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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2017, pp. 413–419, Article ID: IJCIET_08_09_049


Available online at http://http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=9
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

CONCRETE USING RECYCLED AGGREGATES


Dr. K. Ramadevi
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. R. Chitra
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

ABSTRACT
Worldwide, cities generate about 1.3 billion Tonnes of solid waste per year.
Building materials account for about half of all materials used and about half the
solid waste generated worldwide. The waste, generated in the construction,
maintenance, repair and disposal phases of a building, is called Construction and
Demolition (C&D) Waste. Management of C&D waste is a problem faced not only in
India but by the global community and quantum of waste produced occupies a huge
fraction of the total solid waste generation by mass. Furthermore, a continued
environmental awareness instigates the pressure for reuse of construction materials
instead of classifying them as waste materials. Using construction waste material as
an aggregate for developing new concrete product is technically viable and may, in
some circumstances, be environmentally beneficial. The recent government initiative
to stop sand mining insists the need to recycle, reuse and substitute natural aggregates
in order to ensure environmental sustainability.
This research work aims at making one such experiment where recycled
aggregates are produced from C&D waste thus paves a way, for the effective
management of concrete debris.
The concrete waste was collected from the waste yard in the college campus,
segregated, crushed in jaw crusher, sieved, washed and used for concreting for a mix
proportion of M25, as a replacement for natural course aggregates in proportions of
0%, 30%, 60% and 100%. On testing, the compressive strength was found to be
increasing and split tensile strength and flexural strength were observed to be nearly
equal to that of normal concrete mix. Therefore, use of recycled concrete aggregate
showed acceptable performance with respect to mechanical properties.
The recycled aggregates obtained from waste concrete are more angular and have
higher absorption and specific gravity than natural coarse aggregates and it resulted
in increased strength and improved load carrying capacity. However, further studies
to determine the effect on durability and improvement on workability are necessary.
Key words: C&D waste, Recycled aggregate, Fineness modulus, Slump test, Specific
gravity.

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Dr. K. Ramadevi and Dr. R. Chitra

Cite this Article: Dr. K. Ramadevi and Dr. R. Chitra, Concrete Using Recycled
Aggregates. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(9), 2017,
pp. 413–419.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=9

1. INTRODUCTION
Concrete is the premier construction material across the world and the most widely used in all
types of civil engineering works. Among the ingredients for concrete, aggregates, i.e. inert
granular materials such as sand, crushed stone or gravel form the major part. In recent years
due to continued large scale extraction, use of aggregates from natural resources has been
questioned at an international level. This is mainly because of the running down of quality
primary aggregates and greater awareness of environmental protection. Hence the use of
recycled aggregate from construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) in concrete is
gaining momentum these days. Recycled aggregate concrete may become the need of the day
in the years to come.

2. RECYCLED AGGREGATES
The main source for recycled aggregates is construction and demolition waste. Most of the
waste materials produced by demolishing structures are disposed by dumping them as landfill
or for reclaiming land. But with the demand for land increasing day by day, the locations,
capacity and width of the land that can receive waste materials are becoming limited. Added
to it, the cost of transportation makes disposal a major problem. Hence, reuse of demolition
waste appears to be an effective solution and the most appropriate and large-scale use would
be to use it as aggregates to produce concrete for new construction. Recycled aggregate
concrete utilizes demolition material from concrete and burnt clay brick masonry construction
as aggregate.

3. SOURCES OF CERAMIC WASTE


Coimbatore city Municipal Corporation says that population of the city is 10.09 lakhs and the
quantity of garbage generated is 601 MT/day which includes concrete debris, steel, glass,
plastic waste, broken bricks etc,.
It was estimated that an average of 1 MT/year of concrete waste was produced from
testing of various concrete specimens. Waste concrete cubes and cylinders were collected
from Structural Technology Center laboratory of our Institution. The collected waste were
taken to a crusher unit nearby and crushed into various sizes. After screening, the materials
were separated into the size of coarse aggregate required for replacement in concrete.

4. OBJECTIVES
 To replace natural coarse aggregate by the recycled coarse aggregate in various percentages
(0%, 30%, 60% and 100%)
 To study and compare the mechanical properties - compressive strength, split tensile
strength, flexural strength of hardened concrete specimens with and without recycled
aggregates

5. MATERIALS USED
The materials used are PPC cement of grade 43, River sand of size passing through 4.75 mm
IS sieve and retaining on 150 micron IS sieve, natural coarse aggregate & recycled coarse
aggregates size 20mm and 12.5mm is used in the ratio 60:40 and potable water available in

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Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates

the campus. The collected waste specimens are shown in Figure 1 and the recycled aggregates
are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1 Tested concrete waste Figure 2 Recycled aggregates

6. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


The physical properties like specific gravity and fineness modulus are done on fine
aggregates, coarse aggregates and recycled aggregates as per Indian standards. The test results
are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Physical properties of Aggregates


S.No Properties Specimen Test result
Fine aggregate 2.31
1 Fineness modulus Coarse aggregate 2.88
Recycled aggregate 2.84
Cement 3.15
River sand 2.12
2 Specific gravity
Coarse aggregate 2.60
Recycled aggregate 2.66

7. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Concrete mix design for M25 grade is done as per IS: 10262 – 2009. The results of concrete
mix design are tabulated in Table 2.

Table 2 Mix proportions


Weight W/C Cement Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate
3
Kg/m 186 414 552 1173
Ratio 0.45 1 1.34 2.83

8. INVESTIGATIONS ON HARDENED CONCRETE


To determine the mechanical properties of concrete specimens with and without recycled
aggregates, cubes of size 150 mm, cylinders of size 150 mm diameter and 300 mm length and
prisms of size 500 x 100 x 100 mm were cast, cured and tested at 7 and 28 days after curing.
The batching details of the concrete mix are presented in Table 3.

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Dr. K. Ramadevi and Dr. R. Chitra

Table 3 Batching details


Percentage Cubes Cylinders Prisms
replacement of (150x150x150mm) (150x300mm) (500x100x100mm)
recycled
aggregates 7 days 28 days 7 days 28 days 7 days 28 days
(%)
0% 3 3 3 3 3 3
30% 3 3 3 3 3 3
60% 3 3 3 3 3 3
100% 3 3 3 3 3 3

9. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST


The compressive strength of concrete cube specimens was determined by conducting
compression test on Compression Testing Machine of capacity 1000 kN. The specimens were
tested at 7th and 28th days after curing until failure. The load at failure was observed and the
compressive strength (fck)was calculated by the following formula:
Load at failure in N
Cube compressive strength, fck =
Area of cube in mm 2

The result of compressive strength test is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Compressive strength test results

10. SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH TEST


The cylindrical specimens with various percentages of recycled aggregates at 7th and 28th days
after curing were placed horizontally on Compression Testing Machine of capacity 1000 kN.
The load is applied gradually and tested until failure. The split tensile strength (fs) was
calculated by the formula:
2P
Split tensile strength, fs =
 LD

Where,
P = compressive load on cylinder in N

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Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates

L = length of the cylinder = 300 mm


d = diameter of the cylinder = 150 mm
The result of split tensile strength test is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Split tensile strength test results

11. FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST


The prism specimens were cast with various percentages of recycled aggregates, cured and
tested after 7 and 28 days curing. The specimens were subjected to two point loading, the load
is gradually increased until failure. The flexural strength (fb) was calculated by the following
formula:
Pl
fb 
 If a > 13.3 cm,
b d2

3Pa
fb 
 If a < 13.3 cm,
b d2

Where,
b = Breath of beam (mm),
d = Height of beam (mm)
a = Distance of crack from shorter length of beam (mm)
l = Length of the prism (mm)
The result of flexural strength test is shown in Figure 5.

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Dr. K. Ramadevi and Dr. R. Chitra

5
4.5
4

Flexural Strength N/mm2


3.5
3
2.5
7 days
2
1.5 28 days
1
0.5
0
0 30 60 100
% of Recycled Aggregates

Figure 5 Flexural strength test results

12. CONCLUSIONS
 In this study it is found that there is not much variation in strength between ordinary concrete
and 30% replaced aggregate concrete, which proves the previous works.
 But when the percentage of aggregate replaced increases there is a constant increase in
strengths, which is a controversy to the previous works.
 Because it has been found that recycled aggregates obtained from recycling concrete are more
angular and have higher absorption and specific gravity than natural coarse aggregates it may
result on increase of strength and improved load carrying capacity.
 However, further studies to determine the effect on durability and improvement on workability
are necessary.

REFERENCES
[1] Tomas U. Ganiron Jr, (2015), “Recycling Concrete Debris from Construction and
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[2] Roz-Ud-Din Nassar and Parviz Soroushian, (2012), “Strength and durability of recycled
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[3] Markandeya Raju Ponnada1 and Kameswari P, (2015), “Construction and Demolition
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[4] Jitender Sharma and Sandeep Singla, (2014), “Study of Recycled Concrete Aggregates”`,
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[6] Hardik Gandhi et al, (2011), “Study on Use of Recycled Coarse Aggregate In Concrete”,
National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology, 13-14 May, pp. 1-4.

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Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates

[7] IS 10262-2009, Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design (Bureau of Indian
Standards, 2009).
[8] IS 2386 (Part III) – 1963, Methods of test for aggregates for concrete, Part 3: Specific
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Recycled Aggregate Concrete Using Pre-Soaked Slurry Two Stage Mixing Approach.
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(1), 2017, pp. 89–97.

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