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GE 6674 Communication and Soft Skills - Laboratory Based Mechanical Engineering 2017-

2018

Vision of the Department:


To provide knowledge centered education and prepare students for meeting global mechanical engineering
challenges thereby enabling them to contribute for the prosperity of the society.
Mission of the Department:
To impart quality education in the field of mechanical engineering through teaching and learning
process.
To promote students awareness about the importance of professional ethical practices.
To enrich the knowledge in mechanical engineering through research and innovation.
To inculcate the spirit of entrepreneurship among students.

ANNEXURE I
(A) PROGRAM OUTCOMES(POs)
Engineering graduates will be able to:
1. Engineering Knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals,
and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems.
2. Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze complex engineering
problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and
engineering sciences.
3. Design/development of solutions: Design solution for complex engineering problems and design
systems components or process that meet the specified needs with appropriate consideration for the
public health and safety , and the cultural, societal, and environmental considerations.
4. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research- based knowledge and research methods
including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of the information to
provide valid conclusions.
5. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern
engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling to complex engineering activities with an
understanding of the limitations.
6. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal,
health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to the professional
engineering practice.
7. Environmental and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering solutions in
societal and environmental contexts and demonstrate the knowledge of, and need for sustainable
development.
8. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of the
engineering practice.
9. Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse
teams, and in multidisciplinary settings.
10. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering
community and with society at large, such as , being able to comprehend and write effective reports and
design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions.
11. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the engineering and
management principles and apply these to ones own work , as a member and leader in a team, to
manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments.
12. Life-Long learning: Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in
independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change.
(B) PROGRAM EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Sound Knowledge: Graduates of the program will have sound knowledge in scientific and engineering
fundamentals necessary to formulate, solve and analyze engineering problems.
2. Awareness: Graduates of the program will have awareness towards team work, social issues,
Professional ethics and practices.
3. Continuous Learning: Graduates of the program will pursue higher education and research in the field
of mechanical engineering and its allied Courses.
(C) PROGRAM SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (PSOs)
PSO 1:
To provide students with sound foundation in scientific and engineering areas necessary to achieve
excellence
in solving and analyzing engineering problems.
PSO 2 :
To implement new ideas on product design and development while ensuring best manufacturing practices.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 1


GE 6674 Communication and Soft Skills - Laboratory Based Mechanical Engineering 2017-
2018

GE 6674 COMMUNICATION AND SOFT SKILLS-LABORATORY BASED

COURSE OUTCOMES:
On completion of this course, the student will be able:
GE6674 COMMUNICATION AND SOFT SKILLS-LABORATORY BASED: C318
Practice their communicative skills and enable themto become proficient users of
C318.1
English
Fine-tune their linguistic skills (LSRW) with the help of technology tocommunicate
C318.2
globally
Enhance their performance at placement interviews and group discussions and other
C318.3
recruitment procedures.

MAPPING BETWEEN CO, PO AND PSO WITH CORRELATION LEVEL 1/2/3


CO/PO PO1 PO2 PO3 PO4 PO5 PO6 PO7 PO8 PO9 PO10 PO11 PO12 PSO1 PSO2
C318.1 - - - - - - - - 2 3 2 2 - -
C318.2 - - - - - - - - 3 3 2 2 - -
C318.3 - - - - - - - - 3 3 2 2 - -

RELATION BETWEEN COURSE CONTENT / EXPERIMENTS WITH COS


S.No Knowledge Level Topics Course
Outcomes

Cycle - 1

Presentation
1 U,AN,AP (i) Technical Topic (2 Nos) C318.1
(ii) General Topic (2 Nos)
Resume Writing (with Covering Letter)
2 U,AN,AP (i) Fresher C318.1
(ii) Experience.

Cycle - 2

i) Interview Skills and Mock Interview


ii) Group Discussion
3 U,AN,AP,E iii) Role Play C318.2
iv) Debate
iv) Panel Discussion
4 U,AN,AP,E Describing Charts and Tables C318.2

i) e-mail
5 U,AN,AP,E ii) SMS C318.3
iii) Blogs
iv) Tweets
Analysis and Report Writing
6 U,AN,AP,E C318.3
Writing for media on current events.

R-Remember, AP-Apply, An-Analyze, U-Understand, E-Evaluate, C-Create

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 2


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

INDEX

Name of the Student: Department:


Roll No.: Reg. No.:
Lab Incharge:

Ex. Date Name of the Experiment Page Date of Marks Staff Sign Date
No. No. Sub

1.

Syllabus
St. Josephs Institute of Technology 3
ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

ME 6412 THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY I


List of Experiments
I.C Engine Lab and Fuels Lab

1. Valve timing and port timing diagrams for IC Engines.


2. Actual P-V diagrams of IC engines.
3. Performance test on four stroke Diesel Engine.
4. Heat Balance test on four stroke Diesel Engine.
5. Morse Test on Multi cylinder petrol Engine.
6. Retardation test to find frictional power of a Diesel Engine.
7. Determination Flash point and Fire point.
Steam Lab

1. Study of steam Generators and Turbines.


2. Performance and Energy balance Test on a Steam Generator.
3. Performance and energy balance Test on Steam Turbine.

CONTENTS

S.No Name of the Experiment Page. No

1. Valve timing diagram for four stroke diesel engine 3

2. Port timing diagram for two stroke petrol engine. 7

3. Performance test on single cylinder Diesel engine with hydraulic loading 9

4. Performance test on single cylinder diesel engine. 13

5. Performance test on twin cylinder diesel engine. 17

6. Morse Test on Multi cylinder petrol engine. 21

7. Retardation test to find frictional power of a diesel engine. 25

8. Heat balance test on single cylinder diesel engine 29

9. Heat balance test on twin cylinder diesel engine 33

10. Determination Flash point and Fire point. 37

11. Study of steam Generators and Turbines. 38

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 4


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF A FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE


EX.NO: DATE:

AIM

To draw the valve timing diagram showing the relative crank angles corresponding to opening and
closing of inlet and exhaust valves of a given four stroke diesel engine.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

The given engine, Thread, scale, chalk etc.

DESCRIPTION

Valve timing is the regulations of the points in the cycle at which the valves are set to open
and close. Theoretically speaking for both valves, the opening and closing occur at the dead centre.
But since the valves require finite period of time in which open or close without abruptness, a slight
lead time is necessary for proper operation.
The design of valve operating cam provides for the smooth transition from one position to
other while the cam setting determines the timing of the valve. To take the advantage of the dynamic
effects of gas flow is necessary to provide valve overlap and the timing of the valves so that they are
opened and closed at positions other than TDC or BDC.

PROCEDURE

A cut model of four stroke diesel engine showing different parts of the engine viz. piston,
piston rings, inlet and exhaust valves, rocker arm, push rod, cams, gears, connecting rod and crank is
provided. A marking corresponding to TDC is provided on the flywheel. An indicator is provided so
that markings can be made against it on the flywheel.

The circumference of the flywheel is measured.


The flywheel is rotated in clockwise direction.
Markings corresponding to the opening and closing of inlet and exhaust valves are made on
the flywheel.
The distances between these markings and the nearest dead centers are measured.
These distances are converted into crank angles.
These angles are expressed with respect to nearest dead centers.

CALCULATIONS

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN

Circumference of the fly wheel = in cm

Distance w.r.t. Angle w.r.t.


nearest dead centre nearest dead centre
S. No EVENTS Positions
cm degrees
1.
Inlet Valve Open
2.
Inlet Valve Close
3.
Fuel Injection Open
4.
Fuel Injection Close
5.
Exhaust Valve Open
6.
Exhaust Valve Close

MODEL CALCULATION:

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 6


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. How will differentiate 2 stroke and 4 stroke engines.
2. What do you understand about valve overlapping?
3. What will be the influence of the injection timing in the performance of the engine?
4. What is clearance volume?
5. Define compression ratio.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 7


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN

Circumference of the fly wheel = in cm

Distance w.r.t nearest dead Angle w.r.t nearest dead


S.
Port Open/Close Position centre centre
No.
cm degrees
1.
Inlet port open
2.
Inlet port closes
3.
Transfer port open
4.
Transfer port close
5.
Spark ignition
6.
Exhaust port open
7.
Exhaust port Close

MODEL CALCULATION: READING NUMBER:

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 8


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

PORT TIMING DIAGRAM OF A TWO STROKE PETROL ENGINE


EX.NO: DATE:

AIM

To determine the period of port opening and closing and to draw the port timing diagram for the two
stroke petrol engine

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Given engine model, Measuring tape, marker etc.

PROCEDURE

Identify the inlet, exhaust and transfer ports


Ascertain the correct direction of rotation of the flywheel by observing correct sequence of
opening and closing of ports
Measure the circumference of fly wheel
Rotate the flywheel in correct direction and mark the position of IDC and ODC on the
flywheel against a reference point
Rotate the flywheel slowly and mark the position at which the inlet port just begins to open.
Continue the rotation and mark the position at which it closes
In the same way mark the position of the exhaust port and transfer port opening and closing
Measure the circumferential distances between the various markings with respect to the
nearest dead centre
Tabulate the readings. Determine the period of port opening and closing at rated speed. Also
draw the port timing diagram.

FORMULAE

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

PORT TIMING DIAGRAM

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the use of carburetor?
2. What do you understand about scavenging?
3. What will be the influence of the spark timing in the performance of the engine?
4. What is stroke volume?
5. What is the use of fuel injection pump in diesel engine?

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 10


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

PERFORMANCE TEST ON SINGLE CYLINDER FOUR STROKE


DIESEL ENGINE COUPLED TO HYDRAULIC DYNAMOMETER
EX.NO: DATE:

AIM

To conduct a performance test on the given single cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine and to draw the
following characteristic curves:

a. Specific Fuel Consumption Vs Brake Power


b. Mechanical Efficiency Vs Brake Power
c. Brake Thermal Efficiency Vs Brake Power
d. Indicated Thermal Efficiency Vs Brake Power

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Given Engine, Stop watch, Tachometer etc.

ENGINE DETAILS

Type : Single cylinder four stroke Diesel engine Coupled to


hydraulic dynamometer.
Power : 5 HP
Speed : 1500 rpm.
Orifice diameter : 20 mm.
Coefficient of discharge : 0.62
Dynamometer arm length radius : 310 mm

DESCRIPTION

The engine is of single cylinder four stroke type coupled to hydraulic dynamometer which is
used for loading the engine. A graduated tube with two way valve arrangement is provided for fuel
flow measurement. Temperature sensors with digital indicators are attached to cooling water outlet
line and exhaust gas line.

PROCEDURE

The cooling water lines are opened.


The fuel in the tank and the valve (used to allow fuel from tank) position are checked.
The engine is started at no load.
The time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption is noted by keeping the right side knob in closed
position.
Supply of fuel from the main tank is ensured after taking the above reading.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 11


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering 2016 2017

TABULAR COLUMN

Dynamometer Water Manometer Time for


S.No. FC Speed SFC BP IP HI b i mech
Reading Reading 10cc of F.C.
h1 h2
Units kg sec. kg/hr rpm kg/kW hr kW kW kW % % %
cm cm
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 12


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

MODEL CALCULATION: READING NUMBER:

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

The required dynamometer load reading is set.


All the above readings are noted down.
The experiment is repeated for different current settings.
The readings are tabulated neatly.

FORMULAE

a)

b)

t - Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption


sp. gr. - specific gravity of diesel = 0.86

c)

d)

CV - Calorific Value of diesel = 40500 kJ/kg

e)

BP - Brake Power, kW
IP - Indicated Power, kW = BP + FP
FP - Frictional Power, kW
(To be determined from FC Vs BP plot)

f)

g)

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Define specific fuel consumption?
2. Define Brake Power?
3. Define Brake Thermal Efficiency?
4. What is indicated thermal efficiency?
5. Define compression ratio.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 14


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

PERFORMANCE TEST ON SINGLE CYLINDER FOUR STROKE


DIESEL ENGINE
EX.NO: DATE:

AIM

To conduct a performance test on the given single cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine and to draw the
following characteristic curves:

a. Specific Fuel Consumption Vs Brake Power


b. Mechanical Efficiency Vs Brake Power
c. Brake Thermal Efficiency Vs Brake Power
d. Indicated Thermal Efficiency Vs Brake Power

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Given Engine, Stop watch, Tachometer etc.

ENGINE DETAILS

Type : Single cylinder four stroke Diesel engine Coupled to an eddy current
dynamometer.
Power : 5 HP (3.7 kW)
Speed : 1550 rpm.
Bore : 108 mm.
Stroke : 204 mm.
Orifice diameter : 20 mm.

DESCRIPTION

The engine is of twin cylinder four stroke types with mechanical loading arrangement. A
graduated tube with two way valve arrangement is provided for fuel flow measurement. Temperature
sensors with analog dial indicators are attached to cooling water (inlet and outlet) and exhaust gas
lines. Air is allowed to pass through a cubical tank to avoid turbulence. An orifice meter with
manometer arrangement is provided to facilitate air flow measurement.

PROCEDURE

The cooling water lines are opened.


The fuel in the tank and the valve (used to allow fuel from tank) position are checked.
The engine is started at no load.
The time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption is noted by keeping the right side knob in closed
position.
Supply of fuel from the main tank is ensured after taking the above reading.
The engine is loaded by rotating the knob on the loading panel.
The required load is set.
All the above readings are noted down.
The experiment is repeated for different load settings.
The readings are tabulated neatly.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 15


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 16


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering 2016 2017

TABULAR COLUMN

Perpendicular distance = m
Spring Net Time for
S.No. Load Speed Torque FC SFC BP IP HI b i mech
Load Load 10cc of F.C.

kg/kW
Units kgf kgf kgf sec. rpm N.m kg/hr kW kW kW % % %
hr
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 17


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

MODEL CALCULATION: READING NUMBER:

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 18


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

FORMULAE

a)

b)

t - Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption


sp. gr. - specific gravity of diesel = 0.86

c)

d)

CV -Calorific Value of diesel = 40500 kJ/kg

e)

BP - Brake Power, kW
IP - Indicated Power, kW = BP + FP
FP - Frictional Power, kW
(To be determined from FCVs BP plot)

f)

g)

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. How will you calculate specific gravity of a fuel?
2. Define knocking.
3. What will be the influence of the compression ratio in the efficiency of the engine?
4. What is Frictional Power?
5. How can you reduce knocking?

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 19


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

PERFORMANCE TEST ON TWIN CYLINDER FOUR STROKE


DIESEL ENGINE
EX.NO: DATE:

AIM

To conduct a performance test on the given twin cylinder diesel engine and to draw the following
characteristic curves:

a. Specific Fuel Consumption Vs Brake Power


b. Mechanical Efficiency Vs Brake Power
c. Brake Thermal Efficiency Vs Brake Power
d. Indicated Thermal Efficiency Vs Brake Power

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Given Engine setup, Stop watch, etc.

ENGINE DETAILS:

Type : Twin cylinder four stroke Diesel engine with mechanical loading device.
Power : 10 HP ( 7.4 kW )
Speed : 1500 rpm
Bore : 87.5 mm
Stroke : 110 mm
Orifice Diameter : 23 mm
Effective Brake Drum radius : 21.5 cm

DESCRIPTION

The engine is of single cylinder four stroke type coupled to an eddy current dynamometer
which is used for loading the engine electrically. A graduated tube with two way valve arrangement is
provided for fuel flow measurement. Temperature sensors with digital indicators are attached to
cooling water outlet line and exhaust gas line.

PROCEDURE

The maximum load (full load) is calculated from the engine ratings.
The cooling water lines are opened.
The fuel in the tank and the valve (to allow fuel from the tank) position are checked.
The engine is started at no load condition.
The time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption is noted.
The above readings are noted and neatly tabulated.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 20


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 21


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering 2016 2017

TABULAR COLUMN

Current Voltage Time for 10cc


S.No. Speed FC SFC B.P I.P H.I b i mech
I V of F.C.

Units Ams Volt rpm sec. kg / hr kg / kW hr kW kW kW % % %


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 22


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

MODEL CALCULATION: READING NUMBER:

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

FORMULAE REQUIRED

a)
N - Speed in rpm

b)

t - Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption


sp. gr. - specific gravity of Diesel= 0.86

c)

d)

CV - Calorific Value of diesel = 40500 kJ/kg

e)
BP - Brake Power, kW
IP - Indicated Power, kW = BP + FP
FP - Frictional Power, kW
(to be determined from BP Vs FC plot)

f)

g)

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Give some types of loading in the engines.
2. What are the processes in the diesel cycle?
3. How will you calculate calorific volume?
4. What is stroke volume?
5. What is auto ignition?

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 24


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

MORSE TEST ON A 4 CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE COUPLED WITH


HYDRAULIC DYNAMOMETER
EX. NO: DATE:

AIM

To conduct a morse test on a four stroke 4 cylinder petrol engine coupled with a hydraulic
dynamometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Dynamometer, Tachometer, etc.,

SPECIFICATIONS

1. Number of cylinders = 4
2. Stroke = 75 mm
3. Speed = variable

DESCRIPTION

Morse Test consists of determining the brake horse power of the engine at any particular speed
and then cutting one cylinder at a time and measuring the BHP of the rest. The desired cylinder can be
cut off by removing the spark plug in the case of spark ignition (SI) engines.

DEFINITIONS

1. Brake Power (BP): The net power available at the output shaft of the internal combustion
engine is called brake power. It is the power available after some power is utilized for
overcoming friction.
2. Indicated Power (IP): The horse power developed inside the cylinder is called Indicated
Power.
3. Friction Power (FP): The difference between indicated power and brake power is called
Friction Power.
4. Mechanical Efficiency: The ratio of brake power to the indicated power expressed as a
percentage is called Mechanical Efficiency.
PROCEDURE

The engine is first started by checking the fuel, lubricating oil, cooling water etc., with all
4 cylinders working.
The speed of the engine is adjusted to a particular value say 1500 rpm and the BP of the
engine at that speed is calculated.
Now cylinder 1 is cut-off and the speed is adjusted to 1500 rpm byn decreasing the load
and the BP is found out.
The difference of BP of all the 4 cylinders and that of the cut off cylinder gives the IP of
the cylinder of the cut-off cylinder.
In this way each cylinder is cut-off and the BP is found out.
From the value of BP the IP of all the cylinders is found out.
The sum of the indicated powers of all the cylinders gives the indicated power of the
entire engine.
The Mechanical Efficiency is then calculated at that particular speed

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 25


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

TABULAR COLUMN

LOAD INDICATED MECHANICAL


SPEED BRAKE POWER
W POWER EFFICIENCY
CONDITIONS

rpm kg watts watts %

1200

All cylinders
1100
Working

1000

1200

First cylinder
1100
is cut off

1000

1200

Second
cylinder 1100
is cut off

1000

1200

Third cylinder
1100
is cut off

1000

1200

Fourth cylinder
1100
is cut off

1000

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 26


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

MODEL CALCULATION: READING NUMBER:

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 27


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

FORMULAE

a)
W = Load applied in kg,
N = Speed in rpm,
Dynamometer constant = 2000
Efficiency of the Hydraulic Dynamometer = 0.75

b)

IP1 = BP BP1
IP2 = BP BP2
IP3 = BP BP3
IP4 = BP BP4

c)

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the use of Morse Test?
2. What are the possible methods to improve efficiency of a diesel engine?
3. What are the possible methods to reduce Nox from a diesel engine?
4. What are the possible methods to reduce HC from a diesel engine?
5. What are the devices are there to measure fire point of any fuel?

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 28


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

RETARDATION TEST TO FIND THE FRICTIONAL POWER OF


4 - STROKE DIESEL ENGINE
EX. NO: DATE:

AIM

To conduct the retardation test on the given single cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine and to draw the
graph between the Drop in speed and the time taken.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Stop watch, Tachometer

ENGINE DETAILS:

Type : Single cylinder four stroke Diesel engine coupled to


alternator with water rheostat
Power : 5 HP (3.7 kW)
Speed : 1500 rpm
Maximum allowable current : 10 amps

DESCRIPTION

The engine is of single cylinder four stroke type loaded mechanically with a brake drum
Dynamometer a graduated tube with two way valve arrangement is provided for fuel flow
measurement of the engine. Temperature sensors with analog dial indicators are attached to cooling
water outlet line and exhaust gas line.

PROCEDURE

The cooling water lines are opened.


The fuel in the tank and the valve (used to allow fuel from tank) position are checked.
The engine is started at no load and allowed to run at the rated speed for about 5 minutes.
After the engine has attained the rated speed, the fuel supply is cut off. The time taken for the
speed to decrease through 100 rpm from the rated speed is noted.
As soon as the reading is taken, the fuel is again allowed to flow and the maximum speed is
reached to achieve
Time for 200, 300 and 400 rpm drop of speed from the maximum speed is taken.
The engine is now loaded to 50% of the full load and is allowed to attain the rated speed.
After attaining the rated speed, the same procedure is followed and the time for the various
speed reductions is noted.
The readings are tabulated neatly.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 29


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

TABULAR COLUMN

Time for the Friction


Drop in speed Time for the speed
Speed Variation speed drop at Power
N drop at no loadt1
S. No. 50% loadt2
rpm rpm sec sec kW

MODEL CALCULATION: READING NUMBER:

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

FORMULAE

a)

b)

c)

d)

t1 is the time for a drop of 100 rpm at no load


t2 is the time taken for a drop of 100 rpm at 50% load.

e)

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the use of retardation test?
2. What is frictional power?
3. Define Break power?
4. What are the effects of co in global warming?
5. Define Thermal efficiency?

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering 2016 2017

TABULAR COLUMN
Inlet cooling water Temperature =
Inlet air Temperature =

Load Time Time for Temp. Temp. of


S. Manometer for 10 1 lit.of of cooling
Speed QI QBP Qcw Qeg Qun % QI %QBP %Qcw %Qeg %Qun
No Readings cc of water exhaust water at
Spring Net fuel collection gas outlet
load
load load

Unit h1 h2
kgf kgf kgf sec sec o
C 0
C rpm kW kW kW kW kW kW % % % %
s
cm cm
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 32


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

HEAT BALANCE TEST ON SINGLE CYLINDER 4 STROKE DIESEL


ENGINE
EX. NO: DATE:

AIM

To conduct heat balance test on the given diesel engine and to draw up a heat balance sheet showing
the proportion of useful work and various losses.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Stop watch, tachometer

ENGINE DETAILS

Type : Single cylinder four stroke Diesel engine coupled to an eddy


current dynamometer
Power : 5 HP (3.7 kW)
Speed : 1550 rpm
Orifice diameter : 20 mm
Bore : 108 mm
Stroke : 204 mm

DESCRIPTION

The engine is of single cylinder four stroke type coupled to an eddy current dynamometer which is
used for loading the engine electrically. A graduated tube with two way valve arrangement is provided
for fuel flow measurement. Temperature sensors with digital indicators are attached to cooling water
outlet line and exhaust gas line.

PROCEDURE

The maximum load (full load) is calculated from the engine ratings.
The 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 of full load are estimated.
The cooling water lines are opened.
The fuel in the tank and the valve (to allow fuel from the tank) position are checked.
The engine is started at no load condition.
The time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption is noted by keeping the right side knob in closed
position.
Supply of fuel from the main tank is ensured after taking the above reading.
The following readings are also noted:
o Temperature of cooling water outlet
o Temperature of exhaust gas
o Manometer readings
The engine is loaded (with 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and full load) and all the above readings are noted
down.
The readings are tabulated neatly.

St. Josephs Institute of Technology 33


ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

MODEL CALCULATION: READING NUMBER:

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

FORMULAE
a)
BPrated- Rated Brake Power, kW
Nrated - Rated Speed, rpm
Reff - Effective Radius of the brake drum

b)
c)

t2 - time for 1litres of water collection


cpw - specific heat of water = 4.187 kJ / kg K
tw1 - temperature of cooling water at inlet , o C
tw2 - temperature of cooling water at outlet, o C
d)
mg - mass flow rate of exhaust gases = mf + ma

sp. gr. - specific gravity of diesel = 0.86


t1 - time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption

Cd - Co efficient of discharge of orifice meter = 0.62

d - Diameter of orifice

h1, h2 - manometer readings cm


w - Density of water = 1000 kg / m3
a at STP = 1.18 kg / m3
tR- Room Temperature , o C
cpg - specific heat of exhaust gases = 1.005 kJ / kg K
tgo- temperature of exhaust gases , o C
tgi - temperature of atmospheric air, o C
e)
mf - mass flow rate of fuel , kg / s
C.V. - Calorific Value of diesel = 40,500 kJ / kg

f)

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the use of heat balance test?
2. What are the possible unaccounted losses?
3. How will you reduce heat losses?
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4. What is requirement of cooling water in engine?


5. How heat loss affects the engine performance?

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering 2016 2017

TABULAR COLUMN
Inlet cooling water Temperature =
Inlet air Temperature =

Load Time for


Time Temp. Temp. of
Mano 1lit.of
S. for of cooling
meter water Speed QI QBP Qcw Qeg Qun % QI %QBP %Qcw %Qeg %Qun
No 10cc of exhaust water at
Voltage Current Readings collectio
Fuel gas outlet
V I n

Uni h1 h2
volts amps sec sec o
C 0
C rpm kW kW kW kW kW kW % % % %
ts cm cm
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

HEAT BALANCE TEST ON TWIN CYLINDER 4 STROKE DIESEL


ENGINE
EX. NO: DATE:

AIM

To conduct heat balance test on the given diesel engine and to draw up a heat balance sheet showing
the proportion of useful work and various losses.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Stop watch, tachometer

ENGINE DETAILS

Type : Twin cylinder four stroke Diesel engine


Power : 10 HP (7.4 kW)
Speed : 1500 rpm
Orifice diameter : 23 mm
Bore : 87.5 mm
Stroke : 110 mm
Effective Brake drum radius : 215 mm

DESCRIPTION

The engine is of twin cylinder four stroke type with mechanical loading. A graduated tube with two
way valve arrangement is provided for fuel flow measurement. Temperature sensors with analog dial
indicators are attached to cooling water (Inlet &outlet) line and exhaust gas line. Air is allowed to pass
through a cubical tank to avoid turbulence. An orifice meter with manometer is provided to facilitate
air flow measurement.

PROCEDURE

The maximum load (full load) is calculated from the engine ratings.
The 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 of full load are estimated.
The cooling water lines are opened.
The fuel in the tank and the valve (to allow fuel from the tank) position are checked.
The engine is started at no load condition.
The time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption is noted by keeping the right side knob in closed
position.
Supply of fuel from the main tank is ensured after taking the above reading.
The following readings are also noted:
o Temperature of cooling water outlet
o Temperature of exhaust gas
o Manometer readings
The engine is loaded (with 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and full load) and all the above readings are noted
down.
The readings are tabulated neatly.

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MODEL CALCULATION: READING NUMBER:

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

FORMULAE
a)
BPrated- Rated Brake Power, kW
Nrated - Rated Speed, rpm
Reff - Effective Radius of the brake drum
b)
c)

t2 - time for 1 litres of water collection


cpw - specific heat of water = 4.187 kJ / kg K
tw1 - temperature of cooling water at inlet, o C
tw2 - temperature of cooling water at outlet, o C
d)
mg - mass flow rate of exhaust gases = mf + ma

sp. gr. - specific gravity of diesel = 0.86


t1 - time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption

Cd - Co efficient of discharge of orifice meter = 0.62

d - Diameter of orifice

h1, h2 - manometer readings cm

tR - Room Temperature, o C
cpg - specific heat of exhaust gases = 1.005 kJ / kg K
tgo- temperature of exhaust gases , o C
tgi- temperature of atmospheric air, o C
e)
mf - mass flow rate of fuel , kg / s
C.V. - Calorific Value of diesel = 40,500 kJ / kg
f)

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the use of heat balance test?
2. What are the possible unaccounted losses?
3. How will you reduce heat losses?
4. What is requirement of cooling water in engine?

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5. How heat loss affects the engine performance?

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
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TABULAR COLUMN

Flash point Fire point


Sl.No. sample oil condition
(oC) (oC)

1 open cup

2 closed cup

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

DETERMINATION OF FLASH AND FIRE POINTS OF A LIQUID


FUEL
EX. NO: DATE:

AIM

To determine the flash and fire points of the given oil using Pensky-Morteins apparatus.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Thermometer, Pensky-Morteins apparatus

Flash and Fire points

Flash point is the temperature to which the oil must be heated to give off sufficient vapour to form an
inflammable mixture with air.

Fire point is the lowest temperature at which the production of combustible gas from the oil is enough
to maintain a steady flame after ignition.

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of a brass cup with a filling mark inside.


The cup is surrounded by electric heating elements.
The brass cup is closed with a cover where provisions are made to insert thermometer, to
introduce test flame and to connect the stirrer.

PROCEDURE

The oil cup is cleaned and dried.


The oil is poured in the cup up to the filling mark.
The flash and fire points are noted in the open conditions.
The cup is covered with the given lid.
The heater is connected to the mains and the rate of heating is adjusted.
As the oil temperature increases, the test flame is applied at an interval of 20oC to find the
flash and fire points.

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is flash point?
2. Define fire point.
3. What is latent heat of vaporization?
4. How will you reduce heat losses?
5. What is requirement of cooling water in engine?

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ME 6412 Thermal Engineering Lab I Mechanical Engineering
2016 2017

STUDY OF STEAM GENERATORS AND TURBINES


EX. NO: DATE:

AIM

To study and understand the principle of steam boilers and turbines.

DEFINITION

Boiler, also called steam generator is the engineering device which generates steam at constant
pressure .It is a closed vessel, generally made of steel in which vaporization of water takes place. Heat
required for vaporization may be provided by the combustion of fuel in furnace, electricity, nuclear
reactor, hot exhaust gases, solar radiations.etc.

TYPES OF BOILERS

Boilers are of many types. Depending upon their features they can be classified as given under:
(a)Based upon the orientation /axis of the shell.
(i)Vertical boiler has a vertical shell..
(ii)Horizontal boiler has its shell horizontal.
(iii)Inclined boiler has its shell inclined .

(b)Based upon utility of boiler.


(i)Stationary boiler
(ii)Portable boiler

(c)Based on the type of firing employed.


(i)externally fired boiler; e.g.Lancahsire boiler, Locomotive boiler
(ii)Internally fired boiler ., e.g. Cochran boiler, Babcock and Wilcox boiler

(d)Based on the tube content.


(i)Fire tube boiler e.g. : Cornish, Cochran, Lancashire, Locomotive boiler.
Hot gases flow through the tubes and water surrounds them.
(ii)Water tube boiler
Water flows through the tubes and hot gases surrounds them.
e.g. : Babcock and Wilcox boiler, Stirling boiler, La- Mont boiler, Benson boiler .

(e)Based on the type of fuel used.


(i)solid fuel boiler :e.g. : coal fired boilers.
(ii)Liquid Fuel boiler ,e.g.: Oil fired boilers.
(iii)Gas fired boiler :e.g.: Natural gas fired boilers.

(f)Based on circulation
According to the flow of the water/steam is caused by the density difference which is
due to the temperature variation.
(i)Natural circulation
Here, the circulation of water/steam is caused by the density difference which is due
to the steam temperature.
(ii)Forced Circulation boilers
Here, the circulation of water /steam is caused by a pump, or fan.

One Water tube boiler is discussed below.

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BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER

SV: Safety valve


MH: Man hole
PG: Pressure Gauge
BP: Baffle Plate
WLI: Water Level Indicator
APP: Anti priming pipe
SH: Super heater
H: Header
D: Door
BDV: Blow down valve
WT: Water Tubes
FV: Feed Valve
MC: Mud collector
FD: Fire Door
G: Grate
Definition
Babcock and Wilcox boiler is an example of water tube boiler which is horizontal straight tube
boiler and may be designed for stationary or marine purposes.
The particulars relating to this boiler are
Diameter of the drum 1.22 to 1.83 m
Length 6.096 to 9.144 m
Size of the water tubes 7.62 to 10.16 cm
Size of the super heater tubes 3.84 to 5.71 cm
Working pressure 40 bar (max)
Steaming capacity 40000 kg/hr (max)
Efficiency 60 to 80 %

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The Babcock and Wilcox Boiler consist of a drum connected to a series of front end and rear end
header by short riser tubes. To these headers are connected a series of inclined water tubes of solid
drawn mild steel.
The angle of inclination of the water tubes to the horizontal is about 15 or more. A hand hole
is provided in the header in front of each tube for cleaning and inspection of tubes. A feed valve is
provided to fill the drum and inclined tubes with water the level of which is indicated by the water
level indicator. Through the fire door the fuel is supplied to grate where it is burnt.
The water from the drum flows through the inclined tubes via down take header and goes back into the
shell in the form of water and steam via uptake header. The steam gets collected in the steam space of
the drum. The steam then enters through the anti-priming pipe and flows in the super-heater tubes
where it is further heated and is finally taken out through stop valve and supplied to the engine when
needed. At the lowest point of the boiler is provided the mud collector to remove the mud particles
through a blow down clock.

BOILER MOUNTINGS

1. WATER LEVEL INDICATOR


It is used for knowing the level of water in the boiler.

2. SAFETY VALVE
Its function is to prevent the steam pressure from exceeding a limiting maximum pressure value.
Safety valve should operate automatically by releasing excess steam and bring pressure down within
safe limits.

3. FUSIBLE PLUG
It is a safety device used for preventing the level of water from going down below a critical point and
thus avoids overheating. It is mounted at crown plate of combustion chamber.

4. PRESSURE GAUGE
It is mounted at front top. Pressure is continuously monitored so as to avoid occurrence of over
shooting of boiler pressure.

5. STOP VALVE
It regulates the flow of steam from the boiler .This is generally mounted on highest part of boiler shell
and performs function of regulating the flow of steam from boiler.

6. FEED CHECK VALVE


It is a non-return valve at the end of delivery pipe from feed water pump and is placed on boiler shell
slightly below normal water level. It is used to fill the boiler with water.

7. BLOW OFF COCK


It is used for cleaning by discharging the water and sediments from bottom of boiler. Blow off cock
also helps in regulating the salt concentration as frequent draining helps in throwing out salt deposited
over period of time. Opening blow off cock removes deposited sediments in boiler.

8. MANHOLE AND MUD BOX


Manhole provides the opening for cleaning, inspection and maintenance purpose.
Mud box is a collection chamber for collecting the mud.

ACCESSORIES
1. SUPER HEATER
Its purpose is to super heat steam and is a type of heat exchanger in which steam flows inside tubes
and hot gases surround it.

2. ECONOMISER

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An economizer is a device used to heat feed water by utilizing the heat in the exhaust flue gases before
leaving through the chimney.
3. AIR PREHEATER
An air preheater is used to recover the heat from the exhaust flue gases. It is installed between the
economizer the chimney. The air required for the purpose of combustion is drawn through the air
preheater where its temperature is raised. It is then passed through the ducts to the furnace. The air is
passed through the tubes of the heater internally while hot flue gases are passed over the outside of the
tubes.

STEAM TURBINES

A steam turbine is a prime mover in which rotary motion is obtained by the gradual change of
momentum of the steam.
In general a steam turbine consists of the following
1. The nozzle in which the heat energy of high pressure steam is converted to kinetic energy,
so that the steam issues from the nozzle with a very high velocity.
2. The blades change the direction of steam issuing form the nozzle, so that a force acts on the
blades due to the change of momentum and propel them.

PRINCIPLE

The principle of steam turbine is the generation of high velocity steam jet by the expansion of high
pressure steam and then conversion of kinetic energy, so obtained into mechanical work on rotor
blades.

CLASSIFICATION OF STEAM TURBINE


1. According to the mode of steam action
(i)Impulse turbine (ii) Reaction turbine

2. According to the direction of steam flow


(i)Axial flow turbine (ii) Radial flow turbine

3. According to the exhaust condition of steam


(i)Condensing turbine (ii) Non condensing turbine

4. According to the pressure of steam


(i)High pressure turbine
(ii) Medium Pressure turbine
(iii) High pressure turbine

5. According to the number of stages


(i)Single stage turbine (ii) Multi stage turbine

IMPULSE TURBINE

An impulse turbine is a turbine which runs by the impulse of steam jet of this turbine; the
steam is first made to flow through the nozzle. Then the steam jet impinges on the turbine blades
(which are curves like blades) and are mounted on the circumference of the wheel. The steam jet after
impinging glides over the concave surface of the blades and finally leaves the turbine.

REACTION TURBINE

In a reaction turbine, the steam enters the wheel under pressure and flows over the blades. The
steam, while gliding, propels the blades and makes them to move. As a matter of fact, the turbine
runner is rotated by the reactive forces of steam jets. The backward motion of the blades is similar to
the recoil of a gun.

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE STEAM AND TURBINE AND A STEAM ENGINE

S.
Criteria Steam Turbine Steam Engine
No
1 Thermal Efficiency High Less
As there are no reciprocating
Hard to achieve perfect balancing
2 Balancing parts in steam turbine, perfect
and needs heavy foundation.
balancing is possible.
Higher and greater range of
3 Speed Lesser range of speed.
speed is possible
4 Lubrication simple Complicated
As the power generation here
5 Need of Flywheel is at a uniform rate, a A flywheel is needed.
flywheel is not required.
6 Steam consumption Less More
7 Compactness More compact Bulky
Lighter construction and
8 Construction Complex construction
easier maintenance
Affordable cost than the
9 Cost Costly than the steam turbine.
steam engine

RESULT

INFERENCE

VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS

1. What is a centrifugal compressor?


2. How does if differ from an axial flow compressor?
3. State the advantages of multi-stage compression?
4. What do you mean by gas turbine?
5. How are gas turbine classified?

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