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IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 1

ANATOMY
of
CNC MACHINES

by Ramadas R. Nambi, Industry Consultant


Email: RAMADAS.NAMBI@GMAIL.COM Mobile: +91-9845071426
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 2

It is essential to have anatomy knowledge of


Major Elements of CNC Machines
for Effective Maintenance
1. CNC CONTROL SYSTEM 2. MECHANICAL ELEMENTS

3. ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS 4. HYDRAULIC ELEMENTS

5. PNEUMATIC ELEMENTS 6. LUBRICATION …etc


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 3

1. Anatomy of CNC Control System


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 4

RELAY-LOGIC M/C

HARD-BOARD WIRED
MACHINE

PLC-BASED M/C

NC M/C

CNC M/C
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 5

Concepts of CNC Technology


Computer Numerical Control well known as CNC is a dedicated
COMPUTER-SYSTEM to control Machine Tool’s:-
 INPUT & OUTPUT SIGNAL

 LCD/MDI, MACHINE CONTROL PANEL

 SERVO-MOTORS thro SERVO-CONTROLLER/DRIVE

 SPINDLE MOTOR thro SPINDLE-CONTROLLER/DRIVE

 ATC, APC, TURRET, INDEX TABLE ...etc


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 6

Basic Major Functions of any Computer

INPUT
CPU

OUTPUT
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 7

INPUT
CPU

OUTPUT
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M/C INPUT

INPUT
M/C OUTPUT
CNC
CPU

OUTPUT
AXIS & SPINDLE
MOTORS

FEEDBACK from
AXIS & SP.MOTORS
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 9

PLC or PMC
M/C INPUT
M/C INPUT

INPUT
M.O.P or M.C.P.

M/C OUTPUT
OUTPUT
CNC

M/C
CPU

OUTPUT
AXIS & SPINDLE
MOTORS

FEEDBACK from
AXIS & SP.MOTORS
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 10

PLC or PMC
M/C INPUT
M/C INPUT

M.O.P or M.C.P.

M/C OUTPUT
OUTPUT
CNC

M/C

AXIS & SPINDLE


MOTORS

FEEDBACK from
AXIS & SP.MOTORS
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CNC SYSTEM major MAIN ELEMENTS


MASTER PCB POWER SUPPLY I/O-CARD or
UNIT I/O-Driver Circuits
MOTHER-BOARD

LCD Display UNIT DISPLAY DRIVER GRAPHIC Display


CONTROLLER
PLASMA/LED...etc CONTROLLER

SERVO-AXIS AXIS-Feedback MDI-KEYBOARD


MOTION Control PROCESSING CONTROL

SPINDLE-MOTOR Spindle - Feedback COMMUNICATION


CONTROL
SPEED Control PROCESSING

PLC - CONTROL MEMORY-PCB ANALOG - I/O


MEMORY-BANK DNC, RBU ......etc
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 12

SERVO History
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

NC / CNC

Man Relay TTL Micro computer


Machine power sequence
control type DSP

DC servo motor
AC servo motor
Servo motor Electric. Hydraulic
development Linear motor
pulse motor

FANUC’s HISTORY SIEMENS’s HISTORY:


1956: The first NC in the Japanese private sector was As one of Europe's most important electrical
developed successfully. equipment suppliers, Siemens brought the
1958: The first commercial FANUC NC was shipped to first industrial NC onto the market in 1960
Makino Milling Machine Co., Ltd. under the "Sinumerik" brand name. The first
1959: The first continuous path NC in Japan was path control was developed on the basis of
developed.; The first electro-hydraulic pulse motor was separate electronic components.
developed.
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 13

PSU
MASTER PCB or MOTHER-BOARD or CPU

MDI
LCD/LED
LCD
DISPLAY Control

MDI-Keyboard
CONTROL

MEMORY MEMORY-BANK
EXE.EPROMs
PLC-EPROM
CMOS-RAM...etc
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Communication PC
RS-232-C; RS-422; Tape
MASTER PCB or MOTHER-BOARD or CPU RS485; Ethernet; USB HDD
PEN drive

RBU CNC m/c


DNC Host PC
Ethernet LAN

Integrated PLC
or
External PLC
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 15

LADDER DIAGRAM DIPLAY


FOR EASY & QUICK MAINTENANCE

R607.2 D300.2 R705.5 R700.7


CHUCK OPEN

R650.3 D300.7

R650.3 D300.7 D300.1 R700.6


CHUCK CLOSE

R600.2 D444.0 R555.7 R650.3


DOOR CLOSED
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What is NO, NC, COIL ?


NO=Normally Open COIL = RELAY ON/OFF NC =Normally Closed
NO

87a NC 87a NC
COMMON COMMON
30 30
87 NO 87 NO

NC 86 +ve DC/AC
86 +ve DC/AC
Coil Supply Coil Supply

85 -ve DC/AC 85 -ve DC/AC


Contactor COIL OFF Coil Supply Contactor COIL ON Coil Supply
COIL
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What is NO, NC, COIL ?


NO=Normally Open COIL = RELAY ON/OFF NC =Normally Closed

0 NO 1 Closed

0 1 Closed
NC
Common
0 1 Closed
NO
NC
1 0 Open

COIL

DC voltage
AC voltage

Contactor Contactor
COIL OFF COIL ON
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Different types of NO, NC, COIL SYMBOLS


as it appears on LADDER DIAGRAM printout

NO NO NO

NC NC NC

COIL COIL COIL

NO=Normally Open NC =Normally Closed COIL = RELAY ON/OFF


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Different types of NO, NC, COIL SYMBOLS


as it appears on LADDER DIAGRAM
CNC PMC MT
PMC to CNC Within PMC MT to PMC

PMC to CNC Within PMC MT to PMC

CNC to PMC Within PMC PMC to MT


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 20

FANUC CNC’s different types of ADDRESS


used for CNC, PMC(PLC), MT(Machine Tool) areas

CNC PMC MT
R, C, T, D, K

G X

F Y
R, C, T, D, K
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 21

FANUC CNC’s different types of ADDRESS


used for CNC, PMC(PLC), MT(Machine Tool) areas

G X

CNC PMC MT
R, C, T, D, K
& other
address
F Y
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FANUC CNC’s different types of ADDRESS


used for CNC, PMC(PLC), MT(Machine Tool) areas

R, C, T, D, K, E, A, L, P

G X
CNC PMC MT
F Y

Nonvolatile memory
Internal relay (R) (1) Variable timer (T)
(2) Counter (C)
(3) Keep relay (K)
(4) Data table (D)
Extra relay (E)
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 23

FANUC LADDER DIAGRAM MONITOR


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SIEMENS CNC’s different types of ADDRESS


used for CNC, PLC, MT(Machine Tool) areas

DB or V I

CNC PLC MT
M, C, T, H,
DB
DB or V Q

DB - Even Address (first 2-digits) is from PLC to CNC


DB - Odd address is from CNC to PLC
V - Even Address (first 2-digits) is from PLC to CNC (802)
V - Odd Address is from CNC to PLC
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AXIS-CARD X

MOTHER-BOARD or CPU
or
AXIS-motion Y

controller
MASTER PCB or

AXIS-Feedback
CONTROL
MOTHER-BOARD or CPU

SPINDLE SPEED S1
CONTROLLER CARD
S2
MASTER PCB or

POSITION
CODER

POSITION
CODER

SPINDLE Feedback
CONTROL
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AXIS-CARD
or
X
MASTER PCB or MOTHER-BOARD or CPU AXIS-motion
controller
Y

B
AXIS-Feedback
CONTROL
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DC ANALOG SERVO MOTOR


AXIS COMMAND
ARMATURE VOLTAGE

CONTROLLER UNIT
0~10v (-10v~+10v)

CNC
TACHO FEEDBACK

VELOCITY
POSITION
FEEDBACK

DC MOTOR

ROTARY ENCODER
or
LINEAR SCALE FEEDBACK
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DC SERVO MOTOR PARTS - 1/2

DC SERVO MOTOR’s
Resolver &
DC SERVO MOTOR Tacho-generator
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DC SERVO MOTOR PARTS - 2/2

Tacho-Generator Brush Arrangement DC MOTOR Armature – Brush 4 Nos.

DC SERVO MOTOR DC MOTOR Armature – Brush Mounting


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AC ANALOG SERVO MOTOR


AXIS COMMAND
Stator VOLTAGE

CONTROL UNIT
0~10v (-10v~+10v)
CNC

VELOCITY
VELOCITY FEEDBACK

POSITION FEEDBACK
POSITION
FEEDBACK

AC ANALOG
SERVO
MOTOR

ROTARY ENCODER
or
LINEAR SCALE FEEDBACK
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Servo Motor cross-section


Permanent Copper wire Pulse coder
magnet Rotor (Stator Coil)

Shaft
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AC ANALOG SERVO MOTOR PARTS - 1/2

AC ANALOG SERVO MOTOR Permanent Magnet Rotor Pulsecoder


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AC ANALOG SERVO MOTOR PARTS - 2/2

DC SERVO MOTOR AC SERVO MOTOR


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AC Digital SERVO MOTOR

DIGITAL
Stator

SERVO AMPLIFIER
COMMAND
CNC VOLTAGE

(IGBT)
VELOCITY &
POSITION
FEEDBACK

ADDITIONAL AC DIGITAL
POSITION SERVO
FEEDBACK MOTOR

TYPE-A
AMPLIFIER ROTARY ENCODER
or
LINEAR SCALE FEEDBACK
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AC Digital SERVO MOTOR


DIGITAL
COMMAND

SERVO AMPLIFIER
Stator
VELOCITY &
CNC VOLTAGE
POSITION

(IPM)
FEEDBACK

ADDITIONAL AC DIGITAL
POSITION SERVO
FEEDBACK MOTOR

TYPE-B
AMPLIFIER ROTARY ENCODER
or
LINEAR SCALE FEEDBACK
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AC DIGITAL SERVO MOTOR PARTS


AlPha Series
Servo Motor
PSM

SVM
Beta Series Servo Motor
Pulsecoder

Beta
Amp
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FANUC ‘s Different types of Pulse coders

Pulse Coder Type RESOLUTION Absolute/ Applicable Motor


(Division/rev) Incremental
A1000i 1,000,000 Absolute
All Models
I1000i 1,000,000 Incremental
A16000i 16,000,000 Absolute All Models except
Ci Series
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 38

SPINDLE
SPEED
S1
MASTER PCB or MOTHER-BOARD or CPU CONTROLLER
CARD
S2

POSITION
CODER

POSITION
CODER

SPINDLE
Feedback
CONTROL
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DC Analog Spindle Motor

SPEED COMMAND

CONTROLLER UNIT
0~10v ( or -10v~+10v) ARMATURE VOLTAGE

CNC INPUT SIGNAL

OUTPUT SIGNAL
TACHO FEEDBACK

SPINDLE
to CNC
Speed Feedback
for mm/Rev to Orientation PCB
or Thread Cutting
for TAPPING

DC
SPINDLE
MOTOR

POSITION CODER
1024 PPR

MAG.SENSOR or
BUILT IN SENSOR for ORIENTATION
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 40

AC Analog Spindle Motor

SPEED COMMAND Stator VOLTAGE

AMPLIFIER UNIT
0~10v ( or -10v~+10v)
CNC INPUT SIGNAL

OUTPUT SIGNAL

SPINDLE
to CNC VELOCITY FEEDBACK

Speed Feedback
for mm/Rev to Orientation.PCB
or Thread Cutting
for TAPPING

AC
SPINDLE
MOTOR

POSITION CODER
1024 PPR

MAG.SENSOR or
BUILT IN SENSOR for ORIENTATION
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 41

AC Digital Serial Spindle Motor

SP. MOTOR Stator VOLTAGE


SERIAL or OPTICAL

CONTROLLER UNIT
CNC COMMUNICATION
of SPEED
SPEED FEEDBACK
ORIENTATION COMMAND VELOCITY FEEDBACK

SPINDLE
ORIENTATION FEEDBACK
& OTHER SIGNALS

for mm/Rev feed movement


DIGITAL PARAMETERS

SP. SPEED FEEDBACK


TO ORIENTATION PCB

or THREAD CUTTING
AC
SPINDLE
MOTOR

or TAPPING
POSITION CODER
1024 PPR

MAG.SENSOR or
BUILT IN SENSOR for ORIENTATION
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 42

CNC & Axis Motor Drives

Amplifier
CNC

Machine

Pulse Coder

Motor
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Servo Motor Application example


Pulse coder Servo motor
Table

Ball nut Ball screw

Command Command Setting


Servo amp. CNC Screen

Feed back

(1)Generally servo motor is applied for machine required precise position control as above example.
(2) As above example, servo motor is combined with ball screw. Rotation movement is converted to
linear movement by ball screw then table moves forward and backward.

43
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 45

Servo motor control

Follow pulley Table Lead

Ball screw
Ball nut

Drive pulley
Pulse coder Servo motor

To move table 100mm distance

Gear ration 1:2 1. How many rotation of Ball Screw ?


Requires 5 full rotation of Screw
Ball screw lead/Pitch = 20mm
2. How many rotation of motor shaft ?
Pulse coder resolution 3,000 pulse/rev.
10 full rotation of motor shaft
3. How many Pulses generated ?
3,000x10=30,000 pulses
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 46

Servo motor control

Follow pulley Table Lead

Ball screw
Ball nut

Drive pulley
Pulse coder Servo motor

To move table 100mm distance

Gear ration 1:1 1. How many rotation of Ball Screw ?


Requires 5 full rotation of Screw
Ball screw lead/Pitch = 20mm
2. How many rotation of motor shaft ?
Pulse coder resolution 3,000 pulse/rev.
5 full rotation of motor shaft
3. How many Pulses generated ?
3,000x5=15,000 pulses
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 47

Servo motor control

Follow pulley Table Lead

Ball screw
Ball nut

Drive pulley
Pulse coder Servo motor

To move table 100mm distance

Gear ration 2:1 1. How many rotation of Ball Screw ?


Requires 5 full rotation of Screw
Ball screw lead/Pitch = 20mm
2. How many rotation of motor shaft ?
Pulse coder resolution 3,000 pulse/rev.
2.5 full rotation of motor shaft
3. How many Pulses generated ?
3,000x2.5= 7,500 pulses
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 48

System configuration

FANUC Series 0i Mate Model-D

Series 0i Mate- Model D AC SPINDLE MOTOR


i
SERVO AMPLIFIER
b series
LCD mounted type CNC
control unit
bi SVSP series
8.4 " LCD /MDI (color)
Memory card

FSSB

AC SERVO MOTOR
FANUC I/O Link
Max. I/O points: input 256 /output 256
i
bS series
SERVO AMPLIFIER bi SV series
(with I/O Link)

AC SERVO MOTOR
Operator’s panel Connection panel biS series (only 1 axis)
I/O module
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 49

System configuration

FANUC Series 0i Model-D


Embedded Ethernet 100 BASE-TX (Standard)
Configuration
Series 0i-MD Internet

8.4 " LCD /MDI (color) PC


LCD mounted type CNC
10.4 " LCD (color) control unit
AC SPINDLE MOTOR
ai series
SERVO AMPLIFIER
ai series
FSSB

FANUC I/O Link AC SERVO MOTOR


DI/DO 1024/1024 (Standard)
2048/2048 (Option)
aiS series
Connection can also be established

i
with b series.

AC SERVO MOTOR
Connection biS series
Operator’s panel panel SERVO AMPLIFIER bi SV series
I/O module I/O unit for 0i
(I/O Link)
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 50

FANUC Series 0i-D


Total Connection Drawing
& Parts Removal

by Ramadas R. Nambi, Industry Consultant


Email: RAMADAS.NAMBI@GMAIL.COM Mobile: +91-9845071426
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 52

FS0i-D Total Connection Drawing


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 53

FS0i-D total connection drawing


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FS0i-D total connection drawing


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FS0i-D total connection Drawing – Option Boards


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FS0i Mate-D I/O Link Connection


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 57

FS0i-D I/O Link Connection


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Major Elements used on CNC Machines


 CNC
 LCD/Touch Screen
 Machine Operator Panel
 Servo Motors & Amplifier
 Spindle Motors & Amplifier

 Electrical Control Panel

 Mechanical Unit & Assembly


 Hydraulic Circuit
 Lubrication Circuit
 Pneumatic Circuit
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FS0i-D CNC connector mounting locations


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FS0i-D CNC connector mounting locations


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FS0i-D CNC connector mounting locations


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Axis Card & PSU on CNC


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AXIS Card Removal


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AXIS Card Mounting


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FROM / SRAM used on CNC

(DIMM-Dual Inline Memory Module)


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FROM/SRAM Module Demounting & Mounting


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Details of DATA stored in SRAM 1of2


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Details of DATA stored in SRAM 2of2


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FS0i-D 2Slots Option PCB mounting locations


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 71

Replacing Main Board 1 of 2


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Replacing Main Board 2 of 2


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FS0i-D CNC Battery Replacement


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FS0i-D CNC FANs Replacement


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Memory Card Slot in front of CNC


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Memory Card Slot in front of CNC


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FS0i-D CNC Block Diagram


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LED display on CNC Main Board


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CNC Main Board LED display - details


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CNC Main Board LED display – details 1 of 3


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 81

CNC Main Board LED display - details 2 of 3


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CNC Main Board LED BLINKING – details 3 of 3


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 83

End of
CNC Connection Drawing,
Part Location & Removal,
LED & 7-SEGMENT Indications.
S
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 84

System configuration

FANUC Series 0i–TD (2 Path)


Ethernet 100 BASE-TX (standard)

Series 0i-TD Internet

PC
8.4" LCD /MDI (color)

bi series SERVO
10.4" LCD (color)

1st path
FSSB
bi Spindle motor
biS Servo motor

biSVSP
2nd path
FANUC I/O Link
DI/DO 1024/1024 (Standard)
2048/2048(Option) Also ai series can be used.

Connection
Operator’s panel I/O unit for 0i biS Servo motor
I/O Link bi servo amplifier
panel
I/O module
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 85

Graphic overview of 802D sl CNC system


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Graphic overview of 802D sl CNC system


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Graphic overview of 802D sl CNC system


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 88

SIEMENS 802D
Quick Anatomic Study &
CNC Connection Drawing

by Ramadas R. Nambi, Industry Consultant


Email: RAMADAS.NAMBI@GMAIL.COM Mobile: +91-9845071426
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 89

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
of
SINUMERIC 802D sl
solution line Series
with SINAMICS S120
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 90

System configuration - SIEMENS 802D sl


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System Overview - SIEMENS 802D sl without MCPA Module


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System Overview - SIEMENS 802D sl without MCPA Module


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System Overview - SIEMENS 802D sl without MCPA Module


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System Overview - SIEMENS 802D sl without MCPA Module


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System Overview-SIEMENS 802D sl with MCPA Module


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Connection overview for SINUMERIK 802D sl - without MCPA Module


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Connection overview for SINUMERIK 802D sl - without MCPA Module


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Connection overview for SINUMERIK 802D sl - without MCPA Module


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Connection overview for SINUMERIK 802D sl - with MCPA Module


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Connection overview for SINUMERIK 802D sl - with MCPA Module


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Connecting the SINAMICS drive to the DRIVE-CLiQ interface


Connection with ALM (Active Line Module) and DRIVE-CLiQ

ALM (Active Line Module)


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Connecting the SINAMICS drive to the DRIVE-CLiQ interface


Connection with SLM (Smart Line Module) and DRIVE-CLiQ

SLM (Smart Line Module)


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Connecting the SINAMICS drive to the DRIVE-CLiQ interface


Connecting the DRIVE-CLiQ Hub Module DMC20
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Connecting the SINAMICS drive to the DRIVE-CLiQ interface


Connecting the DRIVE-CLiQ Hub Module DMC20
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Connection overview for SINUMERIK 802D sl

Connecting digital Inputs and digital Outputs to connectors X20 and X21
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System configuration - SIEMENS 802D sl


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System configuration - SIEMENS 802D sl


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SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
of
SINUMERIC 802D bl
base line Series
with SIMODRIVE 611
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SINUMERIC 802D bl with SIMODRIVE 611UE


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System Configuration - SIEMENS 802D bl with SIMODRIVE 611


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System Configuration - SIEMENS 802D bl with SIMODRIVE 611


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System configuration - SIEMENS 802D bl with SIMODRIVE 611


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System configuration - SIEMENS 802D bl with SIMODRIVE 611

General Design of a Profibus Line


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End of
SIEMENS - 802D
CNC Anatomy study &
Connection Drawing
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System configuration

SIEMENS 810D
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System configuration

SIEMENS SINUMERIK-808D
Hand-wheels SINAMICS SINAMICS SINAMICS SINAMICS
G120 V60 V60 V60
Pulse / direction interface CPM60.1 CPM60.1 CPM60.1
digital tool probe*)

PPU141.1

USB stick analogue +/- 10V


& keyboard

TTL Spindle
Ribbon cable encoder
USB

Terminal
strip converter

MCP
RS232C

PLC
process signals
Notebook 1LE1 standard 1FL5 1FL5 1FL5
motor synchronous synchronous synchronous
*) Only for milling version feed motor feed motor feed motor
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SIEMENS SINUMERIK-808D
SINAMICS V60 / 1FL5  Maximum feed dynamics

SINUMERIK 808D - PPU141.1 SINAMICS V60 - CPM60.1 1FL5 feed motors

A perfect team for demanding feed-axis solutions

SINAMICS V60 drive modules and 1FL5 feed motors are the perfect partners in order to
achieve maximum dynamics and accuracy for feed-axes.
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SIEMENS SINUMERIK-808D
SINAMICS G120 / 1LE1  Economic spindle power

SINUMERIK 808D SINAMICS G120 Power Module SIMOTICS 1LE1


PPU141.1 with control unit CU240B-2 standard motor

A perfect team for economic spindle solutions

SINAMICS G120 drive modules and 1LE1 standard motors are the perfect partners in order to
enable economic spindle solutions.
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System configuration

SIEMENS 828D
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 120

System configuration

SIEMENS 828D
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 121

System configuration

SIEMENS 840D
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 122

SINUMERIK Current CNC System Range

Smart Class Compact class Premium class


SINUMERIK 808D SINUMERIK 828D SINUMERIK 840D sl
Operative range •CNC system for •CNC system for •Open flexible and
standard machines compact machines strong CNC system

Technology •Turning •Turning •Universal for all


•Milling •Milling Technologies
Configuration •Compact panel- •Compact panel-based •Modular, scalable,
based CNC CNC in hori-zontal and universal CNC with
vertical design high-performance
SINAMICS drives

Degree of •Up to 3 Axes •Up to 8 Axes/Spindles •Up to 93 Axes/Spindles


expansion +1 Spindle in in 1 machining channel in 10 machining
1 machining channel channels from 3 to 5
axes simultaneously
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 123

SINUMERIK Current CNC System Range

standard machines premium machines

SINUMERIK 808D SINUMERIK 828D BASIC SINUMERIK 828D SINUMERIK 840D sl


End of
Concept of CNC Technology
and CNC Control Anatomy
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 125

2. Anatomy of Mechanical structure


for various type of machines

3
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 126

CNC Machining Center


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 127

CNC Milling Machine


 A machine capable of simultaneous cutting motion, using
an end mill as the primary cutting tool, along at least 2~3
axes simultaneously

 Basic axes: X, Y, Z

 Additional axes: A, B, C (Rotary/Indexing), ATC …etc

 Basic Spindle Motor is fully controlled AC Digital Spindle


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 128

Classification

 By the number of axes - 2, 3 or more

 By the orientation – Vertical, Horizontal

 By presence or absence of Tool changer

 By presence or absence of Pallet changer


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 129

CNC Vertical Machining Centre


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 130

CNC Horizontal Machining Centre


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 131

CNC Horizontal Machining Centre with APC


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 132

Features of a Machining Centre

 Automatic tool changer (ATC)

 Automatic pallet changer (APC)

 Multiple operations

 Multi axes facility

 Types : VMC , HMC , UMC


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 133

Drum type tool magazine


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 134

Oval type tool magazine


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 135

Tool Changing Mechanism


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 136

Tool Changing Mechanism


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 137

Tool Changing Mechanism


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 138

Key
YouConcept
must understand the
Number
machineOne
you’ll be working
with!
FANUC 10M
POWER O NG P A 7 8 9 RESET

ON X00.0000 XU YV ZW Q B
I J K RC Sp
4
1
5 6
2 3
START

FE D? H@ L@ #, - 0
OFF Y00.0000 M[ S] T( EOB) / *
PAGE CURSOR
+ = CAN
CALC

INPUT

Z00.0000
SHIFT NC/PC

AUX

CYCLE FEED MDI JOG


START HOLD AUTO ON
HANDLE OFF
DRYSINGLEMACHINEOPTIONALBLOCK
EDIT ZERO RUNBLOCK LOCK STOP DELETE
100%
MODE RETURN OFF ON ORIGIN
25% 50% X Z
X+ 10% 100% MEMORY X1X10X100
Z- Z+ PROTECT X Z
0% 200% RAPID 8 9 10 1112
X- FEEDRATE 67
JOYSTICK
OVERRIDE OVERRIDE 45 0
EMERGENCY 3
STOP ON OFF 2
SPINDLE SLOW FAST 1TURRET INDEX
100% 100%
0% 130% 0% 130%
OD ID
SPINDLE AXIS LOAD
LOAD
X Z CLAMP
DIRECTION

MV 4VA
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 139

FANUC 10M
POWER O NG P A 7 89 RESET

ON XU YV ZW Q B 4 5 6 START

X00.0000 I J K RC Sp 1 23
FE D? H@ L@ #, - 0
Y00.0000
CALC

OFF M[ S] T( EOB) /* + = CAN INPUT

PAGE CURSOR

Z00.0000 SHIFT NC/PC

AUX

CYCLE FEED MDI JOG


START HOLD ON
AUTO HANDLE OFF
DRYSINGLE
MACHINE
OPTIONAL
BLOCK
EDIT ZERO RUNBLOCK LOCK STOP DELETE
MODE RETURN OFF ON ORIGIN
100% 25%50%

?
X Z
X+ 10% 100% MEMORY X10
X1 X100
Z- Z+ PROTECT X Z
0% 200% 9 101112
X- RAPID 78
JOYSTICK FEEDRATE 6
OVERRIDE OVERRIDE 5 4 0
EMERGENCY
3
STOP ON OFF 2
SPINDLE SLOW FAST TURRET
1 INDEX
100% 100%
0% 130% 0% 130%
OD ID
SPINDLE LOAD AXIS LOAD
X Z CLAMP
DIRECTION

MV 4VA

What machining operations will


you be performing?
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 140

Basic Machining Practice


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 141

Hole Machining Tools:

Center Drill
Spot Drill
Twist Drill
Countersink
Tap
Counter Bore
Reamer
Boring Bar
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 142

Milling Cutters:
End Mills
Shell Mills

Face Mills

Dovetail Mills
Chamfer Mills
Radius Mills

Slotting Mills
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 143

Machine Configurations

 C frame style Vertical Machining Center

 Gantry style Vertical Machining Center

 Horizontal Machining Center


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 144

Vertical
Machining Centers

C-Frame Style
147
C-frame style

Y axis Ways

Bed
149
C-frame style

Column

Z axis ways
151
C-frame style

Headstock

Spindle
152
C-frame style
155
C-frame style

X axis ways

Saddle
156
C-frame style

Table
158
C-frame style

Automatic
tool changer
161
C-frame style

Indexer
164
C-frame style

Rotary table
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 181

HMC
Horizontal
Machining Centers
183

Horizontal Machining Center

Z axis ways

Bed
185

Horizontal Machining Center

Column
Y axis ways
187

Horizontal Machining Center

Spindle
Headstock
189

Horizontal Machining Center

X axis ways

Saddle
190

Horizontal Machining Center

Table
191

Horizontal Machining Center

Automatic
tool changer
192

Horizontal Machining Center

Automatic
pallet changer
193

Horizontal Machining Center


Chip guard
system
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 194

Directions of motion

 C frame style vertical machining center

 Gantry style vertical machining center

 Horizontal machining center


195
Axis Directions
VMC
196
Axis Directions

X Axis
204
Axis Directions

X Axis
210
Axis Directions

X Axis
226
Axis Directions

X Axis
227
Axis Directions

Y Axis
232
Axis Directions

Y Axis
247
Axis Directions

Z Axis
253
Axis Directions

Z Axis
258
Axis Directions

Z Axis
269
Axis Directions

Z Axis
270
Axis Directions

Z+
Y+

X- X+

Y-
Z-
271
Axis Directions

Z+
Y+

X- X+
Y-

Z-
275
Axis Directions

Z+
Y+

X- X+
Y-

Z-
278
Axis Directions

Z+
Y+

X- X+
Y-

Z-
280
Axis Directions

Z+
Y+

X- X+
Y-

Z-
285
C-frame style VMC

Parallel
A axis
to X axis
286
C-frame style

Parallel
B axis to Y axis
287
C-frame style

Parallel
C axis to Z axis
288
C-frame style

plus
289
C-frame style

minus
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 290

Gantry style
Vertical
Machining Centers
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 291

Gantry Style
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 292

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 293

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 294

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 295

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 296

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 297

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 298

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 299

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 300

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 301

Gantry Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 302

Gantry Style
Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 303

Gantry Style
Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 304

Gantry Style
Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 305

Gantry Style
Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 306

Gantry Style
Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 307

Gantry Style
Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 308

Gantry Style
Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 309

Gantry Style
Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 310

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 311

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 312

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 313

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 314

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 315

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 316

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 317

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 318

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 319

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 320

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 321

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 322

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 323

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 324

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 325

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 326

Gantry Style
Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 327

Gantry Style
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 328

Gantry Style

Z+
Y+

X- X+
Y-

Z-
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 329

Gantry Style

Z+
Y+

X- X+
Y-

Z-
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 330

Gantry Style

Z+
Y+

X- X+
Y-

Z-
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 331

Gantry Style

Z+
Y+

X- X+
Y-

Z-
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 332

HMC
Horizontal
Machining Centers
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 333

Horizontal Style
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 334

Horizontal Style
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 335

Horizontal Style
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 336

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 337

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 338

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 339

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 340

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 341

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 342

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 343

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 344

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 345

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 346

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 347

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 348

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 349

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 350

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 351

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 352

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 353

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 354

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 355

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 356

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 357

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 358

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 359

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 360

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 361

Horizontal Style

X axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 362

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 363

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 364

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 365

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 366

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 367

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 368

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 369

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 370

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 371

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 372

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 373

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 374

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 375

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 376

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 377

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 378

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 379

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 380

Horizontal Style

Y axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 381

Horizontal Style

Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 382

Horizontal Style

Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 383

Horizontal Style

Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 384

Horizontal Style

Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 385

Horizontal Style

Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 386

Horizontal Style

Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 387

Horizontal Style

Z axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 388

Horizontal Style
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 389

Horizontal Style

Indexer or B axis
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 390

Horizontal Style
Y+
Z+

X+ X-

Z-
Y-
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 391

Horizontal Style
Y+
Z+

X+ X-

Z-
Y-
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 392

Horizontal Style
Y+
Z+

X+ X-

Z-
Y-
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 393

CNC Machining Centre


1. VMC
Crash course Learning – Milling Machines

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 .

2. HMC

3. UMC
Bed type, Travelling-Column, Bridge Type, Gantry, T-Shape
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 394

CNC Turning Center


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 395

CNC Turning Lathe


 A CNC machine capable of simultaneous cutting motion,
using a tool, which is mounted on Turret (indexing),
along at least 2 axes simultaneously to carry out various
basic lathe operation such as Turning, Facing,
Threading, Grooving,
 Basic axes: X, Z
 Additional axes: C, Live Tool
 Basic Spindle Motor can be simple Induction Motor
with/without inverter Drive; or Fully controlled AC Digital
Spindle Motor
 Additional Spindle or Sub-Spindle
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 396

CNC Turning Centre


1. Straight Bed Lathe

2. Slant Bed Lathe

3. VTL (Vertical Turret Lathe)


& VERTICAL TURNING CENTRE
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 397

End of CNC Machines Anatomy


Mechanical Elements Study
and VMC crash course learning
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 398

3. Effective use of Electrical


Circuit diagram – (Anatomy study)
2

Sample Study-1: AMS MCV-350 (.pdf)

Sample Study-2: BFW BMV45 (.pdf)

Sample Study-3: Jyoti DX-200 (.pdf)

Sample Study-4: Japanese M/C (.pdf) (.pdf) (.pdf)

The above study materials are not distributed in your CD


IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 399

4. Effective use of Hydraulic


Circuit diagram
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 400

Hydraulic Circuit of AMS MCV-350 1 of 3

(.pdf)
401

Hydraulic Circuit of AMS MCV-350 2 of 3

(.pdf)
402

Hydraulic Circuit of AMS MCV-350 3 of 3

(.pdf)
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 403

Hydraulic Circuit of AMS MCV-350 3 of 3

(.pdf)
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 404

5. Effective use of Pneumatic


Circuit diagram
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 405

Pneumatic Circuit of AMS MCV-350 1 of 4

(.pdf)
406

Pneumatic Circuit of AMS MCV-350 2 of 4

(.pdf)
407

Pneumatic Circuit of AMS MCV-350 3 of 4

(.pdf)
408

Pneumatic Circuit of AMS MCV-350 4 of 4

(.pdf)
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 409

6. Effective use of Lubrication


Circuit diagram
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 410

Lubrication Circuit of AMS MCV-350

(.pdf)
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines 411

Lubrication Circuit of BFW-BMV45 TC20


2

(.pdf)
IMTMA – Effective Maintenance Workshop Anatomy of CNC Machines

End of
CNC Machine
Brief Anatomy Study