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CHAPTER Il

THE REVIEW OF RELATED THEORIES

A. Theoretical Review

1. The Concept of Learning

Learning means the activity process needs tuition or motivation toward

reaching of target of which wishing. Etymologically the word learning is derived

from the word “learn” that means “to obtain skill or knowledge in an activity or

subject.”1 It means that learning is very important and needed by each individual to

obtain knowledge.

Terminologically, there are so many experts that have different definitions

for learning, but here the writer will take several definitions according to expert as

follows. According to Thorndike, that “learning is interaction process among

stimulus which is probably in the form of mind, feeling, movement or respond

which also can be in the form of mind, movement or feeling.”2 Clearly, that change

of behavior can be extant of something concrete (can perceive), or which non

concrete (cannot perceive) for example in learning practice, change of behavior of

someone can be seen. Thereby, the learning activity in this theory is related to the

result of learning or behavior.


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While according to Good and Brophy stated that learning as a process or

interaction of someone done in obtaining something new in the form of change of

behavior as result of learning experience.3 This means that change of behavior can

be seen at a student comments toward his environment. It can be seen in the form

of skill, ability, understanding and emotional.

According to Winarno Surahmad, “learning is a change of process that

happened to human being.”4 It means that learning is expected to change the

students, both behavior and his understanding.

Based on the quotations above, the writer assumes that learning is

acquirement of new experience by someone in the form of change of behavior

which relatively fixed, as the effect of process in the form of interaction of learning

to a knowledge, or reinforcement in the form of experience to an existing object in

learning environment. So, changes of effect learning not only active and positive

but also done consciously and have a purpose.

2. The Factors Influencing the Learning Process

There are some matters of learning activity, which need to be explored

attention. According to Drisoll “learning is a fixed change of someone's learning

result which emerge in student self as result or effect of student interaction in his

environment.”5 It can be understood that, the result of learning can be seen from

the students ability of doing an activity as the result of student interaction with the

environment.

In this case, some factors influence the students in learning. They are:
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a) Outside factor of student

The factor divided into two kinds. They are:

(1) Non Social Factor

This Factor is related to the condition of environment student

learning. For example, weather, climate, time of learning, schoolhouse

location and usage of media. All of the factor expected can be adapted with

the condition then the process of learning can be maximally.

(2) Social factor

Social factor deals with the factors related to human being that may

bother the process of learning.

b) Intrinsic Factor

This factor is also divided into two forms. They are:

(1) Physiology

This Factor relate to with condition of student which able to

influence the learning activity. For example, consists of food nutrition. If a

child lack of nutrition, hence student will become quickly fatigue, sleepy,

and weary.

(2) Psychology

This factor relates to the case of support someone to learn, in this

case the reason of why student or someone learn. They have motives which

able to support them to learn. So that they have clear direction and target,

and motivation is very important in this factor. 6


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Based on the quotations above, it can be inferred that motivation as base

on someone to learn and such as one of the important factor in a course of

learning.

3. Motivation in Learning

a) The Concept of Motivation

Motivation and learning are two matter which influence each other.

Etymologically, motivation comes from word “motive” decipherable as

strength on individual which cause the individual do. 7

Terminologically, according to Dornyei motivation can be understood

in several definitions, there are:

(1) “The choice of a particular action in learning activity.

(2) The persistence with learning, and

(3) The effort on learning. This means that motivation can determine things

any kind of found on activity of learning which is able to strengthen the

learning.”8

Moreover, Gardner describes motivation as “the combination of effort

to achieve the goal of learning and combination toward learning.”9 It means

that motivation as the efforts to make clear the purpose of learning.

Further MC. Donald claimed that “motivation is an energy change

within the person characterized by affective arousal and goal reaction.”10


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Thereby, motivation is a support of someone self to try to do the changes of

behavior shown by incidence of feeling as a reaction to reach a target.

Based on the quotations above, it can be inferred that motivation is a

support grow out because of the existence of excitement from within and also

from outside, so that someone wishful to do the changes of behavior and

certain activity to be better.

b) The function of motivation in learning

Someone does an action or deed caused by a motivation of oneself to

do, so causes activity of someone. Without existence of motivation of anyone

self, hence it will not result an action or deed. The motivation referred as

supported learning. Thereby, functions to move or support anyone to do.

According to Sardiman AM, the function of motivation is divided into

three kinds. They are:

(1) Support people to do. Motivation in this case functions as activator

motor of each work to be done.

(2) Determining direction of target will be achieved. Motivation can give

way and direction which must be done base on the purpose.

(3) Determining work to do or select a work to achieve the purpose. 11

Also Umar Hamalik divides the motivation into three functions. They

are:

(1) Motivate to do something.

(2) Functioning motivation as determinant of direction.


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(3) Functioning motivation as activator. 12

Based on some theories above, it can be concluded that the function of

motivation such as activator or impeller making an energy of anyone self, so

that it is able to achieve the target. So, in this case a motivation is very useful

toward course of learning to obtain achievement or result of learning well.

c) Category of learning motivation

(1) Intrinsic Motivation

Motivation of Intrinsic is motivation which comes within in learning

situation which grows in student self, for instance a desire to master a

certain skill. Motivation of intrinsic arises without influence from outside.

(2) Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation of Extrinsic is motivation caused by factors from

outside situation of learning, for example someone doing of learning

because of expecting gift or praise.13 Extrinsic motivation that usually used

in the school as follows scores, rewards, punishments and etc. It used to

make the students more interesting with the subject. Motivation is

necessary used by the teacher, as follows: giving the scores, rewards,

interests, praises, punishment, and also the pleasure environments.14

Environment is also important to grow motivation of the students in class.

Abraham Maslow Claimed that “intrinsic motivation is clearly

superior to extrinsic.”15 This matter is assured by Ngalim Purwanto “the

best especially in the case of learning is motivation of intrinsic. It is caused


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the motivation of intrinsic support the student be active in learning without

motivation of others.”16

4. Learning Result

a) The Concept of Learning Result

Result of learning is “evidence of effort which is reached.”17 In this case

according to Abu Ahmadi, “Result of learning is degree of cleverness and skills

which have been reached based on student's work or exercise.”18

Then Ngalim Purwanto explains that “result of learning is results which

have been given by teacher to the pupils, lecturer to student in a certain period

of time.”19

Based on definition above, it is clearly explained that result of learning

is reached result by student to do the changes in activity of learning which is

measured by score or numbers of test.

b) The Factors Influencing the Result of learning

There are some factors of learning activity which influences the result

of learning. Among them are:

(1) Internal Factor, is arising out factor of it self child, like health, ability,

enthusiasm etc.

(2) External Factor is incoming factor from outside child itself, like

situation of environment, situation of its house and the weather.


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It means that, result of learning is very influenced by various factors

which have been mentioned above. If there is one of the factors hence it is

impossibility that will have an effect on to the result of learning.

c) Measurement the result of learning

To measure the result of learning is needed an evaluation technique of

learning, as opinion of Ngalim Purwanto that evaluation or assessment is

differentiated to some:

(1) Formative assessment is activity of assessment which aims to obtain

feed back; further the result of the assessment can be used to improve

process of learning doing or have been conducted.

(2) Assessment of summative is assessment done to obtain information or

data until where attainment or domination of learns toward the Lesson

materials which have been studied during a given period of time.20

Based on the opinion above it can be concluded that to measure a

result of learning is using technique of evaluation while assessment

differentiated to in to two forms:

(1) Formative evaluation is an evaluation done each finishing a certain Unit

of Lesson

(2) Evaluation of Summative is evaluation done each the final of Lesson of

a program or amount of certain Lesson unit.

d) Criteria of Learning Result


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To evaluate the learning process, two techniques can be used. There are

formative and summative. Evaluation result can be information form which has

quality and quantity.

There are the criteria of the result according to Suharsimi Arikunto:

Value Criteria
“8,1 10 very good
6,6 8,0 good
5,6 6,5 enough
4,1 5,5 less
0 4,1 fail”21

Based on the quotation above, to give the result or score in learning, it can

use two kinds of resulting, there are:

a) Quality, such as: good, enough, less

b) Quantity, such as: number 0 10.

B. Theoretical Framework and Paradigm

1. Theoretical Framework

A research must have a theoretical framework as a concept for basic in

research. Theoretical framework in this research is a systematic thought to write

some problems that to give the tentative proposition toward the problems.

There are two variables in this research. They are independent variable (X)

and dependent variable (Y). The independent variable (X) is students motivation

and the dependent variable (Y) is learning result. If the students have good

motivation in learning English, their English result will be high. How ever, if the
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students dont have motivation in learning English, so their English result will be

low.

2. Paradigm

Based on the theoretical framework above, the writer describes the

paradigm as following:

C. Hypotheses Formulation

“A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the outcome of the research.”22 It

can be understood that hypothesis as a statement about the condition of the parameter

of the research with a sample.

In other opinion, hypotheses are predictions the writer holds about the

relationship among variables.23 It used in experiment in which writer compare group.

Based on the quotation above, it can be understood that hypotheses may be

precisely defined as a tentative proposition suggested as a solution to a problem or as

an explanation of some phenomenon.

The writer formulates the hypotheses as follows:


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1. Alternative Hypothesis (Hi)

Hi : There is a correlation between the students motivation and English

Learning Result at the second semester of the eleventh class of SMA

N 1 Pekalongan East Lampung in the Academic Year of 2008/2009.

2. Null Hypotheses (Ho)

Ho : There is not a correlation between the students motivation and

English Learning Result at the second semester of the eleventh class

of SMA N 1 Pekalongan East Lampung in the Academic Year of

2008/2009.