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# TRIBHUWAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
PULCHOWK CAMPUS

Lab no:.....
Sinusoidal Oscillators

## Submitted to: Submitted by:

Department of Electronics and Name: Krijan Shrestha
Computer Engineering Roll no:072/BEL/320
Objectives:

## 1. To construct and demonstrate wein bridge oscillator.

2. To construct and demonstrate the RC phase shift oscillator.

Theory:

1.Feedback oscillator
When the output signal is injected from output to input terminal in phase with the input
signal,it is called as positive feedback.Positive feedback is basis for the design of oscillator
circuits.For other purpose it is seldom used.This is because the gain of the ampliflier is
already so high that positive feedback leads to further increase in the noise level and
ultimately cause distortion of signal.

2.Sinosoidal oscillators

## An electronic device that generates sinusoidal oscillations of desired frequency is

known as a sinusoidal oscillator. In practice, to obtain the sustained oscillations at desired
frequency of oscillations, oscillator circuit must satisfy some of the basic requirements such
as,circuit must have positive feedback,when positive feedback is used in the circuit, the
overall circuit gain is given by,
Af=A/(1-Aβ)

This equation indicates that if ‘Aβ’ is equal to 1 only then overall gain becomes infinity. This
means, there is output without any external input. In reality, to get sustained oscillations, at
the first time when the circuit is turned on, the loop gain must be slightly greater than one.
This will ensure that oscillations build up in the circuit. However, once a suitable level of
output voltage is reached, the loop gain must decrease automatically to unity. Only then the
circuit maintains the sustained oscillation. Otherwise, the circuit operates as over damped.
This can be achieved in the circuit either by decreasing amplifier gain A or decreasing the
feedback gain β.

3.Barkhausen Criteria
The ampliflier gain with feedback for the ampliflier with positive feedback is given by:
Af=A/(1-Aβ)
If Aβ=1 in the above expression then Af=∞
i.e. the gain of the ampliflier with feedback becomes infinite.This means there is output
without any input signal applied.This criterion (Aβ=1) for the ampliflier with positive
feedback is known as Barkhausen criteria.It is a basis for the design of oscillators and
function generators.

## 4.Wien –Bridge Oscillator:

The Wien Bridge Oscillator is so called because the circuit is based on a frequency-selective
form of the Wheatstone bridge circuit. The Wien Bridge oscillator is a two-stage RC coupled
amplifier circuit that has good stability at its resonant frequency, low distortion and is very
easy to tune making it a popular circuit as an audio frequency oscillator but the phase shift of
the output signal is considerably different from the previous phase shift RC Oscillator.
The Wien Bridge Oscillator uses a feedback circuit consisting of a series RC circuit
connected with a parallel RC of the same component values producing a phase delay or phase
advance circuit depending upon the frequency. At the resonant frequency ƒr the phase shift is
0o.

## Wien Bridge Oscillator Frequency

Fr=1/(2πRC )

 Where:
 ƒr is the Resonant Frequency in Hertz
 R is the Resistance in Ohms
 C is the Capacitance in Farads

## RC phase-shift oscillators use resistor-capacitor (RC) network (Figure 1) to provide the

phase-shift required by the feedback signal. They have excellent frequency stability and can
yield a pure sine wave for a wide range of loads.
Ideally a simple RC network is expected to have an output which leads the input by 90°.
However, in reality, the phase-difference will be less than this as the capacitor used in the
circuit cannot be ideal. Mathematically the phase angle of the RC network is expressed as

## Where, XC = 1/(2πfC) is the reactance of the capacitor C and R is the resistor.

Since the op-amp of the above oscillator is used in inverting configuration so the output of the op-amp
will be phase inverted. In order to feedback this output into input terminal it must undergo phase shift
of 180 degrees. The RC network provides the 180 degree phase shift and confirms positive feedback
to the amplifier.

Secondly the passive components are chosen such that magnitude of the loop gain of the circuit is
greater or equal to unity.

## Thus in this way RC phase shift oscillator generates sinusoidal output.

Observation:
1. Wein bridge oscillator
Fig: Proteus simulation for wein bridge oscillator

## Observation table for wein bridge oscillator

R1 R2 C1 C2 Fcalc(1/2πRC) Fcal

## Observation table for RC phase shift oscillator

R1 R2 R3 C1 C2 C3 Fcal Fmeas

## DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

In this lab, the working principle of wein bridge oscillator and RC phase shift oscillator was
observed and analyzed. When we In wein bridge oscillator the positive feedback only will
not be sufficient to produce output ,the open loop gain .