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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

W.P.s. Dias
BSc{Eng), PhD(Lond),DIC, pEng, MIStructE, MIE(SL)
Senior Lecturer
Department of Civil Engineering
University of Moratuwa
Moratuwa
Sri Lanka

Society of Structural Engineers - Sri Lanka

.,. "'~ .... _._.J


PublisheJI. by

Soc. of Structural Engineers - Sri Lanka,


ji Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1995. ,

ISBN 955-9347-00-4
FOREWORD

The Society of Structural Engineers - Sril;-anka was incorporated in July 1993 .


.
Our membership is very small and our fmancial resources are absolutely
minimal. Nevertheless, the members of our Committee have contributed a great
deal of their time and effort to collect funds from various sources to help
advance the knowledge and practice of structural engineering in Sri Lanka
through, inter alia, the publication of books on related topics.

As the majority of structures in this country are constructed of reinforced


concrete, the selection of GRADED EXAMPLES IN REINFORCED
CONCRETE DESIGN as the object of the Society's first book publishing effort
constitutes an ideal beginning.

Dr Priyan Dias is a brilliant young academic and is highly motivated towards


training engineers to use a "thinking" approach to solve technical problems.
Whilst this book itself is of an immediately practical nature, Dr Dias and others
will, no doubt, follow up with more publications which will help our engineers
to think laterally so as to come up with innovative solutions to any structural
problems they encounter.
I

A.C. Visvalingam
MA, PhD, DIC, MICE, MIStructE, MIE(SL), CEng
PRESIDENT, Society of Structural Engineers - Sri Lanka

2 March 1995
.
GRADED EXAMPLES IN REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

(with explanatory notes, using Grade 25 concrete to BS 8110)

CONTENTS

Introduction 1

Analysis of Beam Sections in Flexure (Examples 1 - 4) 5

Design of Beam Sections in Flexure (Examples 5 - 9) 13

Design of Beams for Shear (Examples 10 - 11) 26

Serviceability Checks and Detailing in Beams (Example 12) 31

Design of Slabs (Examples 13 - 17) 38

Design of Columns (Examples 18 - 21) 58

Design of Foundations (Examples 22 - 24) 66

Design of Staircases (Examples 25 - 26) 76

Design of Wall and Corbel (Examples 27 - 28) 83

Design of Beam for Torsion (Example 29) 90

Frame Analysis and Moment Redistribution (Examples 30 - 32) 94

Design for Stability (Example 33) 104

Serviceability Limit State Calculations (Examples 34 -35) 107


INTRODUCTION

A Case for Worked Examples

Educational purists may argue that Worked Examples are detrimental to student learning
because there is an element of "spoonfeeding" involved. While acknowledging that there is
some truth in this argument, the author would like to contend that Worked Examples do have
a place in the educational process.

Knowledge can be acquired using two broad approaches - i.e. the deductive approach, having
its roots in Greek rationality, and the inductive approach, having its roots in Renaissance
empiricism. Learning through worked examples is an inductive approach, and both the
format and content of this book reflect that approach.

The book has been developed through the author's teaching of a course in Reinforced
Concrete Design at the University of Moratuwa. The examples are graded, leading from an
appreciation of reinforced concrete behaviour, through the design of structural elements, to
the analysis of a reinforced concrete structure. The student's understanding of the calculations
is deepened by the "Notes on Calculations" while the Introductory and Concluding Notes set
each example in a wider context. Hence, in this book, design principlesare reinforced
through practice, with guidance from notes.

However, this book caimot and should not be used as a "stand alone" text. It must essentially
be complementary to another text or series of lectures that teaches design from a deductive
approach - i.e. one .which moves students from principles to practice. It can, of course, be
used by practising engineers, who already have a grasp of reinforced concrete fundamentals.

In order to equip students for real design practice, the book is very much code based, with
extensive references given in the calculations to clauses in BS 8110 (1985) - "Strueturaluse
of concrete". This is another reason for the book's usefulness for Practising engineers. The
examples cover most of the reinforced concrete elements and stress states dealt with by Part
I of BS 8110. In addition, examples are also given for the de3ign for torsion and the
calculation of deflection and cracking, dealt with in Part 2 of BS 8110.

Sections of code are referred to by indicating the relevant clause, table Or equation of BS
8110: Part 1. Where clauses, tables, charts or equations from Parts 2 and 3 of BS 8110 are
referenced, the relevant Part is also indicated. One very useful feature of BS 8110 is that
each table also gives the equation from which its values are derived. .This is a clear
advantage for computerised design, and even hand calculations. Therefore, although the
tables have in fact been referred to in the following calculations, very often it is the
corresponding equations that have been used.

A Case for Using Lower Grades of Concrete

Table 3.4 in Part 1 of BS 8110 (1985) specifies durability by cover and grade, but also
indicates cement contents and water/cement ratios correspondingro the grade specified. The
background to this table is given in the paper by Deacon and Dewar ("Concrete durability

1
\,
- specifying more simply and surely by strength. Concrete, February 1982, pp.19-2l), which
describes how U.K. concrete strengths vary for given cement contents and water/cement
ratios and shows how the grade specified covers the cement content and water/cement ratio
requirements 96% of the time.

It must be emphasised here that the index of durability used in BS 8110 is mix proportions.
However, it has related these mix proportions to strength, which is a much easier parameter
to measure and control. This is clearly evident in the provisions made in the code for
reducing the grade if a checking regime establishes that a lower grade of concrete complies
with the cement content and water/cement ratio limits (Clauses 3.3.5.2 and 3.3.5.3 of Part
1). Such a relaxation of grade is not allowed, however for concretes using blended cements.

Even a cursory glance at Table 3.4 in BS 8110: Part 1 will indicate that at least grade 40
concrete will have to be used for all but mild and moderate exposure conditions, although
the corresponding minimum cement content and maximum water/cement ratio are only
325kg/m3 and 0.55 respectively. This seems to be a very stringent condition to be imposed
on concreting practice in developing countries, where most concrete specified is still grade
20 to 25. In fact, even in the U.K., the most commonly used grades were grades 20 to 30,
even up to the early 19805.

The question arises as to whether Table 3.4 in BS 8110: Part 1, developed for the U.K. is
applicable in other (especially developing) countries, where materials and practices may be
very different. This problem was studied by the author using Sri Lanka as a case in point.
The strengths that could be achieved for various cement content and water/cement ratio
values were obtained on the basis of a batching plant survey.

Specifications based on the above survey are given in TABLE 1. This table is taken from the
author's publication "Specifying for Concrete Durability: Part II - The Sri Lankan Context,
Engineer, Vol. XX, Nos 1-4, 1992, pp. 4-14". The Notes in TABLE 1 indicate the scope
of the specifications, and also conditions under which deviations from the tabulated values
can be allowed. In particular, Notes 5 and 6 allow reductions in grade and cover values that
bring these recommendations in line with current Sri Lankan practice. In short, these
recommendations rationalise satisfactory Sri Lankan practice (especially under mild exposure
conditions) with respect to BS 8110, while suggesting improvements to Sri Lankan practice
where problem areas (such as concrete exposed to sea spray) are concerned.

Although the recommendations in TABLE 1 make it possible to use grade 20 concrete for
mild exposure conditions, it was felt that basing the examples on such a low grade would
have deviated too much from the provisions of BS 8110, where grade 25 is specified as the
lowest grade to be used with normal weight aggregate concrete (Clause 3.1.7.2) and where
all tables and charts have grade 25 as the lowest grade. As such, it is grade 25 concrete that
is used for all the following examples, except in Examples 28 and 29, where the use of grade
30 concrete is illustrated.

2
TABLE 1 - NOMINAL COVER TO ALL REINFORCEMENT (INCLUDING
LINKS) TO MEET DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS - ADAPTED FROM
BS 8110: 1985 FOR SRI LANKAN PRACTICE

Exposure Examples of Nominal Cover


Classification Exposure mm mm mm mm mm

Mild Indoor 25 20 20* 20* 20*


Moderate Outdoor -- 35 30 25 20
Severe Driving Rain -- -- 40 30 25
Very severe Sea Spray -- -- 50 40 30
Extreme Abrasive -- -- -- 60 50

Maximum free water/cement ratio . 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45


Minimum cement content (kg/m3 ) 275 300 325 350 400
(300) (325) (350) (400) (450)
Lowest grade of concrete 25 30 35 . 40 45

Note 1 This table applies to normal-weight aggregate OPC concrete of 20 mm


nominal maximum aggregate size and river sand fine aggregate. In no case
should the cover be less than the maximum aggregate size or diameter of main
reinforcement.

Note 2 A minimum of 25 mm cover to all reinforcement should be maintained in


beams and columns.

Note 3 Cover values marked with asterisks (*) can be reduced to 15 mm, provided
the nominal maximum aggregate size does not exceed 15 mm, subject to the
conditions in Notes 1 and 2.

Note 4 The minimum cement content values in parentheses should be maintained if


no water-reducing admixtures are used.

Note 5 The grade requirement can be reduced by 5 if a checking regime establishes


that the maximum free water/cement ratio and minimum cement cot\tent
requirements are met.

Note 6 The above cover values can be reduced by 5 mm, subject to the conditions in
Notes 1 and 2 and a minimum of 15 mm, provided a 1:3 cement: sand
rendering of 10 mm, 15 mm or 20 mm is applied to concrete made to
water/cement ratios of 0.65, 0.6 and 0.55 respectively.

3
EXAMPLE 1 - ANALYSIS OF UNDER-REINFORCED SECTION

Determine the lever arm for the beam section shown in the figure; find also its moment of
resistance.
( 225 )

f eu = 25 N/mm2
f y = 460 N/mm2
3-20
000

(All dimensions in mm)

Introductory Notes

1. This example is regarding the analysis of an existing beam. The first step in finding
the moment of resistance is to find the lever arm.

Reference Calculations Output


Area of steel = 942.5 mm2
Note 2 Assuming that the steel llas yielded, T = 377189 N
T = (0.87)fy.~ = (0.87)(460)(942.5) = 377189 N
Hence, balancing compressive force = 377189 N
(0,45)feu .b(O.9)x = 377189 .
(0,45)(25)(225)(O.9x) = 377189
x = 166 mm x = 166 mm

Note 3 Since x/d = 166/375 = 0.44 < = 0.64,


steel has yielded and original assumption is correct.
z = d - (0,45)x = 375 - (0,45)(166) = 300 mm z = 300 mm
3,4,4. 1(e) Note :- z/d = 300/375 = 0.8 < 0.95, Hence O.K.

Moment of resistance = (377189)(300)


= 113.16 x106 Nmm
= 113 kNm M = 113 kNm

Notes on Calculations

2. Most singly reinforced sections will be under-reinforced in practice. Hence, assuming


that the steel has yielded is the most convenient way of starting. (This assumption

5
should be checked later on, of course, using the xJd value.)

3. The condition that tensile reinforcement has ~ielded when the concrete strain is
0.0035, is x/d < = 0.64 (for fy = 460 N/mm ) and x/d < = 0.76 (for fy = 250
N/mm 2). This can be shown by assuming a linear strain distribution. However the
code recommends that x/d < = 0.50, in order to accommodate redistribution up to
10% (Clause 3.4.4.4).

Concluding Notes

4. The lever arm is the distance between the centroids of the tensile and compressive
forces. This separation between two opposite forces is what creates the moment of
resistance in a flexural element.

5. Because this distance has to be accomodated within the depth of the section, flexural
elements tend to have larger cross'sections than compressive elements.

EXAMPLE 2 - ANALYSIS OF OVER-REINFORCED SECTION

Determine the moment of resistance of the section shown.

( 150 )

f cu = 25 N/mm2
f y = 460 N/mm 2
2-25 Id=300
o 0

(All dimensions in mm)

Introductory Notes

1. This section is different from that in Example 1, in that it is over-reinforced. The


calculation procedure is more complicated here.

6
Reference Calculations Output
Area of steel = 981.7 mm2
Assuming that the steel has yielded,
T = (0.87)fy ' " = (0.87)(460)(981.7) = 392876 N
Hence, C = (0.45)fcu .b(0.9)x = 392876
(0.45)(25)(150)(0.9)x = 392876
x = 259 mm

But, x/d = 259/300 = 0.86 :>0.64


Note 2 Hence, steel has nQ1 yielded.

We shall try to find a value for x, by trial and error,


such that T and C are approximately equal.

Try x = 200 mm
C = (0.45)fcu .b(0.9)x = (0.45)(25)(150)(0.9)(200)
= 303750N
Note 3 Es = (0.0035)(300-200)/200 = 1.75 xlO-3
Hence, fs = (1.75 xlO-3)(200 xloJ) = 350 N/mm 2 ,
and T = (350)(981.7) = 343595 N

For a better approximation, try x = 205 mm.


Then C = 311344 Nand T = 318454 N.

For a still better approximation, try x = 206 mm.


Then C = 312863 Nand T = 313572 N.
This approximation is sufficient.
Note:- x/d = 206/300 = 0.69 (> 0.64) x = 206 mm
z = d - (0.45)x = 300 - (0.45)(206) = 207 mm
M = C.z = (312863)(207) = 64.763 x106 Nmm
= 64.8 kNm M = 64.8 kNm
Note 4 Note:- Alternative method of finding x.
Once it is established that the steel has not reached
yield point, for any given value of x,
Es = (0.0035)(300-x)/x
fs = [(0.0035)(300-x)/x](200 xloJ) N/mm 2
T = ((0.0035)(300-x)/x](200 xloJ)(981.7) N
C = (0.45)(25)(150)(0.9,qN
Putting T = C, we have the quadratic equation
x2 + (452.47)x - 135741 = 0,
giving x = 206 or -659 mm x = 206 mm

7
Notes on Calculations

2. In some rare cases, as in this one, a beam may be over-reinforced, meaning that the
yielding of steel will not take place before the crushing of concrete. If such a beam
fails, it will do so suddenly, without warning, and hence over-reinforced beams are
discouraged in practice.

3. Since the steel has not yielded, the stress can no longer be assumed to be 0.87fy.
Rather, the stress is the steel is obtained by
(i) determining the strain in the steel, assuming a linear strain distribution across
the section and
(ii) using the stress-strain curve in Figure 2.2 of the code to arrive at the stress.

'"8
8
........
0.87x460=400 N/mm 2
z
I
,
I

,
I

200 ,
kNAnm 2

Strain
Strain diagram Stress-Strain diagram

4. It is possible to use this method because the stress-strain curve for steel below the
yield point is a single straight line.

Concluding Notes

5. One way of ensuring that the beam failure is ductile is to introduce some compression
steel, so that x/d will be reduced to 0.5 (See Example 3).

8
EXAMPLE 3 - ANALYSIS OF DOUBLY REINFORCED SECTION

1
Detennine the amount of compression steel required, in order to make x/d 0.5 in
Example 2. Find also the moment of resistance of the resulting beam.

~ .150 .) ~
A'd'
s d=300
f eu = 25 N/mm2
fy = 460 N/mm2
2-25
o 0

(All dimensions in mm)

Introductory Notes

1. If it is found that a singly reinforced beam is over-reinforced and it is desired to make


it under-reinforced or balanced, this may be achieved by
(i) increasing the depth of the section,
(ii) increasing the breadth of the section
or (iii) introducing compression steel.

2. Increasing the breadth of the section will generally be uneconomical. Therefore, if the
depth of the section cannot be increased due to non-structural reasons, option (iii)
above is used.

Reference Calculations Output


Note 3 Assume a suitable value for d', say 50 mm. d' = 50 mm

For equilibrium of the section, the compression in


the top steel plus the concrete must equal the tension
in the bottom steel.

Setting x = (0.5)d = 150 mm (which automatically


ensures the yielding of tension steel), we have
d'/x = 50/150 = 0.33 < = 0.43, which means that
the compression steel will yield as well.

3.4.4.4 (0. 87)fy.As ' + (0.45)feu b(0.9)x = (0.87)f As


r
(0. 87)(460)As ' + (0.45)(25)(150)(0.9)(150 =
(0.87)(460)(981.7) A s '= 412 mm 2
Hence, As' = 412 mm 2 , Use 4T12
Note 4 Use 4Tl2 (As' = 452.4 mm 2). (452.4 mm2)

9
Reference Calculations Output
Table 3.27 Note:- lOOA s ' / Ac = (100)(452.4) / (150)(350)
Note 5 = 0.86 (> 0.2), Hence O.K.

Lever arm for balanced section = d - (0.45~1.)


= (0.775)d = (0.775)(300) = 232.5 mm
Distance between top and bottom steel = 250 mm

Note 6 Hence, taking moments about level of tension steel,


moment. of resistance =
(0.45)(25)(150)(0.9)( 150)(232.5) +
(0.87)(460)(412)(250) = 94187006 Nmm
= 94.2 kNm M = 94.2 kNm

Notes on Calculations

3. The value of d' will depend on the cover, and other requirements (See Example 8).

4. If the compression steel provided is greater than that required, the neutral axis depth
will be reduced slightly; this is desirable, as it will increase the ductility of the
section. When providing four bars within a width of 150 mm, it may be necessary to
use the bars as two pairs of bars.

5. When compression steel is provided, a minimum percentage is required. The area


of concrete is based on the gross section, and the overall depth is taken as (300 + 50)
= 350 mm.
6. In general, the most convenient way of fmding the moment of resistance for a doubly
reinforced section, is to take moments about the level of tension steel. The amount
of compression steel to be used in the calculation is the amount required (412 mm 2),
and not the amount provided (452.4 mm2).

Concluding Notes

7. The moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced section can be considered to be the


sum of the moments of resistance of (i) a balanced section and (ii) a steel section
It It ,

consisting of equal amounts of tension and compression steel, separated by (d-d').


150 150

t
~
- d'=50
I 41~m2 -
>

_ o:~~~
1
""<--~~

i
d=300 _ ~:.-G.....&-'l 232.5
+
1o982 mm2
0
570mm2
- ~
I

10
EXAMPLE 4 - ANALYSIS OF NON-RECTANGULAR SECTION

Determine the moment carrying capacity of the trapezoidal beam section shown below.
300

f
h=450
I
d=400
fcu = 25 N/mm 22-
fy = 460 N/mm

1 1
156
(All dimensions in mm)

Introductory Notes

1. As in previous examples, the moment carrying capacity has to be found by working


from first principles. The additional complication in this example is that the section
is non-rectangular.

Reference Calculations Output


Assume values for the neutral axis, x until the
compression in concrete is equal to the tension in
steel.

The area of the section under compression =

II
(0.5)(0.9)x[600 - {(3OO-150)/450}(O.9)x]
Area of steel = 981.7 mm 2 ~300~
Assume also that the steel bas yielded. \10.9><
Try x = 100 mm
Area in compression, Ac
= (O.5)('JO){600 - (O.33)(O.9)(IOO))
= 25650 mm2
W: 0
~

C = (0.45)fcu .Ac = (0.45)(25)(25650) = 288563 N


T = (0.87)(460)(981.7) = 392876 N

Try x = 139 mm
Then, C = 392868 Nand T = 392876 N.
This approximation is satisfactory. x = 139 mm
Note also that x/d = 139/400 = 0.35 < 0.5; hence
assumption that steel has yielded is O.K.

11
Reference Calculations Output
The centroid of the compression zone from the top of
the section will be given by
y = {(150)(139)(139/2) + (O.5)(150)(139)(139/3)} 1
{(150)(139) + (0.5)(150)(139)} = 61.8 mm
Note 2 Hence, lever arm = 400 - 61.8 = 338.2 mm z = 338 mm

M = C.z = (392868)(338) = 132.8 x106 Nmm


= 133 kNm M = 133 kNm

Note:- Alternative method of finding x.


Assuming that steel has yielded,
T = (0.87)(460)(981.7) = 392876 N
For any x, the area under compression is
Ac = (O.5)(O.9)x[600 - {(300-150)/450}(O.9)x]
C = (O.45)(25)A c
Putting T = C, we have the quadratic equation,
x2 - (2000)x + 258684 = 0, x = 139 mm
giving x = 139 or 1861 mm
Since x/d = 139/400 = 0.35 <0.5, steel has in fact
Note 3 yielded, as assumed.

Notes on Calculations

2. The lever arm cannot be calculated as d - (0.45)x in this case, because the
compression block is non-rectangular.

3. This calculation will become a little more complicated if the section is not under-
reinforced (see Example 2).

Concluding Notes

4. This approach from first principles, using the idea of strain compatibility, will have
to be employed even in the desi&n of beams such as these, which are non-rectangular,
since the design formulae and charts apply only to rectangular sections. When
designing, the amount of steel has to be assumed, and the moment carrying capacity
checked to ensure that it is greater than the design moment.

5. It should be noted that the form of the formulae given in the code is such that,
although they can be used to design rectangular sections, they are not meant to find
the moment of resistance of a given section. This has to be done using strain
compatibility concepts from first principles, as illustrated in Examples 1 to 4, or by
suitably rearranging the form of the equations.

12
EXAMPLE S - DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR SECTION

Design a rectangular beam to take an ultimate load moment of 150 kNm,


(a) as a singly reinforced beam and
(b) as a beam whose overall depth is limited to 400 mm.
Use design formulae. Assume that feu = 25 N/mm 2 , fy = 460 N/mm 2 , and that the
difference between effective depth and overall depth is 50 mm. Assume also that no
redistribution of moments has been carried out.

Introductory Notes

1. This is the first example on the ~, as opposed to the analysis of a section.


Where beams (as opposed to slabs) are concerned, it will be often found that the
moment carrying capacity is more critical than the deflection criterion, and that the
former will govern the selection of cross sectional dimensions.

Reference Calculations Output


(a) Singly reinforced section

Note 2 Let us assume that d/b = 2.0


In order to find the minimum depth for a singly
reinforced section, we should assume that x/d = 0.5
3.4.4.4 and K = K' = 0.156
Then K = M / (b.d 2.feJ
0.156 = (150 x106) / {(d/2)(<)(25)}
d3 = {(2)(150 xlQ6)} I {(0.156)(25)}
d = 425 mm .dmin = 425 mm
Note 3 Choose d = 475 mm, h = 525 mm, b = 225 mm d =475 mm
h = 525 mm
Now K = M / (b.d2 .feu) b = 225 mm
= 150 xl06 / {(225)(475t(25) = 0.118
< 0.156 0( 225
z = d[O.5 + {0.25 - KI(0.9)}o.~

~I~I4Th
= (475)[0.5 + {0.25 - (0.118)/(0.9)}O.5]
3.4.4. 1(e) = 401 mm < (0.95)(475) = 451 mm; hence O.K.

As = M / (0.87)f Z
r
= (150 xlW) (0.87)(460)(401) = 935 mm 2
Hence, use21'25 (As = 981.7 mm 2) As = 935 mm 2
Table 3.27 lOOA/Ae = (982)(100) / (525)(225) = 0.83 Use 21'25
Note 4 > 0.13; hence O.K. (981.7 mm 2)

13
Reference Calculations Output
(b) Overall depth restricted

Note 5 If the overall depth is restricted to 400 mm,


h = 400 mm, d = 400 - 50 = 350 mm, d = 350 mm
b = 225 mm (assuming the same breadth as before) b = 225 mm

Now K = M 1 {b.d2.fcu>
= (150 x106 ) 1 {(225)(350)2(25)}
= 0.218 > 0.156 (Le. K')
Hence, compression reinforcement is required.
Note 6 Let us assume that d' = 50 mm.

As' = (K-K')fcu .b.d2 1 {(O.87)f (d-d'))


= {(O.218-0.156)(25)(225)(350f} 1
{(O. 87)(460)(350-50)}
= 356 mm2 A'
s = 356 mm 2
Use 2Tl6 (~' = 402.1 mm 2) Use2Tl6
looAs '/Ac = (100)(402.1)1 (400)(225) (402.1 mm 2)
Table 3.27 = 0.45 > 0.2; hence O.K.

10:: Li~
(225 )
z = d[O.5 + {0.25 - K'/(O.9)}O.s]
= (350)[0.5 + {0.25 - (0. 156)/(O.9)}O.s]
3.4.4. 1(e) = 272 mm < (0.95)(350) = 333 mm; hence O.K. 400

000
As = {(K'.fcu .b.d2) 1 (O.87)fy'z} + As'
Note 7 ={(O.156)(25)(225)(350)21 (O.87)(460)(272)) + 356
= 1344 mm2 As = 1344 mm 2
Use 3T25 (As = 1473 mm2) Use 3T25
looA/Ac = (100)(1473) 1 (400)(225) (1473 mm 2)
Table 3.27 = 1.64 > 0.13; hence O.K.

Note 8 Hence, use 3T25 (bottom) and 2Tl6 (top).

Notes on Calculations

2. In practice, the ratio of depth to breadth for a beam will have a value between 1.5
and 2.5.

3. Many designers still choose dimensions for beams and columns in steps of 25 mm,
because 1 inch is approximately 25 mm. Furthermore, depths considerably in excess
of the minimum depth for a singly reinforced section may be chosen, in order to
reduce the steel requirement.

4. The check for minimum reinforcement is almost always satisfied for tension steel in

14
beams. A little care should be excercised, however, for compression steel.

5. The overall depth of the beam may have to be restricted, due to architectural
requirements. On the other hand, there may be some economy in designing beams
with a marginal amount of compression steel, because longitudinal steel on the
compression face will be required anyway, in order to support the shear links.

6. This is keeping with the idea that the difference between overall and effective depths
is 50 mm.

7. When calculating the are of tension steel, it is sufficient to use the value of
compression steel required (as opposed to that provided), in this equation.

8. When providing reinforcement, a combination of bar sizes should be adopted, such


that the maximum and minimum spacing between bars is kept within specified limits
(see Example 12).

Concluding Notes

9. Design charts (in Part 3 of the code) could also have been used to design the steel
required for these sections. The relevant charts are Chart No. 2 for the singly
reinforced section and Chart No.4 for the doubly reinforced section, since d'/d =
50/350 = 0.143.

10. The design charts are given for ,.. ' d'/d values ranging from 0.10 to 0.20, in steps
of 0.05. The chart with d'/d value closest to the actual value should be used for
design. If the actual d'/d value lies exactly between the chart values, the chart with
the higher d'/d value should be used in the design, as this is more conservative.

EXAMPLE 6 - DESIGN OF SECTION WITH REDISTRIBUTION

If the beam section in part (a) of Example 5 (Le. h = 525 mm, d = 475 mm and b = 225
mm) was carrying an ultimate moment of 150 kNm after a 30% downward redistribution
of moment, design the steel reinforcement required. Assume that d' = 50 mm, feu = 25
N/mm 2 and fy = 460 N/mm 2. Use the methods of formulae and design charts.

Introductory Notes

1. If the moment at a section has been reduced by downward redistribution, that section
must have adequate rotational capacity at ultimate limit state, in oder for plastic hinge
action to take place. This capacity is ensured by restricting the x/d ratio to a specified
value.

15
Reference Calculations Output
Cal Using formulae

3.2.2.1(b) I3b= (1-0.3) 1 1 = 0.7


3.4.4.4 K' = (0.402)(l3b-0.4) - (0.18)(~-0.4)2
= (0.402)(0.7-0.4) - (0,18)(0.7-0.4)2 = 0.104
Now, K = M 1 (b.d 2.feu>
= (150 x106) 1 {(225)(475)2(25)}
= 0.118 > 0.104
Hence, compression steel is required.

z = d[O.5 + {0.25 - K'/(0.9)}0.5]


= (475)[0.5 + {0.25 - (0.104)/(0.9)}O.5]
3.4.4. 1(e) = 412 mm < (0.95)(475) = 451 mm; hence O.K.

As' = (K -K')feu b.d2 1 {(0.87)fy<d-d')}


= {(O. 118-0. 104)(25)(225)(475t} 1
{(0.87)(46O)(475-50)}
= 104 mm2 As ' = 104 mm 2
Use 2Tl2 (As' = 226.2 mm 2) Use 2Tl2
Table 3.27 looA s'/A e = 0.19 0.2, but acceptable) (226.2 mm 2)

As = [(K' .feu .b.d2) 1 {(0.87)fy 'z)] + As'


= {(0.104)(25)(225)(475)2 1 (0.87)(46O)(412)} + 104
= 905 mm 2 As = 905 mm 2
Use 2T25 (As = ~81.7 mm2) Use 2T25
(981.7 mm 2)
Hence, use 2T25 (bottom) and 2Tl2 (top).
(225 ~

2-1~ I
I
(bl Using charts
0
Chart 3 Appro~riate chart for feu = 25 N/mm 2 , fy = 460 525 475
2-25
(part 3) N/mm and d'/d = 50/475 = 0.105 is Chart No.3. o 0

M/bd 2 = (150 x106) 1 (225)(475)2 = 2.95


3.2.2. 1(b) x/d has to be restricted to ({3b-O.4), i.e. 0.3

Hence, the values for lOOA/bd and lOOA s'/bd must


be read off the point at which the horizontal line
Note 2 M/bd 2 = 2.95 cuts the x/d = 0.3 line.
Thus, looA/bd = 0.85 and looAs'/bd = 0.1 As = 908 mm 2
As = (0.85)(475)(225)/(100) = 908 mm2; Use 2T25 Use 2T25
As' = (0.1)(475)(225)1(100) = 107 mm 2; Use 2Tl2 As ' = 107 mm 2
Note 3 to satisfy minimum steel requirement. - Use 2Tl2

16
Notes on Calculations

2. Any combination to the left of the line corresponding to the x/d = 0.3 line will give
a feasible combination of lOOAjbd and lOOAs ' /bd. If a point on the line itself is
chosen, the solution will generally be the most economical one, in terms of the total
amount of steel required.

3. The differences between the solutions by formulae and charts are very small indeed,
despite the fact that the design charts are based ,?n the parabolic stress block for
concrete stress, while the formulae are based on the simplified rectangular one. It is
the design charts that are used for everyday designs.

Concluding Notes

4. Although the applied moment for this section was the same as that in Example 5,
because of the restriction on the neutral axis depth for the purpose of ensuring plastic
hinge rotation, this section had to be doubly reinforced.

5. Hence, doubly reinforced sections may need to be resorted to when


(i) architectural requirements place limits on the beam depth and/or
(ii) when a significant degree of redistribution of elastic moments has been
carried out at that section.

17
EXAMPLE 7 - STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF BEAM

Determine the design ultimate load moments for the beam shown in the figure, using also the
following information.
(i) Dead load from the parapet wall can be taken as a line load of 2.0 kN/m.
(ii) Allowance for finishes on the slab can be taken as 1.0 kN/m 2 .
(iii) Imposed load on slab should be taken as 4.0 kN/m 2
(iv) Density of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m3

Introductory Notes

1. This example involves load evaluation and a simple stru,ctural analysis on


appropriate loading patterns, in order to find the design ultimate moments.

100

1<: Beam Section


Sectional Elevation
_'i' ..

- - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - '-I _
---rr---------------~
I I '
I I
3500
I I
I I I
, I
----r~- - ---------- - --r
---+~----------------r
I I I
I I I
I I I 3500
I I I
____ ~L----------------L
___ ~~----------------l
.Ly-
Plan
(All dimensions in mm)
18
Reference Calculations Output
Note 2 The beam can be idealised as follows.

~-
A~ t---..:.6(XX):.:.:.-----~
_

The critical moments for design will be


(i) Hogging moment at B
(ii) Sagging moment in span BC

Loadin~ on beam (per m len~th);-

Note 3 From slab = (0.125)(24)(3.5) = 10.5 kN/m


From finishes = (1.0)(3.5) = 3.5 kN/m
From beam = (0.45-0.125)(0.3)(24) = 2.34 kN/m
Total dead load udl = 16.34 kN/m
Dead load point load at A = (2.0)(3.5) = 7.0 kN/m
Live load udl = (4.0)(3.5) = 14.0 kN/m

3.2.1.2.2 The hogging moment at B will be maximum when


the cantilever portion AB is loaded with the
maximum design ultimate load, irrespective of the
load on the span BC.
The sagging moment in BC will be a maximum when
the cantilever portion AB has the minimum design
ultimate load, while the span Be has the maximum
design ultimate load.
Maximum design ultimate load (udl) =
(16.34)(1.4) + (14.0)(1.6) = 45.28 kN/m
Minimum design ultimate load (udl) = 16.34 kN/m

Hoe;e;ine; moment atB:-

7.0x1.4 /45.28 kN/rn

~---'ft
M B = (7.0)(1.4)(1.95) + (45.28)(2.0)2/2 M B = 110 kNm
= 109.7 kNm (hogging)

19
Reference Calculations Output
SUging moment in BC:-

7.0 /16.34 kN/rn /45.28 kN/rn

L:-~
A
te ,t

B
x
.

MB = (7.0)(1.95) + (16.34)(2.0)2/2 = 46.33 kNm


Taking moments about B for Be,
Rc(6.0) + 46.33 = (45.28)(6.0tl2
Rc = 128.1 kN
Mx = (128.1)x - (45.28)x 2/2
dMx/dx = 0 when (45.28)x = 128.1
x = 2.83 m
Mmax = (128.1)(2.83) - (45.28)(2.83tl2 MBC =181 kNm
= 181.2 kNm (sagging)

Notes on Calculations

2. Idealization is the first step in analysis. Since it is not possible to model the actual
structure with complete accuracy, idealization should be performed such that the
results obtained are conservative. For example, although point C has a certain degree
of restraint, it is impossible to quantify it. However assuming the end C to be simply
supported will give a higher (and hence conservative) moment in the span Be. The
restraint moment at C can be subseqently accounted for by providing a nominal
amount of.hogging steel there.

3. Since the beam spacing is 3.5 m, each beam carries the loads acting on a strip 3.5
m wide.

Concluding Notes

4. Where dead and imposed loads are combined, as in the case of this example, the
design moments at critical sections have to be arrived at by a proper combination of
loading patterns.

20
EXAMPLE 8 - DESIGN OF BEAM FOR FLEXURE

Design the reinforcement for hogging and sagging moments in the beam in Example 7. Use
feu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy = 460 N/mm 2

Introductory Notes

1. In this example, only the reinforcement for the maximum sagging and hogging
moments need to be calculated, since the beam section is already specified in
Example 7.

2. Furthermore, as the bending. moment diagram for the beam has not been drawn
(although it could be), the curtailment of reinforcement is not considered. This aspect
is considered in Example 12.

Reference Calculations Output


Effectiye de,pth "

Table 3.2 Assume moderate exposure conditions, for outdoor


Note 3 exposure.
Note 4 Making use of Notes 5 and 6 of Table 1, we can use
TABLE 1 a cover of 30 mm. cover = 30 mm
Table 3.5 This will also give a fire resistance of 2 hours.
Assuming a link diameter of 10 mm and a
reinforcement size of 25 mm, the effective depth will
Note 5 be d = 450 - 30 -10 - 25/2 = 397.5 mm d = 397.5 mm
Desi~n for ho~~in~ moment

The beam behaves a a rectangular beam.


b = 300 mm, d = 397.5 mm, M = 110 kNm
Chart 2 M/bd 2 = (110 xl06) 1 (300)(397.5)2 = 2.32
(Part 3) lOOA/bd = 0.67
As = (0.67)(300)(397.5) 1 100 = 799 mm 2 As = 799 mm 2
Use 21'20 & ITl6 (As = 829 mm2) Use 21'20 &
Table 3.27 looA/bwh = (100)(829) 1 (300)(450) lT16(829 mm 2)
= 0.61 > 0.26; hence O.K. (hogging)

Design for sagging moment

The beam behaves as a flanged beam.


3.4.1.5 b = lesser of 3500 mm or
1/5 + bw = {(0.7)(6000)}/5 + 300 = 1140 mm
Hence, b = 1140 m bf = 1140 m

21
Reference Calculations Output
3.4.4.4 Assume that the neutral axis is within the flange.
K = M I (b.dz.fcu)
= (181 x106)/{(1140)(397.5t(25)} = 0.040 <0.156
z = d[0.5 + {0.25 - K/(0.9)}o.s]
= d[0.5 + {0.25 - (0.04)/(0.9)}o.5]
= (0.95)d = (0.95)(397.5) = 377.6 mm
x = (d-z)/(0.45) = (397.5-377.6) 1 (0.45)
= 44.2 mm < 125 mm.
Hence, neutral axis is in fact within the flange, and N.A. is in
the beam can be designed as a rectangular beam with flange
b = 1140 mm.
Chart 2 M/bd z = (181 xl06) 1 (1140)(397.5)z = 1.00
(Part 3) l00A/bd = 0.27
As = (0.27)(1140)(397.5) 1 100 = 1224 mm z As = 1224 mm 2
Use 21'25 & 11'20 (As = 1295 mm2) Use 21'25 &
Table 3.27 bwlb = 250/1140 = 0.22 < 0.40 11'20
Note 6 l00A,Ibw h = (100)(1295) 1 (300)(450) (1295 mm z)
= 0.96 > 0.18; hence O.K. (sagging)

TranYerse steel
In ordeJ:l that flanged beam action is ensured, the
minimum amount of transverse steel (to be provided
in the top of the slab) is given by
Table 3.27 l00Ast/htl = 0.15
Ast = (0.15)(125)(1000) 1 100 = 187.5 mmz/m Transverse steel
Note 7 Use R6 @ 150 (min.) (Ast = 190 mm2/m) R6@150 (min)
(190 mmz/m)
Slenderness check
3.4.1.6
Continuous portion - clear distance between restraints
is 5700 mm
(60)bc = (60)(1140) = 68400 mm
(250)b/ld = (250)(1140)21 (397.5) = 817358 mm
Since these values are > 5700 mm, check is O.K.

Cantilever portion - clear distance between restraints


is 1850 mm
(25)bc = (25)(300) = 7500 mm
(l00)b/ld = (100)(300)2 I (397.5) = 22642 mm Slenderness
Note 8 Since these values are > 1850 mm, check is O.K. O.K.

22
Notes on Calculations

3. It is sufficient to assume a "moderate" exposure condition for the exteriors of most


structures, which are not subjected to freezing and sheltered from driving rain.

4. The cover values are obtained from TABLE 1 in the Introduction to this text; this
Table is relevant for Sri Lankan concreting practice. The figures in the table can be
further modified by Notes 5 and 6 of the table, as has been done here. It is assumed
in this example therefore, that the mix proportions correspond to a grade 30 mix
(although the strength achieved is only grade 25) and also that a 15 mm (min)
cement: sand rendering protects the concrete surface.

5. The calculation of effective depth from the overall depth is illustrated by the figure
below.

- y
_ shear link

,Lt
b~a
bars

x.....-
~1 cover

6. Although the actual steel requirement is calculated using the value of flange width,
the minimum steel requirement is based on the web width.

7. This transverse steel will also have to resist the hogging moment in the slab, and a
greater amount than this will need to be provided in most cases.

8. This slenderness check is almost always non-critical, except perhaps in the case of
long, deep cantilevers.

Concluding Notes

9. When designing beam-slab systems, care must be taken to note where flanged beam
action takes place and where it does not. Furthermore, such locations will be reversed
in systems where upstand beams are used.

10. If the neutral axis of a flanged beam falls within the flange, the design is identical to
a rectangular beam, as seen here.

11. When designing for hogging and sagging moments at support and span respectively,
care must be taken to remember what steel has to be placed at the top of the beam
section, and what steel at the bottom.

23
EXAMPLE 9 - DESIGN OF FLAN~ED SECTION

Design an edge beam of a beam-slab system to take an ultimate moment of 200 kNm at mid
span.
Spacing of beams = 4.0 m; Span of beams = 6.0 m;
Thickness of slab= 100 mm', fcu = 25 N/mm2 ,. fy = 460 N/mm 2.

Introductory Notes

1. An edge beam will have a transverse slab only on one side; hence it is called an
L-beam. The beam in the earlier example is called a T-beam, since the slab extended
over both sides of the beam. If the beam is below the slab (as is the case most of the
time), the slab will act as a flange only in the span, when the top of the section is in
compression, and not at the supports. .

Reference Calculations Output


Note 2 Assume that bw = 225 mm

3.4.1.5 b = lesser of 2000 mm


or lilO + bw = {(O.7)(6000)}/lO + 225 = 645 mm
Hence, b = 645 mm b = 645 mm

If the beam is to be singly reinforced, K=K' = 0.156


M 1 (b.d2.fcu) = 0.156
(200 x106) 1 {(645)(d)2(25)} = 0.156 dmin = 282 mm
d = 2~2 rpm d = 325 mm
Note 3 Hence, choose d = 325 mm and h = 375 mm h = 375 mm

3.4.4.4 Then, K = (200 xl06 ) 1 645)(325)2(25)} = 0.117


z = d[O.5 + {0.25 - K/(O.9)}O.5]
= d[0.5 + {0.25 - (O.117)/(O.9)}O.5]
= (O.846)d = 275 mm
x = (325-275) 1 (0.45) = 111 mm
Note 4 Since this is greater than hf = 100 mm, the neutral N.A. is out of
axis lies outside the flange. flange
b/b w = 645/225 = 2.87
d/h f = 325/100 = 3.25
equation 2 {3f = 0.129
Note 5
3.4.4.5 {3f.fcu .b.d2 = (0.129)(25)(645)(325)2 = 219.7 xlO6 ~

Note 6 = 220 kNm > 200 kNm


Also, hid = 100/375'325 = 0.308 < 0.45" singly
Hence, section can be singly reinforced. reinforced

24
ReCerence Cakulatioas Output
equation 1 AI = [M + (0.I)fcu .bw .d{(0.45)d-b,)] I
Note 7 (0.87)f {d-(0.5)hrH
=[(200xl()6)+(0.1X2S~2S){(0.45)(325)-100}f
[(O.87)(460){325-(0.5)(I00))] = 1894 mm As = 1894 mm2
Use 21'32 &. 11'20 (As = 1922 mm2) Use 21'32 &.
3.12.6.1 l00A/bwh = (100)(1922) I (225)(375) 11'20'
Note 8 . = 2.28 < 4.0; hence O.K. (1922 mm 2)

Notes on Calculations

2. A web width of 225 mm is around the minimum that is practically desirable, in order
to accommodate the reinforcement. A width of 200 mm can be considered as the
absolute minimum for all beams save those which carry very nominal loads.

3. The difference between d and h has been taken as SO mm, although the actual
calculation of cover should be carried out as in Example 8.

4. This trial-and-error approach has to be adopted to find out wbetbet Clause 3.4.4.5 has
to be used (singly reinforced flanged beam design) or whetha" it is sufficient to use
Clause 3.4.4.4. (rectangular beam design, since the neutral axis is within the flange).

5. It is easier and more accurate to use equation 2 to obtain the value of Pf rather than
to resort to double interpolation in Table 3.7.

6. Pf.fcu.b.d'i is the greatest moment capoci.ty for a singly reinfcm:ed section when x is
restricted to (0.5)d.

7. This equation for A. is slightly conservative, as it assumes that x = (0.5)<1 , although


the actual neutral axis may be somewhere between x = b f and x = (0.5)<1. Since the .
width of the web is relatively small, compared to the flange, this discrepency is
negligible and conservative.

8. This check for maximum percentage of reinforcement is also almost always satisfIed,
except for very heavily reinforced sections. Although the check is satisfIed here, care
will have to be exercised if lapping is done.

Concluding Notes

9. This example illustrated the situation where the neutral axis fell below the flange of
a flanged beam. Design charts cannot be used in such a situation, and the equations
.. in Clause 3.4.4.5 have to be employed.

10. In addition, if the moment is greater than Pf .fcu .b.d2 (i.e. compression steel is
required), or if more than 10% redistribution has been carried out, the beam has to
be designed from strain compatibility fIrst principles as given in Clause 3.4.4.1.

25
EXAMPLE 10 - DESIGN OF SECTION FOB. SIlEAB.

A simply supported beam of cross section.b = 22S nun and d = 400 mmcarries an ultimate
load of 60 leN/m over its clear span of 5.0 m. Design the shear reiDforcemeat required near
the support, assuming that the pe.n:entage of teDsionmntOl'CelDalt at tbesupporl is 0.8~.
Assume feu = 2S N/mm2 and ~ = 2SO N/mm2

Introductory Notes

1. The two main effects caused by flexure are bending moment and shear. The bending
moment in a concrete beam is carried by steel reinforcement parallel to the ~.
axis. The shear force is carried by steel reinforcement in atransvene direction,
generally in the form of:linb.

2. If possible, mild ~ of fyv = 250 N/mm2 is preferred for links,as it is easier to


bend into shape, compared to high yield steel. Links generally have diameters varying
from 6 to 12 mm, in steps of 2 mm.
Reference Cakuiatioas Output
Note 3 Although the shear force will be maximum .atthe
3.4.5.10 face of the support, the deaign &bear force for
uniformly distributed loading is at a section wd wfrom
the face.

~
design
Vmax ' .
:
~d~. "".
~2500 ~ ""
VJIWt = ('()(5)/2 = 156 leN
vJIWt= (156 xloJ) I (225}(400) = 1.67 N/mnJl Vmax = 1.67
(0.8)(Wo.s = (0.8)(25)0.5 N/mm2
3.4.5.2 = 4 N/mm 2 > 1.67 N/mm2 < 5 N/mm2 ;
Note 4 hence O.K.
VdeIip = (156)(2500-400) 1(2500) = .126 leN
equation 3 v = V/(bv.d) = (126 xloJ) I (225)(400)'
Note 5 = 1.4 N/mm2 v =; 1.4 N/mm 2
l00AJb"d = 0.8, d =:= 400 nun, feu = 25 N/mm2 ;
Table 3.9 Hence, ve = 0.58 N/mm2 Vc = 0.58
Table 3.8 Since v > ve + 0.4 N/mm2, links have to be N/mm2
Note 6 designed.
A.v > = bvsv<v-vJ I (0.87)fyv
Note 7 Assuming 10 mm links, A.v = 157.1 mm 2
Hence, Sy < = (157.1)(0.87)(250) I (1.4-0.58)(225)
3.4.5.5 = 185 mm < (0.75)d = 300 nun; hence O.K. Links
Note 8 Use R,lO links @ 175 Mm. RIO @ 175

26
Notes on Calculations

3. This is the simplified method to account for the enhanced shear resistance near
supports. The section considered should be an effective depth away from the face of
the support. Where support details are not available, it will be comervative to
measure -d- from the centre-line of support.

4. This is the maximum shear check. If this fails, there is no alternative but to change
the beam dimensions. It is prudent therefore, to make this check fairly early in the
design procedure.

5. b v for a flanged beam should be taken as the average width of the web below the
flange.

6. 0.4 N/mm2 is the shear resistance that can be carried by nominal shear links.

7. When using this inequality for providing links, either the Aav value or Sy value must
be chosen. In g~, the A.., value is assumed and the Sy value c:a1culated. The A.v
value refers to the total cross section of links at the neutral axis of a section.
Gea1etally, it is twice the area of the chosen bar, since in most cases it is links with
2 vertical legs that are used. The resulting Sy value should not exceed (0.75)d, to
ensure that at least one link crosses a potential shear crack. The transverse spacing
between the legs of a link should be such that it does not exceed -d- and that 00
longitudinal tension bar is greater than 150 mm from a vertical leg.

8. The link spacing is also often specified in steps of 25 mm, because of the tendency
to think in Imperial units. (1 inch is approximately 25 mm.)

Concluding Notes

9. In this example, only the shear reinforcement requirement near the support has been
calculated. The requimnent close to mid-span will be much less. This aspect will be
considered in the next example.

27
EXAMPLE 11 - DESIGN OF BEAM FOR SlIEAa

A simply supported beam, with d = 550 mm and b ... 350 mm and clear span 6.0 m is
subject to a triangularly varying shear force diagra,m, with a value of 400 kN at the face of
the supports. The mid span. steel consists of 4 Nos. 2S mm bars. Design the shear
reinforcement required over the entire span, if two of the main bars are bent ~ at 45 near
the supports. Take feu = 2S N/mm2 , fy = 460 N/mm2 and fyv = 250N/mm .

Introductory Notes

1. In this example, two. bent up bars are also used to provide shear reinforcement near
the beam supports.

2. The most reasonable way to provide shear reinforcement for the entire span would
be to consider three areas - Le.
(i) the support area where bent up bars are also effective in addition to links,
(ii) the middle of the beam, where only nominal links would suffice , and
(iii) the portion in between the above.

R.eference Calculatioos Output


SumutNCl!l
.
V max= 400 kN
v = (400 xl<P) I (350)(550) ... 2.08 N/nun2
lDllX Vmax = 2.08
3.4.5.2 (0.8)(W0.s = .(0.8)(25)0.5 N/mm2
= 4 N/mm2 > 2.08 N/mm2 < 5 N/mm2 ;
hence O.K.

Shear resistance of 2 inclined bars,


equation 4 Vb = A.(O.87)fyb(cosa + sina.eotP)(d-d') I
3.4.5.6 Assumethalll = 67.5 and d' = 50 mm'
Note 3 hence .stt = (1.41)(d-d') =(1.41)(500) = 705 mm
=
Vb (982)(O.87)(460){0.7 1 +(0.71)(0.4 )}(SOO)/(705)
= 277890 N
Vb = (277890) I (350)(550) = 1.44 Nir ~m2 Vb = 1.44
N/mm 2
Since 2 bars continue into support,
lOOA/bvd = (loo)(981.J 1(350)(550) = 0.51;
Table 3.9 hence, Vc = 0.50 N/mm Vc = 0.5
3.4.5.10 Shear force at section "d" from support - N/mm 2
Note 4 {(3000-550) I (3000)}(400) = 327 kl '<l
v = (327 xloJ) I (550)(350) = 1.70 NI mm2
v-ve = 1.70 - 0.50 = 1.20 N/mm 2
3.4.5.6 Although this can be resisted by the ben up bars
alone, half of this must be resisted by lj;flks.

28
Reference Calculations Output
Asv > = bv.Iv{(1.20)12} 1 (0.87)fyv
Putting A.v = 157.1 mm2 for 10 mm links,
Iv < = (157.1)(0.87)(250) 1 (350)(0.6)
= 163 mm < (0.75)<1; hence O.K.
Use RIO links @ 150 mm; this can be used over the RIO @ 150 mm
entire area over which the bent up bars are (support area)
effective - i.e. for 0.71 m from the face of support.

Middle area
l00A/bvd == (100)(1963) 1 (350)(550) == 1.02;
Table 3.9 hence Vc == 0.63 N/mm2 Vc == 0.63
Table 3.8 Shear stress taken by nominal links == 0.63 + 0.4 N/mm2
= 1.03 N/mm2
Shear force taken by nominal links ==
(1.03)(350)(550)(Hr3) = 198 kN
Hence, extent of area covered by nominal links =
{(198)/(400)}(6.0) == 2.97 m
Steel for nominal links is given by
A.., > == (0.4)bv1v 1 (0.87)fyv
Putting Aav = 157.1 mm2 for 10 mm links,
Iv < = (157.1)(0.87)(250) 1 (0.4)(350)
= 244 mm < (0.75)d; hence O.K. RIO @ 225 mm
Use RIO links @ 225 mm (middle area)
f

Area in-between
Extent of this area = 3.0 - (2.97)/2 - 0.71 = 0.81 m
Shear force at distance 0.71 m from support face =
{(3.0-0.71)/(3.0)}(400) = 305 leN
v = 1.58 N/mm 2 v = 1.58
Note 5 vc = 0.63 N/mm 2 N/mm2
Table 3.8 Since v > vc + 0.4 N/mm2 , design shear links. Vc = 0.63
A.v ~= bvlv(v-vJ 1 (O87)fw N/mm 2
Putting A. v = 157.1 mm2 for {6 mm links,
Iv < = (157.1)(0.87)(250) 1 (350)(1.58-0.63)
= 103 mm 2 RIO@
Note 6 Use 2RIO links @ 200 mm < (0.75)<1; hence O.K. 200 mm
lCQJlOO 2/1(QjaX) l~
(area in-
between)

1~2T25
I. 2T25'" 4T25

1.48m

29
Notes on Calculations

3. Since fJ should be taken as > 45 and ~ is restricted to l.S(d..(i'), this assumed value
of 67.5 for fJ is reasonable and easy for calculation purposes.

4. This is the same approach described in Note 3 of Example 10, The links designed can
be used from the support upto the point where the main bars are cranked up.

S. a
Although 2 bars are bent up, they also continue for at least distance "d" from any
point in this section of the beam. Hence, the value of vc will be the same as in the
middle area.

6. If the link spacing is less than around ISO mm, it will be difficult for concreting to
be carried out. Hence, as in this case, 2 links can be placed together, spaced wider
apart. An alternative would have been to use 12 mm dia. links; however fabrication
will be easier if links of the same diameter are used throughout the beam.

Concludina Notes

7. It is not very common practice to use bent up bars as described in this example,
although it was in the past.

30
EXAMPLE 12 - SERVICEABnJTY CHECKS AND DETAll.JNG

Carry out serviceability checks on the beam analysed in Example 7 and designed in Example
8. Also carry out detailing of reinforeement, including curtailment and lapping. Assume that
type 2 defonned bars are used as reinforcement.

Introductory Notes

1. The serviceability checks consist of spanldepth ratio calcu1ations for deflection and
bar spacing rule checks for cracking. If these simplified checks are satisfied, the beam
is "deemed to satisfy" the serviceability limit state requirements.

Refereace Calculations Output


Check for deflection fSRanIde,pth rules)
Note 2
3.4.1.3 Consider the man BC; effective span = 6000 mm
bwlb = 0.22 < 0.3
Table 3.10 .Hence, basic span/depth = 20.8 for continuous,
flanged beam.
Example 8 Mlbd2 = 1.00 and
f. = (S/8)(460){(1224)/1295)} = 272 N/mm2
Table 3.11 Hence, P l -= I.4S (for tension reinforcement)
Notes F 2 = 1.0 (as there is no compression reinforcement)
3&4 Hence, allowablespanldepth ratio = (20.8)(1.45) All. span!
= 30.16 depth = 30.2
Actual spanldepth= (6000)/(397.5) = 15.09 Act spanI
< 30.16; hence O.K. depth = 15.1
Hence O.K.
3.4.1.4 Consider fP8D AD: effective span = 2000 mm
Table 3.10 Basic spanldepth = 7 for cantilever with rectangular
beamaetion.
Example 8 Mlbd2 = 2.32 and
f. = (5/8)(460){(799)/829)} = 277 N/mm2
Table 3.11 Hence F l == 1.07 (for tension reinforcement)
Notes F2 = 1.0 (as there is no compression reinforcement) All. span!
3&4 Hence, allowable spanldepth ratio = (7)(1.07) = 7.5 depth = 7.5
Actual spanldepth = (2000)/(397.5) = 5.03 Act. span/
< 7.5; hence O.K. depth = 5.03 .
Hence O.K.

Curtailment of reinforcement

The bending moment diagram envelope must first be


dmwn

31
Reference Cakulatiolls
NoteS Por 111M Be. the controlling 1oa4.c:ase is when AS
has the minimum designultimate1Qed 'aDd Be has
the maximum designultimateIoad~ This case bas
already been considered in Example 7 .

7.0 /6.34 kN/m /45.28 kN/m

~ nn~
1.95m 6.Om x

Example 7 For span BC, Mx = (128.1)x - (45.28)x212


Mx = Oatx - O.
Mx is max. at x = 2.83 and equal to 18l.2 kNm
Mx .. 0 apiA<al x = 5.66 m
Example 8 Steel at span BC is 2T25 & lno. We can consider
curtailing the lno bar.

Note 6 M.o.R. of continuing bars (A, .= 981.7 mm2) can be


shown to be 148.4kNm.
Putting (128.1)x - (22.64)x2 == 148.4
we can obtain x = 1.63 m and 4.03 m.
3.12.9.1 These are the theoretical cut-off points.

Note 7 Keep the practical cut-off points an ancboragelength


3.12.9.1(c) . away from the theoretical ones.
Table 3.29 Anchorage length = (40)(20) -=300 mm

This ancborage length is greater than


(12)41 {= (12)(20)= 240 mm} or -d- (397.5 mm).
Hence, practical cut-off points are at Curtail 1no
x = 1.63 - 0.8 = 0.83 m and bottom bar at
x = 4.03 + 0.8 = 4.83 m 1.13 m and
Length of 20 mm bar required = 4.83 - 0.83 5.13 m from B.
=4.0m Length of bar
Distances to ends from B are 5.17 m and 1.17 m. is 4.0 m.

32
RelereDe Calculations Output
Note 8 For support B, the controlling loading case is when
spans AB and Behave the max. and min. design
ultimate loads. respectively.

7.OX1.4 45 28 kNjm /16.34 kNjm

~B"'';:'" ... 'le


Taking moments about C for AC
Rs(6.0) == (7.0)(1.4)(7.95) + (45.28)(2.0)(7.0)
+ (16.34)(6~/2
Ra = 167.7kN
My == (7)(1.4){y"o..0S] + (4S.28)r/2
- (167.7)[y-2.0) - (45.28-16.34)[Y-2.0j2/2
My == (9.8){y"o.05] + (22.64)r - (167.7)[y-2.0)
- (14.47)[y-2.0r
A
/ \ M.o.R.
/ '\..... M.o.R./2

A ;B
My = Oaty =OandML = loo.7atB.
My == 0 again at y == 4.2J m.
Steel at support is 2T2O & ITI6. We can consider
curtailing the 1T16 bar.

Note 6 M.o.R. of the continuing bars (~ == 628.3 mm2)


can be shown to be 90.5 kNm.
Putting-(9.8)(y-Q.05) + (22.64)r = 90.5,
we can obtainy == 1.80 m for span AB,
and from (9.8)(y-D.05) + (22.64)r - (167.7)(y-2.0)
- (14.47)(y-2.0r == 90.5,
we can obtain y == 2.30 m for span Be.
3.12.9.1 These are the theoretical cut-offpoints.

Note 9 To find where the M.o.R. of continuing bars is twice


3.12.9.1(e) the applied moment, we can put
(9.8)(y-Q.05) + (22.64)y2 = (90.5)/2 for span AB,
and (9.8)(y-0.05) + (22.64)r - (167.7)(y-2.0)
- (14.47)(y-2.0r = (90.5)/2 for span Be,
giving Y = 1.22 m and 3.10 m

33
Refereoce Calculatioos Output
TheGiffe:reoce betweentheSIDIlIer y values is
(1.80 - 1.22) = 0.58 m or 580 Mm. This is greater
than (12)4> (192 mm) or -d- (397.5 mm). The
difference between the larger y values is (3.10-2.30)
= 0.80 m or 800 mm,which is alsogIeater than
(12)41 or -d-.
Hence, the practical cut-off points are
y = 1.22 m and y= 3.10 m. Curtail I T16
Length of 16 mm bar required = 3.10 - 1.22 top bar 0.78 m
Note 10 = 1.88 m (left) and
Distances to B are (2.0 - 1.22) =O.78m (span AD) 1.10 MCright)
and (3.10 - 2.0) = 1.10 m (span Be) ofB.
Table 3.29 Since the distances to either side of B > = (40)41 I..eIlgth of bar is
Note 11 {Le. (40)(16)= 640 mm}, anchorage is satisfied. 1.88 m.

J 'Imine of bars

Note 12 The continuing 21'20 top bars at B can be curtailed at


the point of contraflexure closer to B in span BC.and
lapped with 2T12 bars (which will anchor the shear
links). Similarly, the continuing 2T25 bottom bats in
span Be can be curtailed attbe point of contraflexure
closer to B in span BC and lapped with 2T12 bus.

For top bars, distance of point of contraflexure from


A is 4.23 m. This would be the theoreticalcut-off
3. 12.9. 1(c) point To find the practical cut-off point, continue
Table 3.29 the bars for an effective depth {Le. 397.5 mm (> Curtail 2T20
Note 13 12cP)}. Heace, cut-off paint is 4.23 + 0.4= 4.63 m top bars 2.63 m
from A, Le. 4.63 - 2.0 = 2..63 m.to the right of B. to .right of B.
3.12.8.13 The lapped 2T12 bars will start (40)(12) =4S0mm
Note 14 before the curtailment of the 21'20 bars, Le. 2.63 - Start 2T12 top
0.48 =2.15 m to the right of B. bars 2.1~ m to
3.12.8.11 ~:- Min. lap length = gtQterof (15~ (::: ISO right of B.
mm) or 300 mm is satisfied; also distance between
3.12.8.13 laps will be greater than 75 mm and (6)4> (=72 mm).
Curtail 2T25
For bottom bars, distance of point of contraflexure bottom bars
from C is 5.66 m, Le. 6.00 - 5.66 = O.34m to the 0.06 m to left
right of B. As before, the practical cut-off point ofB.
would be 397.5 mm beyond this. Hence, it would be Start 2Tl2
0.4 - 0.34 = 0.06 m to the left of B. The nl2 bars bottom bars
Note 15 will start 0.48 - 0.06 = 0.42 m to the right of B. 0.42 m to right
ofB.

34
Relerenee Calculations Output

lT16
mo ZIal 214> Zf12
,
I Zf12
>

t
<
21Q
<
),
>'

2I25 21"25t
l'IID
A B c
Crack width check <Bar mcW!: rules)

Example 8 Cover required = 30 mm


Assume link diameter of 10 mm.

Example 8 Considering the sUI!Wrt section (tension on top),


Clear spacing between top bars (21'20 & lT16) =
{300 - (2)(30) - (2)(10) - (20+20+ 16)}/2 = 82 mm
If middle (16 mm) bar is curtailed, clear spacing =
ISO rom.
1 (0].-1
Table 3.30 The top spacing at the support < 160 mm; hence
Note 16 O.K. (Note:- Since 16120 = 0.8 > 0.45, the 16 mm
3.12.11.2.2 bar satisfies-the 0.45 role.) ( :m )
However, the spacing role is marginally violated
when the middle bar is eurtail~; this can be
tolerated, since the service stress in the continuing
Note 17 bars will be small.
Comer distance = [{(30+10+2012)2}(2)]O.s - 20/2 Crack Width
3.12.11.2.5 = 6O.7mm < 160/2 =
80 mm; hence O.K. O.K. at support

Example 8 Considering the span section (tension on bottom),


Clear spacing between bottom bars (2T25 &. 1nO) =
{300 - (2)(30) - (2)(10) - (25+25+20)}/2 = 75 mm
If middle (20 mm) bar is curtailed, clear spacing =
170 mm.
Table 3.30 The bottom spacing near midspan is < 160 mm;
Note 16 hence O.K. (Note: - Since 20/25 = 0.8 > 0.45, the
3.12.11.2.2 20 mm bar satisfies the 0.45 role.)
However, the spacing role is marginally violated
when the middle bar is curtailed; as before, this can
Note 17 be tolerated.
Corner distance = [{(3O+ 10+ 25/2)2}(2)]O'S - 25/2 Crack width
3.12.11.2.5 = 61. 7 mm < 160/2 = 80 mm; hence O.K. O.K. in span
3.12.11.1
Note also that all the above spacings are greater than
Note 18
hagg + 5 mm, if we assume that h = 20 mm. Minimum
Hence, minimum spacing rules are~so satisfied. spacing O.K

35
Notes 00 cakulatioos

2. The span is taken from Example 7. More guidance regarding the calculation of
effective spans is given in clauses 3.4.1.2 to 3.4.1.4.

3. The use of eq~on 7 will be more convenient than obtaining F 1 from double
interpolation in Table 3.11.

4. In a practical beam, there will be some bars on the compression face, in order to
anchor the shear links. These may be considered as compression reinforcement;
neglecting them is conservative.

S. If the structure is simple, instead of drawing the entire bending moment envelope, the
controlling loading cases for each situation can be considered.Wberethe span BC is
concerned, the controlling case will be that which causes the points of contraflexure
to be as close as possible to the supportsB and C.

6. This calculation is done as in Example 1. The beam is under-reinforced.

7. Since the curtailed bar will be anchored in the tension zone, one of the conditions (c)
to (e) in Clause . 3.12.9.1 must be satisfied. In general (c) can be used in sagging
moment regions and (e) in hogging moment ones.

8. The controlling loading case for the hogging moment steel at support B is that which
produces the maximum moment at B, while causing the point of contraflexure closer
to B in the span Be to be as far as possible from B.

9. For sagging momenteurtai1ment, generally condition (e) is the4XNUlOUing one, over


(a) and (b) in Clause 3.12.9.1, in order to determine the distance between the
theoretical and practi.cal cut-off points. For hogging moment situations, however,
since the moment values drop sharply from the point of maximum moment,
conditions (a) and (b) may govern over (e).

10. For the same reason given in Note 9 - Le. the bending moment diagram being convex
to the baseline - the lengths of curtailed bars at supports are much smaller than those
in spans.

II. The anchorage length has to be provided on. either side of the critical section for
design, so that the full strength of the steel can be utilized. The anchorage lengths
vary depending on the surface characteristics of the reinforcement as well as its yield
strength. The anchorage length check may become critical when curtailing support
steel.

12. The continuing bars at the top (2T20) and the bottom (2T2S) can be lapped with
smaller bars, when the former are no longer required to carry tensile stresses. At
least two bars are required at any section for anchoring the shear links. The minimum
diameter for such bars will be around 12 mm, so that the reinforcement cage will
have adequate stiffness during erection.

36
13. In this instance, it is sufficient to satisfy amdilioos (a) and (b) alone in Clause
3.12.9.1 isosed, as the bars will not be anchored in the tension zone.

14. All the references in Clause 3.12.8.13 are to the smaller of the two lapped bars.
Although the basic lap length does not need to be increased in this example, it may
need to be in some cases.

15. In general, lapping should not be done at supports, Since column or wall
reinforcement will add to reinforcement congestion. In this example however, the
bottom lap extends into the support.

16. No downward redistribution of moments has been carried out at this support section.
If such redistribution bad been performed at a .support ectioo, the muimum spacing
allowed becomes fairly small.

17. The continuing bars are able to carry twice the moment actually applied, as
curtailment has been done according to condition (e) in Clause 3.12.9.1. As the
service stress will thtn be quite small, margiDal.aations of the bar spicing rules can
be allowed. In any case, see Note 19.

18. Both maximum and minimum spacings have to be satisfied. The maximum spacings
apply to the tension face and are "deemed to satisfy- rules for crack control. The
minimum spacing roles apply to both faces and eosure that concre.ting can be carried
out satisfactorily. The most commonly used ~ size in pmctice is 20 mm
(maximum size).

C........ Netes

19. If the "deemed to satisfy" serviceabilitycbecks.ae not satisfied, the more aocurate
calculations for deflection and crack width in Section 3 of BS 8UO: Part 2 can be
resorted to, in order to find out whether the Rlquimnents of Clause 2.2.3 are met.

37
EXAMPLE 13 - ONE WAY SLAB

A slab which has several continuous spans of 5 m is to carry an imposed load of 3 kN/m2
as a one way spanning slab. The loading from finishes and lightpartitioos can each be
considered equivalent to a uniformly distributed load of I kNIm2 Taking the density of
reinforced concrete to be 24 kN/m3 , feu = 25 N/mm 2 , and fy = 460 N/mm2, design a
typical interior panel.

Introductory Notes

1. A slab is similar to a beam in that it is a flexural member. It isdi.ffeRat to a beam


in that it i.s a two dimensional element, as opposed to being one dimensional.

2. Where the loadings from light ~tions is not accurately known, it is reasonable to
U$umeaudl value of I kNlm2 Furthermore, partitions whose positions are not
known should be treated as additional imposed load. The imposed load value specified
in this example corresponds to .that for a school building. Imposed loads assumed for
office buildings and domestic buildings are 2.5 kN/m 2 and 1.5kN1m2 n=spectively.
Further guidance can be obtained from "BS 6399: Part I (1984) - Design loading for
buildings: Code of pmctice for dead and imposed loads".

Calculatioas Output
Slab thickness
Note 3 , to choose a slab thickness, assume
tb of 34 .(for a continuous I way slab).
Hence, effective depth = (5.0 xloJ)/(34) =
147 mm
TABLE 1 We can use a cover of 20 mm (mild exposure
conditions; concrete protected by lOmm 1;3
cement:sand rendering).
Assuming bar diameter to be 10 mm, choose h == 175 mm.
Note 4 h = 175 mm and d = 175 - 20 - 10/2 '"" lSOmm d -ISO . .

NoteS LoadiOI: (for I m wide strip)

Self load = (0.175)(1)(24) = 4.2 kN/m


Finishes = (1.0)(1) = 1.0 kNlm
Total dead load = 5.2 kN/m (gk)
Imposed load = (3.0)(1) = 3.0 kN/m
Partitions = (1.0)(1) = 1.0 kN/m
Total imposed load = 4.0 kNlm ('he)
design udl =
Design load = (1.4)(5.2) + (1.6)(4.0) = 13.7 kN/m 13.7 kN/m

38
Referenee Calculations Output
Ultimate bendin& moments and shear forces

3.5.2.3 Since gk > <JJc and 'be < = 5.0 kN/m 2, and if we
assume that bay size > 30 m2 , for an interior p&!lel,
Table 3.13 Span moment = (0.063)F.l = (0.063)(13.7)(5.0)2- M~ =
= 21.6kNmlm 21.6 kNmlm
Support moment = (-Q.063)F.l = (-Q.063)(13.7)(5):l. M rt=
== -2L6kNmlm 2r6~mlm
Shear at support = (O.S)F = (0.5)(13.7)(5.0)
= 34.3 kN/m v = 34.3 kN/m

Desi&n for bendin& at l)M


Chart 2
(Part 3) Mlbd 2 = (21.6 x10~ 1 (1000)(150f" = 0.96
Note 6 100AJbd = 0.26 (> 0.13); hence min. steel O.K.
As = (0.26)(1000)(150) 1 (100) = 390 mm2/m Span steel
Note 7 Use TI0@175 mm (As = 448 mm2/m) TIO @ 175 mm
Fig. 3.25 Half theSe bars_ be Q1rtailed at (0.2)1 - i.e
Note 8 (0;2)(5) == 1.0 mfrom the centre-line of support.
3.12.11.2.7 Thenr/f will be TI0 @ 350 mm {3)(150) "" 450}
lOOA/Ac =i (100)(44812) / (1000)(175) = 0.13
Hence crack cootroland minimum steel O.K.

Note 9 Check for deflection


MJbd2 = 0.96 and
f s = (5/8)(460){(390)/(448)} = 250 N/mm2
Table 3.11 Hence F 1 = 157
Table 3.10 Allowable spanldepth = (26)(1.57) = 40.8
Actualspanldepth =(5000)/(150)
= 33.3 < 40.8; ~ O.K. Deflection O.K.

~n for bendin& at sUllJlOrt

Since the moment is identical to that in the span, Support steel


steel provided also can be identical. TIO @ 175 mm
Fig. 3.25 Half these bars can be curtailed at (0.15)1 =
(0.15)(5) = 0.75 m from the face of support (Note:
45 tP = 450 mm< 750mm) and all the steel
curtailed at (0.3)1 = (0.3)(5) = 1.5 m from the face
of support.

39
Reference calculations Output
,
Check for shear

v = (34.3 xl<P) I (1000)(150) = 0.23 N/mm 2 v = 0.23


Note 10 For looA/bvd = (100)(448) I (1000)(150) = 0.30, N/mm 2
d = 150 mm and feu = 25 N/mm 2 ,
Table 3.9 vc = 0.54 N/mm2 > 0.23N/mm2 vc - 0.54
Table 3.17 Hence, no shear reinforcement required. N/mm.2.
Note 11

Seconda[y reinforcement

Table 3.27 l00As/A c = 0.13


As = (0.13)(1000)(175) I (100) = 227.5 mm 2/m SeCondary
Use TlO @ 350 mm (As = 224 mm2/m) steel
3.12.11.2.7 Max. spacing = (3)(150)- 450 mm > 350 mm. TI0@350mm

~7EmMO.7~ ~ o. 7fm J>=7~


Tl~175 TlQfJ350 nOl3OO~75
.. ,

Notel2
cr .... --n~---- " .. ~
~~Tl~
, I
TlOOI75
Tl............I 'f
f

0( I.On '> ( I.On )


5.0m
( )

Notes on Calculatioas

3. Although the bending moment is the controlling factor in the choice of depth for
beams, where slabs are concerned, the controlling factor is the spanldepth ratio,
representing the check for deflection. Atrial'V8lue has to be used initially; a value
of around 34 is a reasonable estimate for lightly loaded one way continuous slabs; this
should be reduced to around 30 for heavily loaded .s1abs. A lightly loaded slab would
have an imposed load of around 4 kN/m2 , while a heavily loaded slab would bave one
of around 10 kN/m2

4. Slabs are generally designed such that shear links are not required; hence, no
allowance need be made for link diameter.

5. One way and two way slabs are generally designed - Le. loads evaluated and
reinforcementcalculated - on the basis of a strip of unit width (e.g. 1 m wide).

6. The minimum steel requirement is in fact based on looA/ Ac. However. since the

40
lOOA/bd is obtained from the design charts, it provides an approximate check on the
minimum steel requirement.

7. Although we can use the sllghtlylarger spacingof 200 mm (giving As = 392.5


mm 2/m), we adopt this smaller spacing, as it results in the minimum steel
requirement being satisfied even after half the steel is curtailed.

8. Although 60% of the steel can be curtailed, in practical slabs, curtailing 50% is
easier, because every other bar can be curtailed.

9. The assumption regarding spanldepth ratio must becbecked as early as possible in


the design. Hence span moments should be designed for first and the deflection check
made soon after.

10. The area of steel used here is that of the top (tension) steel at the support.

11. In general, apart from .some cases in flat slabs, it is sought to avoid shear
reinforcement in flat stabs. Hence, if v is greater than vC' the slab thickness is
increased. This should always be borne in mind, and perhaps an approximate check
for shear made early in the design,especially if the slab is heavily loaded (e.g. with
a water load).

12. Where the curtailment of steel is'toncemed, the distances corresponding to top steel
are given from the face of the support and those corresponding to bottom steel from
the centre-line of support.

Concluding Notes

13. Although it is quite easy to satisfy minimum steel requirements and maximum bar
spacing rules at critical sections (such as midspan and support), care should be taken
to ensure that the above checks are not violated after curtailment of reinforcement.

14. The simplified approach to the design of slabs, using Table 3. 13can be used in most
practical situations. Such an approach is given for the design of continuous beams as
well, in Table 3.6. The coefficients in this latter table are higher than those for slabs,
because the slab coefficients are based on the less stringent single load case of all
spans loaded, with support moments redistributed downwards by 20%.

41
EXAMPLE 14 - ONE WAY SLAB

A garage roof in a domestic building is to function as an accessible platform,


surrounded by a parapet wall; the slab is supported on two parallel 225 mm brick walls, the
clear distance between walls being 3.5 m. Design the slab,taking fcu .2S'N/mm2, f y = 460
N/mm2 and density of reinforced concrete =
24 kN/m3

Introductory Notes

1. This example has more unknowns than the previous one. It describes a "real"
situation, where design assumptions will have to be made. The imposed load and load
from finishes and parapet wall have to be assumed and a decision taken regarding the
end fixity of the slab.

...i.. The imposed load could be taken as 1.5 kN/m 2, since it is a domestic building. The
finishes (onboth top surface and soffit) can be assumed to be a uniformly distributed
load of 1 kN/m2 .

3. The parapet wall which is constructed on the slab perpendicular to its span will give
a degree of fixity to the slab. However, the most conservative approach is to idealize
this slab as a one way simply supported slab. Any fiXing moments caused by the
above partial fixity can be accomodated by taking SO% of the midspan steel into the
top face of the slab at the support.

4. The parapet wall parallel to the span will have to be carried by the slab. It can be
assumed that the wall is 1.0 m high and 120 mm thick and that the density of the
(brick) wall is 23 kN/m2 The load from this wall will be distributed only over a
limited width of the slab (Clause 3.5.2.2).

Reference Calculations Output


Slab thickness

Note 5 Approximate span = 3500 mm


Note 6 Assuming Spanldepth ratio of 28 (for a simply
supported 1 way slab),
effective depth = (3500)/(28) = 125 mm
TABLE 1 If we take cover = 30 mm (moderate exposure
Example 8 conditions and TABLE 1 values modified by Notes 5
and 6), and bar diameter = 10 mm, we can choose h = 160 mm
Note 7 h = 160 mm and d = 160 -30 - 10/2 = 125 mm. d = 125 mm
Hence, effective span = lesser of
3.4.1.2 (3500+225) = 3725 mm eff. span =
or (3500+ 125) = 3625 mm 3.625 m

42
Reference Calculations Output
Loadine (for 1 m wide strip)

Self load = (0.16)(1)(24) = 3.84 kN/m


Finishes = (1.0)(1) = 1.00 kN/m
Total dead load = 4.84 kN/rn
Imposed load = (1.5)(1) = 1.50 kN/rn
Design load = (1.4)(4.84) + (1.6)(1.5) = 9.2 kN/m design udl =
9.2 kN/rn
3.5.2.2 Strip carrying parapet wall = (0.3)(3.615) + 0.12
= 1.21 m
Note 8 Additional dead load in that area =
(1.0)(0.12)(23) 1 (1.21) = 2.28 kN/m

Ultimate bending moment and shear force

Note 3 Since we assume the slab to be simply supported,


Mid span moment = w.l 2/8 = (9.2)(3.625)21 8
= 15.1kNmlm Mspan = 15.1
Shear force at support = w.l/2 = (9.2)(3.625) 12 kNmlm
= 16.7 kN/m V = 16.7 kN/m

Desim for bending

Chart 2 Mlbd2 = (15.1 xl<f) 1 (1000)(1251 = 0.97


(Part 3) looA/bd = 0.26 (> 0.13); hence min. steel O.K.
A. = (0.26)(1000)(125) I (100) = 325 mm2/m
Use TI0 @ 225 mm (As = 349 mm2/m)
3.12.11.2.7 Max. spacing allowed = (3)(125)
= 375 mm > 225 mm; hence crack width O.K.

However, bar spacing as well as minimum steel


requirement will be violated if bars are curtailed.
Note 9 Hence, use TlO @ 187.5 mm (As =419 mm2/m) span steel
Spacing after curtailment = 375 mm. TIO @ 187.5
l00A/ Ac after curtailment = mm
(100)(419/2) 1 (1000)(160) = 0.131 > 0.13
Hence, min. steel andbar spacing are O.K. after
curtailment.

Fig. 3.25 The steel should be curtailed at (0.1)1 = (0.1)(3625)


= 362.5 mm from the point of support, Le. 362.5 -
(225/2) = 250 mm from the face of support.

43
RefeNilee Calculations Output
Note 10 The rest of the steel could be taken into the support support steel
and bent back into the span as top steel to extend a TI0 @ 375 mm
distance from support face of (0.15)1 = (0.15)(3625)
3.12.10.3.2 = 544 mm {> (45)cP = (45)(10) = 450 mm}, say
0.55 m

Check for deflection

Mlbd2 = 0.93
Note II f s = (5/8)(460)(325/419) = 223 N/mm 2
Table 3.11 Hence, F 1 = 1. 71 (for tension steel)
Table 3.10 Allowable span/depth = (20)(1.71) = 34.2
Actual span/depth = 3625/125 = 29 < 34.2;
hence O.K. Deflection O.K.

Check for shear

v = (16.7 xlol) 1(1000)(125) = 0.13 N/mm 2


looA/bvd = 0~131
Table 3.9 Hence, Vc = 0.45 N/mm2 > 0.13 N/mm2 ;
Table 3.17 hence shear r/f is not required. Shear O.K.

SecondflO' reinforcement

looA/Ac = 0.13
As = (0.13)(1000)(160) I (100) = 208 mm2/m secondary steel
3.12.11.2.7 Use TIO @ 375 mm (i.e. max. spacing allowed - 3d) TI0@375 rom
(As = 209 mm2/m)

Note 12 Note:- It can be shown that the spacing of the under parapets
reinforcement in the edge strips of 1.21 m should be TI0@ 175 mm
T10 @ 175 mm at midspan (and hence TIO @ 350 (span)
mm at supports).
rt1 110075
II~
TIotm5
~o.~
r TI0@350
(support)

I : t
I
1100187.5 o.ti:
~.
0.:rAJn

44
Notes on Calculations

5~ In order to use Clause 3.4.1.2 tofind the effective span, the clear distance between
supports is taken as a first approxl.mation of the span.

6. For a lightly loaded one-way simply supported slabs, a span/depth ratio of around
26-28 may be assumed. Tbisshould be .reduced to around 24 for a heavily loaded
slab.

7. In this instance, we have taken a value for h, such that slab thicknesses are assumed
to vary in steps of lO mill. To use steps of 25 mm (corresponding to 1 inch) would
be too Conservative for slabs. Hence either 10 mm steps or 12.5 mm steps
(corresponding to 0.5 inches) should be adopted.

8. The edge areas of the slab, Le. the 1.21 m strips carrying the parapet loads, will be
more heavily reinforced than the rest of the slab. However, only the central part of
the slab is actually designed in this example.

9. There may be other alternatives to increasing the mid-Span steel, bot this approach
makes the detailing for curtailment very simple and also helps to satisfy the deflection
check, which is very critical in slabs. This approach also facilitates the detailing of
steel for support restraint, as shown in the figure. One possible alternative is to use
smaller diameter bars, but bars smaller than 10 mm, if used as main steel, will not
be very stiff and may deflect significantly during concreting, thus losing their cover.

lO. As shown in the fIgure,this is a very neat method of providing top steel at partially
restrained ends of slabs and beams.

11. Since we have provided more steel than required at mid-Span (see Note 9), advantage
should be.taken of this by generally calculating the service stress, which will be lower
than (5/8)fy and lead to a greater allowable span/depth ratio.

12. It may be convenient to reinforee the entire slab with TlO @ 175 mm at mid span and
TlO@ 350 mm at support, since the central part of the slab already has TlO @ 187.5
mm and TlO @ 375 mm at span and support respectively. The small penalty in cost
will probably be worth the simpler detailing arrangement.

Concluding Notes

13. It is important to keep in mind curtailment, bar spacing rules and minimum 'steel
requirements while designing the reinforcement, because these detailing considerations
may lead to the design being altered, as was the case here.

45
EXAMPLE 15 - TWO WAY SLAB

A .two way spanning slab which has several bays in each direction.ha$ a panel.size of S m
x 6 m. The imposed load on the slab is 3 kN/m2 The loading fronl finisheaand light
partitions can each be taken as 1 kN/m2 Design a typical interior panel, using feu == 2S
N/mm2 , fy == 460 N/mm2 and density of reinforced concrete == 24kN1m3.

Introductory Notes

1. The short span length and loading for this example have been anade ideAtica1to those
in Example 13 for a one-way spanning slab. Hence, results can be compared.

2. It will be assumed that the comers of this slab are prevented from lifting and that
adequate provision is made for torsion. .

ReferellCe Calculatiops

Note 3 Assultle.a spanldepth ratio of 40 (for a continuous 2


way slab)
3.5.7 effective depth == (5000)/(40) == 125 mm
TABLE I If we take cover == 20 mm (mild exposure conditions
and concrete protected by 10 mml:3 cement:sand
rendering) and bar diameter as 10mm, then we can h == 150 mm
Note 4 choose h == 150 mm and dmort == 15020 - 10/2 == dlbort ==
Note 5 125 mm and ~oog == 125 . 10 == 115 mm 125 mm
~==
l1Smrn
Loadine (udl)
Self load == (0.15)\:, 1(24) == 3.6 kN/m2
Finishes == (1,0>, == 1.0 kNlm2
Total dead load == 4.6 tN/mt
Imposed load == (3.0). == 3.0kN/m2
Partitions = (1,0)' = 1,0 kNlm 2
Total imposed load == 4.0 kN/m 2
Design load= (1,4)(4.6) + (1,6)(4.0) == 12.8 IcN/m 2 n == 12.8
kN/m2

Bendine moments

This interior panel- has lyIlx == 615 == 1,2

46
Reference Calculations Output
Table 3.15 Short way, edge =(0.042)(12.8)(5)2= 13.44 kNm/m
Short way, span =(O.0~)(l2.8)(5)2= 10.24 kNmlm
Long way, edge =(0.032)(12.8)(5)2= 10.24 kNmlm
Long way, span =(0.02~)(12.8)(5)2= 7.68 kNm/m

Desien of reinforcement /
I

Short way, mid-man:- "

Chart 2 Mlbd 2 = (10.24 xld') 1 (lOOO)(l25t = 0.66


(Part 3) 100A/bd = 0.17
As = (0.17)(1000)(125) 1 100 = 213 mm2/m
Use TlO @ 350 mm (As :: 224 mm2/m)
3.12.11.2.7 Max. spacing = (3)(125) = 375 mm > 350 mm
Table 3.27 l00A/Ac = (100)(224) 1 (1()()())(150) = 0.15 >0,13
Hence, bar spacing and min. steel are O.K. but if Short way, span
Note 6 steel is curtailed, they will be violated. TlO@ 350 mm

(Check for, deflection):-


Mlbd2 = 0.66
f s = (5/8)(460)(213/224) = 273 N/mm 2
Table 3.11 F 1 = 1.65 (for tension steel)
Table 3.10 Allowable span/depth = (26)(1.65) = 42.9
Actual spanJdepth = (5000)/(125) = 40 < 42.9;
hence O.K. Deflection O.K.

Short way. cts. edge:-


MJbd2 = 0.86, l00AJbd = 0.23, As '7' 288 mm2/m
Use TlO @ 250 mm (A. = 314 mm2/m) Short way, edge
Bar spacing and min. steel areIO.K. TlO@250 mm

Long way. cts. edge:-


Chart 2 Mlbd2 = (10.24 xlW) 1 (1000)(115)2 = 0.77
(part 3) l00Aibd = 0.21
:l.12.11.2.7 As = (0.21)(1000)(115) 1 (100) = 242 mm2
Table 3.27 Use TlO @ 325 mm (A. = 242 mm 2/m)
Max. spacing = (3)(115) = 345 mm > 325 mm
l00AJAc = (100)(242) 1 (1000)(150) = 0.16 >0.13 Long way, edge
Hence, bar spacing and min. steel are O.K., but steel TlO @ 325 ~m
cannot be curtailed.

Long way. mid-s.pan:-


Mlbd 2 = 0.58, 100Aibd =' 0.15, As = 173 mm 2/m
Use TlO @ 350 mm (As = 224 mm2/m), since Long way, span
max. clear spacing (345 mm) governs. TlO@ 350 mm

47
Reference CalcuJatiOllS Output
Edge strips:-
3.5.3.5 l00A/Ac =0.13
As = (0.13)(150)(1000) I (100) = 195 mm2/m
Use TlO @ 375 mm (governed by max. spacing rule
in short way direction) Edge strip
Note 7 Use only in short way cts. edge; at other locations, nO@375 mm
use middle strip steel for edge steel. (only for short
way, cts. edge)

Check for shear


Short way sypport:-
Table 3.16 V = (0.39)(12.8)(5) = 25.0 kN/m
v = (25.0 xloJ) I (1000)(125)= 0.2 N/mm 2
l00A/bd = (loo~(314) I (1000)~125) = 0.25
Table 3.9 vc = 0.53 N/mm > 0.2 N/mm ; hence O.K.

LoDa l)!&Y R>J!Ort:-


Table 3.16 V == (0.33)(12.8)(5) = 21.1 kN/m
v = (21.1 xloJ) I (1000)(115) = 0.18 N/mm2
l00A/bd = (100)(242) I (1000)(115) = 0.21 No shear r/f
Table 3.9 vc = 0.50 N/mm 2 > 0.18 N/mm2; hence O.K. required

o
Fig. 3.25
~ < 1800 ~
16T106325'11 ~

600

,
"" -
E-o
...
~ -~l-
o
~l-
0
-
E-o
...1-
,
-
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
l:"- N M r-

--
M @ @ M

- -
@ 0 0 @
0 0
E-o
N
--
E-o
O'l
E-o
00 E-o
N

48
Notes on CalcuIatiODS

3. A trial value for span/depth ratio of 40 is reasonable for a lightly loaded, continuous
square2-way slab; a ratio of 38 would be appropriate for heavily loaded slabs. This
will of course reduce with the ratio of long to short span, ~hing the value for 1-
way slabS when the latter ratio becomes 2. The span/depth ratio is calculated with
respect to the shorter span, as it is this that controls d~flection.

4. It should be noted that the slab thickness required for a two-way slab is less than that
required for a one-way slab of similar span and loading - cf. 175 mm required for the
slab in Example 13.

5. In arranging the reinforcement in the slab, the short way reinforcement should be
placed outermost, in order to have the greatest effective depth, since the shorter span
controls deflection and since the bending moments and shear forces are greater in the
short way direction as well.

6. Two way spanning slabs are, in general, very lightly reinforced, so that curtailing is
often not possible because of the minimum steel requirement or the maximum spacing
requirement, or both.

7.. Since the main steel requirements are also fairlysmaIi, for practical detailing it may
be it' may be convenient to use the same reinforcement as the middle strip for the
edge strips, except in the case of the short way continuous edge.

Concluding Notes

8. Where an edge or comer panel is concerned, in addition to the main and edge
steel, the requirements of torsional steel reinforcement have to bernet at the top and
bottom of the slab according to Clause 3.5.3.5; in many cases, the main and edge
steel provided would meet those requirements.

9. Although the loads on a beam supporting a two-way slab will be either triangular or
trapezoidal, the code gives coefficients for an equivalent uniformly distributed load
over three quarters of its span.

10. In the calculation of moment coefficients from Table 3.15, if there are significantly
differing coefficients on either side of a common edge, the code suggests a method
of moment distribution to rectify the situation, in Clause 3.5.3.6.

49
EXAMPLE 16 - FLAT SLAB

A. flat~, which _several bays in each direction, has a panel size 0,{5m x 6 m. The
~gn imposed ontbesJab is 3 kN/m2 Tbe ioa4ingfrom finishes and liaht PlU'titions can
each be considered to be 1 kN/m2. Design a typical interior panel, using feu == 2S N/mm2 ,
=
fy 460 N/mm 2 and density of reinforced concrete =
24 kNlmJ It may be assUmed that
the columns supporting the slab are braced.

Introductory Notes

1. This example, too, can be compared with Examples 13 and 15.

2. As the columns are braced, and as the I1ab has several bays in each. direction, the
simplified method of analysis described in Clause 3.7:2.7 and Table 3.19 willbe
employed.

3. It will be assumed that the slab is without drops, and the maximum value of effective
diameter will be employed for column .beads.

Reference Calculations
Slab thickness

3.7.1.4 Max. value of he =.(114)(5.0) =


1.25 m he = 1.25 m
Note 4 Assuming a trial span/depth of 32,
3.7.8 effective depth = (6000)/(32) =
187.5 mm
TABLE 1 If we take cover = 20 mm (mild exposui-e condi\ions
and concrete protected by 10 mm 1:3 et:sand render)
and bar diameter = 10 mm, we can choose h == 212.5 mm
NoteS h = 212.5 mm, d long = 212.5-20-10/2 == 187.5 mm, d y == 187.5 mm
dshort == 187.5-10 == 177.5 mm, dave == 182.5 mm dx == 177.5 mm
davg==182~5 mm

Loadin~ (for entire panel) >"

Note 6
Panel area == (5)(6) == 30 m2
Self load = (0.2125)(30)(24) == 153lcN
Finishes == (1.0)(30) = ..1U:.kN
Total dead load = 183 leN .
Imposed load = (3.0)(30) = 90 leN .il"
Partitions = (1.0)(30) = 30 leN
Total imposed load = 120 leN
Design load = (1.4)(183) + (1.6)(120) = 448 leN F = 448 leN

50
Reference Calculations Output
Table 3.19 Bending mOments
Note 7 Long way:-
1 = 6.0 - (2/3)(1.25) = 5.17 m
Span moment = (0.071)(448)(5.17) = 164 kNm
Fig. 3.12 Col. strip (2.5 m) = (0.55)(164) = 90.2 kNm
Table 3.20 Mid. strip (2.5 m) = (0.45)(164) = 73.8 kNm
Support moment = (0.055)(448)(5.17) = 127 kNm
COL strip (2.5 m)= (0.75)(127) = 95 kNm
MId. strip(2.5 m) = (0.25)(127) = 32 kNm

Short way:-
1 = 5.0 - (2/3)(1.25) = 4.17 m
Span moment = (0.071)(441)(4.17) = 133 kNm
Fig. 3.12 Col. strip (2.5 m) = (0.55)(133) ::: 73 kNm
Mid. strip (3.5 m) = (0.45)(133) = 60 kNm
Support moment = (0.055)(448)(4.17) ::: 103 kNm
Col. strip (2.5 m) = (0.75)(103) = 77 kNm
Mid. strip (3.5 m) = (0.25)(103) = 26 kNm

Design of reinfOrcement
Long way. an:-
(Check for deflection)
Total ~ moment = 164 kNm
Mlbd2 = (164 xlo6) 1 (5000)(187.5)2 = 0.93
2
Note 8 If AS,reqd = Aa.(Jrov. fs = 288 N/mm
Table 3.11 and F 1 = 1.41 for tension steel)
3.7.8 Allowable spanldepth = (26)(1.41)(0.9) = 33.0
Actual spanldepth = (6000)/(187.5) = 32
< 33.0; hence O.K. Deflection O.K.

(Column strip - 2.5 m wide)


Chart 2 Mlbd 2 = (90.2 xl<J6) 1 (2500)(187.5)2 = 1.03
(part 3) looA/bd = 0.28
As = (0.28)(2500)(187.5) 1 (l00) = 1313 mm2
Note 9 Use 17 TlO @ 147 mm (As = 1335 mm2) Long way. span
3.12.11.2.7 Allowable spacing = (3)(187.5) = 562.5 mm (Col. strip)
Table 3.27 l00A/Ac = (100)(1335) 1 (212.5)(2500) = 0.25 17 TI0
Note 10 Hence bar spacing and min. steel are O.K. @ 147 mm

(Middle strip -2.5 m wide) Long way. span


Chart 2 Mlbd2 = (73.8 xl<>6) 1(2500)(187.5)2 = 0.84 (Mid. strip)
(Part 3) looA/bd = 0.23; As = 1078 mm2 14 TI0
Use 14 TI0 @ 179mm (As = 1100 mm 2) @ 179 mm

51
-
Reference Calculations Output
Lone way, SURPOrt:- Long way,sup
(Column strip - 2,5 m wide) (Col. strip)
M/bd2 = 1.08, l00A/bd = 0.29, A. = 1359 mm 2 12 TI0 @ 104
3.7.3,1 Use 18 TlO (As = 1414 mm 2) - 12 TIO centred on 6 TI0 @ 208
column @ 104 mm; 6 TI0 @ 208 mm.

(Middle strip - 2,5 m wide)


M/bd 2 = 0.36; l00A/bd ;., 0.10 Long way, sup
Table 3.27 Use nominal steell00A/Ac = 0,13; A. = 691 mm 2 (Mid, strip)
Use 9 TI0 @ 278 mm (As = 706,9 mm2) 9 TI0 @ 278

Short way, span:-


(Column strip - 2,5 m wide)
Chart 2 M/bd 2 = (73 xl(6) / (2500)(177.5)2 = 0.93
(Part 3) l00A/bd = 0.26
As = (0.26)(2500)(177.5) / (100) = 1154 mm2 Short way, span
Use 15 TIO @ 167 mm (As = 1178 mm2) (Col. strip)
3.12.11.2.7 Allowable spacing = (3)(177.5) = 532.5 mm 15 TlO @ 167

(Middle strip - 3.5 m wide)


Note 11 Mlbd2 = (60 xl(6) / (3500)(177.5)2 = 0.54
l00A/bd = 0.15 Short way, span
As = (0.15)(3500)(177.5) / (100) = 932 mm2 (Mid strip)
Use 12 TIO @ 292 mm (As = 942.5 mm2) 12 TI0 @ 292

Short way. suPJ)01't:-


(Column strip - 2.5 m wide) Short way, sup
Mlbd2 = 0.98, l00A/bd = 0.27, As
2
=
1198 mm 2 (Col. strip)
3.7.3.1 Use 16 TIO (As = 1257 mm ) - 10 TI0 centred on 10TlO@ 125
column @ 125 mm; 6 TlO @ 208 mm. 6 TIO@208

(Middle strip - 3.5 m wide)


Mlbd 2 = 0.24, lOOA/bd = 0.06' hence use Short way, sup
3.12.11.2.7 l00AJAc =0,13, ~ = 967 mmi (Mid. strip)
Use 13 TlO @ 269 mm <As =
1021 mm 2) 13 TlO @ 269

Check for shear


If square columns are used, size of column head = a

{(T/4)(1.25)2}O.5 = 1.1 m .
Perimeter of column head = (1.1)(4) = 4.4 m
3.7.7.4 1st critical perimeter = {(2)(1.5)(0.1825) + 1.1}(4)
= (1.648)(4) = 6.59 m
Area within this perimeter = (1.648)2 = 2.716 m2

S2
Reference Calculations Output
Vt = 448 kN
3.7.6.2 Veff = (1.15)V t = (1.15)(448) = 515.2 leN
vmax = (515.2 xloJ) I (4.4 xloJ)(182.5)
= 0.64 N/mm2 < (0.8)(25).5 = 4 N/mm2;
Load on 1st crit. perimeter = (448/30)(30-2.716)
= 407 kN
3.7.7.4 v = (407 xloJ)(1.15) I (6.59 xloJ)(182.5)
= 0.39 N/mm2
Note 12 (I00A/bd)avg=(112)(I00/182.5){(14l4+ 1257)12500}
= 0.29
Table 3.9 ve =
0.51 N/mm2 > 0.39 N/mm2 Shear r/f
not required.

o~ I --I 7--:
~ ~r,
I __ L ----l---l---~ I I
,1 I" 12Tl00292B

g
~
I:
, ,
~ :100J :
I 13Tl00269T

~
~--~- -1 --t - -' - :
, ~ , , I
3Tl0f208T
15Tl00167B
~ "
S; I
,--+--'" -
I
- I - - - t - - ......
,
fJ
I
lOTlO,125T

~' I 3T lO'208T
... - - -1 ~ - - - - '_L - -l-l
Cl'l E-c E-c~ ~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
<!ill N N"" <!ill <!ill
~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0
~ E: E: E: E:E:
- Cl'l
........
C'?C'-NC'?

Notes on Calculations

4. The trialspan/depth ratio should be around 0.9 times that used for continuous
one-way slabs (See Example 13, Note 3); hence a value of around 32 is reasonable.
The deflection is governed by the longer span, unlike in two-way slabs; therefore the
slab thicknesses will be greater for flat slabs than for two-way slabs of similar
dimensions and .loading.

5. Compare .this much greater overall depth with that of 150 mm obtained for the two

53
way slab in Example 15; of course. there is the considerable advantage here of not
requiring beams. The slab thickness has been chosen in steps of 12.5 mm
(corresponding to 1/2 inch). The greater effective depth should be used for the long
way span - Le. the long way reinforcement should be on the outside - because
deflection is governed by the longer span and the moments in the long way direction
are greater than those in the short way direction; this too is the opposite of two way
slab action. The average value of effective depth is used for punching shear checks.

6. It is more convenient to determine the loading on an entire panel for flat slabs, as
opposed to that on a strip of unit width.

7. The flat slab has to be analysed in two mutually perpendicular directions, with the
total load being taken in each direction. This is because there are no peripheral beams
around the slab, the flat-slab acting as both slab and beam.

8. The deflection check is done early here, even before the steel is designed. This is a
conservative approach, but has the advantage that it can detect early any changes that
may be required in slab thickness. If this check is made after the steel has been
designed, the average of column and middle strip steel can be taken for the As values.

9. The reinforcement in a flat slab is generally specified in terms of the number of bars
in a given strip. As such, the spacing may not be in preferred dimensions.

10. Curtailment, in this and other instances will not be carried out in this example. In
!'D0st cases, the minimum steel requirement will preclude such curtailment, although
the maximum spacing requirement can easily be satisfied.

11. Note that the effective depth in the short way direction is 177.Smm (as opposed to
187.5 mm) and that the width of the middle strip is 3.S m (as opposed' to 2.5 m).

12. Just as the average effective depth is used for punching shear calculations, the
lOOA/bd value should also be avetaged. This is because the square sbear perimeters
cross both the long way and short way steel.

Concluding Notes

13. Unlike in the two-way slab, where the middle strips carry most of the moment and
are hence more heavily reinforced, in the flat slab, it is the column strips that carry
most of the moment and are more heavily reinforced.

14. Where the simplified method used here is not applicable, a frame analysis will have
to be carried out according to Clause 3.7.2.

15. Edge and comer columns of flat slabs will have column strips considerably narrower
than those in interior panels (see Clause 3.7.4.2). Furthermore, the enhancement
factors for shear due to moment transfer will be greater at these columns (see Clause
3.7.6.3).

54
EXAMPLE 17 RIBBFD SLAB

A ribbed slab which has several continuous spans of 5 m is to carry an imposed load of 3
kN/m 2 as a one-way spanning slab. Taking the load from light partitions and finishes as 1
kN/m 2 each, the density of reinforced concrete as 24 kN/m3, feu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy = 460
N/mm 2 , design a typical interior panel. Note that a 1 hour fire resistance is required.

Introductory Notes

1. This example can be compared directly with Example 13, where the only difference
is that the slab is solid.

2. Although this slab is continuous, because of the difficulty of reinforcing the topping
over the supports, it will be treated as a series of simply supported slabs (see Clause
3.6.2).

Reference Calculations Output


Choice of form
Note 3 Assuming a trial span/depth ratio of 26,
effective depth = (5000)/(26) = 192 mm
TABLE 1 Assuming cover of 20 mm (mild exposure conditions
and concrete protected by 10 mm 1:3 cement:sand
rendering) and bar size of 20 mm, we can choose h = 225 mm
h = 225 mm and d = 225 - 20 - 20/2 = 195 mm d = 195 mm
Fig. 3.2 Min. rib width for 1 hr. fire resistance = 125 mm
Table 3.5 and min. cover = 20 mm; hence cover O.K.
Choose min. rib width of 125 mm, widening-to 250
mm and rib spacing of 500 mm
3.6.1.3 1.5 m; hence O.K.)
Table 3.18 Also use thickness of topping = 50 mm; then rib
height = 225 - 50 = 175 mm
3.6.1.3 .{< (4)(125) = 500 mm; hence O.K.}
Now, effective thickness = (225)~
~= {(50)(500) + (1I2)(125+250)(175)} 1(500)(225)
= 0.51 te = 115 mm
Note 4 1e = (225)(0.51) = 115 mm
Fig. 3.2 (> 95 mm for 1 he. fire resistance; hence O.K.)
-*-50
~~ if
250
500
\(

55
Reference Calculations Output
Note 5 Loading (for 0.5 m strip)

Self load = (0.115)(0.5)(24) = 1.38 kN/m


Finishes = (1.0)(0.5) = 0.50 kNlm
Total dead load = 1.88 kN/m
Imposed load = (3.0)(0.5) = 1.5 kN/m
Partitions = (1.0)(0.5) = 0.5 kN/m
Total imposed load = 2.0 kNlm
Design load =(1.4)(1.88) + (1.6)(2.0) = 5.83 kN/m design 001 =
5.83 kN/m

Design for bending

Assuming slab is simply sup~rted,


moment in span = (5.83)(5) I (8) = 18.2 kNm
3.4.4.4 K = M I (b.d 2.fcu)
= (18.2 xl06) I (500)(195)2(25) = 0.038
z = d[0.5 + {0.25 - (0.038)/(0.9)}o.s] = (0.96)d
Hence use z = (0.95)d = (0.95)(195) = 185 mm
x = (195-185) I 0.45 = 21.7 mm 50 mm)
Hence, neutral axis is in flange.
As = (18.2 xIW) I (0.87)(460)085) = 246 mm2 main r/f
Use 1 1'20 (As = 314 mm2) 1 1'20 per rib
Table 3.27 1ooA/bwh = (100)(314) I {(1/2)(125+250)(225)}
= 0.74 > 0.18; hence min. steel O.K.

Check for deflection

bw'b = (187.5)/(500) = 0.375


Table 3.10 Hence, basic span/depth ratio = 16.4
f s = ~5/8)(460)(246/314) = 226 N/mm 2
M1bd = (18.2 x106) / (500)(195t = 0.96
Table 3.11 Hence, F i = 1.67 (for tension reinforcement)
Allowable spanldepth = (16.4)(1.67) = 27.4
Actual span/depth = (5000)/(195) = 25.6
< 27.4; hence O.K. Deflection O.K.

Check for shear

Note 6 Shear force at lid" from support


= {(5.83)(5)/2}{1 - (0. 195)/(2.5)) = 13.4 kN

56
Reference Cakulations Output
Note 7 v = (13.4 xlol) I (187.5)(195) = 0.37 N/mm 2
l00AJbd = (lOO~{314) I (187.5){195) = 0.86
Table 3.9 vc = 0.72 N/mm > 0.J.tN/mm2 ; shear r/f not
3.6.4.7 hence shear r/f not required. required

Top steel over sup,port


3.6.2 This is to control cracking and should be 25 % of
midspan steel.
As = (114)(246) = 61.5 mm2
Use 1 TIO bar (As = 78.6 mm2), extending (0.15)1 over support
= (0.15){5.00) = 0.75 m into span on each side. 1 TIO per rib

Notes on CalculatioR

3. This trial ratio is reasonable for simply supported one~way slabs - see Note 6 in
Example 14.

4. It should be noted that the effective thickness of this slab (reflecting the volume of
concrete that will be used) is much lower than the one-way solid slab of similar span
and loading in Example 13.

5. It is convenient to calculate the loading for a strip of width equal to a repeating cross
sectional unit.

6. Since support details are not given, the shear force is calculated at a distance "d"
from the centre-line of support (and not from the face of the support - Clause
3.4.5.10). The approach here is conservative.

7. The average width of web below the flange is used for shear stress calculations.

Concluding Notes

8. Fire resistance considerations will, to a large extent, govern the choice of form of
ribbed slabs.

9. The design of these slabs is essentially the same as the design of flanged beams.
Generally the neutral axis will lie within the flange.

10. Although the code suggests a single layer mesh reinforcement for the topping, it does
not demand it (Clause 3.6.6.2). It will be quite difficult to place such a mesh in a 50
mm topping while maintaining the top and bottom cover requirements.

11. These ribbed slabs probably have a lower material cost than solid slabs, but their
construction costs would be greater, because of non-planar formwork requirements.

57
EXAMPLE 18 - COLUMN CLASSIFICATION

PI. four storey building has columns on a grid 9f 5.0 m x 5.0m, supporting beams of
dimension 525 mm x 300 mm in one direetiononly and a one-way $lab of 175 mm thickness.
The roof also has a beam-slab ammgement identical to other. floors. The oolumns are of
dimension 300 mm x 300 mm and the soffit to soffit heigbtoffloors is.3.5m; the height
from the top of the pad foundation (designed to resist moment) to the soffit of U1e first floor
beams is 5.0 m. If the frame is braced. classify a typical internal column for different storeys
as short or slender.

Introductory Notes

1. Columns are classified as unbraced or braced on the one hand (depending on whether
they' take lateral loads or not) and .as slender or short on the other (depending on
whether they should be designed to carry additional moments due to deflection or
not).

2. The effective length of a column will depend on the degree of fixity at its ends.

Reference Caknlations Output


Clear height between end restraints,
(for ground floor columns)
lox = 5.0 m. loy = 5.0 + (0.525-0.175) = 5.35 m
(for other floor columns) .
lox = 3.5-0.525 = 2.975 m,
loy = 3.5-0.175 ::: 3.~25 m

3.8.1.6.2 The end conditions for the columns in the direction


of beams are all conditionl. H(mce, fJ ::: 0.75
In the other direction.
Table 3.21 fJ = 0.80 (ground floor columns)
Note 3 fJ = 0.85 (other columns)
lex = (0.75)(5000) = 3750 mm (ground floor)
::: (0.15)(2975) ::: 2231 mm (other floors)
ley::: (0.80)(5350) ::: 4280 mm (ground floor)
= (0~85)(3325) ::: 2826 mm (other floors)

Hence. for ground floor columns,


le/h = (3750)/(300)= 12.5 < 15,
3.8.1.3 leylb ::= (4280)/(300) = 14.3 < 15; hence short.
for other columns.
le/h = (2231)/(300) = 7.44 < 15, All columns are
3.8.1.3 l~jb = (2826)/(300) = 9.42. < 15; hence short. short.

58
Notes on Calculations

3. The values of {3 in Tables 3.21 and 3.22 have been obtained from the more rigorous
method for calculating effective column lengths in framed structures, given in
equations 3 to 6 in section 2.5 of Part 2 of the code. The ratios "c(i.e. sum of
column stiffnessesl sum of beam stiffnesses) have been assumed to be 0.5, 1.5, 3.0,
and 7.0 for conditions 1, 2, 3 and 4 in Clause 3.8.1.6.2 (Part I) respectively.

Concluding Notes

4. Where edge columns are concerned, they will not have beams "on either side" as
specified in the provisions of Clause 3.8.1.6.2. In this case, an approximate value for
{3 can be interpolated, based on the actual Cc value and the values used in Tables
3.21 and 3.22 (see Note 3 above); otherwise the method in Section 2.5 of Part 2 can
be adopted.

5. For a column to be considered short, both le/h and le/b have to be less than 15 (for
braced columns) and less than 10 (for unbraced columns), as specified in Clause
3.8.1.3. The ratiO"c in section 2.5 of Part 2 or the value {3 in Clause 3.8.1.6 has to
be obtained for beams in one plane at a time.

EXAMPLE 19 - SYMMETRICALLY LOADED SHORT COLUMN

Assuming that the density of reinforced concrete is 24 kN/of, fcu == 2S N/mm 2, fy = 460
N/mm 2 , and that the imposed loads on the roof and the floors are 1.0 kN/m2 and 2.5
kN/m 2 respectively and that the allowance for partitions and finishes are 1.0 kN/m 2 each,
design the ground floor part of an internal column of the framea structure described in
Example 18. : . " . ".

Introductory Notes

1. Since the ground floor .part of an internal column has been found to be short, and
since the arrangement ,of loads symmetrical, this design can be carried out according
to the provisions of Clause 3.8.4.3, using equation 38.

2. The major part of this exercise consists of a load evaluation, taking into account the
appropriate reduction factors for imposed loads specified in "BS 6399: Part 1 (1984):
Design loading for buildings: Code of practice for dead and imposed loads". The
partition loads are taken as imposed loads, since their positions are not fixed.

59
Reference Calculations
Column grid dilDClDsions are 5.0 x 5.0 m.
Hence, area conesponding to column" (5)2 .. 25 m2

Dead loads
From 4 slabs = (4)(24)(0.175)(25) = 420 kN
From beams = (4)(0. 525-D. 175)(0.3)(24)(5) =50.4 kN
From columns={(3)(2.975)+5}(0.3Y(24) =30.1 kN
From finishes = (4)(1.0)(25) = 100 kN
Total dead load = 600.5 kN Ok = 601 kN

Imposed loads
From roof = (1.0)(25) = 25 kN-
From 3 floors = (3)(2.5)(25) = 187.5 kN
From partitions- (3)(1.0)(25) =~
Total imposed load = 287.5.kN
Note 3 I.L. reduction due to floor area
= (0.05)(25/50)(287.5)(4) = 28.75 kN
I.L. reduction due to 4floors
= (0.3)(287.5) = 86.25 kN
Hence, imposed load = 287.5 - 86.25 == 201.25 kN o.c .. 201 kN
N = (1.4)(601) + (1.6)(201) = 1163 kN N .. 1163 kN

Desim of main steel


3.8.4.3 For short columns resisting axial load
equation 38 N = (O.4)fcu 'Ac -t (0.75)A,.,.fy
Assuming we use 4 T16, Awe =8Q4 mm2
Note 4 Ac .. (300)2 - 804 III 89196 mm2
(1163 xl03) .. (0.4)(25)(89196) + (0.75)Awe(460)
Note 5 Awe .. 785 mm2 < 804 mm2;hence O.K. ' .' .
Hence, use 4 T16 (A.c = 804 mm 2) . Use 4 T16
Note:- lOOAwc/Ac = (lOO){804) I (300)2 (at column
Table 3.27 == 0.89 > 0.4; hence min. steel O.K. comers)

Notes on .Calculations

3. The total imposed load can be reduced either on the basis of the area supported by
the column or the number of floors - supported by the column. In this case, the
reduction allowed as a result of the latter is greater and is hence applied - see as
6399: Part 1 (1984), referred to in Note 2 above.

4. The term Ac is the net area of concrete. A trial value of Awe C3ft be obtained from
equation 38 assuming the gross area of concrete for Ac as a flrst approximation; this

60
area of A~ can then be deducted from the gross area to obtain Ac' The value of Asc
obtained from the formula should be less than the original trial value of A.c.

5. In some cases, a negative value may be obtained for A~; this indicates that nominal
steel will be sufficient. In any case, bar diameters under 12 mm are generally not
used for columns, because they will not be stiff enough for the erection of the
reinforcement cage.

Concluding Notes

6. This method of design is applicable for short braced columns, where moments. are
negligible, due to a symmetrical arrangement of loads. Even if this symmetry is only
approximate, provided the columns are short and braced, equation 39 can be used in
place of equation 38.

7. In addition to the main reinforcement, columns should be reinforced by links which


surround the main reinforcement as well. Ttiis will be shown in the next example.

EXAMPLE 20 - SHORT COLUMN WITH AXIAL LOAD AND MOMENT

A short column of 300 mm x 400 mm cross section carries an ultimate axial load of 800 leN.
If an ultimate moment of 80 kNm is applied
(a) about the major axis,
(b) about the minor axis"
(c) about both axes
determine the column reinforcement required. Note that fcu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy d 460
N/mm2

Introductory Notes

1. This column canies a substantial moment as well as an. axial load. Hence, we shall
have to use the design charts, which will give us a symmetrically reinforced section.

61
,.

Reference Calculations Output


N = 800 kN, M == 80 kNm
Nlbh = (800 xI(3) 1 (400)(300) = 6.67
(for all cases)

[J
(al Major axis bendine
Note 2 b = 300 mm, h = 400 mm
Chart 23 Mlbh2 = (80 xl()6) 1 (300)(400)2 = 1.67
~ 0
(part 3) lOOA.Jbh = 0.4
A~ = (0.4)(300)(400) I (100) = 480 mm 2 major axis
Use 4 T16 (Asc = 804 mm2) 4T16

(b) Minor axis bendine

Chart 23
(Part 3)
b '''';' 400 mm,h = 300 mm
Mlbh2 = (80 xl()6) 1(400)(300)2 = 2.22
lOOAaclbh = 0.8
A~ = (0.8)(300)(400) 1 (lOOi = 960 mm 2
CJ
o
minor axis
0

Use 4 TIO (Ase = 1256 mm ) 4 no


(<<) ~ !;>endin
3.8.4.5' MKlh' '= (80 xHi~ t(~50)
Note 3 MyIb' = (80 x106) 1 (300-50)
hence M,/h' < M~'
equation 41 M ' = M +(fl) 'Ih')~
(b.Ii.fcu>=
(800 x1(3) 1 (300)(400)(l.S) = 0.267

0
N1
Table 3.24 hence P = 0.690
~' = 80 + (0.~(250/300)(8O) = 126 leN
Chart 23 Mlbh2 = (126 xl )/ (400)(300)2 = 3.5 OeO
(Part 3) 100~lbh == 1.7 .
A~ = (1.7)(300)(400) 1(100) = 2040 mm 2 biaxial
Note 4 Use 4 TI5 + (2 T16 in each dir.) (A~ = 2366 mm2) 4 T25 + 4 T16
Note 5
)&silo of links JiDb
3.12.7.1 , For major axis~ding, use R6 {> (16/4) = 4 mm} major axis -
@ 175 mm{ < (12)(16) = 192 mm}. R6@ 175 mm.
For minor axis bending, use R6{ > (20/4) = 5 mm} minor axis-
@ 225 mm {< (12)(20) = 240 mm}. R6@225 mm.
For biaxial bending, use R 8 {> (25/4) :;: 6.25 mm}! biaxial -
Note 6 @ 175 mm {< (12)(16) = 192 mm}. R8@ 175 mm.

Check for shear


3.8.4.6 MIN = (126)/(800) = 0.158
(0.75)(0.3) = 0.225 m); Shear check
Note 7 hence, shear is not critical. oot required.

62
Reference Calculations Output
Crack control
3.8.6 (0.2)fcu .Ac = (0.2)(25){(3OO)(400) - 804} = 596 kN Crack width
Axial load = 800 kN > 596 kN. check not
Hence, no check is required. required.

Notes on Calculations

2. If we assume a cover of around 30 mm (moderate exposure conditions and TABLE


1 values modified by Notes 5 and 6), links of 8 mm and a bar diameter of 25 mm,
then d/h will be (400 - 50.5) 1 (400) = 0.87 for major axis bending and (300 - 50.5)1
(300) = 0.83 for minor axis bending. Hence, Chart 23 (Part 3) - which corresponds
to a d/h value of 0.85 - can be used. If there is a doubt, the lower d/h value should
be used, as this is more conservative. It should be noted that the column design charts
have a lower limit of looAsclbh = 0.4, thus ensuring that the minimum steel
requirement of Table 3.27 is met.

3. In this case too, the difference between hand h' and b and b' is taken as 50 mm, by
a similar argument as in Note 2 above.. '

4. If the steel requirement for bi-axial bending is greater than that which can be
provided as corner steel, the additional amount required has to be provided in each
of the, two mutually perpendicular directions, distributed along the faces of the
section. Other approaches, which are less conservative and more accurate, perhaps,
are given in "Allen, A.H., Reinforced concrete design to BS 8110 simply explained,
E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1988" and in "Rowe, R.E. et al., Handbook to British
Standard BS 8ll0: 1985 - Structural use of concrete, Palladian, London, 1987".

5. Although smaller diameter bars (e.g. TIO) could have been used, the Tl6 bars'are
used, so that the link spacing would no~ be too small; furthermore, bars smaller than
T12 are not used as column reinforcement, as they would not be stiff enough during
erection.

6. Generally plain mild steel is used for links as it is easier to bend into shape.
Furthermore, where bars other than corner bars are used, multiple links may have to
be used if (i) there is more than one intermediate bar or (ii) the intermediate bar is
greater than 150 mm ~way from a restrained bar (see Clause 3.12.7.2)

7. Strictly speaking, howe~er, the shear stress should be found in order to check for the
limits on v max '

Concluding Notes

8. In general,sh.ear and crack control are not very critical for columns.

63
EXAMPLE 21 - SLENDER COLUMN

A braced slender column of 300 mm x 400 mm cross section carries an ultimate axial load
of 800 kN. It is bent in double curvature about the major axis, carrying ultimate moments
of 80 kNm and 40 kNm at its ends. The effective length of the column corresponding to the
major axis is 7200 mm. Determine the column reinforcement if feu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy =
460 N/mm 2

Introductory Notes

1. This example can be compared with Example 20, where the short column was of the
same dimensions and carried similar loads.

Reference Calculations Output


Type of column
3.8.1.3 Vh = (7200)/(400) = 18 > IS; hence s~nder.
3.8.3.3 < 20, slender column
Also h/b = (400)/(300) = 1.33 < 3; bent about
Note2 hence, single axis bending. major axis.

Design moments
3.8.3.2 M 1 = -40 kNm; M 2 = +80 kNm
equation 36 M i = (0.4)(-40) + (0.6)(80) = 32 kNm
{= (0.4)(80) = 32 kNm} M j = 32 kNm
3.8.2.4 emin = (0.05)(400) = 20 mm
N.emin = (800)(0.020) = 16 kNm
equation 34 (3a = (1I2000)(IJb')2= (112000)('200/300Y= 0.288
equation 32 au = #a K.h = (0.288)(1)(0.4) = 0.115
equation 35 M add == N.au = (800)(0.115) = 92 kNm Madd = 92
Hence, critical moment is M j + Madd = 32 + 92 = kNm
124 kNm. However, as K is reduced, if M j + Madd
becomes < 80 kNm, M2 will become critical.

Design of reinforcement

TABLE 1 Assuming cover = 30 mol (moderate exposure


conditions and TABLE 1 values modified by Notes 5
& 6), link diameter of 8 mm and main bar size of 25
Chart 23 mm, d/h = (400-50.5)/(400) = 0.87.
(Part 3) N/bh = (800 x103) I (300)(400) = 6.67
M/bh 2 7 (124 xI06) I (300)(400)2 = 2.58
K = 0.9

64
Reference Calculations Output
Madd = (0.9)(92) = 83 kNm
M = 32 + 83 = 115 kNm (> 80 kNm)
Chart 23 Mlbh 2 = (115 xldi) 1 (300)(400)2 = 2..40
(Part 3) K = 0.85
Madd ~ (0.85)(92) = 78 kNm
M = 32 + 78 = 110 kNm
Note 3 Mlbh2 = 2.29; K = 0.85 (again). K = 0.85
Chart 23 Hence, lOOAsc /bh =
0.8
(part 3) =
Asc (0.8)(300)(400) 1 (100) :;: 960 mm2 main steel -
Use 4 1'20 (Asc =
1256 mm2)

3.12.7.1
aJnksl
Use R 6 {> (20/4) :;: 5mm} @ 225 mm
{< (12)(20) :;: 240 mm}
::I
R6@ 225 mm

Notes on Calculations

2. When major axis bending takes place, if either the Vh value is greater than 20 or the
bib value is not less than 3, in order to account for the deflection due to,'Slendemess
about the minor axis, the column has to be designed asbiaXiaUy Dent, with zero
initial moments about the minor axis (see Clauses 3.8.3.4 and 3.8.3.5).

3. In general; around 2 iterations are sufficient to arrive at a value of K that is virtually


constant. It should be noted that the factor K should be applied to the original value
of M add alone. "

Concluding Notes

4. The reinforcement required for this column is the same as for minor axis bending of
the short column in Example 20.

65
~LE 22 PAD FOOTING

Design a square pad footing for a 300 mm x 300 mm internal column, which carries an
ultimate load of 1100 leN (service load of 760 kN), if the allowable bearing pressure of the
soil is 150 kN/m 2 Use feu = 25 N/mm2 , fy = 460 N/mm2 (deformed type 2) and density
of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m3

Introductory Notes

1. Square pad footings are the most common foundation type for columns of framed
structures. Pad footings are essentially inverted cantilever flat slab elements.

2. The design of pad footings involves the choice of


(i) footing area (which is based on soil bearing pressure),
(ii) footing depth (which is based on shear resistance) and
(iii) reinforcement to resist bending moment.

"
Reference Calculations Output
Dimensions of base

Note 3
Note 4
Service load = 760 leN
Expected total load = =
(1.08)(760) 821 leN
\
Required area for base =
(821) 1 (150) =
5.47 m2
Try a base of 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.4 m
Weight of base =
(2.4Y(0.4)(24) =
55 leN
Actual total load =760 + 55 =
815 leN
Bearing pressure =(815) 1 (2.4j =
141 kN/m2
2
< 150 kN/m ;hence O.K.
NoteS Preliminary check on effective depth:-
d > 10(N)'~ = =
10(1100)5 332 mm; footing size
hence overall depth of 400 mm is O.K. ~x2.4m
.4m

~
DesilW for ben4in&
\
Note 6 Ultimate bearing pressure = (1100) 1 <2.4/
= 191 kN/m
~ritical bending moment (at face of column) =
(191)(2.4){(2.4-o.3)/2}2(1/2) = 253 leNm M = 253 leNm
TABLE 1 Assume a cover of 40 mm, for moderate exposure
Note 7 conditions. H bar size of 16 mm is assumed, dmin = = 336 mm
d min
400-40-16-16/2 =
336 mm and daV2 = 344 mm. dan = 344 mm

66
Reference Calculations Output
Chart 2 Mlbd 2 = (253 xIW) I (2400)(336)~ = 0.93
(Part 3) l00A/bd = 0.25
As = (0.25)(2400)(336) I (100) = 2016 mm2

3.11.3.2 (3/4)c + (9/4)d


= (3/4)(300) + (9/4)(336)
= 981 mm < Ie = 1200 mm;
hence reinforcement should be banded.
Use 7 Tl6 @ 200 mm in band of 1200 mm bottom r/f
{< (3)(336) + 300 = l308}; Use (3+3) T12 @ 3 T12 @ 200
200 mm in two outer bands. 7 T16 @ 200
(As = 1407 + 678 = 2085 mm2; 1407/2085 > 2/3) 3 T12 @ 200
3.12.11.2.7 Max. spacing = 750 mm; hence O.K. (both ways)
100AiAe = (100)(2085) I (2400)(400) = 0.22
> 0.13; hence O.K.
Note 8 Anc~ge length :; (40)(16) = 640 mm
< (2400-300)/2 = 1050 mm; hence O.K.

Check for yerticalline shear


3.4.5.10 Consider a section at "d" from the column face, .and
assume no enhancement to ve.
V = (191)(2.4){(2.4-o.3)/2 - 0.336} = 327 kN
[I
v = (327 xl<P) I (2400)(336) = 0.41 N/mm2 .
l00A/bvd = (100)(2085) I (2400)(336) = 0.26
Table 3.9 ve = 0.42 N/mm2 > 0.41 N/mm2; hence O.K.

m
Check for punchine shear

3.7.7.2 Vmax = (1100 xl<P) I (4)(300)(344) = 2.66 N/mm2


< (O.8)(25f S = 4 N/mm2 < 5 N/mm2; hen~ 'O.K.
3.7.7.6 1st critical perimeter = (4){(1.5)(0.344)(2) + 0.3}
. = (4).(1.332) = 5.328m
Area outside perimeter= (2.4)2 - (1.332)2= 4.43 m2
V = (191)(4.43) = 761 kN
Note 9 v = (761 xl<P) I (5328)(344) = 0.42 N/mm2 Shear r/f not
= ve (0.42 N/mm2); hence O.K. required.

Notes on Calculations

3. Soil bearing pressures are given in terms of service lOads. Hence, service loads have
to be used to determine the footing area. Service loads can be approximately obtained
from ultimate loads by dividing the latter by 1.45 in reinforced concrete structures.

67
In order to estimate ultimate loads from service loads however, it is safer to factor
the latter by 1.5.

'4. The weight of the footing itself cannot be known until it is sized. An allowance of
8 % of the column load is generally satisfactory for obtaining a first estimate of
footing weight, which should subsequently be calculated accurately. Another approach
is to first estimate a depth (in this case 0.4 m) and reduce the allow~le bearing
pressure by the corresponding weight per unit area (i.e. 0.4 x 24 = 9.6 ~/m2),
before fInding the footing area.

5. This formula is not dimensionally homogeneous and can be used only if N is in leN
and d in mm. It is based on a punching shear considerations for commonly used pad
footings. If there is moment transfer to the footing as well, use d > (11.5)(Nf'5

6. As the weight of the footing is considered to be a uniformly distributed load which


is taken directly by the soil reaction, It should not be considered when designing for
the ultimate limit states of flexure and shear.

7. If the values of TABLE 1 are modified by Note 5, a cover of 35 mm will suffice for
moderate exposure conditions. However, the cover is increased by a further 5 mm,
in case the footing comes into contact with .any contaminated ground water. The
minimum value of "d" should be used in the design for flexure and vertical line
shear, while the average value of lid" can be used in checking for punching shear.

8. If the distance between the column face and the end of the footing is smaller than the
anchorage length, the bars will have to be bent up near the end. of the footing;
otherwise, they can be straight. .

9. In most cases, punching shear is more critical than vertical line shear. Furthermore,
if a distance "d" is not available from the critical perimeter to the end of the footing,
the value of Vc should correspond to 100A/bvd < = 0.15 in Table 3.9.

Concluding Notes

10. I.f the footing carries a bending moment in addition to the axial load, the maximum
and minimum pressures under the footing will be given by (l/BL}(N 6M1L), with
symbols having usual meanings. The maximum pressure should be kept below the
allowable bearing pressure.

11. If the difference between maximum and minimum pressures is small (say upto 20%
of the maximum pressure) it may be convenient to design for bending and vertical
shear by assuming that the pressure distribution is uniform and equal to the maximum
pressure.

12. Where the design for punching shear is concerned, the average pressure can be taken
for calculations, but a factor of 1.15 applied to the shear force, according to the
provisions of Clause 3.7.6.2.

68
EXAMPLE 23 COMBINED FOOTING

Let us assume that an external columns is flush with the property line and that the footings
for the external and first internal columns have to be combined, as shown. While the internal
column carries an ultimate axial load of 1100 kN, the external column carries an ultimate
moment of 60 kNm in addition to an ultimate axial load of 600 leN. The allowable bearing
pressure of the soil is 150 kN/m2 Use feu = 25 N/mm 2 and fy = 460 N/mm2

o~_"" 4_._7m_~_--7>1~~'r

\lOkN
C ~D E

Introductory Notes

1. The situation described above is often found in crowded urban areas where buildings
are constructed on very small plots of land.

2. It is difficult to provide an isolated pad footing for the external column, because of
eccentric loading on the footing. Hence, it can be combined with the first internal
column footing as shown above.

Reference Calculations Output


Service loads
Note 3
External column load = (600)/(1.45) = 414 leN
External column moment = (60)/(1.45) = 41.4 kNm
,Internal column load = (1100)/(1.45) = 759 leN

Dimensions of footine

Distance of C.of G. from A is given by x, where


(759+414)x = (414)(0.15) + 41.4 + (759)(5.15)
Hence, x = 3.4 m; therefore, for uniform pressure
Note 4 under base, use a base of length (2)(3.4) = 6.8 m

69
Reference CalcuJatloDS Outppt
Note 5 If we assume a thickness of 0.8 m for the base, the
allowable bearing pressure is
150 - (0.8)(24) 131 kN/rr
Width of base required = (759+414) I (6.8)(131) footing size
= 1.32 m 6.8 mx 2.0 m
Note 6 Use base of 6.8 III x 2.0 m x 0.8 m xO.8 m

Analysis of footing

Assuming that the C.of G. for ultimate loads is the


same as that for service loads, the footing can be
idealised as follows:-

Note 7 ~~ :1T
udl = (1100+600) / (6.8)

A-&;::':_= ,6E
= 250 leN/m

w 250 kN/m/ x~
Max. moment at C = (250)(1.65Y I 2 = 340 leNm
To find max~ moment in AC.
Mx == -(250)x212 + llOO(x-1.65)
= -(125)x2 + (lloo)x - 1815
putting dMx/dx == -(250}x + 1100 = 0,
we have x = 4.4 m
Mmax = -(125)(4.4)2 + (1100)(4.4) - 1815
= 605 kNm
Max. shear force at C == 1100 - (250)(1.65)
= 688 leN
Shear force at A = 600 leN

Design for bending

TABLE 1 Assume cover of 40 mm, bar size (longitudinal) of


Note 8 25 mm; hence, d == 800 - 40 - 25/2 = 747.5 mm

(Section AC)
Chart 2 Mlbd2 == (605 xl06) I (2000)(747.5)2 = 0.54
(part 3) looAJbd == 0.15 .
A. -= (0. 15)(2000}(747.5) I (100) = 2243 mm2 longitudinal top
Use 5 ns (As = 2455 mm2) - on top surface; steel- S n5
these can be curtailed if required.

70
Reference Calculations Output

~fb~~ = (340 x106) 1 (2000)(747.5)2 = 0.30


Table 3.27 100A/bd = 0.08; hence use lOOA/Ae = 0.13
As = (0.13)(800)(2000) 1 (100) = 2080 mm2
Use 5 TI5 (As = 2455 mm2) - on bottom surface; longitudinal
these .~ c.ould be curtailed as well. bottom steel -
3.11.3.2 Note:- (3/4)c + (9/4)d = (3/4)(300) + (9/4)(747.5) 5TI5
= 1907 > Ie = 1000 mm;
hence, longituninal steel can be evenly distributed. longitudinal rlf
to be evenly
crransverse direction) spaced
M = (25012){(2.0-0.3)/2}2(112) = 45 kNm/m
d = 747.5 - 25/2 - 20/2 = 725 mm (assuming bar
size of 20 mm)
M/bd 2 = (45 x106) 1 (1000)(725)2 = 0.09
Table 3.27 Use 100A/Ae = 0.13
As = (0.13)(1000)(800) 1 (100) = 1040 mm 2/m
Use TIO @ 300 mm (Ag = 1047 mm 2/m) transverse
Table 3.29 Anchorage length = (20)(40) = 800 mm bottom steel -
< (2000-300)/2 - 40(cover) = 810 mm; hence O.K. T20@3oo
This steel too can be evenly distributed, as it is mm, to be
nominal reinforcement; the same nominal steel can evenly spaced.
also be used as distribution steel for the top
longitudinal bars.

4.7m

t 5T25 \.
, ~T20@300 ........
s
.. ,
1 , J
'5T25
k 6.&n
>I
Check for vertical line shear

3.4.5.10 In the longitudinal direction, check at a distance "d"


from the internal column face.
V = (688) - {(688+600)/(5.0)}(0.15+0.7475)
= 457 kN
v = (457 x1<P) 1 (2000)(747.5) = 0.31 N/mm 2
Since nominal steel is used, v e = 0.34 N/mm 2
> 0.31 N/mm2; hence O.K.
In transverse direction, a distance "d" from column
face is virtually at edge of footing; hence O.K.

71
Reference Calculations Output
Check for punCbio& shear

3.7.7.2 vmax (internal column) = (1100 xlol) I (4)(300)(735)


= 1.25 N/mm 22
< (0.8)(25f = 4 N/mm 2 < 5 N/mm ; hence O.K.
S
As the critical perimeter, (1.5)d from column face, is
outside the footing, only vertical line shear need be Shear r/f is not
checked. required

Notes 00 Calculations

3. Where service loads are not specified or known, they can be estimated by dividing
ultimate loads by 1.45 for.reinforced concrete structures. When converting service
to ultimate" loads, it is safer to multiply the former by 1.5.

4. If the footing dimensions are given, as opposed to being designed, the pressure
distribution under the base may riot be uniform.

5. This base thickness is fairly high, and is governed primarily by shear considerations.
If the distance between columns is large, bending moment considerations will also
require a, fairly deep base.

6. This fairly large width has been chosen to reduce the pressure under the footing and
satisfy the shear criteria. Although increasing the depth is generally more efficient
than increasing the width, having a large depth may also cause excessive build up of
h5t of hydration temperatures, leading to thermal cracking.

7. Assulning the column loads to be point loads is conservative. In reality, the load will
be spread over a (mite area
and the resulting bending moments and shear fol'CeS' at
the column faces will ~, somewhat~maller than those obtained from this analysis.

8. The argument used to choose the cover is the same as that in Note 7 of Example 22.

Coocludina Notes

9. If the perimeter or section at which shear should be checked falls outside the footing,
the ,footing can be considered safe for shear.

10. The analysis of the above footing has been performed assuming that both footing and
subgrade are rigid. If elastic foundation assumptions had been used, the soil pressure
near the columns (i.e. loaded areas) would increase, but the midspan bending moment
would decrease.

72
EXAMPLE 24 - PILE CAP.

A two-pile group of pile diameter 500 mm and spacing 1250 mm centres supports a 450 mm
square column carrying an ultimate load of 2500 leN. Design the file cap, using concrete of
grade 25 and type 2 deformed reinforcement of fy = 460 Nlmm .

Introductory Notes

1. The minimum centre-to-centre distance for piles is twice the least width of piles for
end bearing piles and thrice the least width of piles for friction piles.

2. A pile cap can be considered as a deep beam, and the most appropriate way to
analyse forces is to consider truss action in the pile cap.

Reference Calculations Output


Pile cap dimensions

Use an outstand beyond the piles of half the pile


diameter. Hence, pile cap di~ensions are:
length = 1250 + 500 + 500 = 2250 mm dimensions
width = 500 + 500 = 1000 mm 2250 mm x
Try overall depth of 700 mm; hence, 1000 mm x
Note 3 effective depth = 700 - 40 - 25/2 = 647.5 mm 700mm
> (1250)/2; hence O.K.
N

61
Truss action

Note 4 The force T is given by


T N.l/(2)d
II:

= (2500)(625) 1 (2)(647.5)
= 1207 leN t T l'
N/2 N/2
As = (1207 x1oJ) 1 (0.87)(460) , 21 ~
= 3016 mm2
Use 7 1'25 (As = 3437 mm2) main steel
3.11.4.2 Banding is not required, as pile spacing < (3)<p 71'25
Note 5 spacing of rlf ::; (1000-80-32-25) I 6 = 144 mm

Anchoraee

Anchorage length requirec;l beyond centre-line of pile


is given by (40)(25)(3016/3437) = 878 mm

73
Reference Calculations Output
Stress in r/f - (0.87)(460)(3016/3437)= 351 N/mm2
When turning bars upwards, assume that bend starts
at edge of pile. '
Stress at start of bend = (351)(878-250)/(878)
= 251 N/mm 2

Bend radius, r, should be S.t.


equation 50 Fb!(r.q,) < = (2)fcu/{1 + 2(q,/lljJ}
Critical value for Itl = 40 + 16 (hor. loops) + 25
= 81 mm < 144 mm
(251)(491) I r(25) < = (2)(25) I {1 + (25/81)}
r > = 159; Use r = 160 mm r = 160 mm

Note 6 If we start the bend as close as possible to the edge


of pile cap, length from C/L of pile to start of bend
= SOO - 40 - 16 - 160 = 284 mm
3.12.8.23 eff. anchorage of bend = (12)(25) = 300 mm
{< (4)r =' (4)(160) = 640 mm}
vertical length available = '647.5 - 40 - 160 - (4)(25)
- 347.5 mm
total anchorage available - 284 + 300 + 347.5
. = 931.5 mm > 878 mm required; hence O.K. Anchorage O..K,

Check for punchina shear

3.11.4.5 vmax = (2500 xloJ) 1(4)(450)(647.5) = 2.15 N/mm2


< (0.8)(25)5_ 4 N/mm2 < 5 N/mm2 ; hence O.K.
Since spacing of piles < (3)q" no further check is
required.

Check for vertical line shear

3.11.4.4 av = 625-150-225 = 250 mm


3.11.4.3 V (at critical section) -
2500 I 2 - 1250 kN
v - (1250 xloJ) I (1000)(647;5) k ~ "
_ 1.93 N/mm2 625 625
2d/av = (2)(647.5) I (250) = 5.18
looA/bd = (100)(3437) I (1000)(647.5) = 0.53
Table 3.9 Vc = (0.51)(5.18) - 2.64 N/mm
2 Shear rlf not
3.4.5.8 > 1.93 N/mm 2; hence O.K. required.

74
Reference Calculations Output
Distribution steel

Table 3.27 l00A/Ac = 0.13; As = 910 mm2/m


Use 16T @ 200 mm (As = 1005 mm 2/m) distribution steel
This steel can also be bent up like the main steel. 16T@200 mm

Horizontal binders
7T25 main
Il binders
4')16
Note 7 Use 25 % of main steel.'
,
As = (0.25)(3016)
= 754 mm2 horizontal
Use 4 T16 (As = 804 mm2) binders
These binders will tie the
main and distributiot:l steel. LJTl~ 4 Tl6

Notes on Calculations

3. The criterion used is that the effective depth is equal to at least half the distance
between pile centres. When using truss theory, this will result in a compressive strut
of 45 minimum inclination. The cover value has been chosen as per Note 7 of
Example 22.

4. If the width of the column is accounted for, the value of tensile force will be a little
less. This is given some treatment in nAllen, A.H., Reinforced concrete design to BS
8110 simply explained, E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1988".

5. Allowance is made here for side cover of 40 mm and a horizontal binder of 16 mm


diameter.

6. We start the bend closer to the edge of the pile cap than assumed in the bend radius
calculation - this is to achieve as great a length for anchorage as possible within the
geometry of the pile cap.

7. This provision is also given by Allen, referred to in Note 4 above. The main steel
required (as opposed to provided) can be used in the calculation.

Concludinl Notes

8. It can be shown that less steel is required if Beam Theory is used. Furthermore, the
anchorage requirement beyond the centre line of pile is much less. However, Truss
Theory probably describes more accurately the actual behaviour of the pile cap.

9. If the spacing of piles exeeds 3 times the pile diameter, an additional check for
punching shear has to be made, and the pile cap has to be considered as being
"banded" for the distribution of tension steel and check for vertical line shear.

75
EXAMPLE 25 STAIRCASE

A staircase has to span between two beams, which are 3.0 m apart in plan. The difference
between the two levels is 2.0 m. Assuming that the staircase is sheltered and that it is
subject to crowd loading, design the staircase, using feu = 25 N/mm2 , fy = 460 N/mm 2
(deformed type 2) or 250 N/mm 2 (plain) and density of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/mJ .
Assume top finishes (on tread only) as O.S kN/m 2 and the soffit plaster as 0.25 kN/m 2

IJ;ttroductory Notes

1. Staircases are essentially inclined slabs. The major difference in design approach
is that the loading has to be obtained as the loading in plan.

2. In this particular example, the layout of the staircase has to be designed as well.

Reference Calculations Output


Choice of layout

Let us choose 12 stairs.


Then, rise (R) = 2000/12 = 167 mm rise = 167 mm
going (0) = 3000/12 = 250 mm going =
Note 3 Also 2R + 0 = (2){167) + 250 = '84 mm 2SOmm
(approx. 600 mm; hence O.K.) tread =
Use nosing of 25 mm, so that tread = 275 mm 275 rom

Waist thickness

Note 4 Assume trial span/depth of (30)(1.15) = 34.5, for a


3.10.2.2 I-way heavily loaded continuous slab, stiffened by
stairs.
effective depth = (3000)/(34.5) = 87 mm
TABLE 1 If we assume cover =' 20 mm (mild exposure
conditions and concrete protected by 10 mm 1:3 ct:
sand rendering) and bar diameter = 12 mm, we can
choose h == 120 mm and d = 120-20-12/2 = 94 mm h = 120mm
Table 3.5 Note:- 1.5 hr. fire resistance available. d = 94 mm

L.oadin& (for 1 m wide strip)

Note S Factor for slope .... (R2 + 0 2)0.5 1 0


= {(167)2 + (250)2}0.5 1 (250) = 1.20

76
Reference Calculations Output
Factor for overlap = T/G = 275/250 = 1.1
Waist = (0.1~)(1)(24)(1.2) = 3.46 kN/m
Steps = (112)(0.167)(1)(24)(1.1) = 2.20 kN/m
Top finishes = (0.5)(1)(1.1) = 0.55 kN/m
Soffit plaster = (0.25)(1)(1.20) = 0.30 kNlm
Total dead load = 6,51 kNlm
Note 6 Imposed load = (5.0)(1) = 5.0 kN/m design udl =
Design load ... (1.4)(6.51) + (1.6)(5.0) = 17.1 kN/m 17.1 kN/m

PesiKn for bendine

Note 7 M (span and support) = F.l I 10


= {(17.1)(3.0)}(3,0) I 10 = 15,4 kNm/m
Chart 2 M/bd2 = (15.4 x1()6) I (looo)(94f = 1.75
(Part 3) l00AJbd = 0.48
A. = (0.48)(1000)(94) 1(100) = 451 mm2/m
Use Tl2 @ 250 mm (As = 452 mm2/m) main steel
3,12,11.2,7 Allowable spacing = (3)(94) = 282 mm > 250 mm T12 @ 250 mm
Table 3.27 100A/Ac = (100)(452) I (1000)(120) = 0.38 > 0,13
Note 8 Hence,max. spacing and min. steel are O.K.

Check for deflection


Mfbd2 = 1.75
fa = (5/8)(460)(451/452) = 287 N/mm 2
Table 3.11 Hence, F 1 = 1.15 (for tension reinforcement)
3.10.2.2 Allowable spanldepth = (26)(1.15)(1.15) = 34.4
Actual span/depth = (3000)/(94) = 31.9 < 34.4;
hence deflection O. K. Deflection O. K.

Check for shear

Note 9 v = (0.6)F = (0.6){(17.1)(3)) = 30.78 kN/m


v = (30.78 x1<P) I (1000)(94) = 0.33 Nfmm2
l00AJbd = (100)(452) I (1000)(94) = 0.48
Table 3.9 vc ... 0.66N/mm2 > 0.33 N/mm2 ; shear r/f not
Hence, shear r/f not required. required.

77
Reference Calculations Output
Distribution steel

Table 3.27 lOOA,IAc = 0.24 (for mild steel)


Note 10 A. = (0.24)(1000)(120) I (100) = 288 mm2/m distribution steel
Use R8 @ 175 mm (As = 287 mm 2/m) R8@175 mm

R8@175 (4)
~
Note 11
Tl2@250 (1)
Tl2@250

3.<In ..
~fC----------:>j

Notes on Calculations

3. In general the rise should vary from a minimum of 150 mm for public stairways to
a maximum of 175 mm for private stairways. The going should vary from 300 mm
for public stairways to 250 mm for private stairways. (2R + 0) should be kept as
close as possible to 600 mm. A nosing can be provided so that the tread is greater
than the .going, thus making for greater user comfort.

4. Although the value used in Example 13 for a continuous one way slab was 34, a ratio
of 30 is used here, because the loading is much heavier - the waist carries the load
of the steps, in addition to its own weight on an incline, and also a high imposed
load. The above ratio is increased by 15% because of the stiffness contributed by
the stairs.

5. The waist and soffit plaster have thicknesses that are measured perpendicular to the
+
incline. Hence their load in plan will be greater by a factor of (R} 0 2)0.5 I O. The
steps and tread finishes have 2S mm overlaps for each 250 mm length in plan,
because of the provision of a nosing. Hence their load will have to be factored by
T/O. This factor can be ignored for the imposed load, because it can be argued that
the entire tread will not be available for standing.

78
6. The imposed load corresponding to crowd loading is 5.0 kN/m2 - see "BS 6399: Part
1 (1984): Design loading for buildings: Code of practice for dead and imposed
loads" .

7. For a staircase having continuity, we can assume that both the span and support
moments are approximately F.l/1O.

8. Staircases are generally heavily loaded (see Note 4 above), unlike horizontal slabs.
Hence, the check for minimum steel is not very critical.

9. Taking Shear Force as (0.6)F is conservative for staircases such as this, In any case,
as for most slabs, staircases will not require shear reinforcement.

10; Mild steel reinforcement is often used for distribution bars, as in this case, since the
use of high yield reinforcement may result in more steel than that specified by the
minimum steel requirement, in order to meet the maximum bar spacing rule.

11. When detailing reinforcement, care should be taken not to bend tension steel in a
way that an inside comer can get pulled out. Hence bar type (2) should be continued
from the bottom face of the lower slab to the top face of the waist. Bar types (2) and
(3) can be taken horizontal distances of (0.3)1 (see Clause 3.12.10.3) into the waist
from the faces of the beams. Bar types (1), (2) and (3) can be continued into the
lower and upper slabs as sl$ reinforcement, if required. Bar type (4) shows how the
upper slab reinforcement can be taken into the beam support.

Concluding Notes

12. If the supporting beam for the flight of stairs is at the ends of the landings, the entire
system of staircase and two landings can be taken as spanning between the supporting
beams (see figure below). In this case, the slab system could be considered as simply
supported if there is no continuity beyond the landings. The loading on the landing
and staircase section would be different in a case such as this.

r-------/

span

79
EXAMPLE 16 - STAIRCASE

A typical plan area of a stair well is shown in the figure, where the landings span in a
direction perpendicular to the flight and span of the stairs. The dimensions of a single stair
are as follows:- rise = 175 mm; going = 250 mm; tread = 275 mm. The top finishes (on
tread only) are equivalent to a distributed load of 0.5 kN/m2 and the soffit plaster one of
0.25 kN/m 2 The imposed load can betaken as 3 kN/m 2 Using feu = 25 N/mm2 , fy = 460
N/mm 2 (deformed type 2) or 250 N/mm2 (plain) and density of reinforced concrete ;:; ~4
kN/m3 ,design the staircase component of the system.

1.2m 8xO.25 = 2.Om 2.Om


\<:---.....;* *:------~)'
."
1. 2m
,
,
1.2m

I,

Introductory Notes

1. In this example of a staircase, the landings span perpendicular to the stairs and
support the staircase, unlike in the case described in Note 12 of Example 2S, where
the landings also span in the direction of. the staircase.

2. In analysing the above system, the staircase is assumed to be supported along two
edges within the landings. Continuity over the supports can be assumed for the
purpose of spanldepth Iatio calculations.

Reference Calculations Output


Stair span and waist thickness

equation 47 Effective span = la + (O.5)(lb,l + Ib,V


Note 3 = 2.0 + (0.5)(1.2 + 1.8)
= 3.5 m eff. span =
length of stairs (%) = {(2.0)/(3.5)}(IOO) % = 57% 3.5 m
3.10.2.2 < 60%; hence span/depth enhancement not possible.

80
Reference CaJcuJatioas Outpat
Note 4 Assume a trial spanldepth ratio of 32, for a
continuous I-way spanning sIaiR:ase.
Effective depth = (3500)/(32) = 109 mm
Assuming a cover of 20 mm (mild exposure
conditions and concrete protected by 10 mm 1:3 ct:
sand rendering), and bar diameter of 12 mm, we can h = 140 mm
choose h= 140 mm and d= 140-20-1212 = 114 mm d = 114 mm

Loa4in& (for 1.2 m wide staiR:ase)

Note 5 Factor for slope = (R2 + OZ)0S I G


= {(l75f + (250f}o.s I (250) = 1.22
Factor for overlap = TIG = (275)/(250) = 1.1

Waist = (0.14)(1.2)(24)(1.22) = 4.92 kN/m


Steps = (112)(0.175)(1.2)(24)(1.1)= 2.n kN/m
Top finishes = (0.5)(1.2)(1.1) = 0.66 kN/m
Soffit pJasta'= (0.25)(1.2)(1.22) =0.37 kNlm
Total dead loed = 8.72 kN/m
Imposed lOad = (3.0)(1.2) = 3.6 kN/m design udl =
Design load= (1.4)(8.72) + (1.6)(3.6) = 18.0 kN/m 18.0 kN/m

Desi&n for bendine


Note 6 The stain:ase can be idealised as follows:

@; RA = (18)(2.0)(1.9) I (3.5) = 19.5 kN


RB = (18)(2.0) - 19.5 = 16.5 leN
Mx = RA.x - w(x - 0.6f12
dMxIdx = 0 when RA - w[x - 0.6] = 0
Le. x= RA/w + 0.6 = (19.5)/(18) + 0.6 = 1.68 m
Muua= (19.5)(1.68) - (18)(1.68-G.6t/2
= 22.26 kNm

Chart 2 MIbc = (22.26 xl<n 1 (12OO)(114t = 1.43


(Part 3) l00A/bd = 0.39; A = 534 mm2
c main steel
Use 5 Tl2 (A. = 565 m.r) 5 T12

81
Wei.,... CaJcu,,- Output
Check for cW1ection
MJbd2.:: 1.43;
fs = (5/8)(460)(534/565) = 2n N/mm2
Table 3.11 H~,FJ == 1.29 (for tension reinforceament)
~. spanldepth :: (26)(1.29) == 33.5
Actual spaoIdeptb == (3500)1{U4) == 30.7
< 33.5; hence O.K. Deflection O. K.

Distribution reinfon:ement

Table 3.27 lOOAJA.c = 0.24 (mild steel)


As =(0.24)(140)(1000) I (100) = 336 mm2/m distribution steel
Use R8 @ lSOmm <As == 335 m.r/m) R8@ ISO mm

Notes OD Cakulatious

3. The support Jineforthe stain:ase is at the centre of the smaller landing but only
0.9 m into the wider Janding, because 1.8 m js the maximum distance ,over which the
load can be assullWldto be spread.

4. This ratio is a liUlep:ater than that assumed for the previous example (Example 25),
because the-imposed load here is somewhat lower.

5. These factors and their use are deScribed in Note 5 of Example 25.

6. Although continuity is assumed oversupports for spanldepdl ratio considerations, it


will be safeeto assume simple suppoIts when designing for bending, as tile continuity
extends only upto the edge of the Jaadiqg. The loads fromd1e landings are.carried by
the landings in the direction .~ to the flight of the stairs; hence they are
not considered in the analysis.

Concluding Notes

7. Detailing of reinforcement can becJooe in a IIl3DDel'sinillar to that in Example 25.


8. Shear can also be checJrd for, as in Example 25, the maximum.sIlear force being the
greater of RA and~ - i.e. 19.5 kN.

9. When designing the landings, in addition to their own dead and imposed loads, the
loads from the stain:ase --i.e. RA and RB will be uniformly spread over the entire
smaller landing and over 1. 8 m of the Jarges landing, respectively.

10. Where staircase flights surrounding openwe1ls intersect at right angles, the loads
from the common landing can be shared between the two perpendicular spans.

82
t EXAMPLE 27 - PLAIN CONCRETE WALL

The lateral loads in the short way direction on a four storey building are taken by two end
concrete shear walls of length 15 m and height 14 m. The servi<;e wind load on one shear
wall is 180 leN. Check.whether a plain concrete wall of grade 25 concrete and 175 mm
thickness is sufficient for the wall panel between foundation and 1st floo~ slab (clear height
=
of wall 4.0 m) if it carries the following terVice loads, in addition to the wind load:- self
weight = 18 leN/m; dead load from 1st floor. slab = 12 kN/m; dead load from above 1st
floor slab = 8OleN/m; imposed load from 1st floor slab = 7.5 kN/m; imposed load .from
above 1st floor slab = 19 kNlm.

Introductory Notes

1. Given that.even plain concrete walls require horizontal and vertical reinforcement
(Clause 3.9.4.19), and if this n"inforeement will be ,distributed on two faces (which
is advisable, since crack control reinforcement should be as close to the surface as
possible), then it is very difficult to construct a wall under 175 mm. This is
because cover requirements will be 20 mm on the inside (mild exposure) and 30 mm
on the outside (moderate exposure) - see TABLE 1, including Notes 5 and 6 - and
because the bar diameter for vertical steel should be at least 12 mm, in order to
ensure sufficient sti.ffJIess, for the rant"orcementcage prior to concreting.

2. Guidance on calculating wind loads is given in CP3: Ch. V: Part 2 (1972): Basic
data for the design of buildings: Loading: Wind loads, and the method is shown in
Example 31.

3. It is assumed that stability for the stn1Cture as a whole has been satisfled. The
overturning moment due to wind, factored by 1.4 should be less than the resisting
moment due to dead load, factored by 1.0 (see Table 2.1)

Refereoce Cakulatioos Output


Wall CJassi'ierinn

3.9.4.3 Since lateral support is provided by foundation and


Note 4 1st floor slab, wall panel can be considered braced.
The slab will give only displacement restraint, while
the foundation can give displacement as well as
rotational .restraint.
Ie = 3.5 m
Note 5 Hence, Ie = (0.875)(4.0) = 3.5 m lJh = 20
1.2.4.9 Ie/h = (3.5 xloJ)/(17S) = 20 > 15; hence slender. hence, slender
3.9.4.4 < 30; hence max. value not exceeded. braced wall.

83
1./; l
i (

We sball use serviceability vertic:al Joads to calculate


the resultant eccentricity (e) just below the 1st floor
slab, assuming the eccentricity of 1st floor slab
3.9.4.9 loading is bl6. and that the eccentricity of loads
above this is zero. ..
Note 6 e== (12+7.5)(175/6) / [(12+7.5) + {80+(19)(O.8)}]
== 4.96 mm
3.9.4.15 Min. ecc. == hI20 == (175)/(20) == 8.75 mm
> 4.96 mm ex == 8.75 mm
3.9.4.16 ea == Ie2/(2S00)h == (3500)2 I (2SOO)(175) == 28 mm e. == 28 mm

Assuming wind acts at mid height of wall, wind


moment == (180)(1412) == 1260 kNm.
Hence. wind loading on wall == (6)(1260)/(15>2
== 33.6kN1m
Hence. ultimate loads per unit length of wall are:-
Table 2.1 Combination 1.
f l == (1.4)(18+ 12+80) + (1.6)(7.5+ 19)(0.7)
== 184 kN/m
Combination 2.
f2 == (1.4)(110) + (1.4)(33.6) == 201 kNlm or
f 2 == (1.0)(110) - (1.4)(33.6) == 63 kN/m
Combination 3, l1w.~ ==
f3 = (1.2){1l0 + (26.5)(0.7) + 33.6} =195 kNlm ~OI kN/m
Note: - no tension arises. n .:;:
-"W.1IlUI
63 kN/m
equation 43 Now,1lw < == (0.3){h - (2)exlfcu
= (0.3){175 - (2)(8.75)}(25) == 1182 kN/m
equation 44 and Ow < == (O.3){h - (1. 2lex - (2)eJfcu
=(O.3){175 - (1.2)(8.75) - (2)(28)}(25)== 813 kN/m
Note 7 These are satisfied, since l1w.max == 201kN/m l1w is O.K.

Check for shear


3.9.4.18 Design horizontal shear force == 180 kN
Min. deagn vertical load == (110)(15) == 1650 kN
{> (4)(180)(1.4) == 1008 kN; hence O.K.}

84
Refereace Caleulatio.. Output
4" Minimum reinfOfCQDCOt

Min. r/f = (0.25)(1000)(175) I (100)


= 437.5 mm2/m (both directions)
Note 8 Use vertical steel Tl2 @ 300 mm in both faces vertfcal steel
(A. = 753 mm2/m) 2 x Tl2 @ 300
Horizontal steel 1'8 @ 225 mm in both faces horizontal steel
(As = 446 mm2/m) 2xT8@225

- - Notes on Calculations

4. A column is considered braced in a given plane if it is not required to carry the


lateral forces in that plane. A wall bowever is considered braced if lateral stability is
given to it by other structural elements, when it is carrying in-plane loads. If the wall
alone has to resist transverse loads, it is unbraced.

5. Since the end conditions in the given wall are "midway between those specified in
Clause 3.9.4.3., the effective length factor is also midway between the factors given.

6. The imposed load here is factored by 0.8, according to BS 6399: Part 1 (1984):
Design loading for buildings: Dead and imposed loads, since loads from 3 floors are
involved. Later on, when cbecldng the Ow value for the wall .panel, a factor of 0.7 is
used, since loads from 4 floors are involved.

7. Equations 43 and 44 for braCed walls correspond to the top (maximum initial
eccentricity) and midway (maximum eccentricity due to deflection) sections.
However OW is calculated at .the bottom of the wall,. taking into account the self
weight of the wall and maximum inoment due to wind. This is slightly inconsistent
but conservative. A similar approach is used in column design.

8. Since reinforcement to control thermal and hydration sbrinkage should be fairly


closely spaced, a spacing of 300 mm is not exceeded. 12 mm dia. bars are used for
vertical steel, in order to give stiffness to the reinforcement cage prior to concreting.
The horizontal reinforcement sbould be placed outside the vertical steel on both faces,
to ensure better crack control, as thenna! and shrinkage movements will generally be
in the horizontal direction; furthermore it is easier to fix the horizontal steel on the
outside.

Concluding Notes

9. The wall reinforcement should also be checked for satisfying tie reinforcements. This
is dealt with in Example 33.

85
EXAMPLE 28 - CORBEL

Design a corbel that will carry a vertic:alloed of 350 kN into a 300 mm x 300 nun column.
assuming the line of action of the load to be 150 mm from the face of the column. Take ~u
= 30 N/mm 2 and f y = 460 N/mm2 (defcmned type 2).
Introductory Notes

1. A cos:bcl can be considered to bea -deep cantilever" where truss Don. as opposed
beam action, predominates and where shearing action is critical..

2. Compatibility of strains between the strut-and-tie system of the truss must be ensured
at the root of the corbel (Clause 5.2.7.2.1 (b.

Calc:ulatioos Output
Corbel dimensions

The width of the corbel can be the same as that of


the column, Le. 300 mm.
The length of the bearing plate can also be taken as
300 mm, and if dry bearing on concrete is assumed,
the width of thebeariag plate, b, will be given by
5.2.3.4 (350 xloJ) I (3OO)b <= (().4)fcu
b >= (350 xloJ) I (300)(0.4)(30)= 97 nun
Hence, choose bearing width of 100 mm. bearing width
Since the corbel has to project out from the bearing 100 mm
area a distance that wouJd accommodate a. stressed
bend radius choose corbel projection as 400 mm. total proj~tion
Corbel depth bas lObe suclltbat max. aIL shear is 400nun
not exceeded - i.e. (O;8)(3Of.5 = 4.38 N/mm2
Hence, d > (350 xl(3) I (300)(4.38) = 266mm
Choose h = 375 nun and assuming cover of 20 mm
(mild exposure conditions, concrete protected by lQ
mm 1:3 et: sand rendel) and bar dia. of 20 mm,
d = 375 - 20 - 2012 = 345 mm. h =375 mm
Note 3 Let the depth. vary from 375 mm to 250 mm. d::;: 345 mm

cAy ~l~n: 350 kN (ultimate)

T~C' 'l5o L T

1:- t 125 Oo9xl[J


-A 0.45f
v cu

86
Reference Calculations Output
5.2.7.1 Now avid == (150)/(345) == 0.43 < 1
Also, depth at outer edge of bearing area > 375/2
mm; hence, definition of corbel is satisfied.

Main reinforcement

From strain compatibility and stress block,


C == (0.45)fcu(0.9)b.x.CosP .......... (1)
Since the line of action of C must pass thro' the
centroid of stress block, (J == tan- 1(zlI50),
Le. {J == tan-I {(d - 0.45x)IlSO}
Furthermore, from the triangle of forces for P, T
andC,
C == P 1 Sin{J ........................(2)
We need to find a value of x, and hence {J, that will
satisfy (1) and (2) simultaneously.
x == 216 mm will give {J == SS.SO and C == 409 kN
T == 350 1 Tan{J == 212 kN

Since x == 216 mm, by strain compatibility, strain in


steel is {(d-x)/x}(0.0035) == 2.090 xlO-]
Note 4 Hence, steel has just ~ded and fs == (0.87)fy
Hence, As == (212 d()3) 1 (0.87)(460) == 530 mm2
Use 3 T16 (As == 603 mm2) . main steel
5.2.7.2.1 Min. area required == (112)(350 xloJ) / (0.87)(460) 3 T16
. == 437 mm2 < 603 mm 2 ; hence O.K.
NoteS Also l00A/bd == (100)(603) 1 (300)(345) == 0.58
> 0.4 and < 1.3; hence O.K. Detailing O.K.

Shear reinforeeroent

v == (350 xloJ) 1 (300)(345) == 3.38 N/mm2


l00AJbd == 0.58
Table 3.9 Vc == (0.546)(30/25).J3(2d1ay) == (0.58)(2/0.43)
3.4.5.8 == 2.69 N/mm1 < 3.38 N/mm 2
Table 3.8 Provide An > == bv.Sy(v-vJ 1 (0.87) v
Aav!Sy > == (300)(3.38-2.69) 1 (0.87J(460) == 0.517
Use lOT @ 300 mm. Since this has to be provided
over (213)(375) == 250 mm, 2 bars will suffIce.
5.2.7.2.3 Min. requirement is 603/2 == 302 mm2
Use 2 TI0 links @ 175 mm links
(As == 314 mm2 > 302 mm2; hence O.K.) 2TlO

87
Reference
Bendine main reinforcement
The bend in the main reinforcement should start a
Note 6 cover distance (20 mm) from the bearing plate. It
should end a cover + bar di.a. (20+ 10+ 16 = 46
mm) from the end of the corbel. Hence. distance
available for bend radius == 200 - 20 - 46 = 134 mm

3.12.8.25.2 Critical value of 3tJ= 20 + 10 (link) + 16 = 46 mm


Stress in bars = (0.87)(460)(5301603) = 352 N/mm 2
equation 50 F bt I (vI < = (2)~ I {I + (2)(qJ~}
(352)(201) I (16)r < = (2)(30) I {I + (2)(l6l46)}
r > = 125 m m b e n d radius
Choose r =
130 mm < 134 mm; hence O.K. 130 mm =
100 100.. 200 .1

r-l30,.,
2TIOfH75( 250

Notes on Calculations

3. Varying the depth from a full depth at the root to 2/3 of the depth at the end ensures
that one of the conditions for a corbel in Clause 5.2.7.1 is automatically met - i.e.
that the depth at the outer edge of bearing is greater than half the depth at the root.
Furthermore, it facilitates the placing of horizontal shear links in the upper two-thirds
of the effective depth of corbel as specified in Clause 5.2.7.2.3.

4. Using Figure 2.2, the strain at yield is (0.87)(460) 1(200 xloJ) = 2.0 x 10-3 for steel
of fy '= 460 N/mm 2 , since the Young's Modulus specified is 200 kN/mm2 .

5. Although these limits on l00A/bd, where d is the effective depth at th~ root of the
corbel, are not given in BS 8110, they are specified in "Rowe, R.E. et aI., Handbook
to British Standard BS 8110: 1985 : Structural use of concrete, Palladian, London,
1987".

88
6. Although the code allows the bend to start at the edge of the bearing plate itself, the
allowance of a cover distance from the outer edge of the bearing plate will ensure the
spreading of load from the bearing plate to the level of tie steel before the bend
commences.

Concluding Notes

7. Since a fairly large distance is involved in accomodating the bend radius, an


alternative way of anchoring tie bars is to weld a transverse bar of equal strength,
subject to the detailing rules in Clause 5.2.7.2.2. In any ease, the actual projection
of the corbel beyond the bearing plate can be adjusted right at the end of the design,
and will not affect preceding calculations.

89
EXAMPLE 19 - DESIGN FOR TORSION

A cantilever slab of clear span 2.0 m functions as a hood over a porch. Its thickness varies
from 200 mm at the support to 100 mm at the free end, while it carries finishes amounting
to 0.5 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 0.5 kN/m 2 It is supported by a beam 600 mm x 300
mm, which spans 4.0 m between columns, which are considered to provide full bending and
torsional restraint. Design the beam for bending and torsion, assuming feu == 30 N/mm 2 , f y
= 460 N/mm2 (deformed type 2), fyv = 250 N/mm2 and density of reinforced concrete =
24 kN/m3

IDtroductory Notes

1. It is instructive to classify torsion into two types. Compatibility torsion, which may
arise in statically indeterminate situations, is generally not significant; torsional
moments will be shed back into the elements carrying bending moments (at right
angles to the element carrying torsion), because torsional stiffnesses are lower than
bending stiffnesses. Any torsional cracking will be controlled by shear links.
However, equilibrium torsion in statically determinate situations, where torsional
resistance is required for static equilibrium, will have significant magnitudes, and has
to be designed for. The example above is such a case (see Clause 2.4.1, Part 2).

2. Assuming that the columns provide full bending restraint implies that they have
infinite stiffness. In practice, of course this will not be the case and the deformation
of the columns will reduce the beam fixed end moments. However, full torsional
restraint has to be provided by the columns, in order to preserve static equilibrium,
where equilibrium torsion is invol"lled.

Reference CaleuIatiODS Output

~$OO
~oILJ 2000
)

~.

Loadin 2 on beam
HoOd = {(0.2+0.1)/2}(2.0)(24) = 7.2 kN/m
Finishes = (0.5)(2.3) = 1.15 kN/m
Self weight = (0.6)(0.3)(24) = 4.32 kN/m
Total dead load = 12.67 kN/m
Imposed load = (0.5)(2.3) = 1.15 kN/m bending udl =
Design load ={(1.4)(l2. 7)+(1.6)(1.15)} = 19.6 kN/m 19.6 kN/m

90
Reference Calculations Output
Torsional loadio&

(assume shear centre is at centroid of beam section)


Hood = (7.2)(2/3)(0.15+ 1.0)
+ (7.2)(1/3){0.15+(2.0/3)} = 7.48 kNmlm
Finishes == (0.5)(2.0)(0.15+ 1.0) = 1,15 kNm/m
Total dead load torsion == 8,63 kNm/m
Imposed load torsion = (0.5)(2.0)(0,15+ 1.0)
== 1,15 kNm/m
Design load=={(1.4)(8,6)+(1.6)(1.15)} = 13.9 kNmlm torsional udl
= 13.9 kNm/m

Desim for bendin&

TABLE 1 Assume cover == 30 mm (moderate exposure


Example 8 conditions, TABLE 1 values modified by Notes 5 &
6), link dia. ,.; 10 mm and main bar dia, == 20 Mm.
hence, d = 600 - 30 - 10 - 20/2 = 550 mm d = 550 mm
Take M == (1I12)w.l2 (for built in beam)
== (1112)(19.6)(4)2 == 26.1 IeNm
Chart 2 Mlbd 2 = (26.1 xlo6) I (300)(550f = 0,29
(Part 3) lOOA,lbd == 0.08
Table 3.27 Use lOOAJAc == 0,13
As = (0.13)(300)(600) I (loo) = 234 mm2
Same nominal steel r/f can be used at span.
Shear Force = (19.6)(4) I 2 = 39.2 leN (max.)
Table 3.9 v = (39.2 xloJ) I (500)(300) = 0,24 N/mm 2 < Vc

Desi&D for torsion

y I = 600 - (2)(30 + 10/2) = 530 mm YI = 530 mm


Xl = 300 - (2)(30 + 10/2) = 230 mm Xl == 230 mm

Total torsional moment = (13.9)(4) = 55,6 kNm


Torsional restraint at each end= 55,6/2 = 27,8 kNm
Note 3 The torsional moment will vary as follows:-

27 .8 ~33 1.2m
I --..~ "
~ -27.8

91
Refereace CaJaJlatioos Output
equation 2 Max. value of vt = (2)T I (bmiJi~ - huuJ3)
(Part 2) = (2)(27.8 xld') I (300) (600 - 300/3)
= 1.24 N/mm2 < 4.38 N/mm 2 (vtu )
Table 2.3 > 0.37 N/mm2 (vt,min)
(Part 2) Thus, beam section is O.K. but requires torsional r/f.

Proyision of reinforcement

Table 2.4 Since v < Vc for the entire beam, the area where vt
(part 2) < = vt,min bas to be provided with nominal shear r/f
and the area where vt > vt.min with designed torsion
r/f.

equation 2 Torque corresponding to edge of nominal shear r/f is


(Part 2) given by T = V t ,min.hmm29tmax - ohznm/3) I 2 .
Table 2.3 = (0.37)(300f(600 - 30013) I 2 Nmm
(Part 2) = 8.33 kNm
Distance from beam elL = (8.33/27.8)(2.0)= 0.6 m
Hence, length of beam for nominal shear links
= (2)(0.6) = 1.2 m

Nominal shear links given by


Table 3.8 A,;.)Sv > = (0.4)(300) I (0.87)(250) = 0.55 Nominal links
For 10 mm links, Asv = 157 mm2 ; Sv < = 285 mm RIO@250mm
Use RIO links @ 250 mm {< (0.75)d = 413 mm} (middle 1.2 m)

Designed torsional links given by


2.4.7 A,;.)Sv > = T I (0.8)~'Yl(0.87)f 0

(Part 2) = (27.8 xl ) I (0.8)(130)(530)(0.87)(250)


= 1.31
For 10 mm links, Asv = 157 mm2; Sv < = 120 mm Torsion links
2.4.8 Use 2RI0 links @ 200 mm {< = 200 mm, Xl' yl /2} 2RIO@2oo
(Part 2) Length of beam at each end for torsional links mm (1.4 m
= (4.0 - 1.2) I 2 = 1.4 m from both ends)

Designed additional longitudinal steel given by


2.4.7 As! > (A,;.)Sv)(fyvlf )(xl +Yl)
(Part 2) = (157/120)(2501460)(230 + 530) = 540 mm 2
If this is divided between 8 bars, each requires 67.5
mm2 (3 at top and bottom, 2 in middle).
2.4.9 Since beam length is small, assume bending
(Part 2) reinforcement is not curtailed; longitudinal
Note 4 reinforcement for torsion also cannot be curtailed.

92
Reference Calculations Output
Total steel requirement at top and bottom levels =
(67.5)(3) + 234 = 436.5 mm 2
Use 2Y16 + YIO at top and bottom levels (As =
481 mm2) and 2 Y 10 at intennediate level (As = 157
mm 2)
This arrangement will satisfy
Table 3.30 (a) max. spacing for tension rlf < = 160 mm top & bottom
2.4.9 (b) max. spacing for torsional rlf < = 300 mm 2Y.l6+YIO
(part 2) (c) torsional rlf provided in 4 comers middle 2YlO

Notes on Calculations

3. The torsional moment variation in beams, whether for a distributed moment such as
this or for a point moment, is geometrically identical to the shear force variation
corresponding to distributed or point loads respectively.

4. Longitudinal torsion reinforcement has to be extended at least a distance equal to the


largest dimension of the section beyond the point where it is theoretically not
required. In this example, that would extend the reinforcement by 600 mm, exactly
to the mid point of the beam. Hence, curtailment is not possible

Concluding Notes

5. The links provided for torsion have to be of the closed type as specified in Clause
2.4.8 (Part 2), whereas even open links are permissible for shear links.

6. If the section carrymg torsion is a flanged beam, it has to be divided into component
(non-intersecting) rectangles, such that hmin3.hmax is maximized. This can generally
be achieved by making the widest rectangle as long as possible (see Clause 2.4.4.2-
Part 2). The torque is divided up amoung the rectangles in the ratios of their
(hmin3 .h max) values and each rectangle designed for torsion. The torsional links should
be placed such that they do intersect.

division into 2 rectangles


l-
IC J ~intersecting torsional links

II

93
EXAMPLE 30 - FRAME ANALYSIS FOR VERTICAL LOADS

A typical internal braced transverse frame for a multi-storey office building is shown below.
The frames are located at 5 m centres and the length of the building is 40 m. The cross
sectional dimensions of members are as follows.
(i) Slab. thickness (roof and floors) - 150 mm
(il) Beams (roof and floors) - 600 mm x 300 mm
(iii) Columns (for all floors) - 300 mm x 300 mm

The vertical loading is as follows:- .


(i) Load corresponding to finishes = 0.5 kN/m 2 (for roof and floors)
(il) Load corresponding to light partitions = 1.0 kN/m 2 (for floors only)
(iii) Imposed load on roof = 1.5 kN/m 2
(iv) Imposed load on floors = 2.5 kN/m2
(v) Density of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m3

Obtain the design ultimate moments and shear forces from vertical loads for the beam ABC
at the first floor level.
j
Roof

4.0m

1\~
2nd FIoar

4. Om
A B C
\ 1st FIoar

4.2f.m
, Ground Level
-.
T75m. ~". ~ 6.0m 7- ~ 6.0m ?!~ - - - - Footing Level

Introductory Notes '.

L The next 4 examples (including this one) deal with the entire structure, as opposed
to structural elements.

2. The loading for partitions and imposed loads is the minimum permissible under"as
6399: Part I (1984): Design loading on buildings: Dead and imposed loads~

3. In general, most frames are braced, the lateral load being taken by masonry infill or
lift!stair wells.

4. Since the frame is braced, it is possible to use either a beam level sub-frame analysis
or a continuous beam analysis. Since the latter over-estimates moments considerably,
the fanner will be performed.

94
Refereoce Calculations Output
Stiffnesses

(IlL) of columns above 1st floor =


(1112)(300)4/ (4000) = 0.169 xl()6 mm3
(Ill,tof columns below 1st floor =
(1/12)(300)4/ (5000) = 0.135 x106 mm3
Since T-beam action will prevail in the beam , eff.
flange width = 300 + (0.7)(6000)/5 = 1140 mm b f = 1140 mm
5000 mm).

1
I of beam section = 1140
9.388 xl09 mm4 , )
15
(I/L)ofbeams = =
(9.388 x109) I (6000) 4 so
1.565 xl~ mm3
~
Distribution factors

Only the beam factors will be considered.


DAB = D CB =(1.565)/(1.565 +0. 169+0. 135) = 0.84
DBA =DBC = 1.565/{(1.565)(2)+0.169+0.135} =0.46

Loading on beam

Slab = (5)(0.15)(24) = 18 kN/m


Beam = (0.45)(0.3)(24) = 3.24 kN/m
Finishes = (0.5)(5) = 2.5 kN/m
Total dead load = 23.74 kN/m ik= 23.7 kN/m
Imposed load (floor) = (5)(2.5) = 12.5 kN/m
Partitions = (5)(1.0) = 5.0 kN/m
Total imposed load = 17.5 kN/m
BS 6399: Since a beam span carries 30 m2 of floor area,
Part 1 reduced imposed load = (0.97)(17.5) = 17.0 kN/m Qk= 17.0 kN/m

Load arrangements
3.2.1.2.2

95
Output
Arrangement 3 will be the mirror image, about B, of
Arrangement 2.

Moment distribution (kNm)


Note 5
(Arrangement 1)

0.84 0.46 0.46 0.84


AB BA Be CB
-181.2 + 181.2 -181.2 + 181.2 Arrangement 1
Note 6 + 152.2.....,. + 76,1 - 76,1 <Eo- -152.2 Support moment
- 29,0 + 257.3 ~257.3 + 29,0 at B= 257 kNm

(Arrangement 2)

0.84 0.46 0.46 0.84


AB BA BC CB
-181.2 + 181.2 - 11.1 + 71.1
- 25.3 ~ ......
- 5"'-lo0"'"'.6"--_-......50Qt~,6 -+ - 25,3
+ 173.5 -+ + 86,8 - 19.3 <t- ~
- 15.5 +- - 31.1 - 31.1 --+ - 15.5
+ 13.1-+ + 6.5 + 6,5 -t- + 13,1 Arrangement 2
- 3.0 -t- - 6.0 - 6,0 -+ - 3.0 Support
+ 2.5 - t + 1.3 + 1.3 ~ + 2.5 moments at B
- 0,6 s- - 1.2 - 1.2 ~ - 0.6 = 187 kNm
Note 7 - 36.5 + 186.9 -171.5 + 3.8 &. 172 kNm

Shear forces lkN)

The shear forces RA, RBI' RB2 and Rc can be found


from the following figures:-

Arrangement 1 143.2 219.3 219.3 143.2

Arrangement 2 156.1 206.3 99.1 43.2

%
Reference Calculations Output
Span moments
~x /w
0

Note 8
Free bending moment is given
by -(w.l.x)/2 + {w.x2)12 f ~
,M1
Fixed end moment variation is
given by M 1 + (M2-Ml)xll 1 <S
Hence, the points of contraflexure an4the points and
values of max. span moments can be obtained.

Span AB Span Be
Arran~t 1
Points of
contraflexure O.21m, 4.52m 7.48m, 11.79m Span moments:-
(from A)
Max. sagging 141 kNm at 141 kNm at Arrangement 1
moment 2.37 m 9.63 m 141 kNm
(both spans)
Arran&eJDent 2
Points ~f Arrangement 2
contraflexure O.25m, 4.92m 8.45m, 11.90m 165 kNm and
(from A) 35 kNm
Max. sagging 165 kNm at 35 kNm at
Note 9 moment 2.58 m 10.18 m

257.3

165 141
Bending Moment Diagram (kNm)

219.3

Note 10 Shear Force Diagram (kN)

97
Notes on Calculations

s. The distribution' factorS have accOunted for the column stiffness, but the column
moments have been left out of the .calculations for conven~ce, as we are interested
only in'the beam. mOments. Since the. remOte ejlds of the columns are assumed to be
fixed, there will be no Carty over riidmentsfrom them to the beam-eQlumn joints. The
sign convention adopted is that clockwise moments are positive and anticlockwise
moments negative.

6. In this symmetrical loading arrangement, the calculation is complete with just one
joint release.

7. The difference between the moments MBA and M BC arises out of the fact that the
.
columns take part of the moment arising out
.
of asymmetrical loading.

8. The sign convention adopted in this part of the solution is that sagging moments are
negative and ho"ing moments posi~ve.

9. 'This two-~ frame is typical of most situations, where the maximum support
moments are' obtairied when all spans are loaded with the maximum design ultimate
loads (1.4 gk + 1.6 qk) and the maximum span moments are obtained when that span
is loaded with the maximum design ultimate load (1.4 gk + 1.6Q]J while the adjacent
spans are loaded with the minimum design ultimate load (1.0~).

The diagrams. for Load Arrangement 3 have not been shown, for the sake of clarity,
since they will be mirror images of those for Load Arrangement 2 about B.

Concluding Notes

II. The beam moments could have. been obtained using a continuous beam analysis,
instead of a subframe analysis (Clause 3.2.1.2.4) as pointed out in Note 4. However,
column moments will then have to be estimated as indicated in Clause 3.2.1.2.5.

12. If there are 3 or more approximately equal bays in the frame and the characteristic
imposed load does not exceed the characteristic dead load, the beam moments and
shear forces can be obtained from Table 3.6 for a continuous beam analysis (see
Cla~ 3.4.3).

98
EXAMPLE 31 - FRAME ANALYSIS FOR HORIZONTAL WADS

If the office building described in Bxample 30 was unbraced and located in a semi-urban area
where the basic wind speed is 40 mis, determine the moments and shear forces induced in
. a typical internal frame due to the wind load.

Introductory Notes

1. The wind forces have to be determined using''cP 3: Ch. V: Part 2 (1972): Basic data
for the design of buildings: Loading: Wind loads:'

2. In carrying out the analysis, the entire structure is analysed, assuming that only the
wind load acts on it and that points of contraflexure are developed at the centres of
all beams and columns (Clause 3.2. 1.3.2). A further assumption is made regarding
the distribution either of shear forces or of axial loads in columns (see Note 4 below).
Thus the analysis for the lateral loads is performed on a statically determinate
structure, as opposed to an indeterminate one as in the case of vertical load analysis.

Reference Calculations Output


Wind force

Basic wind speed, Vb = 40 mls


CP3:Ch.V: Sl = 1.0; SJ = 1.0
Part 2 S2 (for ground roughness 3, building class B and
Note 3 H = 12.25) is 0.7805
Vs = (1)(0.7805)(1)(40) = 31.22 mls
Wind pressure, q = (0.613)(31.22)2 = 597.5 N/m2

Table 10 I1w = (40)/(12) = 3.33


of bid = (40)/(12) = 3.33
CP3:Ch.V: h/b = (12.25)/(12) = 1.02
Part 2 Hence, Cf = 1.23
Force on one frame = q.Cf.A e
= (597.5)(1.23){(12.25)(5.0)) = 45014 N Wind force on a
= 45 kN frame = 45 kN

Analysis

The following assumptions are made:-


1. The wind force is applied at floor and roof levels,
the force at each level being proportional to the
areas shared by them.

99
Reference Calculations Output
2. Points of contraflexure are assumed at the centres
of beams and columns.
Note 4 3. The vertical column stresses are proportional to
their distances from the centroid of the columns.

The forces at roof, 2nd floor and 1st floor levels are
(2/12.25)(45) = 7.35 leN (roof)
{(2+2)/12.25}(45) = 14.7 leN (2nd flopr) and
{(2+2.S0)/12.25}(45) = '16.5 ,1eN(lst floor)
k 6.llil M< 6.llil ~

Note 5
. r .
7.35-+I lJ
~:~
e
1.84 +- 3.67
Roof

t
1.225 if225
225 1.225
'1-
1.84 3.67 ... i)
.J..
1.84-.. c 'l
2.llil
14. 7~ t--"'-4~---+--.....----1 ?~
2nd Fl r
. 2.llil
c!>~ 11.03 ~ 5.51
l' t
o 6.125

6.125

Note 6
11.03~)
5.51 ~tl2.Qn
16.5:+ ...---..---+----+---t Is t Fl r
2.fIn
~<4:- 9.64' ~ ~ 19.28 ,. '9.64
~
17.83
't t
17.83
,
Note 7
Moments and shear forces in ABC
The moments in ABC can be found as those required
to balance the ~lumn moments.

"'35'1'.~~
A
.. 35.f . . . .
. '.B. "J
.. C Moment at A, B
and C is ,~5..1
.
. .' .. 35.'f 35.1 kNm

100
Reference Calculations Output
The shear forces in the spans are obtained by Shear force in
dividing the moment by half the span length. AB and BC is
Hence, shear force = (35.1)/(3.0) = 11.7 leN 11.7kN

Notes on Calculations

3. The S2 factor can be calculated separately fordifferent parts of the stucture or for the
entire structure, using the total height of the structure. Since this is only a 3 storey
structure, it is simple and conservative to work with a single S2 value..

4. If the column sizes are uniform, the vertical forces will be proportional to the
distances of the columns from the centroid of the column group. An alternative
assumption to this is to consider that the horizontal shear forces in the columns are
proportional to the bay sizes.

5. The analysis is essentially a subframe analysis, but the entire frame has to analysed
step wise, from the top to bottom. At each step, the vertical column reactions are
obtained first, taking moments for the equilibrium of the entire sub structure, together
with the third assumption referred to in Note 4 above. The horizontal shear forces in
the columns can be found by taking moments about the points of contraflexure in the
beams, for the equilibrium of different parts of the sub-structure. The results obtained
from each sub-structure have to be used for analysing the next lower sub structure.

6. If the column bases are not designed to resist moments, the point of contraflexure on
lowest column should be moved down to the level of the base (as opposed to being
at column mid height).

7. In order to meet stability requirements, the lateral load at each level should be at least
1.5 % of the characteristic dead load at each level (Clause 3.1.4.2). Since the total
dead load ona beam (Example 30) is (23.7)(12) = 284.4 kN and 1.5% of this is 4.3
leN 7.35 kN), the above condition is met.

Concluding Notes

8. For unbraced frames having three or more approximately equal bays, the combined
effect of wind and vertical loads can be obtained by superposing the results .of an
analysis such as the one above with those of a subframe analysis such as the one in
Example 30, after factoring the loads appropriately (Clause 3.2.1.3.2).

9. For very slender structures, the overall stability of the structure against overturning
due to lateral wind loads should also be checked. The appropriate load combination
would be 1.4 W k (causing the overturning moment) and 1.0 G k (providing the
restoring moment).

101
EXAMPLE 32 - REDISTRIBUTION OF MOMENTS

Determine the design ultimate moments for the beam ABC in Example 30, after carrying out
moment redistribution.

Introductory Notes

1. Although the design of reinforced concrete sections is carried out using the plastic
capacity of the section, the analysis of structures is still performed using elastic
methoos. The advantage to the designer arising out of the above plasticity is
incorporated in the analysis by moment redistribution.

2. Moment redistribution has to be performed separately for each load arrangement. In


addition, the redistributed envelope is not allowed to fall below the 70% elastic
moments envelope, to ensure that wide cracks at the serviceability state will not
develop (see Clause 3.2.2.1).

Reference Calculations Output


Support moments

Example 30 The numerically largest elastic moment is 257.3


kNm at support B (Arrangement 1). This can be support moment
3.2.2.1 reduced to (0.7)(257.3) = 180.1 kNm for all load at B = 180.1
Note 3 cases, leaving the support moments at A and C (and kNm
Note 4 also the column moments) unchanged. "

Hence, the support moments will be given by

AB BA BC CB

Arrangement I -29.0 +180.1 -180.1 +29.2

Note 5 Arrangement 2 -36.5 +180.1 -180.1 + 3.8

NQt.e:- The shear forces can be found by analysing


the sections AB and CB, as in Example 30.

Example 30 Span moments

These can be found by superimposing the free


bending moment diagrams on the above fixed end
moment variation.

102
Reference Calculations Output

Arraneement 1
Points of
contraflexure 0.19m, 4.97m 7.03m, 11.81m
(from A)
span moments:-
Max. sagging 173 kNm at 173 kNm at
moment 2.58 m 9.42 m Arrangement 1
173 kNm (both
Arraneement 2 spans)
Points of
contraflexure 0.24m,4.97m 8.57m, 11.91m Arrange':Dent 2
(from A) 168 kNm
(span AB)
Max. sagging 168 kNm at 33 kNm at 33 kNm
moment 2.60 m 10.24 m (span BC)

Notes on Calculations

3. The support moments are reduced as much as possible so that congestion of


reinforcement at beam-column junctions can be minimized. The maxi.mumamount of
redistribution allowed is 30 % - a figure which can ~ accomodated by rotation at a
section after plastic hinge formation by the appropriate restriction of the x/d ratio (see
Clause 3.2.2.1).

4. In general, the x/d ratios in columns are larger than those required to permit plastic
hinge formation. Hence, column elastic moments should never ~ redistributed.

5. The support moments in Arrangement 2 are made equal to 180.1 kNm - the value
obtained after 30% redistribution in Arrangement 1. This requires a much lower
percentage of downward redistribution for the elastic momentBA and an upward
redistribution for the elastic moment BC. Such upward redistribution may help to.
reduce span moments.

Concluding Notes

6. Compared with the elastic design moments in Example 30, the redistributed design
moments are such that the support moment at B is considerably lower, while the span
moments are only slightly higher; hence the advantage in <:arrying out moment
redistribution - the total moment field is considerably reduced.

7. The points of contraflexure are generally closer to the supports for the redistributed
bending moment diagrams than for the elastic bending moment diagrams. In order to
prevent serviceability state cracking on the top surface, the restriction on the
redistributed moment envelope specified in Note 2 above has to be applied.

103
EXAMPLE 33 - DESIGN FOR STABILITY

The figure shows the plan 'of a 6 storey framed structure, where the floor to ceiling height
of each storey is 3.5 m. The average dead and imposed loads per unit area of floor can be
taken as 5 kN/m 2 each. Design the stability ties for this structure with steel of fy = 460
N/mm 2 ..

ChlumS"( ,

Beans
~-
~

)
4 x 5.(0} = 2(0}

I. In order to ensure the robustness of a structure, it should normally be connected


together by a system of continuous ties. This example demonstrates the design of
these ties.

2. In addition, .the structure should be capable of withstanding a notional horizontal


load, which is proportional to its characteristic dead load (see Example 31, Note 7).

3. In calculating the amount of reinforcement required, the steel can be assumed to act
at its characteris~c value -Le. 'Ym = 1.0. Furthermore, reinforcement designed for
other p~ can be used as ties (Clause 3.12.3.2).

Reference Calculations Output


3.12.3.7 V ertical ties

TheSe are required, since no. of storeys > 5.


Area corresponding to ~ typical column =
'. . 1 ' (1(2)(6.0)(5.0) = 15.0 m2
MaX. design ultiIpate load =
(15.0){(1.4)(5.0) + (1.6)(5.0)} = 225 leN
Area of ties required = (225 xl<Y)/(460)
= 489 mm 2 vertical ties
This can easily be met by continuous column rif. A, = 489 mm 2

104
Reference Calculations Output
3.12.3.5 Peripheral ties

3.12.3.4.2 F t = 20 + (4)(6) = 44 leN 60 leN) F t = 44 leN


Area of ties required = (44 xloJ) I (460) = 96 mm2 peripheral tie
This can be easily met by peripheral beam r/f that is A = 96 mm 2
continuous.

3.12.3.4 Internal ties - looeitudinal direction


.
lr = 5.0 m
Force I unit width = {(5+5)/(7.5)}(515)(44)
= 59 kN/m {> (1.0)(44) = 44 leN/m}
Total force = (59)(6.0) = 354 leN
Area of ties required = (354 x1oJ) I (460) longitudinal
= 770 mm 2 internal tie
If carried in the two peripheral beams, area required A = 770 mm 2
per beam = (770)/2 = 335 mm 2

Note:- spacing of ties = 6.0 m < (1.5)(5.0) = 7.5 m

3.12.3.4 Internal ties - transverse direction

lr = 6.0 m
Force I unit width = {(5+5)/(7.5)}(615)(44)
= 70.4 kN/m { > (1.0)(44) = 44 leN/m}
Total force = (70.4)(20) = 1408 kN
Area of ties required = (1408 xl<P) 1 (460) transverse
. = 3061 mm 2 internal tie
If distributed in the 5 transverse beams, area A == 3061 mm 2
required per beam = (3061)/5 = 612 mm2

Note:- spacing of ties = 5.0 m < (1.5)(6.0)= 9.0 m

Note 4 Peripheral beams peripheral


beams (tie rlf)
Total tie area per beam in longitudinal direction = longitudinal -
96 + 335 = 431 mm 2 431 mm2
Total tie area per beam in transverse direction = transverse -
96 + 612 = 708 mm 2 708 mm 2

105
Reference Calculations Output
3.. 12.3.6 Coltamn ties

Note 5 Force = greater of (31100)(225)(6) = 40.5 kN


and lesser of (2.0)(44) = 88 kN and
and {(3.5)/(2.5)}(44) = 61.6 kN
= 61.6 kN column ties
Area of tie required = (61.6 x HP)/(460) = 134 mm2 A5 = 134 mm 2
Since thi~ is less than the ties in the beams, part of
the latter can be taken into the columns.

Notes on Calculations

4. Although the beam reinforcement may be greater than these tie areas required, it must
be ensured that continuity of tie reinforcement is provided - this has to be borne in
mind when curtailing beam reinforcement.

5. The,3% load is taken for 6 storeys,since there will be five floor slabs and the roof
above the level of the frrst floor column tie; using the floor loading for the roof as
~ll is a conservativeapproxjmation.

Conduding Notes

6. If a structure has key elements (Le. those that carry, say, over 70 m2 or over 15%
of floor area at a given level), they have to be designed to withstand a specified load
(Clause 2.6.2, Part 2). Furthermore, if it is not possible to tie the structure (e.g. in
load bearing masonry construction), bridging elements have to be designed, assuming
that each,vertica110adbearing element is lost in tum (Clause 2.6.3, Part 2).

'}. The overall layout of the structure should also be designed to provide robustness and
key elements should preferably be avoided.

106
EXAMPLE 34 - CRACK wmm CALCULAnON
The figure shows a cross section of a simply supported beam of 7 mspan, and supporting
dead and imposed loads of 20 kN/m each. Determine the crack widths (i) midway between
the bars, (ii) at the bottom comer and (iii) 2S0 mm below the neutral axis.

( 450 >-
f cu = 25 N/mm2

750

,
3T25
000
1
690 f y ;"'460 N/mm 2

Es = 200 kN/mm 2

(All dimensions in mm)

Introductory Notes

1. This crack width calculation can be performed when the bar spacing rules are not
satisfied, to see whether this more accurate method will satisfy the crack width
requirements in Clause 3.2.4 of Part 2. It can also be used to estimate the actual
crack width in a flexural element.

Reference Calculations Output


Sectional data I

Note 2 Ms = (20+20)(7) 2 18 = 24S kNm M s = 245 kNm

equation 17 E c = 20 + (0.2)(25) = 25 kN/mm 2


3.8.3 Eeff = (0.5)Ee = 12.5 kN/mm 2
(Part 2) CX e = E/Eeff =' (200 xloJ) 1 (12.5 xHf) = 16
Note 3 P = (3)(491) 1 (690)(450) = 0.00474
x/d = -cxe.p + {cxe.p (2 + cxe.p)}o.S
Note 4 = -(16)(0.00474)
+ [(16)(0.00474){2+(16)(0.00474)}]O.S = 0.321
x = 221 mm x = 221 mm
Note 5 ~/bd3 = (1/3)(x1d)3 + a.,..p {I - (x/d)}2
= (1/3)(0.321)3 + (16)(0.00474)(1-Q.321Y
= 0.046 Ie = 6.80 xl09
Ie = 6.80 x10 9 mm4 mm~

107
Reference Calculations Output
Calculation of strains

Strain in steel = (245 x1(6)(690-221) I


. (12.5 xl<Y)(6.8 x109) = 1.35 dO3
3.8.3 < (0.8)(460) / (200 xl<Y) = 1.84 dO3
(Part 2)
At extreme tension fibre (bottom of section),
Note 6 El = (1.35 xlO3 )(750-221)/(690-221) = 1.523 xl03
equation 13 tension stifferung = bt(h-x)(a'-x) I (3)Es .A.(d-x)
(part 2) = (450)(750-221)2 I (3)(200 xI<Y)(3)(491)(690-221)
= 0.304 xlO3
equation 13 3
Em = (1.523 - 0.304) xHr = 1.219 xlO
3

(part 2)
At 250 mm below neutral axis,
EI.= (1.35 xlO'3)(250)/(690-221) = 0.72 xlO3
tension stiffening = (450)(750-221)(250) I
(3)(200 xl<Y)(3)(491)(690-221) = 0.144 xlO3
Em = (0.72 - 0.144) xlO = 0.576 dO
3 3

Distances to potential crack points


~

cmin = 750-690-(2512)
= 47.5 mm
<lerl = {(60)2+ (82.5)2}O.s
- 12.5 = 89.5 mm
3er2 = {(60)2 + (60)2)}o.s
- 12.5 = 72.4 mm
3er3 = {(60)2 + (69O-221.250)2}O.S
-12.5 = 214.5 mm

Crack widths

equation 12 CW t = (3)(89.5)(1.219 dO3) /


(part 2) [I + {(2)(89.547.5)/(750-221)}] CW t = 0.282
3.2.4 = 0.282 mm < 0.3 mm; satisfactory. mm
(part 2) CW2 = (3)(72.4)(1.219 dO3) /
[1 +
{(2)(72.4-47.5)/(750-221)}] CW2 = 0.242,
= 0.242 mm< 0.3 mm; satisfactory. mm
CW3 = (3)(214.5)(0.576 xlO3) /
[1 + {(2)(214.5-47.5)/(750-221)}] CW3 = 0.227
= 0.227 mm < 0.3 mm; satisfactory. mm

108
Reference Calculations Output
...
Comparison with bar macine rulCfS
3.12.11.2.3 Spacing between bars = {45G-(2)(47.5)-(3)(25)} 12 max. spacing
Table 3.30 = 140 mm < 160 mm; satisfactOry. O.K.
3.12.11.2.5 Comer distance = {(60)2 + (60)2}O.s - 12.5 comer distance
Table 3.30 = 72.4 mm < (16012) mm; satisfactOry. O.K.

Notes on Calculations

2. The partial safety factors for loads in serviceability calculations is unity.

3. The modulus of elasticity of concrete is halved, to account .for creep. This is a


simpler approach compared to the one for deflection calculationsc(see Example 35).

4. The serviceability calculations are based on a triangular stress block for concrete in
the elastic state. There is no restriction on the x1d ratio, as in ultimate limit state
calculations.

5. The effective second moment of area is found by considering only the area of
concrete that is not cracked; the area of steel is converted to an equivalent area of
concrete using the effective modular ratio, Qe'

6. The strain at the required level in the concrete is found by calculating the strain from
elastic theory (Et), and reducing from this valuean allowance for tension stiffening
in the concrete; this is because in calculating Ie and El we assume that the concrete
has no tensile strength, whereas in fact it does.

Concluding Notes

7. All the calculated crack widths are below 0.3 mm and hence satisfactory (Clause
3.2.4, Part 2). This could have been expected, because the maximum 'spacing and
comer distance rules are satisfied as well. It is these empirical rules that are used in
everyday design, because of their convenience.

8. For beams of overall depth exceeding 750 mm, side reinforcement in the form of
small diameter bars at spacings not exceeding 250 mtn over two thirds of the beam
depth from the tension face must also be provided;~as per Clause 3.12.11.2.6.

109
EXAMPLE 35 DEFLECTION CALCULATION

~e figure shows a cross section of a simply supported beam of 7 m span. H the dead and
imposed loads are both taken as 5 kN/mleach, and if25 % of the imposed load is taken as
permanent, calculate the total long term deflection of the beam at midspan. The age of
loading can be taken as 28 days.

(225 )-

fcu = 25 N/mm2

I
375 2T25 125
fy = 460 N/mm2
o 0
Bs = 200 kN/mm2
(All dimensions in mm)

Introductory Notes

1. This deflection calculation can be performed when the span/depth ratio check fails,
to see whether this more accurate method will satisfy the deflection requirements in
Clause 3.2.1.1 of Part 2. It can also be used to estimate the actual deflection of a
flexural element.

2. Where domestic and office space is concerned, 25 % of the imposed load can be
considered permanent; where storage areas are concerned the above figure should be
increased to 75 %.

3. The age of loading is when the fonnwork is removed, at which point much of the
dead load and some imposed construction loads will be acting on the concrete
elements.

Reference CaIculatio. Output


Initial aSsessment of span/dq>th ratio

Mult = (5)(1.4 + 1.6)(7)2/8 = 92 kNm


Chart 2 M1bd2 = (92 xl<r) I (225)(325)2 = 3.87
(Part 3) l00A/bd = 1. 2~; Aa = 936 mm 2
equation 8 fa = (0.58)(460)(936/982) = 275 N/mm2
equation 7 F I = 0.55 + {(477-275) / 120(0.9+3.87)} = 0.9
Table 3.10 Allowable span/depth = (20)(0.9) = 18
Actual span/depth = 7000 / 325 = 21.5 > 18; span/depth
Hence, span/depth check is violated. check violated

110
Reference Calculations Output
Data for serviceability calcuIiJions
equation 17
(Part 2) Ee = 20 + (0.2)(25) = 25 kN/~B.\2 1\:=25 kN/mm2
7.3 Eff. section thickness =(2)(375)(225) I (2)(375 + 225)
(Part 2) = 141 mm
RH = 85 % (assumed for Sri Lanka)
Figure 7.1 Long term creep coefficient, 4> = 1.8
(part 2) Eeff = 25 I (1 + 1.8) = 8.93 kN/mm2
Figure 7.2 fes = 120 x10-6
(part 2) P = 982 I (225)(325) = 0.0134
a e = Es I Eeff = 200 I 8.93 = 22.4 ae = 22.4
x/d = - ae.p + {ae.p(2 + a e.p)}O.5
= - (22.4)(0.0134) +
[(22.4)(0.0134){2 + (22.4)(0.0134)}f.5
Note 4 = 0.53 xld = 0.53
Hence, x = (0.53)(325) = 172 mm x = 172 mm

Ie/bd 3 = (1I3)(x/d)3 + a e.p{l - (x/d)}2


= (113)(0.53)3 + (22.4)(0.0134)(1 - 0.53)2
= 0.116
Ie = (0.116)(225)(325Y = 896 xH? mm4 Ie = 896 x1()6
3.6 Ss = As(d-x) mm4
(Part 2) = (982)(325-172) = 150.2 x103 mm3

Determination of serviceability moments

M tot = (5+5)(7)2 18 = 61.25 kNm


~rm = {5 + (0.25)(5)}(7)2 I 8 = 38.28 kNm
Note 5 ~rm(red) = M - {(1I3)b(h-x)3.fet I (d-x))
= (3rrm
.28 x1oti) -
{(113)(225)(375-172)3(0.55) I (325-172)}
= 36 x106 Nmm

Calculation of curvatures

lIrlp = M I Eeff.Ie
= (36 x1(j6) I (8.93 x103)(896 xl~)"
= 4.5 xlO-6 mm- l
equation 9 1Ires = fesaeS s I Ie
(part 2) = (120 xlO-6)(22.4)(150.2 xloJ) I (896 x106)
= 0.45 xlO-6 mm- l

111
0ulJwt
To find instantaneous
Be =25 kN/mm 2 . . .
7'
.. . ,
a = 200 I 25 =8 .... . .'
Jd = 0.368 '.."
Ie = 459 xl()6
Note 6 lIrit -llri = (Mtot - M.rm> I Ecle
~ (61.25-38.2$)X1()6 I (2~ xl(3)(459 xl~
= 2.01 xl<r' nun-I
lIr = lIrlp + IIres + (llrit .;. 11rin>
'1= (4.5 + 0.45 + 2.01) x10~ mm- I
= 6.96 xlO~ mm-I lIr= 6.96 xlO~
mm- I

Estimation of det'ls;gion

Table 3.1 K =0.104


(Part 2) a =
K.l~lIr)
= (0.104)(7~6.96xIO~ == 35.5 mm a = 35.5 mm
3.2.1.1
(Part 2) ~ all = 35.5 I 7000 = 11197 all > 11250
Note 7 .. . > 11250

Notes on Calculations

4. The serviceability calculations are ~on a triangular stress block for concrete in
the elastic state. There \s n., resttietionon. the x1d ratio, as in ultimate limit state
calculations.

5. The Mpermvalue is ~ced because of the tension stiffening contributed by the


concrete, which is asSUfed to have no ~strength in the ~Jlation of Ie. The
longtermtensiIestrencth ofeoncrete is taken as 0.55 N/m,m2 andthe short term
strength as 1 N/mm 2 . ,

6. The tension stiffening .ffects in Moot and ~rm cancel out here.
7. The final long term d~tlection is greater than spanl250. Hence, it may be visually
unacceptable. "

Concluding Note

8. This caltulation ~ is tedious, aDd is geuerally adopted only to explore the .


possibi1i9' of using a:j,~ orJ~.~evenafter the spanldepthcheck fails.
.,: ',~,~" -<~,'~'~'~~"" ' __,- '1l:~~."."

'$,<.; -';,'.
~,,:,.(-

;~'\',

" i . . ~