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Professional Training

JEBEL ALI POWER PLANT

EXCITATION SYSTEM & STATIC


FREQUENCY CONVERTER

9640024

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PEDAGOGICAL COMPONENTS OF TEACHING UNIT

TYPE ACRONYM TITLE LOCATION


TEACHER'S
GUIDELINE
LEARNER'S 9640024.doc EXCITATION SYSTEM & STATIC
GUIDELINE FREQUENCY CONVERTER
COURSE

COMPUTER-ASSISTED
GUIDELINES
COMPUTER-ASSISTED
LESSON
VIDEO

PRACTICE

PROCESS
SIMULATOR
PLANT
SIMULATOR

LESSON AUDIO VISUAL AIDS

OVERHEAD PROJECTOR
P.C. CONNECTED TO VIDEO PROJECTOR X
ENGINEERING SIMULATOR CONNECTED TO VIDEO PROJECTOR
TRAINING SIMULATOR
VIDEORECORDER
OTHERS

REFERENCE BIBLIOGRAPHY
LG 874 - Synchronous generator, excitation system Daturi F.
and transformers
Description of the SEMIPOL Excitation Equipment Alstom
Description of the Startup Frequency Converter Alstom

0 Sept. 2001 First issue Scio G.


Rev. Date Modified pages Issued by
File name: 375111312.doc - Last storage date: 28 November 2001 - Total page number: 55

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AIMS

AT THE END OF THE COURSE THE TRAINEES SHOULD BE


ABLE TO:

 DESCRIBE THE EXCITATION AND THE RELATED VOLTAGE


CONTROL SYSTEM MAIN WORKING PRINCIPLES
 DESCRIBE THE EXCITATION AND THE RELATED VOLTAGE
CONTROL SYSTEM MAIN CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS PLUS
THE OPERATIONAL ASPECTS AND ITS PERFORMANCES.

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TOPIC LIST OF TEACHING UNIT:


EXCITATION SYSTEM & STATIC FREQUENCY CONVERTER

EXCITATION SYSTEM
(BASIC NOTIONS)

EXCITATION SYSTEM

DE-EXCITATION AND OVERVOLTAGE


PROTECTION

AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS

CURRENT LIMITATION

EXCITATION SYSTEM TECHNICAL DATA

STATIC FREQUENCY CONVERTER


(BASIC NOTIONS)

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
(BASIC NOTIONS)

SFC OPERATION PRINCIPLE

SFC MOTORIZING TORQUE

SFC CONTROLLERS

SFC PROTECTION

STATIC FREQUENCY TECHNICAL DATA

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DETAILED PLAN OF TEACHING UNIT:


EXCITATION SYSTEM & STATIC FREQUENCY CONVERTER

Topics Teaching Training


aids place
Functions of the Excitation System Fig. 1
Exciter and voltage regulator diagram Fig. 2
Excitation System - General layout Fig. 3
De-excitation and overvoltage protection Fig. 4
Automatic Voltage Regulators Fig. 5 - 6
Control section Fig. 7-8-9-10-11 C
Current limitation - Time-dependent Fig. 12 L
Technical data of excitation equipment Fig. 13 A
Static Frequency Converter Fig. 14 S
Principles of operation of the SFC Fig. 15 S
Synchronous motor Fig. 16 R
SFC operation principle Fig. 17-18-19 O
SFC motorizing torque Fig. 20 O
SFC controllers Fig. 21 M
SFC typical protections Fig. 22
SFC technical data Fig. 23

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THE GENERATOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE IS


CONTROLLED BY MODULATING THE FIELD CURRENT

Output On-loadoperationat
voltage theratedpowerand
V[kV] cos = 1

Vn Off-load

On-loadoperationat
theratedpowerand
cos= 0,9lag

Ifo If1 If2 Fieldcurrent


If[A]
Inon-loadoperationthefieldcurrentm
ustbe
incremented
If2>If1>Ifo
tocompensatetheinternalvoltagedrop
andmantainconstanttheoutputvoltage

THE EXCITATION SYSTEM PRODUCES THE FIELD CURRENT


REQUIRED FROM THE VOLTAGE CONTROL SYSTEM

Fig. 1 - FUNCTIONS OF THE EXCITATION SYSTEM

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TITLE :
9640024
FUNCTIONS OF THE EXCITATION SYSTEM
FIGURE N° 1

KEY MESSAGE

The excitation system is to be designed in order to produce and supply the rotor winding with the
current value required to keep the tension at the terminals constant.

REMARKS

Since tension at the terminals is influenced by the alternator load supply ,it is necessary to
modulate the excitation current value in order to keep V constant according to the following mode:

1. The load variation causes I  which causes V


2. The rotor current variation causes  Ie  generates   E which annuls V.

In fact the field current may have many different values depending on the load supplied.

 At empty load (the machine is connected to the grid but the load is null) the excitation current
equals Ifo
 At direct nominal power with resistive load only (The alternator is only supplying MW) the
excitation current equals If1
 At direct nominal power with an inductive resistive load of cos = 0,9 lag, (the alternator
supplies active , MW, and reactive, MWAR, power) the excitation current equals:
If2

Furthermore the system is required to change the direct current quickly (few milliseconds) in
order to adapt to the variations of the active and resistive loads and to keep the tension at
the terminals as constant as possible.

NOTES

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1 kV BBA 130 kV 1 kV BBA

EXC TIATOI N
TRANSFORMER
STAT CI FREQUENCY
CONVERTER
STAT CI EXC ITAT OI N

VT
I VI

AUTOM AT CI CHANNEL

CT II VI

I VI

AUTOM AT CI CHANNEL

I
VI

II
V

II
VI

STARTUPBUS
V AC D/ C
M ANUALCONTROL
CONVERTER

G
U>

Voltage error = Voltage S.P. – Voltage Measure

Set Point Ev Automatic Voltage


Voltage Regulator
CT

VT

Over Excitation Limit

Under Excitation Limit

Fig. 2 – EXCITER AND VOLTAGE REGULATOR DIAGRAM

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TITLE :
9640024 EXCITER AND VOLTAGE REGULATOR DIAGRAM
FIGURE N° 2 (typical)

KEY MESSAGE
The static exciter consists in AC  DC thyristor converters (Silicon Controlled Rectifier - SCR),
powered by group bars. SCR bridges supply current to the alternator's rotor through a system of
slip rings, fitted on the rotor tree , and two groups of brushes , one for each polarity (“+” and “-”).

REMARKS
The excitation transformer supplies the current feed (three phase alternating voltage at the right
value) to the thyristor bridge; its function is to rectify the voltage and to feed the inductive circuit of
the alternator with direct current which value is changing according to the commands received
from the voltage regulator. In fact the bridge's thyristors are controlled by the regulator, which
provides the machine's upright with the proper voltage, by modifying the field current at every
variation of the load produced by the alternator.
The voltage regulator controls the excitation current, by means of a conversion bridge AC 
DC, in order to annul the difference between set point and the voltage value, voltage error
due to a current feedback loop. The voltage is measured at the machine terminals with
dedicated transformers (VT), this value reaches a summing network where it's compared to the
set point value fixed by the operator. The conversion thyristor bridge receives a signal from the
bridge's voltage regulator and generates a variable voltage depending on the moment the ignition
of the thyristors occurs, by means of the ignition gate. Thus generated field voltage establishes
the necessary field current value to keep the terminals' voltage value constant and to compensate
the voltage drop due to the stator current.
To ensure that the alternator is working within the designed standards, the voltage and
machine current values must apply to the following conditions:
 Voltage must not exceed the maximum admissible value during continuous operation in
order to avoid insulation damage: this means that the stator current mustn't exceed the
maximum foreseen value to avoid dangerous over-heating and stator over-voltage. This
limit is called "over excitation limit".
 Voltage mustn't decrease under the minimum admissible value during continuous
operation, not to:
a) overheat the heads of the stator block (due to the flux dispersion) and the stator
windings (because a voltage drop causes an increase in the current under the same power
conditions).
b) risk a loss of step.
This limit is called "under excitation limit".
For this purpose, besides the voltage feedback (explained before), two other kinds of voltage
feedback bias set point are used: the first controls the under excitation limit and it's based
on the stator's voltage and current values measured by proper voltage and current transformers
(VT & CT), the second controls the over excitation limit and it's based on the stator's current
value; the two limits operate as follows:
 When the voltage at the terminals is decreasing below the under excitation limit the
feedback bias increases the voltage set point to restore it to the limit.
 When the output current is increasing over the excitation limit the feedback bias decreases
the voltage set point to restore the output and rotor current to the limit.

NOTES

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1 Synchronous generator
2 DC/DC Transducer
3 DE-excitation CB
4 DE-excitation resistor
5 Overvoltage protection
7 DC/DC converter for Exciter
Current Automatic
8 Thyristor rectifier
9 Three phase damping unit
10 Voltage supply for controller
11 DC supply
12 Converter transformer
13 Feeder circuit breaker
14 Generator Potential transformer (reference
15 Generator Potential transformer
16 Generator Current transformer
17 Excitation Current transformer

Fig. 3 - EXCITATION SYSTEM - GENERAL LAYOUT

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TITLE :
9640024
EXCITATION SYSTEM – GENERAL LAYOUT
FIGURE N° 3
KEY MESSAGE

The static excitation equipment converts a 3-phase AC to a DC which is used to generate the
magnetic field in the generator.

REMARKS

AC Power Circuit
At the primary end, the converter transformer is connected via the circuit breaker [13] to the
high voltage supply.
The converter transformer feeds the thyristor bridge [8] and the control transformer [10].

DC Power Section
The direct current flows from the thyristors via the DC/DC-Transducer [2] (which detects the
actual value) to the excitation winding of the synchronous generator via the de-excitation [3].
Depending on the phase sequence of their firing pulses, the thyristors supply a continuously
adjustable DC voltage and hence a variable DC for the excitation of the generator. Given a
continuous DC current, the DC voltage can be continuously adjusted by the grid control of the
thyristors between + 100% and -87%.

NOTES

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Crow-bar
(staticde-exciter)
If
+
r Rotorwinding
s Rs
t
-
Threephase Slipringsandbrushes
SCRbridge Dam ping
anddischarge
Resistor
Vf If

If
+Vf (a)

(a)Fieldcurrentdam ping
withfieldvoltageforcing
tozero

(b)

(b)Fieldcurrentdam ping
to t2 time with:
(msec) -fieldvoltageforcing
tozero
-dam pingresistor
(crow-barintervention)
- transientreversingofthe
voltagepolarity

-Vf

Fig. 4 - DE-EXCITATION AND OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION

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TITLE :
9640024
DE-EXCITATION AND OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
FIGURE N° 4
KEY MESSAGE

The DC overvoltage protection consists of the 2 antiparallel thyristors and the protective resistor
Rs; its purpose is to protect both the thyristors of the three-phase bridges and the rotor against
excessively high overvoltages.

REMARKS
Overvoltage Protection Equipment
In the event of a terminal short-circuit of synchronous machines, an AC component can be
superimposed upon the flowing excitation current; this AC component can amount to a multiple
of the rated excitation current and hence lead to impressed negative currents in the excitation
circuit.
This current flows in the off-state direction, so that it cannot be carried by the thyristors of the
three phase bridge with the consequence of a build-up of overvoltages. These currents are
discharged and overvoltages avoided by the thyristor which is antiparallel against the three-
phase bridge and which fires now, as well as by the protective resistor Rs.
If one of the two thyristor of the overvoltage protection has fired, the voltage drop at the
protective resistor Rs is detected by the thyristor protection. The control system then
immediately disables the regulators. The current in the protective thyristors hence drops to
zero, the relay is released, and normal operation continues. A protective tripping action is only
triggered off after approx. 4 seconds if the current continues repeatedly flowing via the
protective resistor.

De-excitation Process
In order to disconnect the generator from the active grid, for service suspension or damages, it
is necessary to quickly annul the tension at the terminals and the output current from
the generator.
The operation can only be successful with the forced zero deflection of the SCR bridge, but this
sudden variation will produce [see example (a) in the figure]:
 A high over-voltage in the rotor circuits and therefore in the stator ones.
 A noticeable slow dampening of the field current.
To obviate these kind of troubles, at the opening of the switch an high resistance is plugged in
series by means of two counter-phase connected SCR called "crow-bars".
Its purpose is to absorb the energy stored in the rotor magnetic field and to accelerate the
dampening of the field current.
To add further speed to the phenomenon the field tension polarity is temporarily inverted until
the field current is annulled.
The crow-bar also works to remove the alternate transitory currents over-imposed on the direct
current, due to cogging caused by grid damages, from the dampening resistance.
The excitation current has to be forced to zero as quickly as possible when the excitation
equipment is switched Off. This can be particularly important in the event of a protective shut-
down.
NOTES

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1 Synchronous generator
2 DC/DC Transducer
3 DE-excitation
4 DE-excitation resistor
5 Overvoltage protection
7 DC/DC converter for Exciter
Current Automatic
8 Thyristor rectifier
9 Three phase damping unit
10 Voltage supply for controller
11 DC supply
12 Converter transformer
13 Feeder circuit breaker
14 Generator Potential transformer (reference
15 Generator Potential transformer
16 Generator Current transformer
17 Excitation Current transformer

Fig. 5 - AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS – AUTOMATIC MODE

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TITLE :
9640024
AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS – AUTOMATIC MODE
FIGURE N° 5
KEY MESSAGE
With the excitation system in the Automatic mode, you can control the generator voltage
including reactive current and/or compensation, or control of the reactive power or cos . The
control mode, i.e. reactive power or cos  control, is indicated within the framework of the
system data of the equipment. A generator voltage control forms part of the automatic mode of
every equipment.

REMARKS
As a precondition for the starting of the equipment, no fault signal and no “Off” command may be
pending, and the signal “n> 95%” (generator speed higher than 95% of rated speed) must be
available.

The static excitation equipment has 2 separate control loops (modes of operation):
a) Automatic mode (control of the generator voltage);
b) Manual mode (control of the excitation current)
After the equipment has been started, the generator voltage setpoint is set to the value of the
rated voltage. If the reactive-power/cos  controller is ON, the given reactive power will be
adjusted after the generator has been connected to the mains. The generator voltage setpoint
can be adjusted with the UG up and UG down keys. The reactive-power and cos  setpoints can
also be adjusted via 2 keys.
The following limitation controllers are additionally available in the automatic mode:
1. Underexcitation limitation
2. Excitation current limitation
3. Generator current limitation
4. U/f limitation.
5. Power system stabilizer (PSS)
These limitation controllers can be switched ON and 0FF by toggle switches on the control panel
of the equipment.

NOTES

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1 Synchronous generator
2 DC/DC Transducer
3 DE-excitation CB
4 DE-excitation resistor
5 Overvoltage protection
7 DC/DC converter for Exciter
Current Automatic
8 Thyristor rectifier
9 Three phase damping unit
10 Voltage supply for controller
11 DC supply
12 Converter transformer
13 Feeder circuit breaker
14 Generator Potential transformer (reference
15 Generator Potential transformer
16 Generator Current transformer
17 Excitation Current transformer

Fig. 6 - AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS – MANUAL MODE

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TITLE :
9640024
AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS – MANUAL MODE
FIGURE N° 6
KEY MESSAGE
The manual mode should only be activated for emergency operating purposes and for service or
commissioning activities. The standard manual mode does not include any limitation controller. It
can be seen from the system data whether the equipment is equipped with limitation controllers in
the manual mode.

REMARKS
When the equipment is started in the manual mode, the current setpoint is 0. This means that
initially no excitation current will flow. The appropriate excitation current can then be adjusted via
the keys “Manual setpoint up” and “Manual setpoint down”.
The manual mode is activated automatically in the event of a fault which would lead to a
protection Off from the equipment. If the equipment has a 2nd automatic channel (see system
data) this alternative channel will be activated first before the manual mode will eventually be
activated when this 2nd channel fails too.
The output of the controllers which are currently inactive is brought to the same level as the
output of the active controller in order to ensure smooth switching over. It is also possible to
change the mode of operation manually while the equipment is operating. The difference between
the two controllers is displayed by an instrument as a means of checking that the switch-over
process can proceed smoothly.
The faults occurring in the excitation equipment are displayed on a display device on the control
panel of the equipment. The messages displayed include a description of the problem, as well as
a reference to the page of the circuit diagram where the fault signal is generated. A red LED on
the instrument panel of the equipment goes on as a group signal. After the cause of the fault has
been eliminated, the reset button must be pressed on the control panel of the excitation
equipment.
The excitation equipment can be operated via the control panel at the equipment and at a central
control desk. A key- operated switch on the control panel can be set to the “local” or “remote”
control mode of the equipment. The excitation equipment can only be switched on and off and the
setpoints can only be adjusted at the control point which is currently active.
Fault messages can only be reset at the control panel at the excitation equipment.

NOTES

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Fig. 7 – CONTROL SECTION

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TITLE :
9640024
STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT
FIGURE N° 7 CONTROL SECTION

KEY MESSAGE
The generator voltage regulation functionality (automatic mode) is implemented in the form of a suitable
program. The excitation current regulation functionality (manual mode) is implemented as an analog system
designed to work as emergency system which is limited to the basic functions.

REMARKS
Actual value processing
The generator voltage is supplied to the actual-value-processing system as a 6-phase quantity, whereas
the generator current is supplied as a 3-phase quantity. The active power and the reactive power are
generated on this basis as a DC voltage (0-10V). Generator current and voltage are also supplied as a
DC voltage (0-10V).
The generator voltage as the most important actual value is monitored via a separate path [24]. The
manual channel is activated if a measurement is detected.
a) Generator voltage measurement
The generator voltage is stepped down (normally to 100V = Unominal) by 3 voltage transformers outside
the excitation equipment (see [15] in fig. 7). In the excitation equipment itself, the voltage is stepped
down once again and rectified on a 12-pulse basis. The smoothed DC quantity is supplied to the
regulation system via an analog/digital converter.
b) Generator current measurement
The measurement of the generator current is necessary for the calculation of the active and reactive
power and for the limitation controllers. The actual 3-phase current value is fed into the excitation
equipment (normally 1 ….5A =I nominal) via 3 current transformers outside the excitation equipment
(see [16] in fig. 7).
The current Is converted to a voltage, rectified and supplied to the regulation system via an
analog/digital converter.
c) Excitation current measurement
The excitation current is measured separately for the automatic and for the manual channel, so that
the manual mode is possible independent of the automatic channel.
For the purposes of the automatic mode, the excitation current is measured by the 2 current
transformers at the AC side of the thyristor bridge (see [17] in fig. 7). The measured current value is
converted to a DC voltage and supplied to the regulation system via an analog/digital converter.
The actual value for the manual mode is measured via the potential transformer (see [2] in fig. 7). The
voltage which is potential-isolated against the power section is supplied to the regulation system.
For the measurement of the generator frequency, two phases of the voltage measurement which are
offset by 900 are converted to a rectangular signal [25]. A counter counts the incoming pulses and
measures the time between two pulse edges.
All the measured values are supplied to the regulation system via analog/digital converters.
In the digital part of the regulation system, the measurement is fine-tuned to 1.0 at the nominal value.

NOTES

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Fig. 8 - CONTROL SECTION

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TITLE :
9640024
STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT
FIGURE N° 8 CONTROL SECTION

KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS
Adjusting the generator voltage setpoint [2]
The generator voltage setpoint is automatically set to rated voltage when the excitation
equipment is activated. The value can be adjusted by pressing the “raise” and “lower” keys on
the control panel at the excitation equipment. Two setpoint adjusting rates are possible. If the
generator voltage is less than 80% of the rated voltage, the setpoint is adjusted quickly. If the
voltage exceeds 80% of the rated voltage, the setpoint is adjusted slowly in order to permit a
more precise adjustment. In the central control stand the adjustment can be done by direct
setting of the % value.
Automatic setpoint tracking [18]:
If the generator voltage is outside the permitted range [22] (this range is adjusted during the
commissioning phase) the setpoint is automatically adjusted until the voltage returns to the
permitted range. If the manual channel is active, the voltage controller is adjusted at the output
value of the manual channel in order to avoid a sudden change in setpoint in the event of a
switching over from the manual to the automatic mode.

Generator voltage controller [2 - 3]


Besides the setpoint and actual value, several additional and limitation controllers [7 - 22] have
an influence on the voltage controller. The output of this controller influences the pulse
excitation unit [6] for the displacement of the firing pulses for the thyristor bridge and hence
changes the excitation voltage. The generator voltage controller is a PI controller.

Underexcitation limitation controller [10]


In order to prevent the machine from pulling out of step as a consequence of an underexcitation
condition, the excitation current on reaching of the underexcitation characteristic is recorded.
The characteristic is defined by a basic value and two salient points in accordance with the
generator diagram [7]. The limit characteristic of this regulation system must be before the
characteristic of the underexcitation protection in order to prevent the generator from being
disconnected from the mains by the protection system. As the pull-out limit depends on the
generator voltage and active power [8, 9] these two parameters also influence the under-
excitation limitation controller. The reactive power serves as actual value. A maximum-value
selection function [4] ensures the smooth transition between the voltage controller and the
underexcitation limitation controller. The controller prevents underexcitation during both
generator and motor operation. For commissioning purposes, it is possible to mirror the
characteristic into the overexcitation range.
The underexcitation controller is a PID controller. The controller can be deactivated or activated
by means of a toggle switch on the control panel.

NOTES

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Fig. 9 - CONTROL SECTION

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TITLE :
9640024
STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT
FIGURE N° 9 CONTROL SECTION

KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS

Reactive current static


If multiple generators are working in parallel, the reactive power should be distributed as
equally as possible. In order to prevent the machine with the highest voltage setpoint from
taking the full reactive power, the reactive power is rated negative and passed on as an
additional setpoint to the voltage controller. If the generator is connected to a separate
transformer, the droop can be set to zero or used to compensate the different Uk values.

Surge excitation current limitation


In order to ensure the quick regulation of the generator voltage, the excitation current must be
dynamically higher than the rated excitation current. Machines which are subject to a high
thermal load do not permit the current which occurs at surge excitation voltage, so that a limit
[20] must be adjusted. The excitation current limitation controller influences the upper limit of
the voltage controller [3] and hence limits the excitation voltage.

V/f limitation
In order to avoid saturation of magnetic components (e.g. transformers) the generator voltage
must be reduced with decreasing frequency. The limitation controller is activated when the ratio
between the upper limit of the generator voltage and the nominal frequency is exceeded.
The V/f limitation controller is a PI controller. It can be deactivated or activated by means of a
toggIe switch on the control panel.

NOTES

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Fig. 10 - CONTROL SECTION

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TITLE :
9640024
STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT
FIGURE N° 10 CONTROL SECTION

KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS

Actìve-power-dependent stabilization
Mechanical oscillations of the rotor against the mains can for instance occur after switching
processes in the mains. If the speed controller of the turbine and the generator voltage
controller do not compensate these oscillations to a sufficient degree, it is recommended to
use the option of the active-power-dependent stabilization. (so called PSS = Power System
Stabilizer)
The controller is a bandpass filter to whose input the active power is connected. The output is
passed on as additional setpoint to the generator voltage controller.

Reactive-Power control
The reactive-power/cos  setpoint [5] can be adjusted by means of the keys “reactive-power
setpoint raise” and “reactive-power setpoint lower”. The adjusting rate is a fixed value which
can only be changed at the time of commissioning the equipment. When the excitation
equipment is deactivated, the adjusted setpoint remains in effect, so that the same cos 
and/or the same reactive power will be preset when the excitation equipment is reactivated.
The reactive-power/cos  controller [5] is an integral controller. If the controller is a cos 
controller, the setpoint is multiplied by the active power and then passed on to the controller. If
the controller is a reactive-power controller, the setpoint is passed on directly to the controller.
The active power is the actual value.
The controller can be deactivated or activated by means of a toggle switch on the control
panel. Two bits which can be adjusted via the parameter menu (see chapter 2.3.2) determine
whether the controller is a reactive-power controller or a cos  controller. The cos  controller
is activated if both bits are set.

Reactive-power zero adjustment


In order to open the generator circuit breaker at a reactive power level of zero during the
normal shut-down of the generator, an automatic reactive-power compensating function is
available which can be activated by the plant control. The generator voltage setpoint is
adjusted until the reactive power is zero. When the reactive power is smaller than 1 % of the
rated apparent power, a signal “reactive power is zero” is generated.

NOTES

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Fig. 11 - CONTROL SECTION

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TITLE :
9640024
STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT
FIGURE N° 11 CONTROL SECTION

KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS

Excitation current control (manual mode)


The excitation current controller is mechanically and electrically separated from the other
control system. The controlled quantity of the excitation current is generated by the DC-
Potential transformer and compared to the reference variable which is generated by the
reference-value-setter [26]. The reference-value setter can be operated locally” or at the control
stand.
When a control deviation occurs, it changes the output voltage of the control amplifier [27]
which is designed as a PI-controller, so that the control voltage for the pulse excitation unit and
hence the excitation voltage changes.
If the automatic channel is active, the output of the excitation current controller is forced to the
output voltage of the automatic controller [29].

Startup Controllers [30,31,32]


The startup-voltage controller has the function to regulate the generator voltage during the
startup sequence. The output of this controller is the setpoint for the startup-exciter current
controller. When the nominal voltage for startup-sequence is reached, this controller reduces
permanently the excitation current. in the startup mode the control voltage for the pulse-driver is
switched over from the normal excitation controllers to the startup controllers.

Fìring-pulse generation

The pulse driver and the pulse amplification unit are available separately for the automatic
mode (generator voltage control) [23] and for the manual mode (excitation current control) [28].
The thyristors receive their firing pulses via separate pulse transformer windings (one
transformer winding for the manual and one for the automatic mode) from the pulse generating
units. The position of the firing pulses and hence the amount of the excitation voltage depends
on the magnitude of the control voltage. The control voltage is the output quantity of the
corresponding controller.
A control voltage of zero Volt corresponds to a firing pulse angle of a = 150°. The thyristor
bridges are in the inverter mode (negative excitation voltage while the excitation current is still
flowing or 0V excitation voltage if no excitation current flows). A control voltage of 10V
corresponds to a firing pulse angle of a = 0°. The thyristor bridge is in the maximum rectifier
mode (ceiling voltage, maximum excitation voltage).

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NOTES

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Fig. 12 - CURRENT LIMITATION - TIME-DEPENDENT

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TITLE :
9640024
STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT
FIGURE N° 12 CURRENT LIMITATION - TIME-DEPENDENT

KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS

Excitation current limitation


The maximum permissible excitation current [14] may be exceeded for a certain period of time,
depending on the thermal characteristics of the generator. If the permissible current limit were
permanently exceeded the excitation winding would be subject to an excessive temperature
rise. This is why the excitation current Is reduced after a certain time which depends on the
amount of the upper deviation.
The excitation current limitation controller is an integrator which is at its upper modulation limit
under normal conditions (e.g. excitation current within the permissible range). If the excitation
current exceeds the permissible current, the difference between the permissible current and the
excitation current is integrated. The limitation controller is activated when the integrator reaches
the negative range. The output value of the integrator is passed on as additional setpoint to the
voltage controller, so that the excitation current is reduced.

Generator current limitation


The principles of operation of the generator current limitation are the same as those of the
excitation current limitation. The excitation equipment cannot influence the active power; only
the reactive power can be influenced. This means that the reactive power is forced towards 0 if
the generator current becomes too high. If the generator current is still too high at a reactive
power level of 0, a signal “reduce active load’ is sent to the plant control.
The controller consists of two integrators, one for the overexcitation and one for the
underexcitation range. The integrator for the overexcitation range acts, in a setpoint- reducing
manner, on the voltage controller, whereas the integrator for the underexcitation range
increases the setpoint.
With this generator, it is also possible to make the point of activation dependent on the
temperature of the generator cooling air.
The controller can be deactivated or activated by means of a toggle switch on the control panel.

NOTES

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Fig. 13 – TECHNICAL DATA OF STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT

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TITLE :
9640024
TECHNICAL DATA OF STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT
FIGURE N° 13
KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS

The figure shows the technical data of Static Excitation Equipment for GT generators

NOTES

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 HIGH EFFICIENCY (99%)


 HIGH RELIBILITY
 LOW CURRENT NEED AC SIDE
 GENERATOR FEEDING WITH VARIABLES FREQUENCY
AND VOLTAGE WITH LOW HARMONICS CONTENT
 EXACT SHAFT SPEED CONTROL AND START-UP
PROGRAM FINE TUNABLE TO THE GT REQUIREMENTS,
UNTIL THE GT SELF SUSTAINING SPEED ( 2000 rpm).

Fig. 14 -STATIC FREQUENCY CONVERTER

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TITLE :
9640024
STATIC FREQUENCY CONVERTER
FIGURE N° 14 SFC

KEY MESSAGE

The static frequency converter feeds the alternator with variable frequency (speed) and voltage
system allowing to the generator to work as synchronous motor.
The result is the possibility to varying the GT speed during start-up, according an established
speed program, until the GT self-sustaining speed.

REMARKS

The SFC typical main characteristics are reported in the figure.

Generally the SFC drives the GT shaft until the self-sustaining speed of about 2000 rpm and
mainly includes:

 Main transformer generally MV/MV.


 Ac - Dc Converter, SRN, 3 Phase SCR, that produces a Dc.
 Filtering Reactance with iron nucleus that eliminates the Ac noise from the voltage.
 Dc – Ac Converter SCR, SRM, 3 Phase SCR, that produces a 3 Phase Ac voltage system
with a low harmonic content, for GT generator stator winding feeding.
 Protection and Control system for regulate the SFC 3 Phase Ac voltage system feeding the
generator stator winding with a variable voltage and frequency. This gives the necessaries
motorizing power and torque (P = Cm x ) to the GT shaft, enough for start-up requirement.
 The Disconnecting Switch, generator side, to connect/disconnect the SFC to the generator
stator winding.

NOTES

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Fig. 15 – PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF THE SFC

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TITLE :
9640024
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF THE SFC
FIGURE N° 15
KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS

During the run-up phase, the start-up generator voltage controller ensures that a constant
generator terminal voltage will be maintained.
Current commutation in the machine converter takes place through the terminal voltage of the
synchronous machine.
Between standstill and a certain, minimum speed, however, the synchronous machine does not
generate the voltage necessary for commutation of the current.
In this speed range, commutation is achieved by temporarily changing the mains converter mode
of operation from rectifier to inverter operation.
The current in the link circuit is thereby forced to zero. The holding current of the machine
converter thyristors is no longer reached and its blocking capability restored.
By firing the following thyristors in the machine and mains converters, the current is connected to
the next stator phase of the synchronous machine. in order to generate a high torque, the
maximum firing angle possible must be set for the machine thyristor unit, so that only a very
small extinction angle is available for the thyristors.
This extinction angle, can only be made so small as the hold-off interval of the thyristors permits.
in the event that the hold-off interval is shorter than the circuit-commutated recovery time of the
thyristors, a short-circuit will occur between the phases which replace each other.
In the line commutation mode, this does not cause any problems, because the current is forced
to zero if commutation has to take place.
In the case of machine-controlled commutation, firing of the thyristors must take place at an
earlier time which is defined by an offset angle (increasing the hold-off interval).
Firing of the thyristors at an earlier time increases the distance from the inverter synchronism
limit. In order to ensure a sufficient hold-off interval with a large cos , the offset angle is
adjusted in a speed-dependent and current-dependent manner.

NOTES

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Fig. 16 – SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

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TITLE :
9640024
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
FIGURE N° 16
KEY MESSAGE

The alternator can indifferently work as generator (transforming the mechanical power received
by the turbine in electric one) or as synchronous motor, turning the absorbed electric energy into
motorising mechanical torque to the shaft.

REMARKS

The figure shows a simplified synchronous three phase motor fed by sinus voltages whose star
value is e1(t), e2(t) and e3(t).
If the rotor winding is excited with the rated current the rated axis torque is generated adsorbing
the three stator winding currents i1(t), i2(t) and i3(t). Voltages and currents vs. time graph are
represented by the six relative sinusoids.
In the figure are shown the relevant magnetic fluxes in three different moments, delayed of 60
degree one by the other, in the three instant when the star phase voltages are in their maximum
value.

From the three instant photos we can deduce:


 The phase currents generate magnetic fields themselves sinus type and with a definite proper
direction, establish by the electromagnetism induction law. The magnetic field value changes
according that of the exciting current.
 The six above mentioned magnetic fluxes (2 for each stator phase coil) produce a resultant
stator flux s (dotted line), with a time constant value but rotating into the motor magnetic core at
the synchronous speed n = 60 f / p (f grid frequency and p magnetic pole pair, 3000 rpm for the
two poles machine. The stator flux produces two equivalent rotating poles named North and
South, N and S conventionally are used to indicate the outgoing and incoming flux from poles.
The rotating stator flux s reacts with the rotor one r generating a motorising torque at the
shaft:
Cm = s  r  sen  where  is the phase angle between the fluxes.
Cm instantaneously balances the resistant torque at the shaft maintaining constant the rotation
speed of the shaft. The  angle increases with resistant torque Cr and adsorbing the relative
electrical power from the grid:
Mechanical Power Pm = Cm x  = Resistant Load Power Cm = Cr x 
Pm = Pr = Pe = 3 x V x I x cos 

If the grid frequency f don’t change also the rotation speed n is constant, vice-versa in a
synchronous motor to change n is necessary to change f.

NOTES

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Fig. 17 – SFC OPERATION PRINCIPLE (1)

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TITLE :
9640024
SFC OPERATION PRINCIPLE
FIGURE N° 17 (1)

KEY MESSAGE

The SFC switches two phase of generator windings each 1/6 of the voltage period time feeding a
pair of them sequentially.
Changing the SCR ignition time it is possible to vary the generator voltage and frequency feeding
values.

REMARKS

In the SFC the SCR bridge SRN produces Dc current energy and feeds the SRM bridges that
converts it into Ac type.
The following descriptions are cyclically repeated during the SFC operation.
The 1st phase of the sequence begins igniting the SCR c – d of SRM these feed the generator 1 st
and 2nd phases, SRN produces Dc current controlling its voltage value as required from
reference.
The current circulation is: “S”, SCR “c”, P2, F2, neutral point, F1, P1, SCR “d” and “T”.
The phase 1 and 2 linked fluxes generate a stator flux s, this reacts with the rotor one r
generated by the excitation system.
The reaction between the two fluxes produces the motorising torque Cm = s  r  sen 
where  is the angle between the two fluxes of 90°, consequently Cm = s  r
The rotor is linked when  is at 60° and dragged until 150° before the second switching step to
an other phase occurs.
In the above elapsed time the rotor has rotated 1/6 of feeding period equivalent to a 60° angle
from the initial position.
When the 2nd begins the SRM SCR c  e switching occurs, igniting SCR e – d (*) feeding the 1 st
and 3rd generator phases.
The current follows this path: “R”, 5, e, P3, F3, neutral connection, F1, P1 d, 4 “T”.
The motorising torque remains constant as value but the rotor rotates of other 60° in the space.

Note (*): The present and following descriptions are valid in the continuos torque operation, see after.

NOTES

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Fig. 18 – SFC OPERATION PRINCIPLE (2)

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TITLE :
9640024
SFC OPERATION PRINCIPLE
FIGURE N° 18 (2)

KEY MESSAGE

The SFC switches two phase of generator windings each 1/6 of the voltage period time feeding a
pair of them sequentially.
Changing the SCR ignition time it is possible to vary the generator voltage and frequency feeding
values.

REMARKS

Proceeding the sequence the SRN SCR e – f are in conduction, this feeds the generator 2 nd and
3rd phases, SRN produces Dc current controlling its voltage value as required from reference.

The current path is “R”, 5, e, P3, F3, neutral connection, F2, P2, f, 4 “S”.
The produced torque don’t changes its value but the rotor has covered other 60° of equivalent
space.

The 4th step switches SRM SCR e  a, a this feeds the generator 1st and 2nd phases, SRN
produces Dc current controlling its voltage value as required from reference.

The current path is now “R”, 1, a, P1, F1, neutral connection, F2, P2, f, 4 “S”.

The produced torque don’t changes its value but the rotor has covered other 60° of equivalent
space.

NOTES

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Fig. 19 –SFC OPERATION PRINCIPLE (3)

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TITLE :
9640024
SFC OPERATION PRINCIPLE
FIGURE N° 19 (3)

KEY MESSAGE

The SFC switches two phase of generator windings each 1/6 of the voltage period time feeding a
pair of them sequentially.

REMARKS

Proceeding the sequence the SRN SCR a – b are in conduction, this feeds the generator 1st and
3rd phases, SRN produces Dc current controlling its voltage value as required from reference.

The current path is “R”, 1, a, P1, F1, neutral connection, F3, P3, b, 6 “T”.
The produced torque don’t changes its value but the rotor has covered other 60° of equivalent
space.

The 6th step switches SRM SCR a  c, a this feeds the generator 2nd and 3rd phases, SRN
produces Dc current controlling its voltage value as required from reference.

The current path is now “S”, 3, c, P2, F2, neutral connection, F3, P3, b, 6 “S”.

The produced torque don’t changes its value but the rotor has covered other 60° of equivalent
space and 360 ° or one complete rotation from the beginning.

Changing the SCR ignition time it is possible to vary the generator voltage and frequency feeding
values.

This last produces a speed change according the required needs for the GT start –up.

NOTES

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Fig. 20 – SFC MOTORIZING TORQUE

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TITLE :
9640024
SFC MOTORIZING TORQUE
FIGURE N° 20
KEY MESSAGE

At low speed, during the first start-up minutes, the SFC have to generate pulse motorising torque
to allows a correct SRN and SRM converters operation. In fact this could be compromised y the
SCR switching difficulty below a certain frequency (speed).

REMARKS

The SCR switching normally occurs as follow:


At the start-up sequence beginning the speed SFC control system detects the rotor angular
position by means of a dedicate elaboration of VT and CT installed on the machine.
The SCR c – d are ignited (see the previous figures) with a phase lead of 60° when the SCR
applied drop voltage will be maximum. In this moment the SCR c applied V (direct voltage) is
zero and becomes positive keeping the SCR in conduction.
The SCR c stay in conduction until its V is null, this instant is signed on the figure with “60°”
point .
In this moment the following SCR pair e – d are ignited; SCR d stays in conduction its V beis
now positive until the “120°” point on the figure.
The sequence proceed for the pairs e – f, a –f, a - b, c- b, until the end of the period, “360°”
point on the figure, after it proceeds identically.
The generating motorising torque has a continuos average value with a superimposed undulation
with 6 times of the fundamental feeding frequency.

At the low speed, about below 400 rpm, the voltage and current signals taken from VT and CT
are not enough to ensure a correct control. At these speeds the relevant inductive component of
the stator winding impedance maintains the SCR ignited also in the reverse current field.

This could damage the SCR for over voltage and thermal effects.

To avoid this problem the SCR switching is forced both during the ignition and tuning off.

The generating motorising torque is not continuos but pulsing type (the average value is always
more than zero) with a superimposed undulation with 6 times of the fundamental feeding
frequency.
Normally this kind of operation goes on until about 300 rpm.

NOTES

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Fig. 21 – SFC CONTROLLERS

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TITLE :
9640024
SFC CONTROLLERS
FIGURE N° 21
KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS

Power Unit
The power unit of the mains converter is designed as a three-phase bridge circuit. At the three-
phase end, a damping unit is connected as a protection against cut-off overvoltages of the
start-up transformer. R-C combinations limit voltage peaks from the mains end to a value which
is acceptable for the thyristors of the three-phase bridge. The thyristor pulses which are
generated and amplified are isolated against the high-voltage potential of the power circuit by
the pulse transmitters.

DC Link Circuit
The DC link circuit contains the choke and the transformer which measures the link circuit
current and passes its value on as a potential-free actual value to the SEC control

Machine Converter
The power unit of the machine converter is also designed as a three-phase bridge circuit. A
damping unit is connected on the three-phase side as a protection against cut-off overvoltages.
The thyristor pulses which are generated and amplified are isolated against the highvoltage
potential of the power circuit by the pulse transmitters.

Fan
The thyristor bridges are air-cooled. The motors of the fans used (their number depending on
the inverter power) are supplied via the MCB from the three-phase AC feeder.

Voltage supplies
The main supply for the +60V, +24V and ±15V supplies comes from the 400V AC feeder. The
24V is generated via the transformer 12 (fig. 7) and the rectifier bridge. The power station
battery serves as buffer for this +24V and for the 60V.
The 22OVAC for the voltage detection / position detection system and Lem transformer is
generated from the 400VAC.
The DC 220V/125V supply is the actuating voltage for the internal isolator.

NOTES

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Fig. 22 – SFC TYPICAL PROTECTIONS

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TITLE :
9640024
SFC TYPICAL PROTECTIONS
FIGURE N° 22
KEY MESSAGE

The SFC protections work together the generator ones to avoid damages to the machinery.

REMARKS

The typical SFC protection are listed into the figure.

The intervention of at least one protection trip the SFC and cut off the GT start-up sequence

The trip request trip the SFC ac side C.B, force to zero the ignition pulses to the SCR, trip the
excitation system and opens the SFC generator side disconnecting switch.

The GT start-up sequence can restart when all the trip causes are disappear only.

NOTES

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Fig. 23 - TECHNICAL DATA OF STATIC FREQUENCY CONVERTER

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TITLE :
9640024
TECHNICAL DATA OF STATIC FREQUENCY CONVERTER
FIGURE N° 23
KEY MESSAGE

REMARKS

The figure shows the technical data of Static Frequency Converter for GT generators

NOTES

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