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Mechanical Property Analysis Method

I. Faculty of Engineering, Zhejiang University, China

2. Sanbian Sci-tech Company, China

E-mail: panzaiping@zju.edu.cn

design optimization problem and, proposes a tank mechanical II. TANK MECHANICAL PROPERTY ANALYSIS METHOD

property analysis method with high calculation precision. The

main contributions of this research are: 1) introduction of a new A. Tank model

effective method to calculate transformer tank mechanical

Transformer tank consists of upper tank and lower tank,

property; 2) incorporation of Quantum behaved Particle Swarm

Optimization (QPSO) algorithm to solve the tank design

which are connected by the bolts along the tank brim. The

optimization problem; bolts would move under positive or negative pressure put on

Keywords: power transformer; tank mechanical performance; tank walls. It's difficult to calculate its influence to the

design optimization; finite element; QPSO; displacement of the tank walls. In this paper, 3D-springs

model is proposed for calculating the displacement of the bolts.

I. INTRODUCTION Each direction of spring stiffness is fixed by experimental data.

Transformer is one of the most expensive electrical There are features like chamfers, holes, ribs and corrugated

equipment. In transformer running period, failures such as oil structure on the tank walls. To ensure the simulation reliability,

a simplified FE analysis model should be established under

leakage, tank deformation and transformer explosion would

proper boundary condition with some assumptions. 3D-FEM

cause significant economic loss. It's essential for transformer

software ANSYS is used for the numerical computation of

industry to design tank with both security and economy.

tank deformation and stress. Four-node shell element She1l181

To optimize the transformer tank design, whether the

is adopted for numerical calculation. The tank material is steel

design meets industry standards must be validated. Both IEC Q235, assumed as perfectly plastic material. The modulus of

standards and industry standards of China indicate tank test is elasticity is 201GPa, the Poisson's ratio is 0.3. Geometric

type-test. Chinese national standards indicate that, transformer structure parameters are selected according to specific

tank should be tested under both positive pressure and transformer tank. Tank models (shown in Fig. 1) are tested

negative pressure, and no serious permanent deformation is under both positive and negative loads of 1.0Ie5N/m2. For

allowed within a testing time of 5 minutes[l]. FEM, with high positive pressure (pressure from inside to outside), the

computation precision and low cost, is commonly used by boundary condition is the constrains of the reinforce steels on

researchers to transformer tank design optimization. Batista[2] tank bottom. For negative pressure (vacuum condition), the

researched the deformation of transformer tank covers, and multi-points one-way fixed constrain also is taken account into

proposed an optimization technique for tank cover designing. boundary condition.

Zhang J H[3] also researched the deformation of oil-immersed According to the different types of covers, ribs and

transformer tank using FEM. Muller and Brady[4-6] carried chamfers, there are flat cover tank and arch cover tank, rib

out experimental tests which consisted in creating low tank and corrugated tank, chamfer tank and no-chamfer tank.

impedance faults in oil tilled transformer tanks. Then they Fig. 1 shows the tank type with arch cover, ribs and chamfers.

proposed a numerical model for transformer explosions, and The bolts connecting upper tank and lower tank are taken

account into the FE model so as to simulate the movement of

developed a fluid structure interaction numerical tool.

the tank brims. White triangles represent the bolts.

A well designed tank FEM model can simulate the tank

mechanical property with high computation precision. In this

paper, the 3D-springs model is used to simulate the

deformation of the bolts connecting upper tank and lower tank.

Experiments are carried out to measure the deformation of

tanks under both positive and negative air pressure. The

comparison of experimental results and simulation results

indicates that the introduction of this technique significantly

improved the computation precision.

QPSO algorithm, originally introduced by Jun Sun [7] in

2004, is an efficiency global optimization algorithm proved by

hundreds of papers. Aiming at the minimization of the total

mass of tank ribs, a tank design optimization method in

conjunction with QPSO is proposed in section III.

2229

Fig. 1. 3D model of transformer tank The nwnber and the location of springs are set according to

the distribution of the bolts. The stiffness of the springs along

B. 3D-springs model

the long edge and the short edge tank wall is denoted as

Generally, the height of upper tank is much bigger than KI�K6 sequentially. Considering the symmetry structure,

lower tank's. There would be obvious displacement between K2=K5. When the tank is working in negative pressure

upper brim and lower brim, so it can't be considered as rigid condition, there is contacting constrain along the Y direction.

connection. The 3D-springs model is used to simulate the Then set K2 a huge value (le12 in this paper) to simulate the

behavior of the connecting bolts; the coordinate system is contacting constrain.

shown in Fig.l. The stiffness of the springs is fixed by the

experimental data.

Table III

Main geometric parameters of tanks for experiment

Structure Parameter Tank A 1m Tank B 1m Tank C 1m

Length of tank 7. 64 7. 97 7. 86

Upper and lower tank

Width of tank 2. 57 2. 68 2. 64

(Upper/Lower tank)

Height of tank (Upper/Lower) 2. 62 I 0. 577 2. 72 I 0. 577 2. 75/0.577

Upper and lower brim

Thickness of brim 0. 03 0. 03 0. 03

(Long edgelShort edge) Thickness of ribs 0. 01 0. 01 0. 01

Ribs of lower tank

Ribs interval 0. 45/0.46 0.45/0.46 0. 4510.46

(Long edgelShort edge)

Number of ribs 1214 14/4 11/4

Cover and bottom steel

Bottom steel thickness 0. 01 0. 01 0. 01

Table IV

Comparisons of experimental displacement and calculation displacement (Experimental value / Computational value)

Model C: Model C:

Model A: Model A: Model B: Model B:

Test points Negative Positive

Negative pressure/mm Positive pressure/mm Negative pressure/mm Positive pressure/mm

pressure/mm pressure/mm

3/1. 0 3/1. 0 211. 4 2/1. 3 2/1. 4 2/1. 3

19 13110. 7 11112. 3 10/8. 2 15114. 2 5/8. 9 16/12. 3

2230

C. Experiment and method validation Pij =rp·Pij+(1-rp)·qi'rp=rand(O,l) (3)

Experiments are carried out to get the deformation data of

three 220kV oil-immersed tanks under both positive pressure X

Ij -

= pIj.. +a·1 Mbest.} - x

Ij

I·ln(l/ u) (4)

and negative pressure. For each tank, 19 displacement sensors where Mbes! is the mean best position among the particles, <p is

are fixed to the points shown in Fig. 1. a random number distributed uniformly on [0,1], a is a

Two sets of experimental data are used to fix the spring parameter of QPSO called Contraction-Expansion Coefficient.

stiffness. Adjust the spring stiffness to minimize the mean The algorithm would be convergence if a<1.781[8]. Xi , Pi

square error (as formula 1) between computation displacement and Pbest denote the position of the particles, the history best

and experimental displacement. The best set of calculated position of each particle and the best position of all particles.

stiffness is shown in table I. T

f �)(ai -by /19] (1)

P; = [PIP Pi2' ..., PiD r

=

i=! (6)

Table I

SPRINGS' STIFFNESS �esl =[QpQ2,·..,QDf (7)

The tank ribs optimization routine is described as follows:

5.30e6 6.40e7 5.91e8 9.37e8 3.12e9

(1) Each particle represents a solution of tank rib design.

To validate the spring stiffness, the third experimental set of

Initialize an array of particles with random position inside the

data is used to be compared with the computation results of the

problem space. Initialize the mean best position, population

3D-FEM mechanical property analysis routine with the fixed

size, particle dimension and the stop criterion (iteration times).

springs' stiffness. The comparisons show that, the mean square

(2) Based on the FEM routine developed in this paper,

error of 19 points' displacement between calculation results

calculate the displacement under the load of air pressure, and

and experimental results are less than 2.7mm. The tanks'

keep the information of displacement and Mise stress;

structure parameters are shown in table II. The experimental

(3) Evaluate the fitness of each particle, update the

data and computerized data are shown in table III. The three

matrixes X, P and Pbest, generate the new particle generation;

tanks are denoted as tank A, B and C.

(4) Loop until the stop criterion is met and output the

The tank mechanical property analysis software (TMA)

solution Pbes!' Usually the stop criterion could be a sufficiently

developed by the proposed method is already applied in a

good fitness or a maximum number of iterations, the latter is

transformer manufacturing factory. It is also used to optimize

adopted in this paper.

the tank design presented in section III.

A certain type of tank used in a transformer factory is

optimized with the proposed optimization technique. The

III. POWER TRANSFORMER TANK DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

comparisons of the original rib design and the optimized rib

In this paper, the aim of transformer tank design design is shown in table II. Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 shows the

optimization is to fmd the lowest cost solution of structural displacement and Mises stress of the tank under positive

parameters of ribs, constrained to tank industrial standards. pressure of 1.01e5 Pa. There is a 31.7 % reduction of ribs

Since different structure parameters of tanks, labor costs mass, while the displacement and Mises stress meet the

remain almost the same. So objective function can be the mechanical constraints of industrial standards.

minimization of ribs material cost, denoted as j{x t , Xb ..., xn). Table II

Variables consist of structure parameters of rib number, COMPARISONS OF ORIGINAL RIBS AND OPTIMIZED RIBS

thickness, height, Structure Parameters Original value Optimized value

Constrains consist of displacement constrain and strength Width 200mm 220mm

constrain under the load of 1.01e5Pa: the maximum Ribs Height 125mm II0mm

displacement d(x\, Xb ..., xu) and the Mises stress o(x\, Xb ... , (Long edge 1 Thickness 8mm 8mm

xu) must be less than the value defmed by industrial standards. short edge ) Interval 480 / 510 mm 600 / 660 mm

In 2004, Sun et a1. Introduced quantum theory into PSO and Number 9/3 7/2

can be guaranteed theoretically to find the optimal solution in IV. CONCLUSION

search space[7]. Quantum-behaved particle swarm In this paper, a power transformer tank design optimization

optimization (QPSO) algorithm is proved to be a global method is proposed, based on an accurate tank mechanical

convergence guaranteed algorithm. The parameter number of property analysis method. The calculation precision of the tank

QPSO is less than PSO while the search ability of QPSO is mechanical property analysis method is presented by the

much better. The only control parameter of QPSO is the comparison of the calculated results and experimental results.

Contraction Expansion Coefficient a . The efficiency of the tank design optimization method is

(

In QPSO, the particles move according to the following presented by the calculation cases. Some suggestions are

)

control equation: provided for tank manufacturing factories. The technique

1 N 1 N 1 N (2) proposed can be used to any kinds of transformer tank.

Mbes, - LP;,,- LP;2""'- LP;D

N N N

=

2231

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V.REFERENCES:

Requirements of Three-phase Oil-immersed Transformer,". China,2008.

[2]F. Batista, H. Mendes and E. Almeida, "Structural Optimization of Power

Transformer Tank Covers," in 3rd international Conference on integrity,

Reliability and Failure, Porto/Portugal, 2009,p. 22.

[3]1. H. Zhang, L. Y. Sun, X. J. Zhang, and 1. P. Li, "Study on the

Deformation of the Oil-Immersed Transformer Tank by FEA," Advanced

Materials Research, vol. 422,pp. 51-54,2012.

[4]S. Muller, R. Brady, G. De Bressy, P. Magnier, and G. Perigaud,

"Prevention of Transformer Tank Explosion: Part I-Experimental Tests on

Large Transformers," in ASME PVP08 Conference, 2008.

[5]R. Brady, S. Muller, G. de Bressy, P. Magnier, and G. Perigaud,

"Prevention of Transformer Tank Explosion: Part 2 - Development and

Application of a Numerical Simulation Tool," in ASME PVP08 Conference,

2008.

[6]B. Landis, S. Muller, M. Petrovan-Boiarciuc, R. Brady, and G. Perigaud,

"Prevention of Transformer Tank Explosion: Part 4-Development of a Fluid

Structure Interaction Numerical Tool," in ASME PVP08 Conference, 2009.

[7]1. Sun,W. Xu and B. Feng, "A global search strategy of quantum-behaved

particle swarm optimization," in Cybernetics and intelligent Systems, 2004

iEEE Conference on, 2004,pp. 111-116.

[8]1. Sun, W. Xu and 1. Liu, "Parameter selection of quantum-behaved

particle swarm optimization," Advances in Natural Computation, p. 436-436,

2005.

2232

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