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DUBAI TOWERS AT THE LAGOON

Architect : TVS, Engineer : CDCi


SITE PLAN

Tower29
Tower29 TOWER-01
HEIGHT

360 m
BUILT-UP AREA

120,000 sq. m

TOWER-20 410 m 140,000 sq. m

TOWER-21 460 m 160,000 sq. m

TOWER-29 550 m 210,000 sq. m


PLAN LAYOUT
ATRIUMS
FAADE DETAIL
TOWER SPIRE
GROUND LEVEL VIEW

Height Built-up Area

Tower-01 550 m 120,000 sq. m

Tower 20 140,000 sq. m

Tower 21 160,000 sq. m

Tower 29 360 m 210,000 sq. m


SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Scale, Height

Iconic Form: Twisting and Plan Morphing

Location: DUBAI

Grouping

Constructability

STRUCTURE OBJECTIVE

Preserve the Architectural Vision

Maintain the Structural Integrity


PRELIMINARY STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Dynamic Impact of Wind: Wind-Tunnel, Simulation, etc.


Human response/ comfort
Load Path: impact of geometry
Progressive Collapse analysis (redundancy)
Differential shortening: Composite Materials, Temperature, etc.
Construction Sequencing
Connectivity with Exterior

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE SYSTEM

Exterior Twisted Braced Tube

Core RC Shear Wall

Out- riggers/ Belt Trusses

Typical Composite Floor


LOAD PATH : IMPACT OF GEOMETRY

Progressive Collapse analysis (redundancy):

Interaction between vertical and horizontal loadings

Appreciable movement both horizontally and downwards

Strategy to ensure stability and stiffness


WIND FLOW AROUND A TALL BUILDING
OVERALL LOADING & DYNAMIC RESPONSE

Cross-wind vibrations are usually greater than along-wind


vibrations for buildings of heights greater than 100m (330 feet)

cross wind

along wind

CROSS WIND CONCERNS

- Accelerations beyond acceptable human tolerance


- Excessive Bending moments and shear forces
TORSIONAL LOADING AND RESPONSE

Two mechanisms :

Applied moments from aerodynamic forces produced by non-uniform


pressure distributions or non-symmetric cross-sections

Structural eccentricity between elastic center and geometric center


INTERFERENCE EFFECTS

Surrounding buildings can produce increases or decreases in peak wind loads :

Building A
Y
increases 4b
increases
Wind direction
V (X,Y) 3b
+30%
0% +10% 2b
+20% +10% -20% +20%
0% b
-10%
X
b
10b 8b 6b 4b 2b -2b

Building B

decreases

Shows percentage change in peak cross-wind response of building B, due to a


similar building A at position (X,Y)
AUXILIARY DAMPING

Visco-elastic Damper

used on World Trade Center buildings, New York

F/2 F/2

Steel flange

V.E. material

Centreplate

F
AUXILIARY DAMPING

Tuned-mass Damper
used on City Corp Building, New York (M2=400 ton of concrete)

y 1 (t) y 2 (t)

K1

K2

C1
M1 C2
M2
AUXILIARY DAMPING

Tuned-liquid (sloshing) Damper

used on Shin-Yokohama hotel, Japan

2R
SHAPING BUILDINGS TO REDUCE AERODYNAMIC EXCITATION & RESPONSE

Determination of cross-wind response

Controlling the cross-wind force spectrum

PARAMETRIC STUDY

Tapering

Softening the edge in plan

Porosity

Twisting

Plan Morphing
FORM GENERATION PROCESS

1. Morph 2. Taper 3. Twist


MODEL MAKING
PHYSICAL MODELS

a. Structural Sketch b. Structural Model c. Architectural Model


CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE
TWISTDOUBLE SPIRAL BRACETAPEREDECCENTRIC TWIST-REVERSING

Displacements Displacements : DL+LL Displacements : WLX WholeDisplacements : Whole


Brace diagram Displacements :: DL+LL
DL+LL Displacements : DL+LL Displacements : WLX

Fx : DL+LL Fx : 1 DL+LL Fx : WLX


Fx : WLX Fx : Whole
Whole Structure Fx : DL+LL Fx : DL+LL
AXIAL FORCES IN STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

Due To Gravity Load Due to Wind Load


STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR UNDER GRAVITY LOADS

Axial Forces Bending Moments


ELEMENTS OF THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
OUTRIGGERS FLOORS 38-42
PRELIMINARY SECTION PROPERTIES
SHEAR WALL THICKNESS AND CONFIGURATION
BUILDING SECTION AND STRUCTURAL MODEL FOR PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS
INTERIOR COLUMNS
SUMMARY OF TYPICAL STATIC LOADS
STATIC WIND LOADING DIAGRAM
PRELIMINARY DRIFT RATIO ANALYSIS

Shear Wall Alone Exterior Frame Only


PRELIMINARY DRIFT RATIO ANALYSIS

Shear Wall + Exterior Frame Shear Wall + Exterior Frame + Outriggers


TIP DEFLECTION AND DRIFT RATIO

Def = 0.60 Def = 0.56


Drift ratio = 733 @ Level 100 Drift ratio = 786 @ Level 100

Wind X Wind Y
EFFECTS OF TWIST ON SLAB DUE TO SHEAR STRESSES

Plan 3D View
EFFECTS OF TWIST ON SLAB DUE TO SHEAR STRESSES

Shear Forces at Slabs


AXIAL FORCES DUE TO DEAD LOADS

Shear Wall Exterior Frame

compression tension
SUPPORT REACTIONS AT GROUND LEVEL
AXIAL FORCES DUE TO WIND X

Shear Wall Exterior Frame

compression tension
AXIAL FORCES DUE TO WIND Y

Shear Wall Exterior Frame

compression tension
AXIAL FORCES @ BASE DUE TO DEAD LOAD (KN/mm)
AXIAL FORCES @ BASE DUE TO DEAD LOAD + LIVE LOAD (KN/mm)
AXIAL FORCES @ BASE DUE TO DEAD LOAD + WIND LOAD (KN/mm)
AXIAL FORCES DUE TO STRUCTURAL OWN WEIGHT (KN/mm)

Shear Wall Exterior Frame


AXIAL FORCES DUE TO TOTAL DEAD LOAD (KN/mm)

Shear Wall Exterior Frame


AXIAL FORCES DUE TO TOTAL DEAD + LIVE LOAD (KN/mm)

Shear Wall Exterior Frame


AXIAL FORCES @ BASE OF EXTERIOR FRAME

Due To Dead Load Due to Wind Load


BENDING MOMENTS @ BASE OF EXTERIOR FRAME

Due To Dead Load Due to Wind Load


SUPPORT REACTIONS
SUPPORT REACTIONS
SUPPORT REACTIONS
HORIZONTAL REACTION COMPONENTS @ BASE
CONCEPTUAL LOAD TRANSFER FROM TOWER TO GROUND

1.2-1.6m

bedrock

bedrock