You are on page 1of 5

Performance Appraisal: Professor Evaluation

Broken Elbowz

Instruction Guide for Teaching

Rating errors and Biases that impact evaluations emerge mostly because of the limits of
cognitive processing. The rater may unknowingly commit errors in judgment. These errors stem
from rater bias and misperception. Serial position errors occur as a function of the sequence in
which info is received. This rating error is such that the rater has better recall of information that
is presented in the beginning or end of a sequence. They will be able to recall info early on in
ones relationship so first impression or information from events that just recently occurred. For
example, if the evaluation is only done every six months, the most recent behavior may be given
more weight than behavior exhibited at other times. However, appraisal is designed to limit this
error by having the evaluations done X amount of times a year, month, or other time period.
Halo errors are a type of rating error in which the rater assesses the ratee as performing well on
a variety of performance dimensions despite having credible knowledge of only a limited
number of performance dimensions. These occur generally when a student has a favorable
attitude toward the professor and it permeates all evaluation about the professor, same for if
they have an unfavorable view of the professor. Research has revealed that the halo error is not
a stable characteristic of the rater or the ratee but rather the result of an interaction of the rater,
ratee, and evaluation situation. This is not so much a rating error as it is an indicator of how we
cognitively process information in arriving at judgements of other people. So this may show that
the rating is not necessarily inaccurate but that it shows bias. Appraisal is designed to limit this
error by making the statements as objective as possible. Another type of error is a leniency
error. Leniency errors are a type of rating error in which the rater assesses a disproportionately
large number of ratees as performing well (positive leniency) or poorly (negative leniency) in
contrast to their true level of performance. These usually occur because the raters apply
personal standards derived from their own values or previous experience. Central tendency
errors are a rating error in which the rater assesses a disproportionately large number of ratees
as performing in the middle or central part of a distribution of rated performance in contrast to
their true level of performance. This error refers to the raters unwillingness to assign extreme
high or low ratings. Appraisal is designed to limit this by making the appraisals anonymous and
limiting the reasons as to why students would be hesitant to being honest and truthful in their
ratings.
Contrast errors result from a faulty comparison of two or more individuals. Below are several
examples of possible errors:

Process Recommendations

Performance management is the process of how an organization manages and aligns all
of its resources to achieve high performance. It is a continuous process of identifying,
measuring, and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning performance
with the strategic goals of the organization. Process management is where goals are set and
performance expectations are communicated to professors. It is identified what it is that the
professors should achieve. Their performance is then evaluated and then communicated to with
these performance strengths and weaknesses. The performance is then reviewed and the
professors are provided with the feedback from the surveys where they are then coached on
ways to improve. Performance consequences are also explained and are sufficient and valued.
Procedural recommendations are standardized for all professors in the school and/or
department. They are formally communicated to all professors and are provided notice of
performance deficiencies and opportunities to correct them. The professors are given access to
review results and are given the opportunity to formal appeal mechanisms. There is consistent
documentation across students and the system is used to detect potential discriminatory effect.
The job will be evaluated 2 times a year at the end of each semester. The rater will not collect
performance information throughout the appraisal period, just at the end of each semester.

Teaching Evaluation

Criteria that will be used on the performance appraisal for teacher evaluation are as
follows. The first will be effective communication which involves the professor getting back in a
timely manner (within 2 days) to students either through email, phone, or some other method.
The second is knowledge about the subject matter which will be shown if the professor can
answer most, if not all, questions that students may have about the material. Third, the
professors preparedness will be evaluated in how they come to the class- if they come with an
effective presentation and if they have read all of the necessary literature beforehand that is
being covered in the class. As well, another important criteria is if the professor provides
constructive feedback that helps students learn from their past mistakes but also what they can
improve on in the future. Having realistic expectations is another important criteria for a
professor to have and to show the students by realizing that the students have other classes
they are in as well- the professor creates demands that are able to be met through diligent work.
The sixth criteria is promoting class discussion which can be done and shown by the professor
creating an open type of classroom where students are free and encouraged to discuss the
subject matter with each other and the professor in a positive environment. The seventh
important criteria is accessibility of the professor- if they are available through email, telephone,
or other forms and if they have office hours. As well, if they are available before and after class
for quick questions from students. The eighth important criteria is if the professor is
approachable and positive where the professor creates an environment for the students where
they can ask questions about the material and the professor will respond in such a way that it
creates a positive experience. The last important criteria the professor will be tested on is their
respectfulness where they show that they are cognizant of the students time and work.

Explanation of Performance Appraisal

We used the Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS) due to the ease of use and lack of
prior training required in order to fill out the form. We utilized a balance of questions in order to
best measure the performance of the professor at hand. Attached is our example of a BOS we
would use. Behavior checklists and scales are better to use because behaviors are less vague
than traits and they are observable. All methods have their origin directly or indirectly in the
critical incidents method. Critical incidents are behavior that result in good or poor job
performance. Supervisors record behaviors of employees that greatly influence their job
performance- either keeping a tally of these as they occur on the job or recall at a later time.
Critical incidents are usually grouped by aspects of performance- job knowledge, decision
making ability, leadership, etc. The end product results in a list of good and bad behaviors that
constitute effective job management. Behaviorally anchored rating scales are a performance
appraisal rating scale in which the scale points are descriptions of behavior. They are a
combination of the critical incidents and rating scale method. These have five steps in their
development which are identification of important performance dimensions, generation of
behavioral examples at all levels of effectiveness, retranslation of critical incidents back into
dimensions, rating of each critical incident on effectiveness, and choosing items with behavioral
anchors. This is very elaborate and takes a lot of time and money to create. With the Behavior
Observation Scale, many aspects of these scales are included with no training necessary and
not requiring a lot of time to complete.

Please fill out the questionnaire below. Consider the professors behaviors and attributes
on a scale of 1-5.

Is the professor effective at communicating ideas, knowledge and concepts while


lecturing?
1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always

Does the professor present accurate and up-to-date information about the subject matter
of the class?
1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always

Does the professor show up to class on time and have materials prepared to present?
1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always

Does the professor provide timely and constructive (ways to improve on their work)
feedback for students?
1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always

Does the professor create realistic expectations for the students?


1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always

Does the professor create positive and cohesive class discussions?


1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always

Is the professor accessible (responsive to emails, office hours, talks to students


before/after class)?
1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always

Is the professor approachable and positive for ALL students?


1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always

Is the professor respectful of his/her students?


1. Never
2. Almost Never
3. Sometimes
4. Almost Always
5. Always