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Online GATE Preparation for Electrical(EE) & Electronics(EC). Get Online Study Material for "Compensators" & Ace your GATE 2018 Preparation Online. You will learn concepts such as Cascade, Feedback, Phase Lead, Phase Lag, Lag Lead, Maximum Lead-Lag Frequency, Maximal Phase Lead-Lag.

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Material in PDF

In these GATE Preparation Notes, we discuss Compensators. These are used for

performance improvement. In the previous lesson about Design and Tuning in Control

System, we studied the different types of controllers and their usage in time response

improvement. Improvement in parameter can be brought in, either through time

response specifications or through frequency response specifications. Once a set of

performance specifications has been selected, the next aim is to select a configuration

forth overall system. To improve the performance, comparators can be used in the

system.

This topic on Compensators forms an important part of Control Systems. Here we will

learn about concepts such as Cascade Compensators, Feedback Compensators,

Phase Lead Compensators, Phase Lag Compensators, Lag Lead

Compensators, Maximum Lead-Lag Frequency, and Maximal Phase Lead-

Lag. This topic is important from the point of view of GATE EE and GATE EC. It is

also useful for exams like IES, BSNL, BARC, DRDO etc.

Before starting this module, you are advised to take a look at some of the previous

articles. You can download this article in PDF to refer and revise later.

Recommended Reading –

Design & Tuning in Control Systems

1|Page

Polar Plot and its Analysis

Compensators

In terms of block diagram and transfer function, the compensator can be placed either

in the cascade (or series) with the main transfer function or in the feedback (or parallel)

path. The positioning of compensators is shown as follows.

Cascade Compensation

Feedback Compensation

In general, there are two situations in which compensation is required. In the first

situation, the system is absolutely unstable and the compensation is required to stabilize

it as well as to achieve a specified performance. In the second case, the system is stable

but the compensation is required to obtain the desired performance. They are used

when the system alone cannot meet the required specifications due to the physical

limitation of components used.

General form of lead compensator is given as

s+z

Gc (s) =

s+p

1 1

Here, z = ,p =

T αT

Z

α= < 1 for lead compensator

P

The pole zero location of lead compensator in s-plane is given as

3|Page

s

s + z z (z + 1)

Gc (s) = =

s + p P ( s + 1)

p

α(1 + sT)

Gc (s) = α<1

(1 + αsT)

Now, α is an attenuation factor hence lead compensator is always used with an amplifier

1/α.

(1 + sT)

After applying amplifier, Gc (s) =

(1 + αsT)

√1 + ω2 T 2

|Gc (jω)| = , ∠Gc (jω) = tan−1 (ωT) − tan−1 (αωT)

√1 + α2 ω2 T 2

1

Critical frequency due to zero, ωz =

T

1

Critical frequency due to pole, ωp =

αT

ωz < ωp(∵α<1)

The Bode plot for the system can be drawn as

From the plot above, phase lead compensator can be said as analogous to high pass

filter.

Maximum phase is achieved at ωm frequency

dϕ

at ω = ωm , =0

dω

1

ωm = = √ ωz ωp

T√α

(Try to derive it yourself).

Maximum phase, ϕm = tan−1 (ωm T) − tan−1 (αωm T)

ωm T − αωm T

= tan−1 [ ]

1 + αω2m T 2

1−α

tan ϕm = ωm T [ ]

1 + αω2m T 2

1 1−α

= .T[ 1 ]

T√α 1 + α. 2 . T 2

T

1−α

tan ϕm =

2√α

At ω = ωm, magnitude is Mm

1

√1 + ω2m T 2 √1 + T2

T2 α

Mm = =

√1 + α2 ω2m T 2 √1 + α2 .

1

. T2

T2 α

1

Mm =

√α

1

In dB, Mm = 10 log10 dB.

α

If we realize phase lead compensator in an RC circuit, it will be like

5|Page

1

Vo R2 R1 C

Gc (s) = = 1 =s+ R1 +R2

Vi R1 s+( ) . 1/R1 C

R2 + sc

1 R2

R1 +

sc

R2

T = R1 C, α = <1

R1 + R 2

Transfer function for a phase lag compensator is

s+z

Gc (s) =

s+p

1 1

Where p = , z = for β > 1

βT T

The pole zero location for log compensator is drawn as

β(1 + sT)

Transfer function can also be written as Gc (s) =

(1 + βsT)

√1 + ω2 T 2

Removing β through attenuator, Gc (s) =

√1 + β2 T 2

1

Critical frequency due to zero, ωz =

T

1

Critical frequency due to pole, ωp =

βT

Since β > 1, ωz> ωp

The Bode plot of the system can be drawn as

1

For phase lag network, ωm =

T√α

1−α

tan ϕm =

2√α

1

Mm = 10 log10 dB

α

(Try to verify it yourself)

In realization of phase lag compensator, the circuit is given as

7|Page

1 1

R 2 + sC 1 s+

R2 C

Gc (s) = 1 = R1 +R2 [ 1 ]

R1 + R 2 + s+ R +R

sC R2 ( 1 2 )R2 C

R2

R1 + R 2

β= > 1, 𝑇 = R2C

R2

The general form of lag lead compensator transfer function is

s + z1 s + z2

Gc (s) = .

s + p1 s + p2

Here z1, p1are lag compensator parameter while z2, p2 are lead compensator parameters.

Z1 Z2

= β > 1, = α < 1

P1 P2

1 + sT2 1 + sT2

The transfer function can also be written as Gc (s) = ( )( )

1 + βsT2 1 + αsT2

The Bode plot for the lag lead compensator can be drawn as

1 1

ωm1 = , ωm2 =

T1 √β T2 √α

1−β 1−α

tan ϕm1 = , tan ϕm2 =

2√β 2√α

1 1

Mm1 = 10 log10 dB, Mm2 = 10 log10 dB

β α

From above plot, Lag Lead Compensator is analogues to Band Reject Filter.

9|Page

While designing compensator, it should be kept in mind that the frequency of maximum

phase must be equal to gain crossover frequency. Only then it will increase phase

margin.

Liked this article? Let us know in the comments. Some more articles you may like.

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