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You are on page 1of 18

Gordon McCabe

December 22, 2005

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to discuss and clarify the explanations

commonly cited for the aerodynamic lift generated by a wing, and to

then analyse, as a case study of engineering discovery, the aerodynamic

revolutions which have taken place within Formula 1 in the past 40 years.

The paper begins with an introduction that provides a succinct summary

of the mathematics of fluid mechanics.

1 Introduction

Aerodynamics is the branch of fluid mechanics which represents air flows and

the forces experienced by a solid body in motion with respect to an air mass. In

most applications of aerodynamics, Newtonian fluid mechanics is considered to

be empirically adequate, and, accordingly, a body of air is considered to satisfy

either the Euler equations or the Navier-Stokes equations of Newtonian fluid

mechanics. Let us therefore begin with a succinct exposition of these equations

and the mathematical concepts of fluid mechanics.

The Euler equations are used to represent a so-called ‘perfect’ fluid, a fluid

which is idealised to be free from internal friction, and which does not experience

friction at the boundaries which are defined for it by solid bodies.1 A perfect

Newtonian fluid is considered to occupy a region of Newtonian space Ω ⊂ R3 ,

and its behaviour is characterised by a time-dependent velocity vector field Ut ,

a time-dependent pressure scalar field pt , and a time-dependent mass density

scalar field ρt . The internal forces in any continuous medium, elastic or fluid,

are represented by a symmetric contravariant 2nd-rank tensor field σ, called

the Cauchy stress tensor, and a perfect fluid is one for which the Cauchy stress

tensor has the form σ = −pg, where g is the metric tensor representing the

spatial geometry. In component terms, with the standard Cartesian coordinates

(x1 , x2 , x3 ) on Euclidean space, σ ij = −pg ij = −pδ ij . Where ∇ is the covariant

derivative of the Levi-Civita connection corresponding to the Euclidean metric

tensor field on Newtonian space, the Euler equations are as follows:

· ¸

∂Ut

ρt + ∇Ut Ut = −grad pt + ft .

∂t

1 An ‘ideal’ fluid is the same thing as a ‘perfect’ fluid.

1

The scalar field ft represents the force exerted on the fluid, per unit volume,

by any external force field, such as gravity.2 Note that the gradient of pt is a

contravariant vector field, not to be confused with a covariant derivative of pt ,

something which would add a covariant index.

The reader will find in many texts that the Euler equations are expressed

without explicit use of the time subscript, and with (U · ∇)U or U · ∇U sub-

stituted in place of ∇U U . In terms of Cartesian coordinates, one can think of

U · ∇ as the differential operator obtained by taking the inner product of the

vector U with the differential operator ∂/∂x1 + ∂/∂x2 + ∂/∂x3 . In component

terms, one can write:

∂U i ∂U i ∂U i

((U · ∇)U )i = U 1 + U2 + U3 .

∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3

The streamlines of a fluid at time t are the integral curves of the vector field

Ut .3 Given that Ut is capable of being time-dependent, the streamlines are also

capable of being time-dependent. The trajectory of a particle over time can be

represented by a curve in the fluid, φ : I → Ω, which is such that its tangent

vector φ0 (t) equals the fluid vector field U(φ(t),t) at position φ(t) at time t. The

trajectory of the particle which is at x ∈ Ω at time t = 0 can be denoted as

φx (t) = φ(x, t). The trajectories φx (t) followed by particles in the fluid only

correspond to streamlines in the special case of steady-state fluid flow, where

∂Ut /∂t = 0. The mapping φ : Ω×I → Ω enables one to define a time-dependent

set of mappings φt : Ω → Ω. Given any volume W at time 0, Wt = φt (W ) is the

volume occupied at time t by the collection of particles which occupied W at

time 0. φt is called the fluid flow map, and a fluid is defined to be incompressible

if the volume of any region W ⊂ Ω is constant in time under the fluid flow map,

(Chorin and Marsden 1997, p10). A fluid is defined to be homogeneous if ρ is

constant in space, hence a fluid which is both homogeneous and incompressible

must be such that ρ is constant in space and time.

The Euler equations are derived from the application of Newton’s second law

to a continuous medium, i.e., the force upon a fluid volume must equal the rate

of momentum transfer through that volume. From the conservation of mass,

one can derive the so-called continuity equation:

∂ρt

= div (ρt Ut ) .

∂t

In the case of an incompressible fluid, ∂ρt /∂t = 0 and div (ρt Ut ) = ρ div Ut ,

and, assuming ρ > 0, the continuity equation reduces to:

div Ut = 0 .

2 Given that a fluid possesses a mass density field ρ, it will also be self-gravitating, in

accordance with the Poisson equation: ∇2 Φ = −4πGρ. Needless to say, the strength of a

fluid’s own gravity is negligible in most applications of aerodynamics.

3 An integral curve α : I → Ω of a vector field V is such that its tangent vector α0 (s) equals

the vector field Vα(s) for all s ∈ I, where I is an open interval of the real line.

2

In the more general case of a non-perfect fluid, the Cauchy stress tensor

takes the form (Chorin and Marsden 1997, p33):

σ = λ(div U )I + 2µD ,

where µ and λ are constants, and D is the ‘deformation’ tensor, or ‘rate of strain’

tensor, the symmetrisation of the covariant derivative of the velocity vector

field, D = Sym (∇U ). In the case of Cartesian coordinates in Euclidean space,

the components of the covariant derivative correspond to partial derivatives,

so U;ji = ∂U i /∂xj , and the components of the deformation tensor are Dij =

1/2(∂U i /∂xj + ∂U j /∂xi ).

The relevant equations for a fluid with such a Cauchy stress tensor, derived

again from Newton’s second law, are the Navier-Stokes equations. In the case

of an incompressible homogeneous fluid,4 the Navier-Stokes equations take the

following form:

· ¸

∂Ut 2

ρt − µ∇ Ut + ∇Ut Ut = −grad pt + ft .

∂t

The constant µ is the coefficient of viscosity of the fluid in question, and ∇2 is

the Laplacian, also represented as ∆ in many texts. With respect to a Cartesian

coordinate system in Euclidean space, each component U i of the velocity vector

field is required to satisfy the equation

· 2 i ¸

∂U i ∂ U ∂2U i ∂2U i ∂U i ∂U i ∂U i 1 ∂p f

−µ 2 + 2 + 2 + U1 + U2 + U3 =− + .

∂t ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ρ ∂xi ρ

The mass density ρ has been shifted here from the left-hand side to the right-

hand side of the equation, and the time subscript has been removed to avoid

clutter.

Only solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are capable of representing

the presence of a boundary layer in the fluid flow adjacent to a solid body, a

phenomenon of crucial importance in aerodynamics. The only internal forces

in a perfect fluid are pressure forces, and these act normally to any surface in

the fluid. In contrast, the boundary layer is a consequence of friction and shear

stresses within a fluid, and such forces act tangentially to the surfaces which

separate adjacent layers in a fluid. Due to friction between a fluid and the

surface of a solid body, and the presence of shear stresses within the fluid, there

is a region of fluid adjacent to the solid body in which the velocity is less than

the free-flow velocity, and this region is the boundary layer. The fluid velocity

in the boundary layer tends towards zero approaching the surface of the solid

body. Fluids with different coefficients of viscosity µ have boundary layers of

different thickness, and different velocity gradients within the boundary layer.

4 Incompressible flow is a good approximation for aerodynamics at Mach numbers M < 0.4,

kU k

where M = c , the ratio of the flow speed to the speed of sound cs .

s

3

Note that the Navier-Stokes equations, and fluid mechanics in toto, merely

provide a phenomenological approximation; a fluid is not a continuous medium,

but a very large collection of discrete molecules, interacting with each other.

Hence, fluid mechanics is not a fundamental physical theory. As a consequence,

there is no sense in which a body of air exactly realises a solution of the Navier-

Stokes equations. However, despite the fact that the Navier-Stokes equations

are only considered to be phenomenological, there are notable controversies and

difficulties in using these equations to explain the most important aerodynamic

phenomenon of all: the lift generated by a wing.

The simplest and most popular explanations of aerodynamic lift invoke the

Bernoulli principle, which, in turn, is derived from Bernoulli’s theorem. The

general version of Bernoulli’s theorem states that the following quantity,

1 p

k U k2 +w + + φ ,

2 ρ

is constant along the streamlines of a stationary, compressible, perfect isentropic

fluid, assuming p is a function of ρ, (Abraham, Marsden and Ratiu (1988),

p593). The gravitational potential for an external gravitational field is denoted

here as φ. The scalar field w is the internal energy density per unit mass of

the fluid,5 and an isentropic fluid is one for which the internal energy density w

depends only upon the mass density ρ. i.e., if the fluid undergoes compression,

the internal energy per unit mass may increase. Internal energy density is to be

distinguished from the kinetic energy density of the fluid, 1/2 ρ k U k2 . If the

internal energy density depends only upon the mass density, then this rules out

a change of internal energy density due to heat transfer between the fluid and

its environment, or a change of internal energy density due to the generation of

friction.

If one makes the same assumptions, but with the exception that the fluid is

both incompressible, and homogeneous throughout space, then the fluid will be

a constant density ρ0 throughout space and time; the internal energy density

will be constant w0 = w(ρ0 ) also; and the following quantity will be constant

along fluid streamlines:

1 p

k U k2 + + φ .

2 ρ0

The general version of Bernoulli’s theorem can be derived from the Euler equa-

tions,

· ¸

∂U

ρ + ∇U U = −grad p + f .

∂t

5 This

is related to the thermodynamic quantity of enthalpy per unit mass ² by the equation

² = w + p/ρ.

4

To provide a simple derivation, let us assume the case of an incompressible and

homogeneous fluid. Amongst other things, this entails that ∂U/∂t = 0, hence

Euler’s equations reduce to:

ρ0 (∇U U ) = −grad p + f .

We shall additionally assume that the fluid is irrotational. The covariant deriv-

ative can be expressed as follows,

k U k2

∇U U = grad + (curl U ) ∧ U ,

2

and an irrotational fluid is such that curl U = 0, hence Euler’s equations further

reduces to

k U k2

ρ0 (grad ) = −grad p + f .

2

Dividing both sides by ρ0 one obtains

k U k2 p f

grad = −grad + ,

2 ρ0 ρ0

and thence

µ ¶

k U k2 p f

grad + = ,

2 ρ0 ρ0

and

µ ¶

k U k2 p f

grad + +κ = ,

2 ρ0 ρ0

for any constant κ. Whilst f specifies the external force per unit volume, the

ratio f /ρ0 specifies the external force per unit mass, which is related to an

external potential φ by f /ρ0 = −grad φ. For any constant c it follows that

f

−grad (φ + c) = .

ρ0

Hence,

µ ¶

k U k2 p

grad + +κ = −grad (φ + c) .

2 ρ0

From this it follows that

k U k2 p

+ + κ = −φ − c ,

2 ρ0

and

k U k2 p

+ + φ = −(κ + c) ,

2 ρ0

5

which is our desired result because −(κ + c) is a constant.

From Bernoulli’s theorem, then, comes Bernoulli’s principle, which states

that an increase in fluid velocity corresponds to a decrease in pressure, and

a decrease in fluid velocity corresponds to an increase in pressure. Whilst

Bernoulli’s principle is often invoked to explain the phenomenon of aerody-

namic lift generated by the air flow around a wing profile, there are alternative

explanations which employ, in some combination: the ‘Coanda effect’, the no-

tion of circulation, and Newton’s third law. These alternative explanations

are, at the very least, equally legitimate to the Bernoulli-principle explanation,

and, amongst aerodynamicists, are considered to be superior to the Bernoulli-

explanation. There is also a long-standing popular misconception associated

with the Bernoulli-principle explanation, which has been widely disseminated,

but which is completely false.

The Bernoulli-principle approach explains the lift generated by a wing as

the consequence of lower pressure above the wing than below, resulting in a net

upward force upon the wing. The lower pressure above the wing corresponds

to faster air flow above the wing, in accordance with the Bernoulli principle.

The Bernoulli principle itself merely states that lower pressure corresponds to

faster airflow, and vice versa; it does not state that faster airflow causes lower

pressure, any more than lower pressure causes faster airflow. Faster airflow

does not have causal priority over lower pressure. However, at this point, the

misconceived popular explanation implicitly assigns causal priority to faster

airflow, explains the lower pressure as a consequence of the faster airflow, and

explains the faster airflow above the wing as a consequence of the fact that

wings have greater curvature above than below, and the air flowing over the top

therefore follows a longer path than the air flowing below. Conjoined with this

is a curious argument, which invokes the notion of a ‘packet’ of air, and claims

that a packet of air which is divided at the leading edge of a wing must rejoin

at the trailing edge, hence the air traversing the longer path over the top must

travel faster to rejoin its counterpart at the trailing edge. This ‘path-length’

explanation of lift does not require the air at the trailing edge of the wing to

be deflected downwards, despite the downdraught which can be experienced

directly beneath a passing aircraft. If this explanation were true, and the cause

of lift was merely the asymmetrical profiles of the upper and lower surfaces of

a wing, then it would not be possible for an aeroplane to fly upside-down. In

addition, experiment demonstrates that air passing over the upper surface of a

wing travels at such speed that packets of air divided at the leading edge of the

wing fail to rejoin at the trailing edge.

One alternative explanation argues that wings generate lift because they

deflect air downwards, and, by Newton’s third law, an action causes an equal

and opposite reaction, hence the wing is forced upwards. According to this

explanation, the trailing edge of a wing must point diagonally downwards to

generate lift, and this is achieved either by tilting the wing downwards with

respect to the flow of air, or by making the wing cambered, or both. Air is

deflected downwards by both the lower and upper surfaces of the wing. The

lower surface deflects air downwards in a straightforward fashion, given that the

6

wing is either tilted with respect to the direction of airflow, or the lower surface

is of a concave shape. However, the majority of the lift is generated by the

downwards deflection of the air which flows above the wing. This explanation

then depends upon the Coanda effect, the tendency of a stream of fluid to follow

the contours of a convex surface rather than continue moving in a straight line.

The flow over the surface of a wing is said to remain ‘attached’ to the wing

surface. An aircraft wing is said to ‘stall’ when the boundary layer on the upper

surface ‘detaches’ or ‘separates’, and is no longer guided downwards by the

contours of the upper surface. In this circumstance, the lifting force generated

by the upper surface of the wing suddenly becomes very small, and the lifting

force that remains is generally insufficient to support the weight of the aircraft.

To create lift at low speed, an aircraft must increase the angle of attack6 of the

wing, and the upper surface is carefully contoured to prevent flow detachment

under these conditions.

As stated in Section 1, whilst the region of fluid flow outside a boundary layer

can be idealized as a perfect fluid and represented by a solution of the Euler

equations, representation of the boundary layer itself requires the Navier-Stokes

equations. In particular, the inverse relationship between velocity and pressure,

encapsulated in Bernoulli’s principle, is only valid outside the boundary layer.

Thus, despite the velocity gradient across the boundary layer, normal to the

surface of the solid body, there is no corresponding pressure gradient. The

pressure across the boundary layer, normal to the surface of the solid body, is

represented to be almost equal to the pressure just outside the boundary layer.

The pressure inside the boundary layer changes along its length as the pressure

outside the layer changes. Towards the trailing edge of a wing, the pressure

outside the boundary layer builds, and the velocity outside the layer decreases,

approaching zero towards the aft ‘stagnation point’. This has the consequence

that the range of fluid flow velocities inside the boundary layer also decreases.

If the pressure increase towards the stagnation point is not sufficiently gradual,

then the boundary layer can separate from the surface of the wing before the

trailing edge. This occurs because the velocities inside the boundary layer are

already smaller than those outside, hence they can reach zero before the aft

stagnation point. After this, the velocities inside the boundary layer can reverse

direction, and this causes the flow to separate from the wing. Irrespective of

where the boundary layer separates, it then breaks up into eddies and forms a

turbulent wake behind the wing.

The boundary layer airflow which remains attached to the upper surface of

the wing, does so only because the pressure outside the boundary layer is slightly

higher than the pressure inside the boundary layer, so there is a pressure gradient

which forces the boundary layer to apparently adhere to the convex upper surface

of the wing. There is no genuine force of attraction between the wing surface

and the boundary layer airflow.

The lift generated by a wing is also often explained to be a consequence

6 The angle of attack is the angle subtended from the direction of airflow by the straight line

which joins the leading edge and trailing edge of the wing. This line is called the chordline,

and its length is called the chord of the wing.

7

of non-zero circulation in the airflow around the wing. Given a closed loop C

parameterized by s, in a fluid with a velocity vector field U , the circulation

around C is defined by the line integral

I

ΓC = hU, d/dsi ds ,

C

where d/ds is the tangent vector to the loop C. To understand how lift can

be explained by non-zero circulation, consider the idealized situation where the

airflow around a wing is a superposition of a uniform ‘freestream’ flow from left

to right, where the streamlines are parallel straight lines, and a pure circulatory

flow, where the streamlines are clockwise concentric circles. Taking the sum

of the velocity vector fields for the uniform and circulatory flow at each point,

the clockwise circulation is added to the freestream velocity above the wing,

and subtracted from it below. The Bernoulli principle can then be invoked

to explain the pressure differential above and below the wing, which, in turn,

explains the net upward force. The presence of circulation also accords with

the use of Newton’s third law to explain the uplift, because the circulatory flow

adds a downward component to the airflow in the wake of the wing, and this

corresponds to the downward deflection of air.

The notion of circulation can be used to quantitatively explain the lifting

force on a wing by the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. If C is a loop enclosing a

wing profile, and if an incompressible airflow of density ρ has a velocity vector

field which tends towards a constant U as the distance from the wing tends to

infinity, then the Kutta-Joukowski theorem asserts that the lifting force per unit

span7 on a notional wing of infinite span, is given by the equation

L = −ρ ΓC k U k n ,

where n is a unit vector orthogonal to U , (Chorin and Marsden 1997, p53). In

reality, the lifting force decreases towards the tips of a wing, hence the simpli-

fying assumption here of an infinite wing span, which allows one to treat the

flow as if it were two-dimensional. The unit vector n is orthogonal to U in a

two-dimensional plane which represents a longitudinal cross-section of the flow

around the wing.

The presence of a circular component to the airflow around a wing profile

cannot be explained without introducing the notions of viscosity, the bound-

ary layer, the Coanda effect, and boundary layer separation. The absence of

circulation requires the boundary layer to detach forward of the trailing edge

upon the upper surface of the wing. Upon the commencement of airflow, such

premature detachment does indeed occur, but this is a transient and unstable

situation, which, assuming left to right airflow, generates anti-clockwise vortices,

called starting vortices, until the boundary layer separation point migrates to

the trailing edge of the wing. Once the airflow above and below the wing is

detaching from the trailing edge, which is directed diagonally downward, there

is a non-zero clockwise circulatory component to the airflow.

7 The span is the width of a wing in a direction transverse to the airflow.

8

The highest airflow velocity and lowest pressure occurs towards the front

of the upper surface of a wing. The presence of circulation raises the fluid

velocity above the wing, and the low radius of curvature at the front of the

wing accentuates the effect. This is because the velocity of fluid in circulation

is function of the radius of curvature. With the exception of very low radii,

the velocity of circulating fluid is inversely proportional to the radius. Hence,

where the radius of curvature of a wing is lowest, around the nose of the wing,

the fluid flow is accelerated to its highest velocity, and the pressure of the fluid

drops to its minimum. This effect is accentuated above the wing because of the

direction of the circulation. The radius of curvature increases towards the rear

of the wing, hence the velocity decreases and the pressure increases towards the

trailing edge of the upper surface.

Both the Bernoulli-principle explanation and the circulation explanation of

lift fall under the aegis of the deductive-nomological (DN) account of scien-

tific explanation. In such explanations, one explains certain phenomenal facts

by logically deriving them from the conjunction of general laws and particular

specified circumstances. As Torretti emphasises (1990, p22-24), such explana-

tions in physics typically require a re-conceptualization of the phenomenal facts

in the same terms in which the laws and circumstances are stated. A fluid

mechanics explanation of the lift generated by a wing represents the wing as

a compact subset M of Euclidean space, which is surrounded by a continu-

ous medium that possesses a fluid flow vector field, a pressure scalar field, and

a mass density scalar field satisfying the Navier-Stokes equations, and repre-

sents the presence of lift by a non-zero vertical component to the vector which

represents the net force upon the wing. The Bernoulli-principle

R explanation

represents the net force upon the wing as the integral − ∂M pn of the pressure

force over the surface ∂M of the wing, where n is an outward-pointing unit

normal; the circulation explanation

H represents the vertical force per unit span

as −ρ ΓC k U k n = −ρ [ C hU, d/dsi ds] k U k n, where C is a loop enclosing

the longitudinal profile of M , and n is a unit vector orthogonal to U .8

Although the Bernoulli principle can be used to determine the net force and

the lifting force upon a solid body once the pressure and velocity distribution

around the body have been specified, this flow regime is a consequence of viscos-

ity, and cannot be explained without recourse to the Coanda effect, circulation,

and the curvature of the wing. Hence the Bernoulli principle explanation is

subservient to an explanation of lift which employs the latter concepts.

Whilst the debate over the appropriate explanation for aerodynamic lift is a

debate over the appropriate fluid mechanical explanation for lift, fluid mechanics

is, of course, a continuum idealization, and, in reality, aerodynamic lift is the

consequence of the aggregate effect of the interactions between the molecules

in the air flow and the molecules in the surface of the wing. Charles Crummer

explains the Coanda effect in these terms as follows:

“In a steady flow over a surface, stream particles have only thermal velocity

8 Here we have neglected the fact that the lifting force per unit span decreases close to the

wing tips.

9

components normal to the surface. If the surface is flat, the particles that collide

with boundary layer particles are as likely to knock them out of the boundary

layer as to knock others in, i.e. the boundary layer population is not changed

and the pressure on the surface is the same as if there were no flow. If, however,

the surface is curved in a convex shape, the particles in the flow will tend to take

directions tangent to the surface, i.e. away from the surface, obeying Newtons

first law. As these particles flow away from the surface, their collisions with

the boundary layer thermal particles tend to “blow” those particles away from

the surface. What this means is that if all impact parameters are equally likely,

there are more ways a collision can result in a depletion of the boundary layer

than an increase in the boundary layer population. The boundary layer will

tend to increase in thickness and to depopulate; the pressure will reduce there.

Those particles in the flow that do interact with the stagnant boundary layer

will give some of their energy to particles there. As they are deflected back into

the flow by collisions with boundary layer particles, they are, in turn, struck by

faster particles in the flow and struck at positive impact parameters. They are

thus forced back toward the surface. This is how the flow is “attracted” to the

surface, the Coanda effect,” (Crummer 2005, p8).

Formula 1 is an economic, technological and sporting activity, in which an ex-

tended physical object, the car, is equipped with an internal combustion engine,

capable of converting the chemical potential energy from a supply of fossil fuel

into useful work. A Formula 1 car is almost always in contact with a ground

plane, and this distinguishes the nature of the airflow from that experienced by

an aircraft in free flight.

As Peter Wright points out, “A Formula 1 car can be described aerody-

namically as a very low aspect ratio9 (0.38) bluff body in close proximity to

the ground (gap/chord = 0.005). It is surrounded by low aspect ratio rotat-

ing cylinders in contact with the ground, and it is equipped with leading and

trailing edge airfoils, the leading edge device also being in close proximity to

the ground. There are major internal flows, with heat addition (water, oil, and

brake cooling), an air intake, hot gas injection, and a large open cavity (the

cockpit). The flow is three-dimensional and has extensive areas of separated

flow and vorticity,” (2001, p125).

The objective of a racing car designer is to create a car which, under the

control of a human being, traverses a range of closed circuits at the greatest

average speed possible. This requires a car which accelerates, brakes, and cor-

ners as quickly as possible, within the constraints established by the technical

and sporting regulations. In physical terms, one wishes to maximize the lon-

gitudinal and lateral acceleration which the car is capable of generating. The

tyres of a car provide the contact surfaces between the car and the road surface,

9 The aspect ratio for a wing of span s and area S is s2 /S; for a rectangular wing, the

aspect ratio is the ratio of the span to the chord, (Katz 1995, p115).

10

and the frictional grip provided by the tyres determines the upper limit on the

longitudinal and lateral forces which the car is capable of generating.

The grip generated by a tyre is a function of the force pushing that tyre

onto the road surface. The maximum horizontal force Fh which a tyre can

generate is Cf Fv , where Cf is the tyre’s peak coefficient of friction, and Fv is

the peak downward vertical force on the tyre. As a consequence, the greater the

weight of a car, the greater the grip generated by its tyres. However, greater

weight generally fails to increase the longitudinal and lateral acceleration of a car

because the increase in the longitudinal and lateral force which the car is capable

of generating is cancelled out by the greater inertia which is a concomitant of

the greater weight.

Two aerodynamic revolutions can be identified in the history of Formula 1:

the discovery of ‘downforce’ by means of inverted wing profiles, and the dis-

covery of ground effect downforce. As a consequence of the first revolution,

Formula 1 designers are able to generate an aerodynamic force which is directed

downwards (‘downforce’) by attaching appendages to the car which are, in ef-

fect, inverted versions of the wing profiles on aircraft. This increases the force

pushing the tyres onto the road surface without any increase in inertia. Al-

though downforce brings an inevitable drag force penalty with it, the increase

in the lateral accelerative capabilities of a Formula 1 car increases the average

speed of a Formula 1 car over most types of closed circuit. Both the drag force

and the downforce are proportional to the square of the velocity of a car. The

drag force is given by

1

Fdrag ≈ CD Aρv 2 ,

2

where CD is the drag coefficient, a dimensionless number determined by the

exact shape of the car and its angle of attack; A is the frontal area; ρ is the

density of air; and v is the speed of the car. The downforce is given by

1

Fdownf orce ≈ CL Aρv 2 ,

2

where CL is the coefficient of lift, again determined by the exact shape of the car

and its angle of attack. In the case of a modern Formula 1 car, the lift-to-drag

ratio CL /CD has a typical value of, say, 2.5 (Wright 2001, p125), so downforce

dominates performance.

Inverted wing profiles were introduced to Formula 1 rather belatedly, after

a process of gradual discovery occurring over many decades, and involving mul-

tiple individuals within the community of automotive engineers, (Hughes 2005,

p119-121; Katz 1995, p245-250). In fact, the idea of aerodynamic downforce has

a provenance which can be traced back to 1928. Inverted wing profiles were ini-

tially used to provide stability or to counteract the tendency a car might have

to lift at high speeds. In 1928, Opel’s experimental rocket-powered cars, the

RAK 1 and RAK 2, were equipped with inverted wings on either side between

the wheels to counteract high-speed lift (see Figures 1 and 2). In 1956 a Swiss

engineer and amateur racing driver called Michael May experimented with an

11

Figure 1: Opel’s 1928 experimental rocket car, the RAK 1, with side-wings.

inverted wing mounted over the cockpit of his Porsche 550 Spyder (see Figure

3). Michael and his brother Pierre had recalled the use of such wings upon the

Opel RAK. When May’s car proved faster than the works Porsches, Porsche

lobbied successfully for the appendage to be banned, under the pretext that it

obscured the vision of following drivers, and May failed to pursue the idea any

further.

Perhaps the most influential innovator in the field of racing car aerodynamics

was Texan oil magnate, engineer and driver Jim Hall. Hall’s Chaparral company

linked up with the Chevrolet R&D department, headed by Frank Winchell, and

competed in US sportscar championships such as Can-Am in the 1960s. In 1961,

the Chaparral 1 sports car experienced lift at high speed, and Bill Mitchell, chief

stylist of General Motors in the 1950s and 1960s, suggested using an inverted

wing (Wright 2001, p299). In 1963 protruding front-mounted wings were fitted

to prevent the front wheels of the Chaparral 2 from lifting off the ground (Wright

2001, p300). In 1965, the Chaparral 2C was fitted with a rear wing mounted

12

Figure 3: Michael May’s 1956 Porsche 550 Spyder, with inverted wing.

on pivots, with a driver-adjustable angle of attack, and in 1966 the concept was

extended to a dramatic high wing on the Chaparral 2E, (see Figure 4).

In 1966 the McLaren F1 team tested wings with great success, but due to

lack of resources, the team never found the time to revisit the idea, as recounted

by chief designer Robin Herd (Hughes 2005, p120): “We didn’t want anyone else

to twig, so we took the wings off, quietly put them in the back of the truck and

continued with our normal testing. We decided we would look into it further,

in private, when we had the time. But an F1 team in those days was so madly

understaffed that we never got round to looking at it properly.”

13

In November 1967, Jim Clark raced an American Indycar called a Vollst-

edt, which possesed small wings, and during the Tasman winter series Clark

recounted the grip and stability produced by this car to one of his Lotus me-

chanics. The mechanic extemporised a make-do wing from a helicopter rotor,

which was fitted to Clark’s car, and swiftly removed, but not before a Ferrari

engineer had taken photographs of it. At the 1968 Belgian Grand Prix, Fer-

rari appeared with full inverted rear wings (see Figure 5), and Brabham did

likewise on the day after Ferrari’s wings first appeared. As Mark Hughes re-

counts, “Ferrari’s chief engineer Mauro Forghieri, his memory perhaps triggered

by that Tasman photo taken by one of his staff of that experimental Lotus

wing, had recalled that Michael May - the engineer with whom he had worked

perfecting Ferrari’s fuel injection system a few years earlier - had once made a

wing for that sports car of his. ‘Michael was a friend as well as a consultant,’

says Forghieri. ‘He told me about the improvement in handling of his winged

Porsche. The Chaparral convinced us even more about the idea’,” (Hughes

2005, p121). Given that May’s idea was, in turn, inspired by the Opel RAK,

the introduction of downforce to Formula 1 in 1968 can be traced back to Opel’s

experimental rocket car of 1928!

The utility of downforce seems so obvious in retrospect, that its rather be-

lated application in Formula 1 seems puzzling. The stories told about scien-

tific discovery often seem to involve either a deliberate, conscious, trend of

thought that finally reaches some goal, or sudden leaps of the imagination, or

serendipitous discoveries made by minds receptive to new ideas. In the case

14

of aerodynamic downforce, an example of engineering discovery, none of these

descriptions seem to apply. Seeking to explain this, Peter Wright asserts that

“the possible magnitude of the downforce that could be generated was not ap-

preciated, despite all the data being available within the aeronautical industry.

It was probably also considered that the tires (sic) would not be able to sus-

tain the additional work and that the drag penalty associated with generating

the downforce would result in a net loss of average speed...It may also have

been simply an attitude among designers, most of whom came from produc-

tion car backgrounds-the cars did not have wings. It took the free spirits of

Frank Winchell and Jim Hall, and their measurement and simulation groups at

Chevrolet R&D and Chaparral, to cast aside convention and explore the pos-

sibilities of this new and now obvious way to increase performance,” (Wright

2001, p124). The reluctant adoption of downforce in Formula 1 seems to be an

example of the trammelling effect of convention in academic and research com-

munities. It is a demonstration that the significance of new empirical facts often

go unrecognised when they are not subsumed within the appropriate conceptual

scheme: aerodynamics were only considered to be relevant to Formula 1 to the

extent that they enabled a designer to minimise drag. One might say that a

particular engineering paradigm existed in Formula 1, unquestioned, until the

late 1960s, when the amount of suggestive empirical data built to such an extent

that a revolution was unavoidable.

The second revolution in Formula 1 aerodynamics occurred approximately

a decade after the first, with the introduction of the Lotus T78 in 1977, and its

further development, the Lotus T79 in 1978 (see Figure 6). It was discovered

that large amounts of downforce could be generated from the airflow between

the underbody of the car and the ground plane. In particular, low pressure

could be created underneath the car by using the ground plane almost like the

floor of a venturi duct. The ceiling of these venturi ducts took the form of

inverted wing profiles mounted in sidepods between the wheels of the car. The

decreasing cross-sectional area in the throat of these ducts, and the inverted

wing profile accelerated the airflow and created low pressure in accordance with

the Bernoulli principle. The gap between the bottom of the sidepods and the

ground was sealed by so-called ‘skirts’. When the rules permitted it, the skirts

were suspended from the sidepods with a vertical degree of freedom (Katz 1995,

p200) to maintain a constant seal with the ground under changes in the attitude

and ride height of the car.

Brabham responded to the Lotus ‘wing car’ with the BT46B ‘fan car’, in

which low pressure was created under the car by a rear-mounted fan driven off

the gearbox. Such a car is able to generate downforce independently of the

speed of airflow under the car, and the BT46B won its debut race in 1978, and

was promptly banned by the governing body.

Whilst the inverted wing profiles in the sidepods of ground effect cars were

often dubbed ‘sidewings’, and the bottom of the car was often dubbed the

‘underwing’, these names are potentially misleading because the downforce gen-

erated is largely dependent upon the presence of the ground plane, and would

not be generated in free flow. Note also that the tunnels created under the car

15

Figure 6: The skirted ground effect Lotus T79 of 1978.

are not strictly venturi ducts either. In a venturi duct, the sides of the duct do

not move with respect to each other. In contrast, underneath such a car the

ground plane and the airflow are both moving with respect to the walls and

ceiling of the ducts.

Again, this second revolution in Formula 1 aerodynamics could have been

implemented many years before it was. Jim Hall and Chevrolet R&D had tried

shaping the entire underbody as an inverted wing profile in the 1960s, and the

1970 Chaparral 2J had been equipped with two rear-mounted fans to lower the

air pressure under the car, and flexible plastic skirts to seal the low pressure

area. The Chaparral 2J was banned by the governing body of Can-Am at the

end of the season under lobbying from fellow competitors. In 1969, Formula 1

engineer Peter Wright designed an inverted wing body shape for BRM which

yielded promising results in the Imperial College wind-tunnel, (Wright 2001,

p301). However, the design never saw the light of day due to a management

upheaval. Peter Wright joined Lotus some years later, and made a serendipitous

discovery in the Imperial College wind-tunnel in 1975: “By the end of a week of

tunnel testing, the strong wooden model would have been so modified with card,

modeling clay, and sticky tape...that it had usually lost most of its structural

integrity. Toward the end of one of the weeks in the tunnel, I noticed that it was

becoming almost impossible to obtain consistent balance readings. Something

was wrong. Looking carefully at the model, it became clear that the side pods

were sagging under load and that as the speed of the tunnel increased, they

16

sagged even more. That indicated two things: (1) that the side pods had

started to generate downforce, and (2) that it had something to do with the gap

between their edges and the ground.

“Thin wire supports restored the side pods to their correct position and

stopped them from sagging - no downforce and consistent balance readings.

Next we taped card skirts to seal the gap between the edge of the side pods and

the ground, leaving only approximately 1mm (0.04in) gap. The total downforce

on the car doubled for only a small increase in drag!” (ibid., p302).

From 1983 onwards, the technical regulations in Formula 1 required the cars

to have flat bottoms with no skirts, and from mid-1994 onwards, the cars were

required to have flat bottoms with a central step running the length of the

underbody, yet substantial ground effect downforce could still be generated by

accelerating the airflow under the car. A flat plane inclined downwards with

respect to the airflow will generate downforce, and this effect will be amplified

by ground effect. In addition, more downforce can be generated by using an

upswept ‘diffuser’ between the wheels at the rear of the car to force air upwards

by means of the Coanda effect.

The Coanda effect is also utilised on a modern Formula 1 car with the pur-

pose, not of generating downforce directly, but of guiding and conditioning air-

flow in one place, as a means of maximising downforce elsewhere. For example,

the rear of a modern Formula 1 car is tightly tapered between the rear wheels,

rather like the neck and shoulders of a coke-bottle. By means of the Coanda

effect, the air flowing along the flanks of the sidepods adheres to the waisted

contours at the rear, and the airflow here is duly accelerated, creating lower

pressure. In itself, this tranverse pressure differential on either side of the car

cancels out, and creates no net force. However, the accelerated airflow between

the rear wheels and over the top of the diffuser does raise the velocity of the

air exiting the diffuser. The accelerated airflow over the lower surface of the

rear wing also contributes to raising the flow rate through the diffuser, thereby

enhancing the downforce it generates. In addition, coaxing air away from the

rear tyres, and injecting high speed airflow into the region of flow separation

behind the car, both contribute to reducing drag.

The Coanda effect is also used by the so-called ‘bargeboards’, aerodynamic

appendages typically sited between the trailing edge of the front wheels and the

leading edge of the sidepods (see Figure 7). Bargeboards are used to guide tur-

bulent air from the front wing wake, away from the vital airflow underneath the

car. In addition, the lower trailing edge of a bargeboard creates a vortex which

travels down the outer lower edge of the sidepod, acting as a surrogate skirt,

helping to seal the lower pressure area under the car. Such techniques, and the

continued utility of ground effect in Formula 1, demonstrate the irreversibility

of conceptual revolutions, even in the case of an engineering activity which faces

increasingly constrained technical regulations.

17

Figure 7: Modern Formula 1 bargeboard.

References

[1] Abraham, R., Marsden, J.E., and Ratiu, T. (1988). Manifolds, Tensor

Analysis, and Applications, Second Edition. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[2] Chorin, A.J. and Marsden, J.E. (1997). A Mathematical Introduction to

Fluid Mechanics, Third Edition. New York: Springer Verlag.

[3] Crummer, C.A. (1998). Aerodynamics at the particle level,

arXiv:nlin.CD/0507032.

[4] Hughes, M. (2005). Speed Addicts. London: CollinsWillow.

[5] Katz, J. (1995). Race Car Aerodynamics. Cambridge, MA: Bentley pub-

lishers.

Press.

tomotive Engineers.

18

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