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Seakeeping Theory

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4.2 Seakeeping and Maneuvering Kinematics

4.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model

4.4 Time-Domain Models including Fluid Memory Effects

1

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

Chapter 5 - Seakeeping Theory

Equations of Motion

Seakeeping theory is formulated in equilibrium (SEAKEEPING) axes {s} but it can be

transformed to BODY axes {b} by including fluid memory effects represented by

impulse response functions.

The transformation is is done within a linear framework such that additional nonlinear

viscous damping must be added in the time-domain under the assumption of linear

superposition.

Damping forces: D p D V r D n r r

Restoring forces: g g o

Wind and wave forces: wind wave

Propulsion forces:

2

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.1 Hydrodynamic Concepts and Potential

Theory

Strip Theory (2-D Potential Theory)

For slender bodies, the motion of the fluid can be formulated as a 2-D problem. An

accurate estimate of the hydrodynamic forces can be obtained by applying strip theory

(Newman, 1977; Faltinsen, 1990; Journee and Massie, 2001).

The 2-D theory takes into account that variation of the flow in the cross-directional plane

is much larger than the variation in the longitudinal direction of the ship.

The principle of strip theory involves dividing the submerged part of the craft into a finite

number of strips. Hence, 2-D hydrodynamic coefficients for added mass can be computed

for each strip and then summed over the length of the body to yield the 3-D coefficients.

3

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

ShipX (VERES) by MARINTEK

MARINTEK - the Norwegian Marine Technology Research

Institute - does research and development in the

maritime sector for industry and the public sector. The

Institute develops and verifies technological solutions

for the shipping and maritime equipment industries and

for offshore petroleum production.

VERES - VEssel RESponse program is a Strip Theory Program which calculates wave-induced

loads on and motions of mono-hulls and barges in deep to very shallow water. The

program is based on the famous paper by Salvesen, Tuck and Faltinsen (1970). Ship

Motions and Sea Loads. Trans. SNAME.

4

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

ShipX (VERES) by MARINTEK

ShipX (Veres)

5

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

OCTOPUS SEAWAY by Amarcon

and AMARCON cooperate in further development of SEAWAY

AMARCON agree to cooperate in further development of

SEAWAY. MARIN is an internationally recognized authority on

hydrodynamics, involved in frontier breaking research programs

for the maritime and offshore industries and navies.

SEAWAY is a Strip Theory Program to calculate wave-induced loads on and motions of mono-

hulls and barges in deep to very shallow water. When not accounting for interaction effects

between the hulls, also catamarans can be analyzed. Work of very acknowledged

hydromechanic scientists (such as Ursell, Tasai, Frank, Keil, Newman, Faltinsen, Ikeda, etc.)

has been used, when developing this code.

SEAWAY has extensively been verified and validated using other computer

codes and experimental data.

6

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

7

7 Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.1 Hydrodynamic Concepts and Potential

Theory

Panel Methods (3-D Potential Theory)

For potential flows, the integrals over the fluid domain can be transformed to integrals

over the boundaries of the fluid domain. This allows the application of panel or boundary

3D Visualization of the W amit file: supply.gdf

3D Panelization of

a Supply Vessel

4

-2

Z-axis (m)

-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

-40

-30

-20

3

-10

20

0

10

10 0

20 -10

30 -20

Panel methods divide the surface of the ship and the surrounding water into discrete

X-axis (m)

40 -30

Y-axis (m)

defined which fulfill the Laplace equation.

8

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

WAMIT

WAMIT® is the most advanced set of tools available for analyzing wave interactions with

offshore platforms and other structures or vessels.

WAMIT® was developed by Professor Newman and coworkers at MIT in 1987, and it has

gained widespread recognition for its ability to analyze the complex structures with a high

degree of accuracy and efficiency.

Over the past 20 years WAMIT has been licensed to more than

80 industrial and research organizations worldwide.

9

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.1 Hydrodynamic Concepts and Potential

Theory

Potential theory programs typically compute:

• Potential damping coefficients, B(w)

• Restoring terms, C

• 1st- and 2nd-order wave-induced forces and motions

(amplitudes and phases) for given wave directions and frequencies

• … and much more

One special feature of WAMIT is that the program solves a boundary value problem

for zero and infinite added mass. These boundary values are particular useful when

computing the retardation functions describing the fluid memory effects.

The toolbox reads output data files generated by the hydrodynamic programs:

• WAMIT by WAMIT Inc.

10

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.2 Seakeeping and Maneuvering

Kinematics

Seakeeping Theory (Perturbation Coordinates)

The SEAKEEPING reference frame {s} is not fixed to

the craft; it is fixed to the equilibrium state:

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 T #

-In the absence of wave excitation, {s} coincides with {b}.

- Under the action of the waves, the hull is disturbed from

sb 4 , 5 , 6 , , #its equilibrium and {s} oscillates, with respect to its

equilibrium position.

nns 0, 0, 0 #

UL e 1 # 0 0 0 0 0 0

ns 0, 0, #

0 0 0 0 0 1

UL #

0 0 0 0 1 0

L : 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 #

e 1 1, 0,0,0, 0, 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

11

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model

Seakeeping Analysis

The seakeeping equations of motion are considered to be inertial:

Equations of Motion

fluid can be related to frequency-dependent added mass A(ω) and potential damping

B(ω) according to:

t

hyd Ā K

t d #

0

12

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model

Ā A

13

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model

t

hyd Ā K

t d #

0

2

Kt 0 B costd #

Cummins Model

If linear restoring forces ths = -Cξ are included in the model, this results in the

time-domain model:

t

MRB A K

t d C exc #

0

state-space model to avoid the integral

14

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model

17 Exponential decaying viscous damping is included for B11.

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3 The Classical Frequency-Domain Model

18 Exponential decaying viscous damping is included for B22 and B66 while viscous IKEDA damping is included in B44

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3.1 Potential Coefficients and the

Concept of Forced Oscillations

MRB hyd hs f cost # harmonic excitation

In an experimental setup with a restrained scale model, it is possible to vary the wave

excitation frequency w and the amplitudes fi of the excitation force. Hence, by measuring

the position and attitude vector x, the response of the 2nd-order order system can be

fitted to a linear model:

which varies with the frequency of the forced oscillation.

This model is rooted deeply in the literature of hydrodynamics and the abuse of notation of

this false time-domain model has been discussed eloquently in the literature (incorrect

mixture of time and frequency in an ODE).

Consequently, we will use Cummins time-domain model and transform this model to the

frequency domain – no mixture of time and frequency!

19

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3.2 Frequency-Domain Seakeeping

Models

t

MRB A K

t d C exc #

0

(Newman, 1977; Faltinsen 1990) according to:

where the complex response and excitation variables are written as:

exc,i t i cost i exc,i j exc,i expj i #

The potential coefficients A(ω) and B(ω) are usually computed using a seakeeping program

but the frequency response will not be accurate unless viscous damping is included.

The optional viscous damping matrix BV(ω) can be used to model viscous damping such as

skin friction, surge resistance and viscous roll damping (for instance IKEDA roll damping).

20

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.3.2 Frequency-Domain Seakeeping

Models

Viscous frequency-dependent damping:

2 MRB A jB total C j wave j wind j j #

1 e N ITTC A 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 2 e 0 0 0 0

i e

0 0 0 0 0 0

B V # Quadratic ITTC drag:

0 0 0 IKEDA 0 0

X X |u|u |u|u

0 0 0 0 0 0

N ITTC A1 u #

0 0 0 0 0 6 e

(similar to the equivalent linearization method):

u Asint # 2

y NAu # NA c 1 8A c 2 3A c 3 #

y c 1 x c 2 x|x|c 3 x 33 # 3 4

21

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.4 Time-Domain Models including Fluid

Memory Effects

Cummins equation in SEAKEEPING coordinates

(linear theory which includes fluid memory effects)

(linearized kinematic transformation)

(fluid memory effects are approximated as state-space models)

(nonlinear viscous damping/maneuvering coefficients

are added manually)

22

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.4.1 Cummins Equation in SEAKEEPING

Coordinates

Cummins (1962) Equation

t

MRB Ā t d C

K wind wave #

Ā A #

t 2

K 0 B total costd #

2

Kt 0 B total B total costd #

t

MRB A B total Kt d C wind wave #

0

23

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.4.2 Linear Time-Domain Seakeeping

Equations in BODY Coordinates

t

MRB A B total Kt d C wind wave #

0

It is possible to transform the time-domain representation of Cummins equation from {s} to {b}

using the kinematic relationships:

UL e 1 #

UL #

This gives:

t

MRB A UL B total UL e 1 Kt d C wind wave #

0

The steady-state control force τ needed to obtain the forward speed U when τwind = τwave= 0 and

δη = 0 is:

B totalUe 1 #

Hence,

t

MRB A UL B total UL Kt d C wind wave #

0

24

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.4.2 Linear Time-Domain Seakeeping

Equations in BODY Coordinates

t

MRB A UL B total UL Kt d C wind wave #

0

When computing the damping and retardation functions, it is common to neglect the

influence of δη on the forward speed such that:

v UL e 1 v Ue 1 #

Finally, let use replace ν by the relative velocity νr to include ocean currents and define:

M = MRB + MA such that :

t

M C RB C A r Dr Kt Ue 1 d G wind wave #

0

where

MA A

C A UAL

C RB UMRB L Linear Coriolis and

D B total centripetal forces due

GC to a rotation of {b} about {s}

25

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.4.2 Linear Time-Domain Seakeeping

Equations in BODY Coordinates

Fluid Memory Effects

The integral in the following equation represents the fluid memory effects:

t

M C RB C A r Dr Kt Ue 1 d G wind wave #

0

t

: 0 Kt Ue 1 d #

Hs Ue 1 #

Approximated by a state-

x 10

7 K22(t)

space model

x A rx B r

2.5

2 #

1.5

C rx

1

0.5

0

-0.5 2

Kt 0 B B costd #

-1

0 5 10 15 20 25

time (s)

26

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.4.3 Nonlinear Unified Seakeeping and

Maneuvering Model with

Fluid Memory Effects

Linear Seakeeping Equations (BODY coordinates)

• Replace linear Coriolis and centripetal forces with their nonlinear counterparts

• Include maneuvering coefficients in a nonlinear damping matrix (linear superposition)

J #

Mr C RB C A r r Drr G wind wave #

27

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.5 Case Study: Identification of Fluid

Memory Effects

The fluid memory effects can be approximated using frequency-domain identification. The

main tool for this is the MSS FDI toolbox (Perez and Fossen 2009) - www.marinecontrol.org

When using the frequency-domain approach, the property that the mapping: #

has relative degree one is exploited. Hence, the fluid memory effects μ can be approximated

by a matrix H(s) containing relative degree one transfer functions:

Hs #

h ij s

sn q n1 sn1 ...q 0

r n 1, n 2

State-space model:

Hs C rsI A r 1 B r #

x A r x B r

#

C rx

28

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.5.1 Frequency-Domain Identification

using the MSS FDI Toolbox

Consider the FPSO data set in the MSS toolbox (FDI tool) and assumes that the infinite

added mass matrix is unknown. Hence, we can estimate the fluid transfer function h33(s) by

using the following Matlab code:

load fpso

Dof = [3,3]; %Use coupling 3-3 heave-heave

Nf = length(vessel.freqs);

W = vessel.freqs(1:Nf-1)';

Ainf = vessel.A(Dof(1),Dof(2),Nf); % Ainf computed by WAMIT

A = reshape(vessel.A(Dof(1),Dof(2),1:Nf-1),1,length(W))';

B = reshape(vessel.B(Dof(1),Dof(2),1:Nf-1),1,length(W))';

FDIopt.OrdMax = 20;

FDIopt.AinfFlag = 0;

FDIopt.Method = 2;

FDIopt.Iterations = 20;

FDIopt.PlotFlag = 0;

FDIopt.LogLin = 1;

FDIopt.wsFactor = 0.1;

FDIopt.wminFactor = 0.1;

FDIopt.wmaxFactor = 5;

[KradNum,KradDen,Ainf] = FDIRadMod(W,A,0,B,FDIopt,Dof)

29

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.5.1 Frequency-Domain Identification

using the MSS FDI Toolbox

FPSO identification results for h₃₃(s) without using the infinite added mass A₃₃(∞). The left-hand-side plots show

30 the complex coefficient and its estimate while added mass and damping are plotted on the right-hand-side.

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

5.5.1 Frequency-Domain Identification

using the MSS FDI Toolbox

h 33 s 4

s 1. 233 s 3 0. 7295 s 2 0. 1955 s 0. 01639

x A rx B r

#

1. 2335 0. 7295 0. 1955 0. 0164 C rx

1 0 0 0

Ar

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

1

0

Br

0

0

Dr 0

31

Lecture Notes TTK 4190 Guidance and Control of Vehicles (T. I. Fossen)

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