hotel image and corporate identity.

Assessment of Successfulness of Actions Already Taken For Solid Waste by Hotel


The researcher was able to find out the fact that even though the hotel manages its solid
waste to a greater extent much emphasis has to be placed on having an effective
monitoring mechanism to ensure that solid waste created by the hotel is effectively
recycled. This action has to be improved to achieve 100% success in solid waste
management.

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Impact of operational issues and challenges on organizational performance

The current operational challenges of hotel have not yet created a significant impact on
the organizational performance in short term. However, it needs to be taken cognizance
of the fact that development of an effective monitoring mechanism is a crucial factor in
long term because the hotel cannot circumvent the responsibility in case of problem
created by the contractors blaming the contractors’ responsibility and the contractor
recycles the hotel’s waste. So the hotel has an indirect liability to monitor the
contractor’s solid waste management process.

4.2.3 Case 3

This case is associated with an ISO 14001 certified Five Star tourist hotel located in
Anuradhapura District. This case study focuses on identifying and discussing the
operational issues and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka in
areas of water, electricity and solid waste and their impact on organizational
performance. This further assesses the extent to which the actions already taken by the
hotel are successful or not. Table 4.3 demonstrates the summary of water and electricity
consumption and solid waste generation of the hotel.

Table 4.3 Case 3 Summary


Areas of Concern Case 3
3
Water Consumption (m ) 350
Electricity Consumption (kWh/room/month) 118
Solid Waste Generation (Kg/room/day) 3.3
Source: Interview Data, 2017

Water Consumption
“350m3 of water are withdrawn from six surface wells and six tube wells. However,
only 210m3 can be used for human consumption due to hardness. So, the main
operational challenge associated with the water consumption is the hardness of water
because the hotel is located in a dry zone which has a considerable level of hardness
in water. The hardness of water in this area is 800 mg/L” (Pers. Comm. Respondent
14). Table 4.4 indicates the international water hardness classification.

33
Table 4.4 Water Hardness Classification based on mg/L
Classification Hardness in mg/L
Soft 0-60
Moderately Hard 61-120
Hard 121-180
Very Hard ≥ 180
Source: USGS Water Science School, 2016

This indicates that this area has “very hard” water according to United States Geological
Survey (USGS) Water Science School (2016) because water becomes “very hard” if
the water contains more than 180 mg of calcium and magnesium compounds per litre.
However the hotel is able to maintain the hardness of water at between 20 and 40 mg/L
which is fit for guest consumption. In addition, the hardness of water will be varied
based on the usage. As its result, the hotel has to incur a considerable cost to maintain
human fit hardness level in water.

“The sewerage treatment plant accommodates the sewerage of hotel and its sister hotel.
The sewerage will be subjected to drying using 3 dry beds. Only 40% of dried waste is
used for composting while rest is buried” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 14). In this case,
the researcher found that rain acts as an operational challenges for waste management
because it is very much difficult to make the waste dried during rainy season.

“Tree root intrusion has also become an operational issue for waste water management
because the clay pipes were used in waste water management system instead of PVC
pipes since this hotel was built 38 years ago” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 14). So, tree
roots have intruded into the pipeline obstructing the effective operation of waste water
management.

“Drought and floods also are operational challenges in ensuring sound water
consumption because this hotel is located in dry zone. So, this area is highly vulnerable
to inconsistent weather patterns. As its result, this area faces both drought and floods”
(Pers. Comm. Respondent 14). The researcher was able to find that hotel faces an
operational challenge to source water in case of drought because both surface and tube
wells would become dried while the hotel does not have water for water treatment in
case of floods.

34
Assessment of Successfulness of Actions Already Taken for Water Consumption
by Hotel
“We use Ravatex 200 dressing to reduce the hardness of water from 800 mg/L to below
40 mg/L” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 14). In fact, this is a successful action taken by
the hotel. In addition, “the withdrawn water is subjected treatment process. The water
is treated using Reverse Osmosis (RO) Arrow Plant. An artificial lake has been
constructed to release the recycled water from sewerage and water treatment plants”
(Pers. Comm. Respondent 14). This now acts as a beautifier to the hotel.

“The clay pipes laid for waste water management system have been covered with
cement layer to restrict the tree root intrusion to some extent. The hotel has a machine
called “Springwaller” in order to remove the minor blockage (Pers. Comm.
Respondent 14). However, this action taken is yet unable to restrict the tree root
intrusion to greater extent. In addition, if the cement layer action were unsuccessful,
hotel would change the entire pipeline and replace with PVC pipeline but this leads to
increase in cost.

“400 kilograms of salt are used as a dressing filter for one backwash. It means
approximately 200 kilograms of salt are used to backwash in intervals of 4 or 5 hours.
However, number of intervals would be subjected to change because it depends upon
the level of hardness of water and the hardness level will be increased if the water is
withdrawn from deep underground” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 14). It is of the view
that current action taken is successful however the cost factor plays a significant
challenge in the case of this action implementation.

Electricity Consumption

“We have been able to reduce the electricity consumption level considerably. We have
deployed sophisticated system to ensure a large energy saving in electricity” (Pers.
Comm. Respondent 14).

It was clearly mentioned that the hotel does not face any operational issue or a challenge
in the case of EMS in the area of electricity consumption. The researcher found that
hotel has successfully implemented electricity saving techniques to ensure sound low
cost electricity consumption. The hotel further mentioned that the hotel has already
taken effective measures to avoid any issue or challenges that could be arisen during
the operation of EMS in the area of electricity consumption.

35
Solid Waste Management

“We do not face operational issue or a challenge in the case of EMS in the area of solid
waste management (Pers. Comm. Respondent 14). The researcher found that hotel has
successfully implemented recycling techniques to ensure sound solid waste
management. The hotel further mentioned that the hotel has already taken effective
measures to avoid any issue or challenges that could be arisen during the operation of
EMS in the area of solid waste Management.

Impact of operational issues and challenges on organizational performance

The current operational issues and challenges related to water consumption and solid
waste management create an impact on organizational performance because these
operational issues and challenges are associated with cost. In addition, some of the
operational challenges are unavoidable due to the natural impacts. Reduced electricity
consumption has become a thrust to set off the impacts created by water consumption
and solid waste management to a certain extent.

4.2.4 Case 4

This case is associated with an ISO 14001 certified Three Star tourist hotel located in
Nuwara Eliya District. This case study focuses on identifying and discussing the
operational issues and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka in
areas of water, electricity and solid waste and their impact on organizational
performance. This further assesses the extent to which the actions already taken by the
hotel are successful or not. Table 4.5 demonstrates the summary of water and electricity
consumption and solid waste generation of the hotel.

Table 4.5 Case 4 Summary


Areas of Concern Case 4
Water Consumption (m3) 55
Electricity Consumption (kWh/room/month) 148
Solid Waste Generation (Kg/room/day) 0.89
Source: Interview Data, 2017

36
Water Consumption

“We do not face big issues in water management. There are few issues but they are at
manageable level” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 18).

It clearly shows that that the hotel does not face issues or challenges in water
management during the operation of EMS. The researcher found that hotel has
successfully implemented water saving techniques to ensure sound low cost water
consumption and increased water resource. The hotel further mentioned that the hotel
has already taken effective measures to avoid any issue or challenge that could be arisen
during the operation of EMS in the area of water consumption

Electricity Consumption

“We have installed heaters in each and every room. One heater has two coils which
consume 3000 watts (1500 Watt by each coil). If the coils are operated for an hour. 3
electricity units will be consumed. The guest switch on the heater at dusk and operates
for dawn consuming a large quantity of electricity units” (Pers. Comm. Respondent
18). This has become an operational challenge because no solution has found yet by
hotel to overcome this operational challenge. This is accounted for large portion of the
overall cost of the hotel.

In addition, the researcher was able to find out another reason for increased electricity
consumption i.e. hotel does not have a capacitor bank to control KVA. If the hotel had
a Capacitor Bank, The current electricity consumption could have been reduced to a
greater extent.

Solid Waste Management

“We do not face an operational issue or a challenge in solid waste management


because we practise “Zero Waste-In & Zero Waste-Out” concept. So I don’t think that
we face issues and challenges in EMS operation” (Pers. Comm. Respondent 18). The
researcher found that hotel has successfully implemented recycling techniques to
ensure sound solid waste management. The hotel further mentioned that the hotel has
already taken effective measures to avoid any issue or challenges that could be arisen
during the operation of EMS in the area of solid waste Management.

37
Impact of operational issues and challenges on organizational performance

The current challenge in the case of heaters have created an impact on organizational
performance financially because the heaters consumes a great deal of electricity. As its
result, the hotel has to incur a considerable cost. However, it should be noted that overall
organizational performance is at a satisfactory level due to enhanced guest satisfaction.
In addition, the sound water and solid waste management have positively contributed
towards the effective organizational performance.

4.3. Inter-Case Comparison with International and National Levels

The aim of this research study is to identify the operational issues and challenges
associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka in areas of water and electricity
consumption and solid waste management. It was found out that the different cases
show their excellent performance in different concerned areas.

The table 4.6 demonstrates the comparison of water and electricity consumption and
solid waste Generation of four cases with international level, National level.

Table 4.6 Inter-Case Comparison with International and National Levels


International National Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4
Water 240.3 157.7 275-280 180-190 350 55
3
Consumption (m )
Electricity 35 34.8 118 108 118 148
Consumption
(kWh/room/month)
Solid Waste 1.2 0.51 1.1 1.55 3.3 0.89
Generation
(Kg/room/day)
Source: Interview Data, 2017

4.3.1 Water Consumption

Global Water Forum (2013) and Hotel Industry Magazine UK (2011) indicates that the
global average hotel water consumption per day is 240.3m3. However, in Sri Lankan
context, National Water Supply & Drainage Board (2011) indicates that average hotel
water consumption per day in Sri Lanka is 157.7m3. In this case, Sri Lankan hotel
industry has been able to consume the water resource efficiently and effectively in
comparison to international level. But it should be pertinent to mention that even though

38
the national water consumption level is at satisfactory level, four cases have a higher
water consumption level in comparison with international level.

The researcher found out that the reason for higher level of water consumption at Hotel
in Case 1 is that the Hotel is located in coastal belt. So, the water withdrawn contains a
high degree of salinity. As its result, a considerable level of water has to be withdrawn
to meet the hotel water demand. The salinity can also considered an operational issue
faced during the operation of EMS for Hotel in Case 1. Another reason for higher
consumption is the laundry because not only hotel’s linen but also its sister hotel’s linen
are laundered by this laundry. As its result, a large amount of water has to be consumed
for laundry.

In the context of Case 2, the hotel consumes water at a considerable level but below
Hotel in Case 1 and Case 3. The reason for this level of consumption is that most of
water requirement is fulfilled by National Water Supply and Drainage Board.

In the context of Case 3, this hotel has the highest level of water consumption in
comparison with other three tourist hotels because this hotel is located in Dry Zone. So,
the hardness level of water is high. This has become an operational issue for the hotel.
In order to meet the hotel water demand, the hotel has to withdraw 350m 3 of water. In
addition, 40% of withdrawn water cannot be used for water consumption because of
high degree of hardness. In this case, the hotel has been compelled to withdraw 350m3.

In the context of Case 4, this hotel has the lowest use of water in comparison with other
tourist hotels because this is a small tourist hotel which needs low water requirement.

4.3.2 Electricity Consumption

International Finance Corporation (2013) mentioned that the average hotel room
electricity consumption per day is 35 kWh. However, Ceylon Electricity Board (2015)
indicated that the average hotel room electricity consumption at national level is 34.85
kWh which is marginally below the international level. However, the four cases
indicate a higher electricity consumption per room monthly in comparison with
international and national level electricity consumption.

The researcher was able to find out that the reason for the consumption of 118 Kwh in
Case 1 is the Central Air Conditioning System. The Central Air Conditioning System
is operated by a 220 Chiller which is accounted for more than 50% of electricity

39
consumption of the entire hotel. Further, increased demand for air conditioning for
other purposes in addition to guest purposes also has become an operational challenge
because the demand has already exceeded the electricity supplied by the Chiller.

In the context of Case 2, the electricity consumption is marginally low with Hotel Case
2 because the Hotel has already deployed electricity saving measure to ensure a
consistent electricity consumption per room per month. Compared to hotel in Case1,
Hotel in Case2 does not face any operational issue or a challenge during operation of
EMS in area of electricity consumption.

In the context of Case 3, the electricity consumption level of Hotel in Case1 is equal to
the Electricity consumption of hotel in Case 3. The reason for consuming this level of
electricity is that the Hotel has Cabana typed rooms. So, the electricity consumption of
one cabana is different from another cabana due to guest behaviour. However, the Hotel
has deployed corrective measures to ensure a consistent electricity consumption per
room per month.

In the context of Case 4, the electricity is considerably higher than other three tourist
hotels due to heaters. The Heater consumes a higher level of electricity. This is an
operational challenge for Hotel because no solution has been taken so far to reduce the
current electricity consumption level. In addition, the hotel doesn’t have a Capacitor
Bank.

4.3.3 Solid Waste Management

International Finance Corporation (2013) indicates that global average kilograms of


solid waste generated by a guest room per day is 1.2 kilograms. In the case of Sri Lanka,
International Finance Corporation (2013) mentions that national average kilograms of
solid waste generated by a guest room per day is 0.51 kilograms. However, the daily
average solid waste generation rate by a room in tourist hotels is considerably high. So,
it was found out by researcher that the four tourist hotels subjected to research have two
common reason which are guest behaviour and staff behaviour. These two reasons have
become operational challenges to the hotels.

40
4.4 Findings

Based on the above data presentation and discussion, the researcher was able to
summarize operational issues and challenges associated with EMS in four tourist hotels
subjected to research as depicted in Table 4.6 below.

Table 4.7 Summary of Operational Issues and Challenges of EMS in Tourist


Hotels

Operational Issues Operational Challenges


Hotel
. (Case )

Areas of
Concern 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

*BS BS *GB *F
Water *SB - *WH - *L - *D -
Consumption *S *TRI

Electricity BS - - GB - GB GB
Consumption SB *H H

Solid Waste *LELC


- - - - - -
Management *LMM GB

*BS- Building Structure, SB-Staff Behaviour, S- Salinity, WH- Water Hardness, TRI- Tree Roots
Intrusion, GB- Guest Behaviour H-Humidity, L-Laundry, LELC- Lack of Eco-Licensed Contractors,
LMM- lack of Monitoring Mechanism, F-Floods, D-Droughts,

Source: Interview Data, 2017

It is clearly visible based on table 4.6 above that there are operational issues and
challenges associated with EMS in areas of water, electricity and solid waste
management. However, it should be mentioned that operational issues and challenges
are different from one hotel to another because the hotels are located in different
geographical locations but the researcher was able to find out four common and four

41
specific operational issues and challenges faced by four tourist hotels during the
operation of EMS.

4.4.1 Common Operational Issues and Challenges

Building Structure

Two out of four hotels subjected to research clearly mentioned that the building
structure has been an operational issue as well as an operational challenge during the
operation of EMS because the building s of both hotels have been constructed two
decades ago. So, the environmental management had not been considered a matter of
concern in the case of developing these two hotels. As its results, some of EMS
practices cannot effectively be implemented. For instance Hotel in Case 1 cannot
implement the rain water harvesting due to the roof of the building. If the roof were
changed, it would create a considerable impact not only on the architectural design but
also on the stakeholder relationship because architect does not like to change the
building structure because change in structure effects on the beauty of hotel.

Guest Behaviour

All the Cases subjected to research responded that guest behaviour is an operational
challenge in EMS operation because the guest behaviour creates a direct impact on
water, electricity and solid waste management.

In the case of water consumption, the water requirement is different from one guest to
another. As its result, guests consumes different quantity of water. This will lead to
consumption of large quantity of water daily. Even though the hotels have deployed
different techniques to control the water consumption level, still the guest behaviour is
beyond hotels’ control. In addition, hotel were to implement aggressive water control
techniques, it would lead to guest complaints because the guests always seek value for
money. The hotels are in an indecisive stage regarding the guest behaviour

In the case of electricity consumption, the guest behaviour directly impacts on the Air
Conditioning and Heaters because the guests always seek a cooling environment in hot
area and hot environment in cold area respectively. In addition, Air Conditioners and
Heaters consume a large amount of electricity. This has become a cost burden to hotel
at this moment because no hotels can operate without Air Conditioners and Heaters in
hot and cold areas respectively. Even though all the hotel have deployed different

42
initiatives to reduce electricity consumption, those initiative have create a little impact
on the electricity consumption. So, the guest behaviour is still an operational challenge.

In the case of solid waste management, guest behaviour is a matter of concern because
the guest brings different types of solid waste in the form of bottles, bags and
wrappings. As its result, the hotels have to incur a considerable amount to recycle. So,
the guest behaviour acts as an operational challenge for hotels.

Staff Behaviour

It was found out that the staff behaviour is still an operational issue especially in water
and electricity consumption because in the case of water consumption, all the hotels
have provided the staff with water facilities. As its result, the staff have been used to
fulfill their water requirements from hotels. Even though the staff have undergone
training regarding the importance of water, most of the staff are negligent of the
importance of protecting the water resource. The staff are still used to use water
carelessly. In this case, staff behaviour is still an operational issue in EMS operation for
hotels

In the case of electricity consumption, the staff have been educated regarding the
importance of conserving electricity but staff are still negligent to conserve the
electricity because no staff have yet understood the fact that increased electricity will
result in increased hotel’s cost. Increased hotel’s cost leads to decreased profitability.
The decreased profitability will ultimately lead to reduction in service charges. In this
case, the staff behaviour is still an operational challenge EMS operation for hotels.

Natural Challenges

Two out of four hotels subjected to research mentioned that they have been impacted
periodically by natural causes. The major natural causes identified in this research are
Humidity, Floods and Drought.

Humidity

Humidity demonstrates the amount of water vapours in the atmosphere. The humidity
level depends on the level of temperature because the humidity level is high in hot area
and vice-versa. For instance, Hotel in Case 1 is located in a hot area. Then, the humidity
level is high. So, the hotel has to consume a large amount of electricity to operate Air

43
Conditioners to maintain a consistent temperature in rooms to ensure guest satisfaction.
As its result, the hotel has to incur a large electricity bill due to this natural cause. So,
this remains as an operational challenge for hotels.

Floods

Floods is also natural cause which creates a direct impact on hotel EMS operation
because water resource cannot be used either for drinking purpose or for treatment in
case of floods. For instance, Hotel in Case 3 Anuradhapura district is located in Dry
Zone with inconsistent weather patterns. As its result, the Heavy showers are
experienced during rainy season. Heavy showers result in floods in the area. So, at that
moment the hotel is incapable operationally of treating water for guest usage at hotels.
In this case, this is an operational challenge in EMS operation for hotels.

Drought

Drought is also an operational challenge for EMS in hotels. As mentioned earlier, Hotel
in Case 3 is located in Dry Zone. The hotel does not have access to water during drought
season due to the low level of water in surface and tube wells. In this case, it becomes
an operational challenge in providing the water resource for guest consumption because
there are not sufficient water for treatment plant to recycle and release for guest
consumption.

4.4.2 Specific Operational Issues and Challenges

Salinity

Salinity is an operational natural issue which indirectly creates an impact on staff


behaviour. This is an operational issue specific to Hotel in Case 1 because the hotel is
located in beach area and the saline water is mixed with potable water frequently. So,
the staff have been used to fulfill their water requirement from the hotel due to saline
water.

Hardness in Water

The hardness in water indicates the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in
water. This is measured by milligrams per litre or mg/L. this is an operational natural
issue specific to Hotel in Case 3 because as mentioned above, Hotel in Case 3 is located

44
dry zone where the hardness level is high. So, Hotel has to incur a considerable cost to
treat water to make hard water fit for human consumption.

Tree Roots Intrusion

This is an operational natural issue faced by Hotel in Case 3 because the hotel laid clay
pipe line during the construction. As its result, it is very easy for tree roots to intrude
the pipe line easily creating an issue for the hotel to operationally continue its waste
water management practices successfully.

Lack of Eco-Licensed Contractors

This is an operational challenge faced by Hotel in Case 2 because at this moment, there
is no any eco-licensed contractors approved by the government in the area. So, the hotel
has been compelled to find the contractors who implement eco-friendly recycling
practices for the solid waste generated by hotel. Currently, the hotel is incapable of
monitoring the outcome of solid waste generated by hotel. This is also an operational
challenge specific to this hotel.

45
Based on the above findings, the researcher was able develop a framework to
conceptualize the identified operational issues and challenges associated with EMS in
a tourist hotel in Sri Lanka as follows;

Operational issues

d
Natural Issues

 Salinity
 Hardness
 Tree Roots
Intrusion
Building Structure Staff Behaviour
 Roofing Structure 
d

Carelessness
 Architectural  Perception
Design  Resistance to
 Plumbing Change
EMS
Operation
Eco-Licensed Contractors Guest Behaviour

 Unavailability  Carelessness
 Poor Monitoring  Lack of Education
  Value For Money
d

Impact on Image

Natural Challenges

 Floods
 Drought
 Humidity
d

Operational challenges

Figure 4.1: Conceptual Framework (developed by researcher)

46
CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is conclude the all the findings of this research. In this
research, there are three main objectives. The research focused on identifying the
operational issues and challenges associated with EMS in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka,
identifying the impact of operational issues and challenges on EMS on organizational
performance and recommending actions to mitigate those operational issues and
challenges. In the case of this research, researcher was able to succeed in achieving all
the objectives throughout the research study as discussed.

5.2 Conclusion

According to the first objective of the research study, this research study aimed at
identifying the operational issues and challenges. Based on the research findings, three
operational issues and three operational challenges were identified. The building
structure, natural issues and staff behaviour have been identified as operational issues
while guest behaviour, lack of eco-licensed contractors and natural challenges have
been identified as operational challenges. So, it is clearly visible that the first objective
of this research study has been met.

The second objective of this research study is to identify the impact of the identified
operational issues and challenges associated with EMS on the organizational
performance The researcher was able to find out that these operational issues and
challenges would create an impact on the organizational performance in a finance
perspective to some extent The actions already taken to mitigate the abovementioned
issues and challenges in areas of water, electricity and solid waste have been successful

47
to certain extent but the actions have not yet been able to mitigate the issues and
challenges to a greater extent. So, the second objective also has been met.

The third objective is to identify the actions that can be used to mitigate the operational
issues and challenges to have a proper EMS. The common and case specific
recommendations are visible in 5.3.

It is finally concluded that building structure, staff behaviour and natural issues have
been identified as operational issues while guest behaviour, lack of eco-licensed
contractors and natural challenges have been identified as operational challenges. These
operational issues and challenges have created an impact on organizational
performance to some extent in a financial perspective because actions taken to mitigate
these operational issues and challenges involve a considerable cost. Operational issues
such as building structure and natural issues are unavoidable. However, staff behaviour
can be avoided if proper action is taken. Actions have been taken by tourist hotels to
mitigate the operational challenges. Most of them are successful. However, some of the
actions take are not fully successful.

5.3 Recommendations

5.3.1 Common Recommendations

Structurally and economically viable recommendations cannot be made to change in


building structure because the building structure’s intensity would be badly affected if
major structural changes were made. In addition, the tourist hotels cannot reach the full
potential in EMS even though significant investments are made because change in one
part in structure will create a significant impact on service life of building due its
enhanced rate of deterioration.

The tourist hotels need to fundamentally focus on creating the sense of belongingness
in staff’s mind. This can be done through systematic training but this has to be done
outside the hotel premises because if the training is conducted inside the hotel, the staff
is never mentally prepared to actively participate in training due to the fact that the staff
feels that the training is as same as a part of their daily routine. If the training were
conducted in a place outside the hotel, the staff would be mentally prepared to listen
because it is conducted in a different physical setting and the staff feel that this is out
of their daily routine. Then, the staff are mentally and physically ready understand the

48
real value of participating in training. As its result, Staff can be systematically
motivated to engage in EMS practices effectively. In addition, the respective Heads of
Departments need to closely monitor whether the staff is actively engaged in EMS
practices or not in order to ensure that the staff are in right track. It should be imperative
to note that this recommended action might be costly in short term. However, this is
cost effective in long term because this ensure the active staff participation thereby
reducing considerable cost of EMS practices. The saved cost can be reinvested in
ensuring the effective EMS operation.

Tourist hotels need to inform the guests of the sustainability policy of the hotel before
the booking is made through their websites and other marketing tools. Then, the guest
would get a thorough knowledge and understanding regarding what should be done or
should not be done during the stay. As its result, the tourist hotels will be able to ensure
considerable savings in water and electricity consumption and reduced rate of solid
waste generation.

The researcher was able to find out that the natural issues identified in this research are
unavoidable and beyond tourist hotels’ control. The tourist hotels have already taken
steps to mitigate those natural issues. In addition, natural challenges can be mitigated
to a certain extent and steps have been taken to mitigate those natural challenges. It
should be noted that the steps already taken are successful to a greater extent. So, it is
recommended to carry out a market research to identify the latest technological
developments and adapt them as soon as possible in order to mitigate those issues and
challenges further.

5.3.2 Case Specific Recommendations

This research study has been written based on the findings of four tourist hotels located
in different geographical locations. Common recommendations have been made for all
four tourist hotels. However, two tourist hotels in two cases were with unique
operational challenges. So, the recommendations specific to two tourist hotels in those
two cases have been made as follows.

Case 2

The major operational challenged faced by the hotel in Case2 during the operation of
EMS is the difficulty to find Eco-Licensed contractors. So, it is recommended for hotel

49
in Case 2 to contact the Central Province Branch of Central Environmental Authority
because the Authority has a list of Eco-Licensed contractors. Since no such contractors
are available in the area, the tourist hotel can request the Authority to license the
existing contractors having conducted a thorough examination. This could be beneficial
for the hotel to carry out its solid waste management practices smoothly. It is further
recommended for the hotel to develop an effective monitoring mechanism enshrining
the specifications by hotel for recycling process because this will enable the hotel to
standardize the recycling process for solid waste thereby reducing any third party
impact on the corporate identity and image of the hotel. In fact, it is of the view that
this is a pragmatic, practical and implementable action because this action is within
hotel’s control. So, the hotel can negotiate with current contractors and come into
agreement to ensure sound solid waste management.

Case 4

The major operational challenged faced by the hotel in Case2 during the operation of
EMS is the heaters. The researcher found out that the hotel doesn’t have a Capacitor
Bank. So, it is recommended for the hotel to commission a Capacitor Bank to reduce
the electricity usage. In addition, the investment in Capacitor Bank can be recovered
within a limited period of time due to low payback period through saved cost from
heaters overtime.

50
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APPENDICES

Appendix A: Preliminary Survey for Tourist Hotel

Preliminary Survey for an Academic Research


“Operational Issues & Challenges of Environmental Management
System in Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka”.
Sir /Madam,

I, the undersigned Janguge Thamal Ravindu De Silva alias J.T.R. De Silva who is a
Final Year Undergraduate following B.Sc. Hospitality Management Degree in
Department of Tourism Management of Faculty of Management Studies of
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, am required to undertake a research as a partial
fulfillment to complete the abovementioned Degree. My research topic is
“Operational Issues & Challenges of Environmental Management System in
Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka”. The purpose of this research is to show the significance
of addressing the operational issues and challenges associated with Environmental
Management System in tourist hotels in Sri Lanka.

It should be noted that the research carried out by me is purely bona fide and this is not
purported to create any harmful impact on your organization. The participation in filling
this preliminary survey is entirely voluntary. Please do not answer any question which
makes you uncomfortable. Please do not hesitate to contact me through the
undermentioned number and e-mail in case of any clarification with regard hereto. I am
very much obliged to you if you could complete the Statement of Consent by
Participant before filling in the preliminary survey in order to identify your status of
anonymity and confidentiality. So, please, having considered the abovementioned facts
carefully, be good enough to fill in the following preliminary survey in order to
complete my research successfully. Thanking you.

Yours’ faithfully,

………………...
J. T. R. De Silva,
Mobile: 0719682820
E-mail: thamal.ravindudesilva@yahoo.com

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Statement of Consent by Participant

It is hereby certified that I, on Hotel’s behalf,-

 have read the information included hereabove;

 voluntarily agree to participate in the provision of information required for the

research;

 understand that the information provided shall (be/ not be) confidential and is

being used only for the research purpose;

 (have the full discretionary right/ waive the right) to withdraw at any point

during the research;

 am further aware of the fact that the results of this research shall be published

(with/ without) disclosing the identity of the Participant;

 Permit the researcher to conduct the research indicated by my signature below.

…………………… ………………………… …………………………….

Date Designation Signature of the Participant

………………………….

Place

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Preliminary Survey Questions related to following problem:

“Operational Issues & Challenges of Environmental Management System in

Tourist Hotels in Sri Lanka”

Background Questions

1. Name: ………………………………………………………………………...
2. Department: …………………………………………………………………..

Open – Ended Questions

01. Do you face issues and challenges during the operation of Environmental
Management System in the Hotel?

Yes No

02. If yes, what are the issues and challenges?


…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………

Thank you very much for your cooperation and collaboration!!!

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Appendix B: Interview Protocol for Tourist Hotels

Interview Protocol

Interview code number or name-……………………………………………………...

Interviewer-……………………………………………………………………………

Location-………………………………………………………………………………

Date-…………………………………………Time………..…………........................

Interviewee’s designation-…………………………………………………………….

Questions
1. Can you give an introduction of your hotel?
2. According to you, what is EMS?
3. What are the operational issues and challenges associated with EMS of
your hotel?
4. Have you already deployed measure to overcome those?
5. Whom should I contact to collect more information?

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Appendix C: List of Interviewees

Case Number Designation Order of Appearance


General Manager Respondent 01
Stewarding Supervisor Respondent 02
Chief Engineer Respondent 03
Case 1
Assistant Food & Beverage Manager Respondent 04

Front Office Manager Respondent 05

Front Office Manager Respondent 06

Housekeeping Executive Respondent 07

Case 2 Chief Accountant Respondent 08


Food & Beverage Trainer Respondent 09
Chief Engineer Respondent 10
Assistant Food & Beverage Manager Respondent 11

Assistant Front Office Manager Respondent 12

Case 3 Environmentalist Executive Respondent 13


Assistant Engineer Respondent 14
Management Trainee - Respondent 15
Housekeeping
Executive Sous Chef Respondent 16
General Manager Respondent 17

Assistant Engineer Respondent 18


Case 4
Food & Beverage Executive Respondent 19

Housekeeping Executive Respondent 20

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Appendix D: Interview with Chief Engineer of Hotel in Case 1

Interview code number or name-………………………03……………………………..

Interviewer-……………J.T.R De Silva………………………………………………

Location-……………Kalutara. District………………………………………………

Date-………………2017/07/11………………Time-......30 minutes and 32seconds...

Interviewee’s designation-…………Chief Engineer………………………………….

Questions
1. Can you give an introduction of your hotel?

(The Chief Engineer was not interested in answering this question since this
question had already been answered by the General Manager)

2. According to you, what is EMS?

(The Chief Engineer was not interested in answering this question since this
question had already been answered by the General Manager)

3. What are the operational issues and challenges associated with EMS of
your hotel?
In the case of electricity, reason for increased electricity consumption is due
to chiller. We have a 220 ton Chiller. We have 129 rooms and 1.5 ton has
been allocated for each room. In terms of BTU, it is 18000 BTUs. In this
case, the demand has exceeded the chiller capacity i.e. the demand for air
conditioning has been increased due to offices, restaurants and lobby housed
in large building in addition to 129 rooms remaining the chiller capacity
unchanged. In newly constructed hotels. They use flat ceiling. This hotel
had been planned and constructed 25 years ago consisting of large buildings
with large arches. Everybody informs us to make those air-conditioned. So,
we are in a difficult situation. The building structure is a big issue for air
conditioning. Nobody was focused on energy conservation at the time of
construction. The buildings were constructed having the considered the
trends at that time. In the current situation, the new hotels with low height
have been constructed with flat ceiling consuming less square feet. So, the

67
hotel has to use a small unit. For instance, if the hall in the hotel needs a 45
ton A/C unit and if there were a flat ceiling in that hall, we could have used
a 10 ton A/C unit. The management informs us to reduce the electricity
consumption but it is impracticable. In addition, weather temperature is also
an operational challenge. On these days, we have a high temperature. It
means the humidity level is high. This is a huge challenge. Due to high level
of humidity, the walls get damped and rooms get flooded. We will take one
guest room. The guest in that room comes and opens a balcony door. Then,
the fresh with large quantum of vapours will be ventilated into the room due
to high humidity caused due to high temperature. Since the room
temperature is lower than the outside temperature, the room is flooded and
damped because of water vapours ventilated into the room. Due to this, the
moulds are grown everywhere which means every nook and corner and
stunk. We have centralized air conditioning system. The hotel is 3 storeyed
building. If we take a room located in the middle of 1st floor, the room has
2 vertically stacked and 2 horizontally stacked rooms. All 4 rooms’
temperature is maintained at 22-23C0. If the guest in room located in middle
of 1st floor completely switches off the A/C, the room is flooded because the
walls of the room are not insulated and cold while all vertically and
horizontally stacked rooms have A/C. It is also a challenge. I told you in the
area of A/C.

In the case of water, average water consumption of the hotel is 275-280m3.


The water is withdrawn from a tube well and surface well. The withdrawn
water is treated via sand filters and collected to a sump. We do not consider
gravity. We use overhead tank to supply water. We use water pressure
system. Water is supplied using this water pressure system maintaining a
consistent pressure of 2.34 bars at each outlet. We have calculations for
water flow rate. The water flow rate of a tap in a wash basin of a guest room
is 5 litres per minute while the water flow rate of shower is 10 litres per
minute. It was found out that the current water flow rate has exceed the
calculated water flow rate due to the water pressure. We have fixed control
valves. However, the guests open the tap without a control. As its result, a
considerable quantity of water will be wasted. In addition, there is laundry

68
here. The linen of not only this hotel but also sister hotel are laundered here.
If we say, sister hotel has 175 rooms and we have 129 rooms. Sister hotel
has a banquet hall and we also have a banquet hall. Let assume if the two
weddings were held in two banquet hall, we would have to launder a large
quantity of linen such table cloth, serviette and so-on. So, we have to
consume a large quantity of water for laundry. The water level in machines
cannot be controlled. The required level of water has to be supplied to
machines. This is one of the challenges faced during water consumption.
Someone can look at data and say that this hotel has a high level of water
consumption but in a practical perspective this hotel has a large laundry.
Can you image the linen of 175 rooms of sister hotel, 129 rooms of our hotel,
2 banquet halls and staff?

When it comes to staff. Staff also use the water considerably because they
even fulfill their bathing requirements here. In the past, they had only small
wash but now water is provided to staff as a facility. As its result, the staff
have been used to fulfill their water requirements here. On these days, the
water supplied by government has a high degree of salinity due to high tide.
So, the staff have been used to fulfill their water requirements here. This
cannot be stopped by us. Sometimes, they use water carelessly leading to
high level of water consumption.

The hotel has solar system for hot water. The water is completely heated by
the solar system but during rainy days, the solar system does not have the
required temperature to heat water. In this case, the incremental temperature
will be supplied by the clarifier of the boiler. For instance, if the temperature
is 40 C0, the hot water is fully sourced from solar system but during rainy
or cloudy days the hot water temperature is at 30 C0. Normally, the
temperature of the hot water supplied is maintained above 50C0. If the
temperature is below 50 C0, the incremental temperature is supplied by the
clarifier of the boiler. In the past, we got cold water which is the water
directly withdrawn from the source. The temperature is between 22 and 25
C0. Incremental temperature was supplied by the boiler. The boiler is
operated by diesel. As its result, fuel wastage was high at that time. It should
be noted that the hot water below 50 C0 is not supplied to rooms because

69
low temperature will create favourable conditions for bacterial growth such
as legionella.

In the field of engineering, we face difficulty in introducing new


technologies to the already constructed hotels especially in building and
plumbing. For instance, if a 6 inch pipe had been used at that time, now the
task done using a 6 inch pipe can be done by 4 inch pipe due to technological
development. If the new technology needs to be introduced fully, the entire
building structure has to be changed. However, we use the latest technology
for some areas.

All the sewerage and kitchen waste are collected to sump. These liquid
waste are pumped to the treatment plant by submersible pumps of 3-4
horsepower. These pumps are operated round the clock. The electricity
consumed by these pumps cannot be controlled. The sumps are located
under the basement. Because of this, the liquid cannot be drained out. Only
solution available is to pump using submersible pumps. The average
electricity consumption of the hotel is approximately 6000-6200 kW units.
The monthly electricity bill is approximately 3.2-3.3 million rupees. Some
of areas by which electricity is heavily consumed cannot be controlled due
the building structure. This is the main issue. If those had been planned on
fundamentals of gravity, the operation of submersible pumps could have
been fended off. The electricity consumption until now is 6009 kWh out of
which 3050 were consumed by chiller. If we had separate rooms, we could
have used split type A/Cs which could be switched off in case of
unnecessity. It cannot be implemented because the rooms are adjoined. So,
the humidity, guest behaviour, staff behaviour and so-on are direct
operational issues and challenges. The controls have been deployed but
further controlling needs to be done. The human being should have an
introspective development along with technological development. For
instance, the guest comes to the room and changes the room temperature to
15 C0. When the guest leaves the room, if the guest feels to increase the
temperature to original level, the unnecessary electricity consumption will
be cut off by motorized valves which will reduce the chiller load.

70
The rain water harvesting cannot be implemented due to roofing structure.
The hotel has a combination roof in which there is a gutter between roofing
sections. There is no irrigation system. Soakways have been installed so that
the runoff rainwater is absorbed by earth. Sometimes, water cannot be
absorbed due to overflow during rainy season. If outside gutters were used,
we could have used it for another purpose. We could have used it for pool
through filtration process. So, complete change needs to be done. If it were
done, it would change the building structure.

Average electricity consumption per room for the month of May 2017 is
118.8 kWh. Diesel consumption per room (converted from litres to kWh) is
31.1 kWh. LP gas consumption per room is 23.7 kWh. Water consumption
per room is 2016 litres which includes staff consumption, kitchen and
laundry. This has calculated in this manner because the guest ultimately
pays for the hotel. However, 100-125 litres are quite sufficient for guest
consumption.

4. Have you already deployed measure to overcome those?

As a solution for water wastage by guest, we are expected to fix a control


unit which ensure a consistent water flow or a Flow Controller Unit. Even
though the water tap is fully opened, the consistent water flow from taps
will be maintained. In staff use, the water meters have been installed to
control the water consumption but still they use the water above the required
level. We use solar hot water system. Previously, we used the boiler to heat
water. Because of solar system, we have been able to achieve a saving. We
have used solar powered lighting system for the garden and the garden lights
for which 40W bulbs were used, have been replaced with 5W bulbs thereby
reducing 35W from each bulb. LED bulbs have been used in guest rooms.

We now use screw chillers. Earlier, we had reciprocating chiller which


consumed large amount of electricity. If the reciprocating chiller was not
replaced, the electricity could have been more than 5000 kWh. We have 2
capacitor banks. As its result, we have been able to reduce KVA.

71
5. Whom should I contact to collect more information?
I think there is no person after me to contact because you have contacted
majority of people.

72