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You are on page 1of 17

(Ch. 2)

Introduction:

previous fluid mechanics courses.

because of that.

knowing the material and that it is your responsibility to

review the material if you are having difficulty.

71

Circulation (Sect. 2.13, pp 174-177)

aerodynamic lift.

72

The definition of circulation is formally given as

d d

=

C

V d s.

positive if we traverse the curve in the counter-clockwise

direction.

For reasons that we will learn later, it is more convenient to

traverse the curve in the clockwise direction hence the

negative sign.

Stokes theorem gives us

d d d d

=

C

( )

V d s = V d S ,

S

73

The surface and defining quantities are shown below

mechanics and aerodynamics and is called the vorticity, .

The

flow is defined as irrotational if the circulation is zero, or

= 0 everywhere.

74

In the limit of a vanishingly small area we have

d d d d

( ) ( )

d = V d S = V n ds.

Hence

d d d

n = .

ds

component of vorticity as the circulation per unit area.

75

Ideal Inviscid Flow and the Stream Function (Sect. 2.14, pp. 177-

181)

considered ideal if it was incompressible and inviscid, i.e.

= const. (or V = 0 ) and = 0 (or = 0 ).

good approximation in some cases ( Re for streamline

bodies).

76

Setting = 0 and = constant in the Navier-Stokes

equations results in the Euler equations given by

DV P

= G

Dt

where G is the gravitational acceleration.

equation, in vector form

P

( )

V V = gh +

for steady flow.

77

Notice that

(

V V =)1

2

( )

V V V V ,

which can be seen by expanding both the left and right hand

sides in components.

Thus

P

1

( )

V V V V = gh + .

2

Now if the flow is irrotational ( V = 0 ) we have

78

V V P

+ gh + =

0.

2

V2 P

+ gh + =constant.

2

removed the restriction that we must remain on a streamline

is lifted!

ideal, irrotational flow, which is not true for a rotational flow.

79

For two-dimensional flow, the stream function, , is defined

such that

yy

u= and v = .

y x

Notice that

u v 2yy 2

+ = = 0.

x y xy yx

80

In cylindrical coordinates the stream function is given by

1

Vr = , and V = .

r r

81

Velocity Potential (Sect. 2.15, pp. 181-184)

( ) = 0

derivatives (verify by expanding).

82

If we set

V = ,

then

V = ( ) = ( ) = 0.

true, if V = 0 , there must be some

The corollary is also

function such that V = . Then

u=

,v=

, and w =

.

x y z

83

In cylindrical coordinates the velocity potential is defined by

1

=Vr = , V = , Vz .

r r z

1 1

=Vr = , V = , Vz .

r r r sin

84

The Relationship between the Stream Function and the Velocity

Potential (Sect. 2.15, pp. 184-185)

yy

dy

= dx + dy

x y

=

vdx + udy.

Thus

dy v

= .

dx u

85

The differential of is

d

= dx + dy

x y

=

udx vdx.

Thus

dy u

= .

dx v

86

Hence streamlines and equipotential lines cross at right angles

they are orthogonal.

A velocity potential can be defined only for irrotational

flows.

87

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