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UNIT 9

(Grammar point: Active and Passive voices)


GRAMMAR UNDERSTANDING

I.1 the Active and Passive voices


Active Voice

In most English sentences with an action verb, the subject performs the action denoted by the verb.

These examples show that the subject is doing the verb's action.

Example: The man must have eaten five hamburgers > The man (subject) is doing the eating
(verb)

Example: Marylin mailed the letter > The Marylin (subject) is doing the mailing (verb)

Example: Colorfull Parrots live in the forest > The Parrots (subject) is doing the living (verb)

Because the subject does or "acts upon" the verb in such sentences, the sentences are said to be in the
active voice.

Passive Voice

One can change the normal word order of many active sentences (those with a direct object) so that the
subject is no longer active, but is, instead, being acted upon by the verb - or passive.

Note in these examples how the subject-verb relationship has changed.

Example: Five hamburgers must have been eaten by the man > Hamburgers (subject) are being
eaten (verb)

Example: The letter was mailed by Marylin > Letter (subject) is being mailed (verb)

Example: Colorfull Parrots live in the forest > The Parrots (subject) is doing the living (verb)

NOTE: Colorful parrots live in the rainforests cannot be changed to passive voice because the sentence
does not have a direct object.

To be + Past Participle (V3)

Active Voice Passive Voice

Simple Present

1) John bites Mary Mary is bitten by John

2) John doesnt bite Mary Mary isnt bitten by John

3) Does John bite Mary? Is Mary bitten by John?

4) What does John do? What is done by John?

5) Who bites Mary? Who is Mary bitten by?


6) Who does John bite? Who is bitten by John?

Simple Continuous

1) John is biting Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John isnt biting Mary ....................................................................................................

3) Is John biting Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What is John doing? ....................................................................................................

5) Who is biting Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who is John biting? ....................................................................................................

Present Perfect

1) John has bitten Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John hasnt bitten Mary ....................................................................................................

3) Has John bitten Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What has John done? ....................................................................................................

5) Who has bitten Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who has John bitten? ....................................................................................................

Present Perfect Continuous

1) John has been biting Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John hasnt been biting Mary ....................................................................................................

3) Has John been biting Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What has John been doing? ....................................................................................................

5) Who has been biting Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who has John been biting? ....................................................................................................

Simple Past

1) John bit Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John didnt bite Mary ....................................................................................................


3) Did John bite Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What did John do? ....................................................................................................

5) Who bit Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who did John bite? ....................................................................................................

Past Continuous

1) John was biting Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John wasnt biting Mary ....................................................................................................

3) Was John biting Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What was John doing? ....................................................................................................

5) Who was biting Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who was John biting? ....................................................................................................

Past Perfect

1) John had bitten Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John hadnt bitten Mary ....................................................................................................

3) Had John bitten Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What had John done? ....................................................................................................

5) Who had bitten Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who had John bitten? ....................................................................................................

Future

1) John will bite Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John wont bite Mary ....................................................................................................

3) Will John bite Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What will John do? ....................................................................................................

5) Who will bite Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who will John bite? ....................................................................................................


Future Perfect

1) John will have bitten Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John wont have bitten Mary ....................................................................................................

3) Will John have bitten Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What will John have done? ....................................................................................................

5) Who will have bitten Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who will John have bitten? ....................................................................................................

Future Perfect Continuous

1) John will have been biting Mary ....................................................................................................

2) John wont have been biting Mary ....................................................................................................

3) Will John have been biting Mary? ....................................................................................................

4) What will John have been doing? ....................................................................................................

5) Who will have been biting Mary? ....................................................................................................

6) Who will John have been biting? ....................................................................................................


Exercises

i. Make into the passive voice these following sentences

1_She sings a song


2_She sang a song


3_Linda can make tarts


4_We give him a prize


5_We gave him a prize


6_They elect him as a president


7_ They elected him as a president


8_The electricians test the fire alarm.



9_The electricians tested the fire alarm.

10_The teacher closes the window.


11_The teacher will close the window.

12_The girls can play handball.


13_ They develop a new type of washing machine.


14_ They will develop a new type of washing machine.



15_ They can develop a new type of washing powder.

16_ Ridwan told Rizal to give up smoking


ii. Rewrite these sentences in ACTIVE voice

1_The telephone is invented by Alexander Graham Bell.


2_The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.


3_Coffee is sold by Marie.


4_Coffee was sold by Marie.


5_ The computer is used by Patrick.


6_ The computer was used by Patrick.


7_ Letters are written by the students.


8_Letters were written by the students.


9_ Lots of houses were destroyed


10_ Lots of houses will be destroyed


11_ Lots of houses are destroyed


12_We were expected to build the road


13_ We will be expected to build the road


14_We are expected to build the road


iii. Make five (5) sentences in ACTIVE and PASSIVE voice

1_.

2_.

3_.

4_.

5_ .