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Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444

MMaMS 2012

3D beam finite element including nonuniform torsion


Justín Murína*, Vladimír Kutiša, Viktor Královiþa, Tibor Sedlára
a
Department of Applied Mechanics and Mechatronics of IPAEE, FEI STU in Bratislava, Ilkovþova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia

Abstract

New 3D beam finite element including non-uniform torsion will be presented in this contribution which is suitable for analysis of beam
structures of open and closed cross-sections. The secondary torsion moment deformation effect will be included into the stiffness matrix.
Results of the numerical experiments will be discussed and evaluated.
© 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Branch Office of Slovak Metallurgical Society at
Selection
Faculty and/or peer-review
of Metallurgy under
and Faculty responsibility
of Mechanical of the Branch
Engineering, Office
Technical of Slovak
University Metallurgical
of Košice Society
Open access at Faculty
under CC BY-NC-NDof license .
Metallurgy and
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice.

Keywords: Non-uniform torsion, 3D beam finite element, secondary torsion moment deformation effect, closed thin walled cross

Nomenclature
ue nodal displacement vector
Fe nodal load vector
u , v, w displacement (m)
N , Ty , z normal and shear forces (N)
M x , M T torsion moment (Nm)
M y,z bending moments (Nm)
Mω bimoment (Nm2)
ki , j stiffness coefficient
Iy , Iz quadratic area moments of inertia (m4)
IT torsion constant (m4)
Iω warping constant (m6)
ITs secondary torsion constant (m4)
E Young’s modulus (MPa)
G shear modulus (MPa)

Greek symbols

ν Poisson ratio

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 0903251413.


E-mail address: justin.murin@stuba.sk

1877-7058 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Branch Office of Slovak Metallurgical Society at
Faculty of Metallurgy and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.09.537
Justín Murín et al. / Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444 437

ϕ x , y ,z angular displacement

ϑM warping part of the twist angle first derivative (m-1)
ω section ordinate (m2)
σω normal stress caused by bimoment (MPa)
σ Mz normal bending stress (MPa)
τp primary shear stress (MPa)
τs primary shear stress (MPa)
Subscripts
i,j,k nodal point
R at corners
an analytical

1. Introduction

The effect of warping must be assumed in stress and deformation analyses of structures above all with thin-walled cross-
sections loaded by torsion. Warping effects occur mainly at the points of action of the concentrated torsion moments (except
for free beam ends) and at sections with free-warping restrictions. Special theories of torsion with warping – non-uniform
torsion – have been used to solve such problems analytically (e.g. [1]). The analogy between the 2nd order beam theory
(with tensional axial force) and torsion with warping is also very often used (e.g. [2], [3]). One has to point out that in the
literature and practice, as well as in the EC-3 [4] and EC-9 [5] guidelines, strong warping is assumed to occur in open cross-
sections only. Warping-based stresses and deformations in closed sections, however, are assumed to be insignificant and
have been therefore neglected.
According to the above mentioned theory of torsion of open cross-sections with warping and the analogy, special 3D-
beam finite elements have been designed and implemented into the finite element codes (e.g. [6], [7]). The warping effect is
included through an additional degree of freedom at each nodal point - the first derivative of the angle of twisting of the
beam cross-section. Important progress in the solution of torsion with warping has been reached in papers [8] and [9] where
a combination of boundary and finite element method was used allowing a warping analysis for composite beams with
longitudinally varying cross-section.
However, latest theoretical results have shown that the effect of warping must be considered in the case of non-uniform
torsion of closed-section beams [10]. For prismatic beams, the analogy between the torsion with warping (including the
secondary torsion moment deformation effect) and the 2nd order beam theory (including the shear force deformation effect)
has to be used. This approach was implemented into the computer code IQ-100 [13]. This analogy does not hold for non-
prismatic beams [11]. According to the last research results in this area ([10], [11], [12], [14]), the local stiffness relation of
a new two-node finite element for torsion with warping of straight beam structures is presented in contribution [15]; again
based on the above-mentioned analogy. The warping part of the first derivative of the twist angle has been considered as the
additional degree of freedom in each node at the element ends which can be regarded as part of the twist angle curvature
caused by the warping moment. This new finite element can be used in non-uniform torsion analyses of open and closed
cross-section beams. Finally in [16], the boundary element method has been applied in the non-uniform torsion analysis of
simply or multiplies connected bars of doubly symmetrical arbitrary constant cross-section, taking into account secondary
torsion moment deformation effects. Necessity of the non-uniform torsion effect in the analysis of close shaped cross-
section has been confirmed.
In this paper, a new 3D beam finite element will be presented which is suitable for structural analysis of 3D beam
structures. The classic 12x12 local stiffness matrix of the 3D beam finite element will be enhanced to 14x14 stiffness
matrix. The warping part of the first derivative of the twist angle has been considered as the additional degree of freedom in
each node at the element ends which can be regarded as part of the twist angle curvature caused by the warping moment.
The transformation of the local finite element equation to the global finite element equation will be done. The derived finite
element equations will be implemented into the computer program and the numerical experiments will be done. Results of
the numerical analysis concerning the spatial combined loading of chosen beam structures of open and closed cross-section
will be presented and discussed.
438 Justín Murín et al. / Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444

2. The local and global finite element equations

2.1. Local finite element equation

Figure 1 shows a prismatic beam element of length L with two nodes i and k, and with appropriated geometric, static,
kinematics and material quantities: A [m2] is the double symmetric cross-sectional area; I y [m4] and I z [m4] are the
quadratic area moments of inertia; IT [m4] is the torsion constant; Iω [m6] is the warping constant, ITs [m4] is the secondary
torsion constant; E is the Young’s modulus; G is the shear modulus. In order to include the warping, a new degree of
freedom is added to the classical nodal variables in the stiffness matrix in each element nodal point. The warping part of the
′ ) has been considered as the additional degree of freedom in each node at the element
first derivative of the twist angle ( ϑM
ends [15]. This can be regarded as part of the twist angle curvature which is caused by the warping moment. This choice
brings advantages when applying the boundary conditions. If the secondary torsion moment deformation effect is not
considered ϑM ′ (x ) = ϑ ′(x ) .
The nodal displacement vector in the local coordinate system, as shown in Fig. 1, is

{u } = {u
e T
i vi ′
wi ϕ xi ϕ yi ϕ zi ϑMi uk vk wk ′ }
ϕ xk ϕ yk ϕ zk ϑMk (1)

and the respective nodal load vector is

{F } = {N
e T
i Tyi Tzi M xi M yi M zi M ωi Nk Tyk Tzk M xk M yk M zk M ωk } (2)

where M Ti and M Tk are the torsion moments, M ωi and M ωk are the warping moments at the nodal points. The
geometrical meaning of all other kinematics and static variables is evident from Figure 1.

Tyk ͕ vk 
M yk ͕ ϕ yk  N k ͕ u k  x 
  M xk ͕ ϕ xk 
L    k  M ωk ͕ ϑ´′Mk 
  y          M zk , ϕ zk  Tzk ͕ wk 

  Tyi ͕ vi  

 M yi ͕ ϕ y 
i


  
N i ͕ ui  i      z 
M xi ͕ ϕ xi     M zi ͕ ϕ zi  Tzi ͕ wi 

 M ωi ͕ ϑ´′Mi  

Fig. 1. 3D beam element including non-uniform torsion in local coordinate system.

By enhancing the classic 3D beam finite element about the local stiffness matrix of non-uniform torsion of straight rod
[15] we get the local element equation of the 3D beam finite element including the non-uniform torsion with effect of
Justín Murín et al. / Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444 439

secondary torsion moment deformation effect:

ª N i º ªk1,1 0 0 0 0 0 0 k1,8 0 0 0 0 0 0 º ª ui º
«T » « k 2, 2 0 0 0 k2,6 0 0 k 2 ,9 0 0 0 k 2,13 0
» « »
« yi » « » « vi »
« Tzi » « k3,3 0 k3,5 0 0 0 k3,10 0 k3,12 0 0 » « wi »
« » « » « »
« M xi » « k 4, 4 0 0 k 4, 7 0 0 0 k4,11 0 0 k 4,14 » « ϕ xi »
« M yi » « k5,5 0 0 0 0 k5,10 0 k5,12 0 0 » « ϕ yi »
« » « » « »
« M zi » « S k 6, 6 0 0 k 6, 9 0 0 0 k6,13 0 » « ϕ zi »
«M » « Y k7, 7 0 0 0 k7 ,11 0 0 k7,14 » «ϑ´′Mi »
« ωi » = « »⋅« »
« Nk » « M k8,8 0 0 0 0 0 0 » « uk »
« » « M k 9 ,9 0 0 0 k9,13
»
0 » «« vk »»
« Tyk » «
« Tzk » « E k10,10 0 k10,12 0 0 » « wk »
« » « » « »
« M xk » « T k11,11 0 0 k11,14 » « ϕ xk »
«M » « R k12,12 0 0 » « ϕ yk »
« yk » « » « »
« M zk » « Y k13,13 0 » « ϕ zk »
«M » « k14,14 »¼ «¬ϑMk
′ »¼
¬ ωk ¼ ¬
(4)

The stiffness terms in (14) are: k1,1 = k8,8 = −k1,8 = − EA / L ; k 2,2 = k9,9 = −k2,9 = 12 EI z / L3 ; k 2,6 = k 2,13 = 6 EI z / L2 ;
k3,3 = k10,10 = −k3,10 = 12 EI y / L3 ; k3,5 = −k3,12 = −k10,12 = k10,12 = −6 EI y / L2 ; k 4,4 = k11,11 = −k 4,11 = ck1 / κk 2 ;
k 4,7 = k 4,14 = −k7 ,11 = −k11,14 = −c = −k 2 / (
κk 22 − k1k3 ) ; k5,5 = k12,12 = 4 EI y / L ; k6,6 = k13,13 = 4 EI z / L ;
k7 ,7 = k14,14 = (κb1 − b0 k 2 / k 2 ) ; k 7 ,14 = k3 / k 2 ; k6,9 = k9,13 = −6 EI z / L2 ; k6,13 = 2 EI z / L ; k5,12 = 2 EI y / L .
GIT
With K = κ , f = K and x = L being the transfer constants b j calculated as:
EIω
sinh ( fx) b j −2 − a j −2 xj
b0 = cosh( fx) , b1 = , for j ≥ 2 : b j = and with a0 = 1 , for j ≥ 1 : a j = .
f K j!
b1 b § b b ·
The stiffness constants are: k1 = ; k 2 = 2 ; k3 = ¨¨ 3 − 1 ¸¸ .
EIω EIω © EIω GITs ¹
The arbitrary cross-sectional characteristics are described by: A – cross-sectional area [m2]; IT – torsion constant [m4]; ITs –
secondary torsion constant [m4]; I ω - warping constant [m6]. Material properties: E – elasticity modulus; G – shear
modulus.
−1
§ I ·
The secondary torsion moment deformation effect is encountered through constant κ = ¨¨1 + T ¸¸ and the transfer
© ITs ¹
constants b j , j ∈ 0, 3 . Parameter κ = 1 if this effect is neglected. This is usually made in the case of open form cross-
sections where the effect of the secondary torsion moment has been assumed insignificant. Deformation effect of the
secondary torsion moment must be considered first of all in the case of the closed form cross-sections as demonstrated in
[3].
The expressions for calculation of the secondary torsion constant (denoted as ITs ) depend on the cross-section type. These
can be found in [8] and [12], for example. When the kinematic and static variables in Eq. (4) are known at the nodal points,
the nodal forces, bending moments, primary and secondary torsion moment, normal and shear stress can be calculated in a
usual way [19]. The nodal points’ secondary torsion moments are:

′ ) ; M Tsk = κ (M Tk − GIT ϑMk


M Tsi = κ (M Ti − GIT ϑMi ′ ). (5)
440 Justín Murín et al. / Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444

The primary torsion moments at the nodal points are:

M Tpi = M Ti − M Tsi ; M Tpk = M Tk − M Tsk . (6)

Expressions for the shear and normal stress calculation depend on the cross-sectional area type. This problem has been
described in detail in [10]. These expressions will be used for stress calculations in our numerical examples.
For the straight beam structures the local relation (4) coincides with the global one. This new finite element can be used for
analysis of torsion with warping of constant both open and closed-shaped cross-sections. The implementation of the
expression (4) into the local equation of the general 3D-beam finite element is straightforward, and it will be done in the
next chapter.

2.2. Global finite element equation

Local element stiffness matrix (4) after formation has to be transformed to global coordinate system. The transformation
is performed by extended transformation matrix and can be formally expressed as

K G = T T K LT ; (7)

where KL is local element stiffness matrix, T is transformation matrix and KG is element stiffness matrix transformed to
global coordinate system. Transformation matrix T has dimension 14x14 and can be expressed as

ªTa 0 0 0 0 0º
«0 Ta 0 0 0 0 »»
«
«0 0 1 0 0 0»
T =« »; (8)
«0 0 0 Ta 0 0»
«0 0 0 0 Ta 0»
« »
¬« 0 0 0 0 0 1 ¼»

where submatrix Ta with dimension 3x3 has classical form [ANSYS].

3. Numerical experiments

In this sub-chapter, the authors present a numerical study of a closed-section prismatic beam loaded by non-uniform
torsion and a concentrated force (Fig. 8). In the analysis, the bending and non-uniform torsion parameters will be calculated
by the new 3D beam finite element. The material properties of the prismatic cantilever aluminium beam (Figure 8) are as
follows: Young modulus E = 79 GPa, shear modulus G = E/(2(1+ν )) = 31.1 GPa and Poisson ration ν = 0.27 . The applied
concentrated force F e = 100 [N] results in beam bending. Restrictions at the clamped end and the application of an
concentrated torsion moment M Te = 100 [Nm] result in non-uniform torsion.

Fig. 2. Geometrical parameters, loads and boundary conditions.


Justín Murín et al. / Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444 441

According to Fig. 8, the following geometrical parameters have been chosen and calculated [12], [19]: L1 = 0.8 m,
L2 = 0.15 m, h = 0.058 m, b = 0.018 m, t = s = 0.002 m, A = 2As + 2AG = 2(hs+ bt) = 0.000304 m2 - the cross-sectional area
hb ht − bs
containing the area of the webs As and flanges AG, warping ordinate at the corners ω R = = 137.368 ×10−6 m2,
4 ht + bs
2A 2(hb) 2
warping constant I ω = ω R2 = 1.91217× 10 -12 m6, torsion constant I T = = 5.73651× 10 −8 m4 , secondary torsion
3 h/ s + b/t
20(h / s + b / t ) I ω A
constant I Ts = = 1.4589 × 10 −8 m4.
( Ahb) 2 2(h 2 + b 2 ) 2
+
AS AG 3

Fig. 3. Normal and shear stress distribution caused by non-uniform torsion. Normal stress caused by bending can be easily calculated using [1].

The authors consider outputs obtained using ANSYS Beam188 and Shell181 elements, the IQ100 software and the new
3D beam element in comparison with the Thin Tube Theory calculations. In the numerical analyses, outputs being the
bimoment MȦ, torsion moment Mx, normal stress (from bending ıMz and bimoment ıȦ), vertical deformation v, bending
angle ijz twist angle ijx.

Fig. 4. Bimoment flow as calculated analytically using TTT and numerically via ANSYS Beam188 and via the new 3D beam element.
442 Justín Murín et al. / Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444

Bending and warping deformations are calculated separately to point out the advantages of the new 3D beam element in
comparison with traditional commercial FEM approach.
Normal and shear stresses (Fig. 9) at any point of the beam can be calculated according to [1], [12], [13] and [18],
respectively. For this particular beam and the torsion moment M Te = 100 Nm, the calculated parameters are as follows:
M ωω R
maximal bimoment MȦ = 0.4143 Nm2, normal stress σ ω ,an = = = 29.77 MPa, maximal primary shear stress

M Tp M Ts ωR
τ p ,max = = 23.95 MPa, maximal secondary shear stress τ s ,max = ⋅ = 16.27 MPa. The total torsion
2hbt I ω t AG h2 + b2
+
4 6( h / s + b / t )
angle is ϕ x = 2.556 o .

Table 1: Comparison of obtained analytical and numerical results (nought values are omitted). Please, note the strong miss-
calculation in ANSYS Beam188 of non-uniform parameters.

SHELL
value unit TTT BEAM 188 3D beam
181
position 1: x = 0 mm
fixed (clamped) support
Fy [N] 100 100 100 100
Mz [Nm] 80 80 79.95 80
ıMz [MPa] 34.474 33.211 38.281 34.474
Mx [Nm] 100 100 100 100
2
MȦ [Nm ] 0.4143 n/a 0.8133 0.4143
ıȦ [MPa] 34.790 31.993 63.410 29.770
position 2: x = 800 mm
load application
Fy [N] 100 100 100 100
v [mm] -10.07 -10.41 -10.40 -10.34
ijz [°] 1.076 1.113 1.111 1.105
Mx [Nm] 100 100 100 100
ijx [°] 2.482 2.567 2.452 2.548
MȦ [Nm2] -0.2072 n/a -0.3726 -0.2022
ıȦ [MPa] -17.395 -15.910 -29.050 -14.530
position 3: x = 950 mm
free end
v [mm] -12.90 -13.31 -13.31 -13.25
ijz [°] 1.078 1.112 1.111 1.107
ijx [°] 2.489 2.571 2.466 2.556
Justín Murín et al. / Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444 443

Fig. 5. Maximum normal stress distribution along the beam’s longitudinal direction: TTT analytical, ANSYS Beam 188 and Shell 181 element.

In support of the new 3D beam element, the authors wish to point out that using only two new 3D beam elements for this
analysis one obtains satisfactory results (see Table 1 and Fig. 11) even for non-uniform torsion parameters. Moreover, the
presented results are in very good agreements with the recently obtained experimental data [17].

4. Conclusions

New 3D beam finite element including non-uniform torsion is presented in this contribution which is suitable for analysis of
beam structures of open and closed cross-sections. The secondary torsion moment deformation effect has been included into
the stiffness matrix. Results of the numerical experiments show very high effectiveness and accuracy of our new beam finite
element.
444 Justín Murín et al. / Procedia Engineering 48 (2012) 436 – 444

Acknowledgements

This paper has been supported by Grant Agency VEGA (grant No. 1/0534/12).

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