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School of Mechanical Engineering

ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

Experiment  2  –  The  Bernoulli  Equation  


This  lab  will  explore  Bernoulli’s  Equation,  it’s  applications  and  it’s  limitations.    The  
objectives  of  this  lab  include  gaining  experience  using  a  wind  tunnel  and  pitot-­‐static  
probe,  understanding  areas  where  Bernoulli’s  Equation  will  be  valid  and  where  it  
will  be  invalid,  and  critically  analyzing  experimental  results  based  on  known  
characteristics  of  flow  around  a  sphere  at  a  given  Reynolds  number.  

A. EXPERIMENT  BACKGROUND  AND  PRINCIPLES  


 
Section  1:    Bernoulli’s  Equation  
The   Bernoulli   Equation   is   a   form   of   the   Conservation   of   Energy   equation.     The  
equation   was   derived   from   Euler’s   equation   for   flow   along   a   streamline,   as   shown  
below.  
! !" !" !"
Euler’s  Equation:                − !   !" − 𝑔 !" = 𝑉 !"         (Eq.  1)
!"
Multiply by ds: !"
 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑝
𝜕𝑧
 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑧
𝜕𝑠
𝜕𝑉
 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑉
𝜕𝑠
𝑑𝑝
−   − 𝑔𝑑𝑧 = 𝑉𝑑𝑉
𝜌
𝑑𝑝 +  𝜌𝑔  𝑑𝑧 + 𝜌𝑉  𝑑𝑉 = 0
𝑑𝑝 +   𝜌𝑔  𝑑𝑧 + 𝜌𝑉  𝑑𝑉 = 0

!
𝑝 +  𝜌𝑔𝑧   +   ! 𝜌𝑉 !   = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 (Eq. 2)
 
Bernoulli’s   Equation,   although   very   useful,   does   have   its   limitations.     Specific   flow  
field   characteristics   must   be   valid   for   Bernoulli’s   Equation   to   be   valid.     These  
conditions  include:  
 
• Inviscid  Flow  
• Steady  Flow  
• Flow  along  a  streamline  
• Incompressible  flow  
 
Thus,  Bernoulli’s  Equation  in  the  form  listed  in  Equation  2  will  yield  invalid  results  if  
rotational  flow  or  viscous  forces  exist.    It  also  is  invalid  if  heat  or  work  is  added  to  
the   system.     Wakes   and   boundary   layers   are   two   examples   of   areas   where  
Bernoulli’s   Equation   will   fail.     It   is   important   to   note   that   because   Bernoulli’s  
Equation  is  not  valid  for  the  entire  flow  field,  this  does  not  mean  that  it  will  not  be  

   
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School of Mechanical Engineering
ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

valid   for   any   region   of   the   flow   field.     To   demonstrate   this   principle,   in   Figure   1  
below,  air  flow  is  supplied  through  the  top  opening  and  exits  through  two  parallel  
disks.     Using   CFD,   the   flow   field   is   calculated   and   visualized.     Point   B   represents   a  
recirculation   zone   where   rotational   flow   is   present.     Thus   applying   Bernoulli’s  
Equation   from   Point   A   to   Point   B   would   be   invalid   and   yield   an   inaccurate   result.    
Similarly,   applying   Bernoulli’s   Equation   from   Point   B   to   Point   C   would   be   invalid.    
However,   applying   Bernoulli’s   Equation   from   Point   A   to   Point   C   is   not   invalid   and  
could  yield  a  meaningful  result.  
 

A  

B  

C  

Figure  1:    Flow  through  Parallel  Disks  

When  using   Bernoulli’s   Equation,  it  is  extremely  important  to  first  evaluate  the  flow  
field  characteristics  and  ensure  that  all  conditions  are  met  such  that  the  result  will  
be  valid.  
 
 
 
 
 
   
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School of Mechanical Engineering
ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

Section  2:    Pitot-­‐Static  Probe  


The   pitot-­‐static   probe,   or   Prandtl   tube,   is   a   flow   instrument   used   to   measure   flow  
velocity.     It   can   be   used   in   air   or   water   and   in   scientific   as   well   as   industrial  
applications.    The  device  principle  of  operation  is  based  on  the  relationship  between  
velocity   and   pressure   as   described   by   Bernoulli’s   equation   above.     A   pitot-­‐static  
probe   is   shown   in   Figure   2   below.   The   operation   of   the   pitot-­‐static   probe   and   the  
applicability  of  Bernoulli’s  equation  will  be  the  focus  of  this  lab.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure  2:  Pitot-­‐Static  Probe  on  an  airplane  
 
 
It  can  be  seen  that  inside  the  red  circle  on  Figure  2,  there  is  a  port.    This  port  is  what  
measures   the   static   pressure.     The   port   on   the   front   of   the   tube,   indicated   by   the  
black  arrow  is  the  stagnation  port  which  measures  stagnation  pressure.    Using  these  
two   pressure   measurements,   dynamic   pressure   can   be   calculated.     Equation   3  
demonstrates  the  relationship  between  the  three  pressure  measurements.  
 
𝑃!"#$ =   𝑃! +  𝑞              (Eq.  3)  
where:  
Pstag  =  Stagnation  pressure  (Pa)  
Ps          =  Static  pressure  (Pa)  
q            =  Dynamic  pressure  (Pa)  
 
The  equation  for  dynamic  pressure  is  given  by  
!
𝑞 =   ! 𝜌𝑉 !                        (Eq.  4)  
where:  
ρ  =  Density  (kg/m3)  
V  =  Velocity  (m/s)  
 
By   using   Equations   3   and   4,   the   velocity   can   be   calculated   from   the   static   and  
stagnation   pressures   measured   from   the   pitot-­‐static   probe.     In   order   for   a   pitot-­‐
static  probe  to  be  valid,  all  conditions  for  Bernoulli’s  equation  must  be  met.  
   
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School of Mechanical Engineering
ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

B. EXPERIMENTAL  PROCEDURES  
In  this  experiment,  Bernoulli’s  Equation  will  be  investigated  around  a  sphere  using  a  
pitot-­‐static   probe   mounted   in   a   wind   tunnel.     The   probe   will   be   moved   to   five  
streamwise  locations  around  the  sphere,  indicated  in  Figure  3  below  (approximate  
locations).    The  five  points  shown  will  roughly  follow  a  flow  streamline.  

Figure  3:    Probing  streamline  of  sphere  

For  all  locations,  the  probe  cannot  be  placed  too  close  to  the  sphere  or  rod  holding  
the   sphere   as   both   objects   produce   vibrations   and   boundary   layers   which   will  
invalidate  the  measurements.  
 
The   user   interface   of   the   LabView  
Program  used  in  this  lab  is  shown  in  
Figure   4.     The   static   pressure   is  
measured   in   Channel   1   and   the  
stagnation   pressure   is   measured   in  
Channel   2.     Note:   Due   to   the  
referencing   and   calibration   of   the  
stagnation   pressure,   it   may   be   less  
than   the   static   pressure.     The  
absolute   value   of   the   difference  
between   the   two   channels   should  
be  used  for  velocity  calculations.      
  Figure  4:  Scanivalve  User  Interface  
When   moving   the   pitot-­‐static   probe,  
use  the  two  knobs  to  translate  it  in  the  vertical  and  horizontal  directions.      
 
Do   not   hit   the   pitot-­‐static   probe   on   the   sphere.     Be   very   careful  
when  moving  the  probe.  
   
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School of Mechanical Engineering
ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

Part  I  
1. Measure  the  atmospheric  pressure  using  the  wall  barometer  in  ME1030F.      
 
2. Turn   on   the   wind   tunnel   by   flipping   the   power   switch   and   set   it   to   40   Hz  
using  the  knob  on  the  side  of  the  tunnel.  
  Frequency  
  Indicator  
 
 
  Frequency  
  Dial  
 
Power  
 
switch  
 
 
 
 
  Figure  5:  Wind  Tunnel  Controls  Configuration
 
3. Position  the  probe  upstream  of  the  sphere  in  the  freestream.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Figure  6:  Position  A
4. Open  the  Scanivalve  LabView  program  in  the  desktop  
 
5. Click  “Run”  by  pressing  the  white  arrow  key  located  in  the  top  left  corner    
 
6. Click   on   the   pop-­‐up   window   that   says,   “Please   enter   DSA   IP   Address,   then  
click  here”  (IP  address  should  have  been  filled  automatically).    
 
7. Click  “File”,  then  “Open  Log  File”  
 
8. Inside   the   folder   (D:\ME309_Spring2017_Students),   label   your   file   by   your  
last  name  with  division,  group,  and  lab  numbers  then  format  as  .adf  file  (For  
example,   Div6_Group5_Lab2.adf).   Click   “OK"   (You   MUST   type   .adf   as   a   file  
format)  
   
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School of Mechanical Engineering
ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

9. Zero   your   X   and   Y   positions   on   the   Scanivalve   LabView   screen   (You   only  
need  to  do  it  once)  
 
10. Click  “Start  Scan”  in  the  Scanivalve  LabView  Program.  
 
11. Move  the  probe  to  the  second  position.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Figure  7:  Position  B
 
12. Wait  15  seconds  for  the  air  to  settle  following  the  movement  of  the  probe.  
 
13. Click   “Start   Scan”   in   the   Scanivalve   LabView   Program   and   record   the   static  
and  stagnation  pressures  on  your  data  sheet.  
 
14. Repeat  steps  12-­‐14  three  times  using  the  positions  shown  below.  
 

Figure  10:  Position  D  


Figure  9:  Position  E
 
Figure  8:  Position  C
 
15. Turn  the  knob  on  the  wind  tunnel  to  set  the  Hz  back  down  to  zero.  
 
16. Flip  the  power  switch  to  turn  off  the  wind  tunnel.  
 
   

   
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School of Mechanical Engineering
ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

Part  II  
1. Open   the   test   section   of   the   windtunnel   and   rotate   the   pitot-­‐static   probe  
about   45o   towards   you.     Close   the   test   section.     Be   sure   the   pitot   probe   is  
well  above  the  sphere,  else  the  sphere  will  vibrate  significantly.  
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure  11:  45  Degree  Angle
 
2. Flip  the  power  switch  to  turn  on  the  wind  tunnel.  
 
3. Turn  the  knob  on  the  wind  tunnel  to  set  the  Hz  to  40.0.  
 
4. Click   “Start   Scan”   in   the   Scanivalve   LabView   Program   and   record   the   static  
and  stagnation  pressures.  
 
5. Turn   the   Hz   on   the   wind   tunnel   back   down   to   zero   and   flip   the   power   switch  
on  the  wind  tunnel.  
 
6. Repeat  steps  1-­‐5  two  more  times  using  90  degree  and  180  degree  turns.  
 
7. When   you   complete   all   your   data   acquisition,   click   “Stop   Scan”   in   the  
Scanivalve   LabView   Program.   Your     file   (.adf   format)   should   consist   of   all   the  
data   acquired   (openable   from   notepad).   Make   sure   to   email   your   data   before  
you  leave.      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Figure  13:  90  Degree  Position   Figure  12:  180  Degree  Position  
   
 

   
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School of Mechanical Engineering
ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

C. REPORT  
 
Introduction  
• Provide   background   on   Bernoulli’s   Equation,   its   applications,   limitations,  
with  a  focus  on  how  it  will  be  used  in  this  particular  experiment  
• Provide   background   on   the   pitot-­‐static   probe,   its   applications,   and  
functionality  
o Include   details   on   static   and   dynamic   pressure   and   the   physical  
meanings  of  each  parameter  
• Provide  background  on  flow  dynamics  around  a  sphere  
• State   all   assumptions   being   used   in   this   lab   (there   are   more   than   just   the  
Bernoulli  limitations)  
• The   final   form   of   the   exact   equation   that   will   be   used   to   compute   velocity  
in  the  data  analysis  must  be  explicitly  stated  
• Remember   to   include   ALL   equations   that   were   used   for   calculations   in   the  
results  section  here  
 
 
 
Results  Section  
Part  I  
• Plot   1:    Use  the  x-­‐scale  for  each  point,  normalized  such  that  x  ∈  [0,1]  for  all  
points  and  plot  dynamic  pressure  vs.  X  
• Plot   2:    Calculate  the  velocity  at  each  point  using  Bernoulli’s  Equation.    Plot  
the  velocity  vs.  X    
• Using  the  freestream  velocity  estimate,  determine  the  experimental  Reynolds  
Number  of  the  sphere  
Part  II  
• Plot  3:    Plot  the  dynamic  pressure  vs.  Pitot-­‐static  probe  angle  
• Plot   4:    Calculate  the  velocity  estimate  for  the  four  pitot-­‐static  probe  angles  
tested  in  the  experiment  0o,  45o,  90o,  and  180o  
General  Notes  
• Uncertainty   Analysis   should   be   done   on   the   velocity   measurements   using  
the   uncertainty   in   the   pressure   and   density   measurements   (note   density  
uncertainty   is   contributed   by   barometric   pressure   and   temperature  
uncertainties,  so  two  uncertainty  derivations  are  required:  one  for  pressure,  
one  for  temperature)  
o All  velocity  graphs  should  have  uncertainty  bars  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
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School of Mechanical Engineering
ME309L – The Bernoulli Equation – Spring 2017

Discussion  Section  
• Determine   the   points   between   which   Bernoulli’s   Equation   is   valid   and   the  
points   between   which   Bernoulli’s   equation   fails   using   a   table   like   the  
following:  
From   To  
Valid  or  Invalid  
Point   Point  
W   X   Invalid  
X   Y   Valid  
Y   Z   Invalid  
 
o For   each   point   pair   that   fails,   provide   a   detailed   explanation   of   why  
Bernoulli’s  Equation  fails  (In  example,  simply  stating:  “Bernoulli’s  fails  
because   the   flow   field   was   turbulent”   is   not   enough   detail,   you   must  
state  why  Bernoulli’s  Equation  fails  if  the  flow  is  turbulent.)  
o For  each  point  pair  that  is  valid,  provide  a  detailed  explanation  of  why  
it  is  reasonable  to  conclude  Bernoulli’s  Equation  was  valid.  
• Based  on  the  calculated  Reynolds  Number  (Sphere  Diameter  =  3  in),  will  the  
flow  separate  off  of  the  sphere  (Refer  to  Lab  1  for  details)?    
o Provide  a  detailed  explanation  of  why  or  why  not.  
o What  is  a  favorable  pressure  gradient?    What  is  an  adverse  pressure  
gradient?  
o Draw   a   diagram   of   the   pressure   gradient   on   the   sphere,   clearly  
labeling  locations  of  adverse  and  favorable  pressure  gradients  
• Discuss  observations  of  the  changes  in  experimental  velocity  measurements  
at  the  four  pitot-­‐static  probe  angles.  
• Provide   a   detailed   explanation   for   why   the   dynamic   pressure   changes   as  
observed  when  the  angle  is  altered  
• Discuss  limitations  that  are  caused  by  the  experiment  procedure  and  ways  to  
improve  the  experimental  methods  
 
 
 
 
Appendix  
• The  raw  data  should  be  included  in  a  typed  Appendix  table  
• Include  sample  calculations  for  all  calculated  parameters  
• Include  derivation  of  Bernoulli’s  equation  
• Include  derivation  of  velocity  uncertainty    
• Attach  the  Raw  Data  sheet  to  the  end  of  the  report  
• There  should  be  absolutely  no  handwritten  or  scanned  in  pages  in  the  
Appendix  (Except  the  Raw  Data  sheet  which  should  be  scanned  in  as  the  
last  page.)  

   
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