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# Diﬂusion Equations 37

Table 1-2. Here D11 and D L refer to the diffusion coefficients parallel
and perpendicular to the c axis of the lattice.

PROBLEMS

## 1-1. An experiment similar to Smith’s (Sec. 1) is performed on a hollow iron tube

with a 1.11-cm outer diameter, a 0.86-cm inner diameter, and a length of 10 cm.
In 100 hr, 3.60 g of carbon passes through the tube. The variation of carbon with
radius in the tube is given below. Plot C versus F, and from this calculate and
plot the diffusion coeﬁicient over this range of carbon contents.

## i (cm) Wt. % Carbon 1‘ (cm) Wt. % Carbon

0.553 0.28 0.491 1.09
0.540 0.46 0.479 1.20
0.527 0.65 0.466 1.32
0.516 0.82 0.449 1.42
0.503

1-2. It is desired to store hydrogen at 400°C. A steel tank is available, and you
are asked to calculate the steady-state rate of pressure drop for a cubical tank of
1-l capacity with a wall thickness of 1 mm when the internal pressure is 132 psi
absolute. The tank is to operate in a vacuum. Assume that D = 10“ cm’/sec,
independent of the state of stress, that the hydrogen in the steel is in equilibrium
with the atmosphere at both the high- and low-pressure sides, that the solubility
is proportional to \/I3, and that at P = l atm the solubility is 3 ppm (by weight).
1-3. Derive the expression relating the thermal diffusivity d (cm'/sec) in the
expression OT/6t = d 6’T/62:’ to the thermal conductivity k (cal/cm sec °C)
the speciﬁc heat C’, (cal/g °C), and the density p (g/cm‘)
(a) Using a heat balance on an element of volume similar to the material
balance used in the text to derive Fick’s second law.
(b) Using dimensional analysis.
1-4. By differentiation and substitution, show that the solutions to Eqs. (1-11)
and (1-12) are
13(7)
= 0111n T + 51

and c(r) = % + B2

1-5. A sphere of inner radius r.~ and outer radius ro is immersed in a bath of
<1,

temperature T0. If the inner temperature is kept at T; and heat is lost at a rate
derive an equation for the thermal diffusivity in terms of r,., ro, T5, T2, and
d

## deﬁned by the equation.

is
q.

6T 8’T 26T
7 " d(W ﬁx)
1-6. Prove that the net ﬂux across a symmetry plane zero in three-dimen
is

is a

is

A
a

if

c(
0