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MEDGREEN 2011-LB

Savonius wind turbine

Ivan Dobreva*, Fawaz Massouha

a

Arts et Métiers-ParisTech, 151, bd L'Hôpital, Paris, 75013, France

Abstract

This paper aims to present the study of flow through a vertical axis wind turbine of Savonius type. The studied

turbine is intended to be used within a compact package with multisource of energy. The rotor has height, which is

approximately equivalent to the rotor diameter. In this condition, the simulation of flow through the wind turbine

needs 3D model. Due to its principle of operation and the continuous variation of flow angle with respect to blades,

strong unsteady effects including separation and vortex shedding are observed. In these conditions, the turbulence

modeling by means of k-Z and DES permits to obtain good results comparatively to experiments.

In this work we are using CFD to study the behaviour of a Savonius wind turbine under flow field conditions and to

determine its performance and the evolution of wake geometry. The flow analysis helps to qualify the design of the

wind turbine. To validate simulations, experimental investigation in wind tunnel is carried out using PIV. The

investigation permits to determine the structure of the real flow and to access the quality of numerical simulations

Keywords: Savonius; Vertical axis wind turbine; Particle image velocimetry; Computational fluid dynamics; Wind tunel experiment

1. Introduction

Wind turbines are generally classified as two families: horizontal axis and vertical axis machines. This

classification refers to the position of rotor axis relatively to wind. The Savonius wind turbine is thus

classified as vertical axis wind turbine like the others Darrieus, Gyromill or H-rotor, pannemone etc. The

Savonius turbine owes its name to the Finnish engineer Savonius who patented it in 1929 [1]. The basic

version of this rotor has S-shaped cross-section formed by two semi-circular blades with a small overlap

E-mail address: ivan.dobrev@ensam.eu.

1876–6102 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.05.081

712 Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720

between them. Savonius rotor is classified as a drag type vertical-axis wind turbine whose principle of

operation is based mainly on the difference of drag between the convex and the concave parts of the

blades. However, it is shown that for some angular positions of the rotor, lift force also contributes to

torque production [2]. A review of Savonius rotor advantages is present in [3].This wind turbine has

simple and robust design and can support high wind speeds. The rotor has good starting characteristics

and operates at relatively low wind speeds. It does not need an orientation device and can work for all

wind directions. This wind turbine operates at low tip speed ratio but unfortunately has a low power

coefficient.

There are many experimental and numerical studies concerning the flow through Savonius rotor. The

experimental studies carried out in wind tunnels are presented in [1], [4], [5], [6] and [7]. In order to

obtain the velocity field in the interior and around of the rotor, many authors use particle image

velocimetry [8], [10], [11] or particle tracking velocimetry [9]. Besides of experiments there exist many

numerical studies, such as [1], [12], [13] or [14].

The aerodynamic performance and the mechanical robustness of the Savonius rotors make this wind

turbine appropriate to be part of a miniaturized device for autonomous power supply. This kind of power

supply is useful to charge phone, notebook battery or devices for surveillance etc. Unfortunately the

existing experimental and numerical results cannot be used completely, because the rotor constitutes an

integral part of the power supply device. Hence, it is necessary to take in account the aerodynamic

interference between the rotor and the parts of the device.

To improve the aerodynamic performance of the integrated rotor, it is needed to minimize all

unfavorable interactions. The analysis of the resulting complex flow can be obtained only by numerical

modeling. However appropriate choices of the solver and turbulence modeling are needed. So here, the

objective of the authors is to determine the appropriate method for the flow simulation. Thus, it is

envisaged to create an experimental database for the velocity field and the rotor characteristics. Then,

numerical simulations are performed for the experimentally studied cases. Finally, the analysis and

comparison of the experimental and the numerical results permit to define the appropriate numerical

modeling to be adopted.

Nomenclature

AR rotor aspect ratio (-) TSR tip speed ratio (-)

CP power coefficient (-) V∞ upstream velocity (m/s)

D rotor diameter (m) y+ (-) non-dimensional wall distance

H rotor height (m)

n rotor rotational speed (rev/min) Greek letters

r blade radius (m) Q air cinematic viscosity (m2/s)

P rotor power (W) I blade angle (deg)

Re Reynolds number (-) U air density (kg/m3)

Ta average torque (Nm) Z angular velocity (rad/s)

Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720 713

2. Experimental Study

The aim of this experimental study is to obtain the aerodynamic performance of studied wind turbine

and also the detailed information about velocity field around the rotor. The experimental aerodynamic

performance permits to qualify the validity of numerical tests. The PIV measuring is needed to obtain

detailed data concerning the mechanism of torque creation and the vortex structure downstream of the

rotor.

The experimental study is carried out in the wind tunnel of Arts et Métiers - ParisTech, Fig.1. The

closed circuit wind tunnel has axial fan with a rotor diameter of 3m. The fan is driven by means 120 kW

frequency controlled asynchronous motor. Behind the fan, the flow is decelerated in settling chamber

which is equipped with honeycomb strengtheners and wire mesh in order to straighten the flow. The

tunnel nozzle accelerates the wind from settling chamber to test section up to 40 m/s. The nozzle has

contraction ratio of 12.5, which ensure a uniform velocity profile with a turbulence ratio less than 0.25%.

The semi-guided test section has a cross-section 1.35 m x1.65 m and a length of 2 m.

The static pressure in the test section is very close to atmospheric pressure. Hence the upstream

velocity is obtained by measurement the stagnation pressure in the settling chamber. The pressure

transducer is a Furness Control FC20.

The tested wind turbine has a two-blade rotor with a diameter D=219.5 mm and the height H=200 mm.

As result, the blade aspect ratio AR = H/D is low, in order of 0.91. The blade has circular arc form of 180°

and a thickness of 1mm. The blade diameter d is 57.5 mm and the gap width s is 11.5 mm. Hence, the gap

width ratio s/2r is 0.1. The endplates with diameter of 300 mm reduce the flow leakage from pressure to

suction blade sides. Also, the endplates permit to strengthen the rotor structure. The blades and endplates

are fabricated from polymethylmethacrylat Althuglass® in order to ensure the transparency, which is

needed for PIV investigation.

The rotor is mounted on a shaft which is coupled with a DC generator. The rotor load is controlled

with a rheostat connected to the generator. The coupling between the rotor shaft and the generator is made

via a contactless torque transducer (HBM T20WN), which enables to measure the torque and delivers 360

pulses per revolution. Because the measured power is quiet low, the seals of the rotor ball bearings are

removed and the grease is replaced by thin silicon oil.

A fiber optic sensor (Keyence FS20V), that detects a rotating target on the shaft, is used to locate the

passage of the blade considered to be the reference. Thus, by counting the number of square signals

delivered by the torque meter after the passage of the reference signal, it is possible to obtain the rotor's

angular position with an accuracy of 1°. The acquisition of data from the sensors is carried out by data

acquisition card, which emits a TTL signal for triggering the PIV measurements at a desired rotor angular

position.

During the test, the wind turbine rotational speed varies from 800 rpm to 1000 rpm and the upstream

flow velocity V∞ varies from 9 m/s to 15 m/s. Thus, Reynolds number calculated with rotor diameter and

rotor peripheral velocities during the tests varies between 140,000 and 170,000. The rotational speed n is

limited to 1000 rpm by safety. In fact, the structural analysis carried out by ANSYS 12.1 shows that the

ultimate stress in the blade tips, near the front endplate can be reached, when rotational speed is equal to

1200 rpm. Data acquisition is carried out by computer equipped with acquisition card. At each operating

714 Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720

point, all the torque T, rotational velocity n and upstream wind velocity V∞ are measured continually with

a rate of 10 samples per second. To minimize the torque fluctuations, before to calculate the rotor power,

the results are averaged for a period of 1 minute. Then power coefficient Cp, which represented the ratio

of obtained and available power is calculated:

P

Cp .

Vf3 (1)

U A

2

The test permits to obtain the variation of the power coefficient Cp when the tip speed ratio TSR varies,

Fig. 2. The TSR is calculated as the ratio between peripheral velocity and upstream wind velocity:

U

TSR . (1)

Vf

The maximal power coefficient Cp equal to 0.18 is low, but it corresponds to results given by other

researchers for similar rotor dimensions, [4], [5], [6] and [7]. This low Cp is due to the influence of low

Reynolds number and to low aspect ratio AR. However, the change of Cp is not as abrupt, when TSR

varies.

The PIV system is managed by the Dantec software DynamicsStudio 2.30. The taking of images is

done by implementing a Nd-Yag laser 532 nm (Litron Nano-L 200-15), with an impulse power of 2x200

mJ, a two cameras of 2048x2048px (Dantec FlowSense 4M), equipped with the lens (Micro-

Nikkor AF 60 mm f/2.8D), a frame grabber cards and a synchronization system. The last synchronizes

images and laser flashes with the blade angular position. The seeding of flow is made with micro droplets

of olive oil created by a mist generator (10F03 Dantec). The droplets diameter is supposed to be 2-5Pm.

The measuring of flow field inside and downstream of the rotor is carried out in the case of low

rotation velocity n=500 rev/min. The upstream velocity is 7.2 m/s, which corresponds to a TSR=0.8.

Fig.1 Savonius rotor in wind tunnel test section during PIV Fig. 2 Measured aerodynamic performance of the rotor

measurements

Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720 715

The study is carried out for 6 different azimuth positions of the rotor T = 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120° and

150°, and for each point a sequence of 200 double images is taken. The image capture is synchronized

with the rotation of the rotor and the PIV system is triggered when the blade is positioned at the desired

angular position. The laser sheet is normal to the rotor axis and passed in the middle of the blade. A

mirror is used in order to resolve the problem of shadows, created by the blade surfaces, and to illuminate

the back side. To reduce the reflections of laser radiation, the endplates tips are painted with a fluorescent

paint. When tips are illumined, they reflected orange light. The special filter, which equips the lenses, is

transparent only for a light wavelength of 532 nm and thus the reflection is overcome. However, some

problems of image quality are created by the light diffraction from blade edges and also by the geometric

perspective.

Taking into account that the frequency of the camera is 7 Hz, the images are taken once every two

revolutions. For each pair of images, the time delay between the first and second image is set to 120Ps.

This value was experimentally established to ensure the best cross-correlation. The cross-correlation with

adaptation is applied to interrogation windows of 32x32 pixels and a 50% overlap, which provides a

spatial resolution of 3 mm.

Fig.3 Raw image and velocity vectors Fig. 4 Instantaneous velocity field 0°

The flipped vertically and horizontally raw image, taken by first camera is presented in Fig. 3. Here,

on the raw image, the velocity vectors around the blade are superposed. The results show a good cross-

correlation, except in the region near the blade surface. Despite image saturation near the blades due to

reflections and geometric perceptive, the velocity field is exploitable and can be used for comparison with

CFD simulation. Before the tests, the calibration images are taken in order to calculate the scale and to

synchronize spatially the two cameras. Here the first camera takes the images around the rotor and the

second with slight overlapping takes in the downstream. Finally, the treatment of all PIV images has

permitted to establish a database containing the instantaneous velocity fields, and the average velocity

field for each of the 6 positions of the rotor. Instantaneous flow field and velocity vectors for azimuth

position of 0° are presented on Fig. 4.

3. Numerical modeling

Because of low aspect ratio AR=0.91 of the rotor, the flow around wind turbine is three dimensional.

There exists a factor which alleviates the flow complexity: the blades are constrained between two disks

with a diameter 25% greater than the rotor. Hence, the suction and pressure surfaces of the blades are not

connected directly and flow leakages are reduced. However, the blade circulation changes during rotation

716 Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720

and thus a periodical vortex structure is created in the downstream of the rotor. This vortex structure is

similar to vortex structure of an oscillating wing with very low aspect ratio. Contrarily to two-

dimensional case, there exist tip vortices, which also induce velocity depending of circulation variation.

The recent studies presented in [12], [13], [14], and [15] shows the important influence of rotor aspect

ratio. Thus, a comparison between 2D and 3D simulations is needed.

Initially a two dimensional numerical model is created in order to obtain numerical results, which will

be compared with wind tunnel tests. Then, the computational grid is extended perpendicularly to flow in

order to represent fully tridimensional flow through the rotor. The objective is to verify if 2D calculation

is sufficient because the full 3D simulations are very expensive.

Fig. 5 Two dimensional simulation domain Fig. 6 Grid layers around the blade

The grid is created by means of ANSYS Gambit 2.4.6. The two-dimensional grid is presented on

Fig. 5. Because the rotor changes its position with respect to upstream wind direction, the concept of

sliding mesh is applied. The grid has two distinct parts: an external stationary, which represents the flow

around the turbine and an internal, which rotates in order to represent the rotor blades.

The boundary condition “velocity inlet” is imposed upstream of the rotor at a distance of 8D from the

rotation axis. Downstream of the rotor a boundary condition “pressure outlet” is imposed at 25D. The top

and bottom of flow domain are taken at 8D from the rotational axis where a “velocity inlet” boundary

condition is imposed. The wind tunnel section is 50 times greater than the rotor cross-section so it is not

needed to represent exactly the walls of wind tunnel test section. It is needed only to choose the domain

limits sufficiently far from the rotor, where the flow is not perturbed.

Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720 717

The external part of the grid is composed by 15 structured blocks with 50.103 cells. The internal part is

composed by 2 unstructured blocks with 30.103 quadrilateral cells. Each blade surface is divided into 200

intervals. In order to have the parameter y+ <10, 10 layers of rectangular cells are created around the

blades, Fig. 6. Here, the height of the first layer is only 1/1000 of the blade length and the growth ratio is

1.05.

The three dimensional grid is created by means of extending of the two dimensional case. There are

140 cell layers in z-direction, which correspond to more than 8.106 cells, including in the internal grid.

The boundary conditions are similar to the two-dimensional case, Fig.7. The internal rotating grid which

represents the rotor contains 2.3.106, Fig. 8.

All the computations are performed using the Navier-Stokes solver ANSYS Fluent 12.1. Initially, the

unsteady two-dimensional calculations are carried out. The model of turbulence is k-Z SST and

discretization scheme for momentum equation is the first order upwind. The upstream velocity is 10 m/s

and each time step the rotor turns 1°. After environ three revolutions the torque becomes periodic, but it is

needed to wait several turns to obtain the solution for the flow in the far wake. The results for TSR=0.6,

0.8 and 1.05 are shown on Tab. 1. The calculated power coefficient is greater than experimental data

mostly due to low aspect ratio of the rotor.

Cp experiment 0.176 0.180 0.167

Cp simulation, unsteady 2D, k-Z SST 0.182 0.208 0.207

Cp simulation, unsteady 3D, k-Z SST 0.141 0.147 0.139

Cp simulation, unsteady 3D, DES/k-Z SST 0.172 0.176 0.149

The 3D computations are carried out initially with k-ZSST turbulence model. In this case the obtained

results of power coefficient are lower than experimental data. A similar behavior of RANS solver was

observed in [15], where the authors present a flow simulation in the case of low aspect ratio Darrieus

wind turbine.

It is useful to show how the torque varies with respect to azimuthal position of the rotor. In the applied

coordinate system Fig. 9, the rotor turns in clockwise direction, the flow is from left to right and by

convention the useful torque has negative sign. The torque of the blade is created by the pressure forces

applied on the convex side Te and these applied on the concave side Ti. To obtain dimensionless values,

718 Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720

the results presented in Fig. 10 are divided by the rotor average torque Ta. These results show that

maximum useful blade torque is produced when the blade angular position becomes 27°. The most part,

nearly 80% of the useful torque is produced by the blade convex side.

The experimental PIV results permit to understand the cause of obtained discrepancy between

calculation and experiments. In the Fig.11 to Fg.16 the velocity fields obtained by means of unsteady 3D

k-Z solver are compared with phase averaged velocity field obtained by PIV.

Generally the presented velocity fields are quite similar, but the simulation has difficulties to

reproduce detached vortex structures. Despite of unsteady modeling, the wake flow structure has strong

periodicity. The simulated flow is rather similar to phase averaged results but not similar to real unsteady

flow. Also it must be noted that the flow structure in the left and the right of the plane of symmetry of the

rotor are nearly identical. The real wake flow has no such periodicity and symmetry, it presents important

random structures. Thus for a given angular position each velocity field is unique and never similar to

phase averaged velocity.

Finally, in order to improve the flow simulation, detached eddy simulation (DES) technique is used. In

this study the DES treats near-wall region by means of k-Z turbulence model. The DES hybrid model is

known to give better results in the case of detached flow and dynamic stall [16], [17]. Because the

calculated torque does not have such periodicity like in the case of k-Z turbulence modeling, the rotor

torque is obtained by averaging the results from 10 revolutions. Compared with previous calculation

methods with k-Z model, the obtained results are closer to the experimental data for all TSR, Tab. 1. The

results confirm the capability of DES model to represent well the detached flow, so it is preferable to use

it, despite intensive computation.

Fig. 13a CFD velocity, 60° Fig. 13b PIV velocity, 60°

Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720 719

Fig. 14a CFD velocity, 90° Fig. 14b PIV velocity, 90°

Fig. 15a CFD velocity, 120° Fig. 15b PIV velocity, 120°

Fig. 16a CFD velocity, 150° Fig. 16b PIV velocity, 150°

4. Conclusion

This paper presents the study of a Savonius wind turbine destined for use in an autonomous power

supply device. The experimental study was carried out in wind tunnel using a model turbine equipped

with transparent rotor. PIV was used to measure the instantaneous velocity field in the middle of the rotor

normally to the axis of rotation. The velocity measurements were synchronized with the rotor azimuthal

position. To enlarge the investigation plane, two parallel cameras were used simultaneously. The PIV

experiments were conducted at 6 azimuth rotor positions. Then the rotor performance was also measured.

The obtained experimental data are needed for comparison with simulation.

To determine the most appropriate method for flow simulation, the computations are carried out in the

following conditions: 2D and 3D flow with k-Z turbulence model and also 3D flow with DES/k-Z model.

The analysis of obtained rotor power shows that the results of 2D/k-Z modeling are quiet higher than

experiments; these of the 3D/ k-Z modeling are quite lower than experiments. The comparison of wake

and shedding vorticity with experiment shows that the 3D/k-Z modeling gives results similar to phase

averaged velocity, but not to real instantaneous velocity. Also, the flow structures are nearly identical

with respect to the plane of rotor symmetry.

A better flow simulation is obtained by means of 3D DES/k-Z model, which gives comparable results

with experiments. These results confirm the capability of DES model to represent well the turbulent

detached flow. Thus this model will be adopted to study the interaction of Savonius rotor with the other

parts of the future power supply device.

720 Ivan Dobrev and Fawaz Massouh / Energy Procedia 6 (2011) 711–720

Acknowledgements

The presented research is undertaken within EURIPIDES program “Multi Low Power Energy Source

Packaging” ENERPACK EUR-09-704, with the financial support of the French Ministry of Economy,

Finance and Industry.

References

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computational approach for the simulation of energy performance, Energy (2010) 35 3349-3363

[2] Fujisawa N, On the torque mechanism of Savonius rotors, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,

(1992) 40 (3), pp. 277-292.

[3] Menet, J-L, A double-step Savonius rotor for local production of electricity: A design study, Renewable Energy,

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[4] Kamoji M, Kedare S, Prabhu S, Experimental investigations on single stage, two stage and three stage conventional Savonius

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[12] Zullah M.A, Prasad D, Choi Y.-D, Lee, Y.-H, Study on the performance of helical savonius rotor for wave energy

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