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IJIRST –International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology| Volume 4 | Issue 3 | August 2017

ISSN (online): 2349-6010

Influence of Different Materials to Improve the


Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
Maheswari.S Srikanthan.L
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
Vi Institute of Technology, Sirukundram-603108, India Vi Institute of Technology, Sirukundram-603108, India

Iyappan.A.P Pearlin.C.P
Assistant Professor Student
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
Vi Institute of Technology, Sirukundram-603108, India Vi Institute of Technology, Sirukundram-603108, India

Pavithra.C
Student
Department of Civil Engineering
Vi Institute of Technology, Sirukundram-603108, India

Abstract
The black cotton soil is known as expansive type of soil which expands suddenly and starts swelling when it comes in contact with
moisture. Due to this property, the strength and other properties of Black cotton soil is very poor. To improve its properties, it is
necessary to stabilize the Black cotton soil by using different stabilizers. Expansive type of soil shows unpredictable behaviour
with different kind of stabilizers. Soil stabilization is a process to treat a soil to maintain, alter or improve the performance of soil.
In this project, the potential of burnt brick dust, crushed powdered glass, cement dust, lime powder are added as stabilizing additives
in varying percentages (0%, 10% and 15%). The evaluation involves the determination of Particle size distribution (Determination
of grain size by sieve analysis), the atterberg’s limits determination (Liquid Limit, plastic Limit and Plasticity Index), specific
gravity & Proctor compaction test (Determination of Optimum moisture content and Maximum dry density) of black cotton soil
in its natural state (0% addition of stabilizing additives) as well as when mixed with varying proportion of additives such as burnt
brick dust, crushed powdered glass, cement dust, lime powder (10% and 15%). The experimental result shows that for various
additions of stabilizing additives (10% and 15%) with black cotton soil the Maximum dry density (MDD) of black cotton soil is
improving and optimum moisture (OMC) content of black cotton soil is decreasing when compared black cotton soil in its natural
state (0% addition of stabilizing additives). The atterberg’s limit values are also decreasing for various additions of stabilizing
agents (10% and 20%) with black cotton soil when compared black cotton soil in its natural state.
Keywords: Black Cotton Soil, Soil Stabilization Techniques, Additives for Stabilization
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

Black cotton soil is often unsuitable for construction due to their poor engineering properties. Black Cotton soil approximately
covers about 30% of the land area in India. These soils are predominant in states of Andhra Pradesh,
Western Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Northern Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and some parts of Southern Uttar Pradesh .
Black cotton soil is also called regur soil, because its enrichment in soil nutrients. They are very fertile and black in color. Black
cotton soils are expansive (soil that is prone to large volume changes – swelling and shrinking) in nature.
Expansive soil is commonly known as Black Cotton Soil because of the color and their stability for growing cotton. In black
cotton soil deep crack is formed in dry seasons and swells in wet season. When water comes into contact with expansive soil
(Absorption of water by black cotton soil), its volume increases and when water is evaporated from expansive soil, its volume
decrease and soil shrinks. This shrinkage can remove support from buildings or other structures and result in damaging subsidence.
This produces a cycle of shrinkage and swelling that places repetitive stress on structures.
Hence, black cotton soil retains moisture and become stick when wet. This property of retaining moisture and releasing it when
required during dry periods is very useful for the crops.
Soil Stabilization or Soil Improvement is a technique to improve soil properties. Soil Improvement is done by different
techniques like mechanical method and additive method. Depending upon the site conditions and other factors influencing, the
type of technique is generally chosen. Basically, Mechanical method is very costly. Materials used for stabilization are recycled or
waste materials from various industries. To overcome these drawbacks associated with black cotton soil, soil improvement also
known as soil stabilization is done for black cotton soil by mixing black cotton soil with different additives (Non-hazardous
industrial waste).

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
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II. GENERAL PROPERTIES

Following tables shows the general properties of all materials used in this project.
Table – 1
Physical Properties of black cotton soil
S.NO PROPERTY VALUE IS CODE REFERRED
1 Specific Gravity, G 2.60 to 2.75 IS 2720 (part III) 1964
2 Grain size (<75μ) 70 to 100% IS 2720 (part IV) 1985
3 2μFraction 20 to 60 % IS 2720 (part IV) 1985
Atterberg’s limit -
4 50-120 % IS 2720 (Part V) 1985
Liquid limit
Atterberg’s limit -
5 20-60 % IS 2720 (Part V) 1985
Plastic limit
Maximum Dry
6 1300 to 1800 kg/m3 IS 2720 (part VIII)1980
Density (γd) - MDD
Optimum moisture
7 20-35% IS: 2720(Part VIII)1983
content (OMC)
8 Free swell Index 40 to 180 % IS 2720 (part XV) 1977
9 Swelling Pressure 50 to 800kN/m2 IS 2720 (part XV) 1977
10 C.B.R Test 1.2 to 4.0 % IS 2720 (part XVI)
Table – 2
Chemical properties of black cotton soil
S.NO PROPERTY RANGE
1 pH value >7 (Alkaline)
2 Organic content 0.4 to 2.4%
3 Caco3 5 to 15%
4 Sio2 50 to 55%
5 Sio2 , Al2O3 3 to 5%
6 Montmorillinite Mineral 30 to 50%
Table – 3
Properties of crushed powdered glass
S.NO PROPERTY RANGE
1 Compression resistance 800 - 1000 MPa
2 Density 2500kg/m3
3 Modulus of elasticity 70000Mpa
4 Hardness 5.5 Mohrs Hardness
5 Bending strength 45Mpa
6 Density 2.52
Table – 4
Properties of cement dust - As per test conducted at NSIC Certificate S..No. 15837 24/8/12, Rajkot [12]
S.NO PROPERTY OF CEMENT DUST % By weight
1 Silicon Dioxide, SiO2 18.5
2 Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3 13.5
3 Iron Oxide, Fe2O3 0.62
4 Calcium Oxide, CaO 14.02
5 Magnesium Oxide, MgO 0.84
6 Percentage Finer (%) 94.33
7 Specific gravity 2.86
Table – 5
Properties of Lime powder
S.NO PROPERTY OF LIME POWDER % By weight
1 Silicon Dioxide, SiO2 4
2 Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3 1.21
3 Iron Oxide, Fe2O3 1.82
4 Calcium Oxide, CaO 40.24
5 Magnesium Oxide, MgO 0.16

III. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Materials Used:
Black Cotton Soil
Burnt Brick Dust

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
(IJIRST/ Volume 4 / Issue 3 / 022)

Crushed Powdered Glass


Cement Dust
Lime Powder

Fig. 1: Black cotton soil Fig. 2: Burnt brick dust

Fig. 3: crushed glass Fig. 4: Cement dust

Fig. 5: Lime powder

1) First, various soil test (Determination of grain size by sieve analysis), the atterberg’s limits determination (Liquid Limit, plastic
Limit and Plasticity Index), specific gravity & Proctor compaction test (Determination of Optimum moisture content and
maximum dry density) is carried out experimentally only for black cotton soil alone.
2) Then the same test is conducted for black cotton soil by adding various percentages of additives such as burnt brick dust,
crushed powdered glass, cement dust and lime powder (10% and 15%)
Testing of Black Cotton Soil:
Various tests were conducted on the collected black cotton soil. The testing of Black cotton soil was done according to IS
specifications.
The amount of black cotton soil taken for testing black cotton soil is mentioned in table 6 and the test value of Black cotton soil
is shown in the table 7.
Table – 6
Details of black cotton soil taken for test
S.NO Name of the test Amount of black cotton soil sample taken
1 Specific gravity 200 grams
2 Liquid Limit 120 grams
3 Plastic Limit 20 grams
4 Standard Proctor Compaction test 2 kg
Table – 7
Experimental Test value of black cotton soil
S.NO Name of the test Value of the test
1 Grain size (<75 μ) 90%
2 Specific gravity 2.7
Standard proctor compaction test
3 a) Optimum Moisture Content (OMC)
b) Maximum Dry Density (MDD) 25%

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
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1.687g/cm3
Atterberg’s Limit
a) Determination of Liquid limit 58%
b) Determination of plastic limit 25%
4
c) Flow index (IF) 3.32%
d) Plasticity index (IP) 33%
e) Toughness index (IT) 9.9%
Fineness test value for various additives:
Fineness % for Lime powder – 10%
Fineness % for burnt brick dust – 8%
Fineness % for crushed glass powder – 5%
Fineness % for cement dust - 10%
Testing of Black cotton soil by adding 10% of various additives:
The same test procedure as shown in table 7 is conducted for black cotton soil by adding 10% percentages of burnt brick dust,
crushed powdered glass, cement dust and lime powder.
Table 8 shows the amount of 10% additives materials added to black cotton soil for improving stabilization of black cotton soil.
Table – 8
Details of 10% additives added to black cotton soil
% Weight of additives materials added to
S.NO Materials Used Name of the test
Used black cotton soil
Burnt brick dust,
(10/100) × 200grams
1 Crushed powdered glass, cement dust and Specific gravity
= 20 grams
lime powder 10%
Burnt brick dust,
(10/100) × 120grams
2 Crushed powdered glass, cement dust and Liquid Limit 10%
= 12 grams
lime powder
Burnt brick dust,
(10/100) × 20grams
3 Crushed powdered glass, cement dust and Plastic limit 10%
= 2.0 grams
lime powder
Burnt brick dust,
Standard proctor (10/100)× 2kg
4 Crushed powdered glass, cement dust and 10%
compaction test = 200 grams
lime powder
The following tables shows the experimental test result for various additives with 10% proportions
Table – 9
Liquid Limit Values for 10% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES LIQUID LIMIT VALUE FOR 10%
1 Black cotton soil + 10% burnt brick dust 34%
2 Black cotton soil + 10% cement dust 34%
3 Black cotton soil + 10% lime powder 32%
4 Black cotton soil + 10% crushed powdered glass 29%
Table – 10
Plastic Limit Values for 10% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES PLASTIC LIMIT VALUE FOR 10%
1 Black cotton soil + 10% burnt brick dust 13%
2 Black cotton soil + 10% cement dust 19%
3 Black cotton soil + 10% lime powder 26%
4 Black cotton soil + 10% crushed powdered glass 15%
Table – 11
Plasticity Index Values for 10% additives
PLASTICITY INDEX VALUE
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES
FOR 10%
1 Black cotton soil + 10% burnt brick dust 21%
2 Black cotton soil + 10% cement dust 15%
3 Black cotton soil + 10% lime powder 6%
4 Black cotton soil + 10% crushed powdered glass 14%
Table – 12
Optimum Moisture content Values for 10% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT FOR 10%
1 Black cotton soil + 10% burnt brick dust 9%
2 Black cotton soil + 10% cement dust 18%
3 Black cotton soil + 10% lime powder 28%

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
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4 Black cotton soil + 10% crushed powdered glass 25%


Table – 13
Maximum Dry Density Values for 10% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY VALUE FOR 10%
1 Black cotton soil + 10% burnt brick dust 2.31 g/cm3
2 Black cotton soil + 10% cement dust 2.80 g/cm3
3 Black cotton soil + 10% lime powder 1.636 g/cm3
4 Black cotton soil + 10% crushed powdered glass 1.687 g/cm3
Table – 14
Flow Index (IF) Values for 10% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES FLOW INDEX VALUE FOR 10%
1 Black cotton soil + 10% burnt brick dust 3.32%
2 Black cotton soil + 10% cement dust 1.43%
3 Black cotton soil + 10% lime powder 1.43%
4 Black cotton soil + 10% crushed powdered glass 6%
Table – 15
Toughness Index (IF) Values for 10% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES TOUGHNESS INDEX VALUE FOR 10%
1 Black cotton soil + 10% burnt brick dust 6.33%
2 Black cotton soil + 10% cement dust 10.49%
3 Black cotton soil + 10% lime powder 4.20%
4 Black cotton soil + 10% crushed powdered glass 2%

Testing of Black cotton soil by adding 15% of various additives:


The same test procedure as shown in table 6 is conducted for black cotton soil by adding 15% percentages of burnt brick dust,
crushed powdered glass, cement dust and lime powder.
Table 16 shows the amount of 15% additives materials added to black cotton soil for improving stabilization of black cotton soil.
Table – 16
Details of 15% additives added to black cotton soil
% Weight of additives materials added to
S.NO Materials Used Name of the test
Used black cotton soil
Burnt brick dust,
(15/100) × 200grams
1 Crushed powdered glass, cement dust and Specific gravity
= 30 grams
lime powder 15%
Burnt brick dust,
(15/100) × 120grams
2 Crushed powdered glass, cement dust and Liquid Limit 15%
= 18 grams
lime powder
Burnt brick dust,
(15/100) × 20grams
3 Crushed powdered glass, cement dust and Plastic limit 15%
= 3.0 grams
lime powder
Burnt brick dust,
Standard proctor (15/100)× 2kg
4 Crushed powdered glass, cement dust and 15%
compaction test = 300 grams
lime powder
The following tables shows the experimental test result for various additives with 15% Proportions
Table – 17
Liquid Limit Values for 15% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES LIQUID LIMIT VALUE FOR 15%
1 Black cotton soil + 15% burnt brick dust 36%
2 Black cotton soil + 15% cement dust 29%
3 Black cotton soil + 15% lime powder 30%
4 Black cotton soil + 15% crushed powdered glass 30%
Table – 18
Plastic Limit Values for 15% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES PLASTIC LIMIT VALUE FOR 15%
1 Black cotton soil + 15% burnt brick dust 17%
2 Black cotton soil + 15% cement dust 18%
3 Black cotton soil + 15% lime powder 23%
4 Black cotton soil + 15% crushed powdered glass 18%
Table – 19
Plasticity Index Values for 15% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES PLASTICITY INDEX VALUE FOR 15%
1 Black cotton soil + 15% burnt brick dust 19%
2 Black cotton soil + 15% cement dust 11%

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
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3 Black cotton soil + 15% lime powder 7%


4 Black cotton soil + 15% crushed powdered glass 12%
Table – 20
Optimum Moisture content Values for 15% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT FOR 15%
1 Black cotton soil + 15% burnt brick dust 12%
2 Black cotton soil + 15% cement dust 19%
3 Black cotton soil + 15% lime powder 31%
4 Black cotton soil + 15% crushed powdered glass 22%
Table – 21
Maximum Dry Density Values for 15% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY VALUE FOR 15%
1 Black cotton soil + 15% burnt brick dust 2.31 g/cm3
2 Black cotton soil + 15% cement dust 2.31 g/cm3
3 Black cotton soil + 15% lime powder 2.36 g/cm3
4 Black cotton soil + 15% crushed powdered glass 2.31 g/cm3
Table – 22
Flow Index (IF) Values for 15% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES FLOW INDEX VALUE FOR 15%
1 Black cotton soil + 15% burnt brick dust 3.32%
2 Black cotton soil + 15% cement dust 10.48%
3 Black cotton soil + 15% lime powder 23%
4 Black cotton soil + 15% crushed powdered glass 23%
Table – 23
Toughness Index (IF) Values for 15% additives
S.NO VARIOUS ADDITIVES TOUGHNESS INDEX VALUE FOR 15%
1 Black cotton soil + 15% burnt brick dust 6%
2 Black cotton soil + 15% cement dust 1.05%
3 Black cotton soil + 15% lime powder 0.30%
4 Black cotton soil + 15% crushed powdered glass 0.52%
Result Comparison of Black cotton soil by adding 10% of various additives:
The experimental test value of black cotton soil and addition of various 10% additives is plotted in graph format to compare the
variations with black cotton soil in its natural state. The following figure shows the result comparison of black cotton soil by adding
10% of various additives.

Fig. 6: Graphical representation of Liquid Limit for Black cotton soil + 10% addition of various additives

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
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Fig. 7: Graphical representation of plastic Limit for Black cotton soil + 10% addition of various additives

Fig. 8: Graphical representation of plasticity index for Black cotton soil + 10% addition of various additives

Fig. 9: Graphical representation of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) for Black cotton soil + 10% addition of various additives

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
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Fig. 10: Graphical representation of Maximum Dry Density (MDD) for Black cotton soil + 10% addition of various additives

Fig. 11: Graphical representation of Flow Index values for Black cotton soil + 10% addition of various additives

Fig. 12: Graphical representation of Toughness Index values for Black cotton soil + 10% addition of various additives

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
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Result Comparison of Black cotton soil by adding 15% of various additives:


The experimental test value of black cotton soil and addition of various 15% additives is plotted in graph format to compare the
variations with black cotton soil in its natural state. The following figure shows the result comparison of black cotton soil by adding
15 % of various additives.

Fig. 13: Graphical representation of Liquid Limit for Black cotton soil + 15% addition of various additives

Fig. 14: Graphical representation of Plastic Limit for Black cotton soil + 15% addition of various additives

Fig. 15: Graphical representation of Plasticity Index for Black cotton soil + 15% addition of various additives

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
(IJIRST/ Volume 4 / Issue 3 / 022)

Fig. 16: Graphical representation of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) for Black cotton soil + 15% addition of various additives

Fig. 17: Graphical representation of Maximum Dry Density (MDD) for Black cotton soil + 15% addition of various additives

Fig. 18: Graphical representation of Flow Index values for Black cotton soil + 15% addition of various additives

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Influence of Different Materials to Improve the Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil
(IJIRST/ Volume 4 / Issue 3 / 022)

Fig. 19: Graphical representation of Toughness Index values for Black cotton soil + 15% addition of various additives

IV. CONCLUSION

Based on the experimental study of SCC, following conclusions were drawn:


1) Addition of burnt brick dust, crushed powdered glass, cement dust, lime powder in Black Cotton Soil improves the properties
of black cotton soil
2) The combinations of various additives shows that individually they are weak to produce good result but use in black cotton
soil with various proportion increases the black cotton soil properties
3) The addition of various additives in black cotton soil gives best result in the proportions 10% and 15% when compared to
black cotton soil in its natural state
4) For various additions of stabilizing additives (10% and 15%) with black cotton soil the Maximum dry density (MDD) of black
cotton soil is improving and optimum moisture (OMC) content of black cotton soil is decreasing when compared black cotton
soil in its natural state (0% addition of stabilizing additives).
5) The atterberg’s limit values are also decreasing for various additions of stabilizing agents (10% and 20%) with black cotton
soil when compared black cotton soil in its natural state (0% addition of stabilizing additives).

REFERENCES
[1] Bairwa.R.L and Saxena.A..K, “ Effect of lime and fly ash on engineering properties of black cotton” International Journal of Emerging Technology and
Advanced Engineering ,Vol. 3 Issue 11, 2013
[2] Devidovic.N and Prolovic.V “Waste Glass additive to clay material in sub grade and embankment of Road Pavement” Architecture and Civil Engineering
Vol. 10, Nov 2012.
[3] Dutta. R. K. and Sarda V. K., “CBR behavior of waste plastic strip reinforced fly ash overlying saturated clay” Turkish Journal of Engineering, Vol. 5, Issue
1, pp 181-192, 2007.
[4] Hassan.W. “Strength characteristic of soft soli reinforced with coir fiber” University of Malaysia Phang, conference paper December 2012.
[5] IRC SP 58 “Guidelines for use of Fly ash in Road Embankment”
[6] IS: 2720 (part III)-1964 Methods of Test for soil “Determination of the specific gravity of soil”.
[7] IS: 2720 (part IV)-1965 Methods of Test for soil “Determination of Grain size analysis by sieving (Dry analysis)”.
[8] IS: 2720 (Part V)-1985 Methods of Test for soil “Determination of liquid limit of soil using Casasgrande Apparatus”.
[9] IS methods of tests for aggregates for concrete IS 2386: (Part III), 1963 Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[10] IS-2720 (Part V) 1965 Methods of Test for soil “Determination of plastic limit of soil”.
[11] IS-2720 (part VIII) 1980 Methods of Test for soil “Determination of optimum moisture content & maximum dry density of soil by Standard Proctor Test
(light Compaction)”.

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