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INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

PULCHOWK CAMPUS

Lab no:.....

Sinusoidal Oscillators

Department of Electronics and Name: Krijan Shrestha

Computer Engineering Roll no:072/BEL/320

Objectives:

2. To construct and demonstrate the RC phase shift oscillator.

Theory:

1.Feedback oscillator

When the output signal is injected from output to input terminal in phase with the input

signal,it is called as positive feedback.Positive feedback is basis for the design of oscillator

circuits.For other purpose it is seldom used.This is because the gain of the ampliflier is

already so high that positive feedback leads to further increase in the noise level and

ultimately cause distortion of signal.

2.Sinosoidal oscillators

known as a sinusoidal oscillator. In practice, to obtain the sustained oscillations at desired

frequency of oscillations, oscillator circuit must satisfy some of the basic requirements such

as,circuit must have positive feedback,when positive feedback is used in the circuit, the

overall circuit gain is given by,

Af=A/(1-Aβ)

This equation indicates that if ‘Aβ’ is equal to 1 only then overall gain becomes infinity. This

means, there is output without any external input. In reality, to get sustained oscillations, at

the first time when the circuit is turned on, the loop gain must be slightly greater than one.

This will ensure that oscillations build up in the circuit. However, once a suitable level of

output voltage is reached, the loop gain must decrease automatically to unity. Only then the

circuit maintains the sustained oscillation. Otherwise, the circuit operates as over damped.

This can be achieved in the circuit either by decreasing amplifier gain A or decreasing the

feedback gain β.

3.Barkhausen Criteria

The ampliflier gain with feedback for the ampliflier with positive feedback is given by:

Af=A/(1-Aβ)

If Aβ=1 in the above expression then Af=∞

i.e. the gain of the ampliflier with feedback becomes infinite.This means there is output

without any input signal applied.This criterion (Aβ=1) for the ampliflier with positive

feedback is known as Barkhausen criteria.It is a basis for the design of oscillators and

function generators.

The Wien Bridge Oscillator is so called because the circuit is based on a frequency-selective

form of the Wheatstone bridge circuit. The Wien Bridge oscillator is a two-stage RC coupled

amplifier circuit that has good stability at its resonant frequency, low distortion and is very

easy to tune making it a popular circuit as an audio frequency oscillator but the phase shift of

the output signal is considerably different from the previous phase shift RC Oscillator.

The Wien Bridge Oscillator uses a feedback circuit consisting of a series RC circuit

connected with a parallel RC of the same component values producing a phase delay or phase

advance circuit depending upon the frequency. At the resonant frequency ƒr the phase shift is

0o.

Fr=1/(2πRC )

Where:

ƒr is the Resonant Frequency in Hertz

R is the Resistance in Ohms

C is the Capacitance in Farads

phase-shift required by the feedback signal. They have excellent frequency stability and can

yield a pure sine wave for a wide range of loads.

Ideally a simple RC network is expected to have an output which leads the input by 90°.

However, in reality, the phase-difference will be less than this as the capacitor used in the

circuit cannot be ideal. Mathematically the phase angle of the RC network is expressed as

Since the op-amp of the above oscillator is used in inverting configuration so the output of the op-amp

will be phase inverted. In order to feedback this output into input terminal it must undergo phase shift

of 180 degrees. The RC network provides the 180 degree phase shift and confirms positive feedback

to the amplifier.

Secondly the passive components are chosen such that magnitude of the loop gain of the circuit is

greater or equal to unity.

Observation:

1. Wein bridge oscillator

Fig: Proteus simulation for wein bridge oscillator

R1 R2 C1 C2 Fcalc(1/2πRC) Fcal

R1 R2 R3 C1 C2 C3 Fcal Fmeas

In this lab, the working principle of wein bridge oscillator and RC phase shift oscillator was

observed and analyzed. When we In wein bridge oscillator the positive feedback only will

not be sufficient to produce output ,the open loop gain .

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