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Molecular Sieves

Science and Technology

Editors: H. G. Karge J. Weitkamp

Volume 2
Springer
Berlin
Heidelberg
New York
Barcelona
Hong Kong
London
Milan
Paris
Singapore
Tokyo
Structures and
Structure Determination

With contributions by
C. Baerlocher, ]. M. Bennett, W. Depmeier,
A. N. Fitch, H. ]obic, H. van Koningsveld,
W.M. Meier, A. Pfenninger, O. Terasaki

~ Springer
Editors:
Dr. Hellmut G. Karge
Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society
Faradayweg 4- 6
D-14195 Berlin
Germany

Professor Dr.-Ing. ]ens Weitkamp


Institute of Chemical Technology I
University of Stuttgart
D-70550 Stuttgart
Germany

ISBN 3-540-64333-8 Springer-VerlagBerlin Heidelberg New York

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Molecular sieves : science and technology / editors. H. G. Karge, ]. Weitkamp.
p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v. 1. Synthesis
ISBN 3-540-63622-6 (v. 1 : acid-free paper)
1. Molecular sieves. I. Karge, H. G. (Hellmut G.) II. Weitkamp, I. (lens)
TP159.M6M63 1998 660.2842-dc21 98-15578

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Preface to the Series

Following Springers successful series Catalysis - Science and Technology, this


series of monographs has been entitled Molecular Sieves - Science a n d Techno-
logy. It will cover, in a comprehensive manner, all aspects of the science and
application of zeolites and related microporous and mesoporous materials.
After about 50 years of prosperous research, molecular sieves have gained a
firm and important position in modern materials science, and we are witnessing
an ever increasing number of industrial applications. In addition to the more
traditional and still prevailing applications of zeolites as water softeners in
laundry detergents, as adsorbents for drying, purification and separation pur-
poses, and as catalysts in the petroleum refining, petrochemical and chemical
industries, novel uses of molecular sieves are being sought in numerous labo-
ratories.
By the beginning of 1999, the Structure Commission of the International
Zeolite Association had approved approximately 120 different zeolite structures
which, altogether, cover the span of pore diameters from about 0.3 nm to 2 nm.
The dimensions of virtually all molecules (except macromolecules) chemists are
concerned with fall into this same range. It is this coincidence of molecular
dimensions and pore widths which makes zeolites so unique in adsorption and
catalysis and enables molecular sieving and shape-selective catalysis. Bearing in
mind that each zeolite structure can be modified by a plethora of post-synthesis
techniques, an almost infinite variety of molecular sieve materials are nowadays
at the researchers and engineers disposal. In many instances this will allow the
properties of a zeolite to be tailored to a desired application. Likewise, remark-
able progress has been made in the characterization of molecular sieve mater-
ials by spectroscopic and other physico-chemical techniques, and this is par-
ticularly true for structure determination. During the last decade, we have seen
impressive progress in the application of quantum mechanical ab initio and
other theoretical methods to zeolite science. The results enable us to obtain a
deeper understanding of physical and chemical properties of zeolites and may
render possible reliable predictions of their behavior. All in all, the science and
application of zeolites is a flourishing and exciting field of interdisciplinary
research which has reached a high level of sophistication and a certain degree
of maturity.
The editors believe that, at the turn of the century, the time has come to collect
and present the huge knowledge on zeolite molecular sieves. Molecular Sieves -
Science and Technology is meant as a handbook of zeolites, and the term "zeo-
VI Preface to the Series

lites" is to be understood in the broadest sense of the word. While, throughout


the handbook, some emphasis will be placed on the more traditional alumo-
silicate zeolites with eight-, ten- and twelve-membered ring pore openings,
materials with other chemical compositions and narrower and larger pores
(such as sodalite, clathrasils, A1PO4-8,VPI-5 or cloverite) will be covered as well.
Also included are microporous forms of silica (e.g., silicalite-1 or -2), alumo-
phosphates, gallophosphates, silicoalumophosphates and titaniumsilicalites
etc. Finally, zeolite-like amorphous mesoporous materials with ordered pore
systems, especially those belonging to the M41S series, will be covered. Among
other topics related to the science and application of molecular sieves, the book
series will put emphasis on such important items as: the preparation of zeolites
by hydrothermal synthesis; zeolite structures and methods for structure deter-
mination; post-synthesis modification by, e.g., ion exchange, dealumination or
chemical vapor deposition; the characterization by all kinds of physico-chemi-
cal and chemical techniques; the acidic and basic properties of molecular sieves;
their hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface properties; theory and modelling;
sorption and diffusion in microporous and mesoporous materials; host/guest
interactions; zeolites as detergent builders; separation and purification proces-
ses using molecular sieve adsorbents; zeolites as catalysts in petroleum refining,
in petrochemical processes and in the manufacture of organic chemicals;
zeolites in environmental protection; novel applications of molecular sieve
materials.
The handbook will appear over several years with a total of ten to fifteen
volumes. Each volume of the series will be devoted to a specific sub-field of the
fundamentals or application of molecular sieve materials and contain five to ten
articles authored by renowned experts upon invitation by the editors. These
articles are meant to present the state of the art from a scientific and, where
applicable, from an industrial point of view, to discuss critical pivotal issues and
to outline future directions of research and development in this sub -field. To this
end, the series is intended as an up-to-date highly sophisticated collection of
information for those who have already been dealing with zeolites in industry or
at academic institutions. Moreover, by emphasizing the description and critical
assessment of experimental techniques which have been used in molecular
sieve science, the series is also meant as a guide for newcomers, enabling them
to collect reliable and relevant experimental data.
The editors would like to take this opportunity to express their sincere grati-
tude to the authors who spent much time and great effort on their chapters. It is
our hope that Molecular Sieves - Science and Technology turns out to be both a
valuable handbook the advanced researcher will regularly consult and a useful
guide for newcomers to the fascinating world of microporous and mesoporous
materials.

Hellmut G. Karge
Jens Weitkamp
Preface to Volume 2

Once a new natural zeolite is found or a new molecular sieve synthezised, via one
or the other of the methods described in Volume 1 for example, the researchers
face the task of confirming that a novel structure has come into their hands.
However, beyond this basic problem, questions soon arise concerning rather
detailed and subtle structural features.
The classical method of determining crystal structures is X-ray diffraction.
Thus, in Chapter 1 of the present volume, H. van Koningsveld and M. Bennett
provide the reader with information about the enormous progress which has
been made in X-ray structure analysis of zeolites. To a large extent, this is due to
outstanding developments in both experimental techniques and methods of
data evaluation, such as the application of synchrotron radiation and Rietveld
analysis. New methods now enable crystallographers to study very small single
crystals or crystallite powders. This is extremely important with respect to most
of the synthetic micro- and mesoporous materials since the size of primary par-
ticles is usually in the pm range. The authors stress that, in the context of
reliable structure analysis, the determination of the unit cell and space group is
of paramount importance. Modern tools now allow researchers to study subtle
effects on zeolite structures such as those caused by framework distortions,
dealumination, isomorphous substitution or cation and sorbate location.
The study of structures containing light atoms is the particular domain of
neutron scattering, even though this is not its only advantage. The authors of
Chapter 2,A. N. Fitch and H. ]obic demonstrate the way in which neutron scatter-
ing is able to complement structure analysis by X-ray diffraction. In particular,
neutron scattering techniques reveal their strong potential in probing details of
structural arrangements involving hydrogen-containing species (such as water
and hydroxyl groups) as well as determining hydrogen bonds, cation positions,
and the location of adsorbed molecules. Frequently these techniques are suc-
cessfully used for further refinement of X-ray diffraction data.
Chapter 3, written by O. Terasaki, is devoted to the use of the various kinds of
electron microscopy in the investigation of zeolites and related porous solids.
The authors contribution focuses on the potential of electron microscopy in
studying crystallite morphologies as well as features of the fine structure, e.g.,
bulk and surface defects; details of the crystal surface (edges and kinks), and, as
such, related to crystal growth; and modification of frameworks. Moreover, the
valuable assistance of electron microscopy in solving new structures is illustrat-
ed by a number of examples.
VIII Preface to Volume2

Chapter 4 is contributed by W. Depmeier, and it concerns particular pheno-


mena of the structures of zeolites and related solids which are attracting more
and more interest. Such phenomena are, inter alia, phase transitions as well as
mechanisms of reduction in symmetry and volume as a consequence of tiking,
distortion of the whole framework or framework units, modulations of the
framework, and partial amorphization. These are demonstrated by a variety
of instructive examples, and their importance is pointed out in view of, for
example, catalytic, shape selective and separation properties of zeolite materials.
General problems of zeolite structures are dealt with in Chapter 5 which is
jointly authored by W.M. Meier and C. Baerlocher. It includes basic aspects of
zeolite crystallography such as topology, configuration, and conformation of
framework structures. Similarly, the idea of distinguishing zeolites on the basis
of framework densities is presented. The attempts at classification of zeolite
structure types are critically discussed. The authors then describe the inter-
esting concepts of structural characterization via loop configurations and coor-
dination sequences and also reconsider the long-standing question of whether
zeolite framework structures are predictable.
This volume concludes with Chapter 6, a review devoted to industrial synthe-
sis. Contributed by A. Pfenninger and entitled "Manufacture and Use of Zeolites
for Adsorption Processes", this chapter provides an extremely useful adjunct to
Volume 1 of this series. Important aspects of industrial synthesis are described
and, simultaneously,the characterization and use of zeolites for separation pro-
cesses are discussed. In these respects, Chapter 6 is something of an introduction
to matters which will be extensively dealt with in Volume 5 (Characterization II)
and Volume 7 (Sorption and Diffusion) of this series.
The originally planned final chapter on the role played by solid state NMR
spectroscopy in the elucidation of structural features of microporous and meso-
porous materials was unfortunately not available at the time of going to press.
However, given the importance of this topic, an appropriate treatment of this
area is intended to appear in Volume 4 (Characterization I).
Thus,Volume 2 presents an extended overview over most of the relevant tech-
niques currently employed for investigations into structural properties of
micro- and mesoporous materials and offers in its last contribution a valuable
addition to the topics treated in Volume 1. From this volume it becomes evident
that the various techniques for structure determination are, to a large extent,
complementary and that evaluation of the experimental data, on the other hand,
is profiting much from recent developments in theory and modeling. It is the
Editors hope that Volume 2 of the series "Molecular Sieves - Science and
Technology" will provide the researchers in the field of zeolites and related
materials with the necessary awareness of the great potential in modern
methods for structure analysis.

Hellmut G. Karge
Jens Weitkamp
Contents

H. van Koningsveld and J.M. Bennett:


Zeolite S t r u c t u r e D e t e r m i n a t i o n f r o m X-Ray D i f f r a c t i o n ........ 1

A.N. Fitch and H. ]obic:


Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction ............ 31

O. Terasaki:
E l e c t r o n M i c r o s c o p y S t u d i e s in M o l e c u l a r Sieve Science ......... 71

W. Depmeier:
S t r u c t u r a l D i s t o r t i o n s a n d M o d u l a t i o n s in M i c r o p o r o u s Materials . . . . 113

W.M. Meier and C. Baerlocher:


Zeolite Type F r a m e w o r k s : Connectivities, C o n f i g u r a t i o n s
and Conformations .............................. 141

A. Pfenninger:
M a n u f a c t u r e a n d Use o f Zeolites for A d s o r p t i o n Processes . . . . . . . . 163

Subject I n d e x ................................. 199

A u t h o r I n d e x Vols. 1 a n d 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction
H. van Koningsveld 1 and J. M. Bennett 2
1 Laboratory of Organic Chemistry and Catalysis, Delft University of Technology,
Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands; e-mail: havank@cad4sun.tn.tudelft.nl
2 661 Weadley Road, Radnor, PA 19087, USA; e-mail: JMBXrayse@aol.com

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Severe Overlap of Reflections in Powder Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3 Incorrect Determination of the Space Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

4 Effect of Framework Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

5 Disorder of Non-Framework Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

6 Faulting within the Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

7 Isomorphous Replacement of Framework Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

8 Crystal Size Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

9 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

1
Introduction
Zeolites and related microporous materials are a class of materials with an ever
widening range of compositions, structures and uses. Since the earliest days of
zeolite science X-ray diffraction has been one of the basic and most useful tools
for characterization.
Initially X-ray diffraction was used to answer simple questions such as: have
I made a new material? or:has the crystallization process gone to completion?
Now the questions encompass everything that a researcher might want to know
about the structure of a material. Early attempts at determining crystal struc-
tures using X-ray diffraction were often unsuccessful because many of these ear-
ly synthetic materials were available only as powder samples. Fortunately many
of these first synthetic materials had natural counterparts with large single
crystals, and data from these were used to determine the framework structures

Molecular Sieves, Vol. 2


Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999
2 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

of their synthetic counterparts. Today, the framework of a new material can be


often determined from powder samples. In addition, single crystal techniques
have improved considerably leading to increased accuracy in the bond angles
and bond distances and to the ability to study crystals of much smaller size. It is
now possible for a single crystal study to reveal details of the structure that show
the interaction of a sorbed material with the framework or movement of cations
within the framework and any ensuing distortions of the framework. Structural
data from powder samples are beginning to reveal similar changes in the crystal
structure with temperature, with sorbed materials and even under catalytic
conditions. Even though the technique of X-ray powder diffraction has im-
proved greatly since the early days of zeolite science, it is still more accurate to
determine the crystal structure of a new material from single crystal data rather
than from powder data.
Many of the advances in the structural information derived for zeolitic mate-
rials are a direct result of major improvements in powder and single crystal
X-ray equipment available, in the development of new structure determination
methods and in the use of new characterization tools including magic angle
spinning NMR, neutron diffraction and electron microscopy, which are de-
scribed in subsequent chapters. Two excellent review papers [1, 2] discuss the
use of X-ray diffraction techniques to study zeolites and the problems en-
countered, and it is recommended that they be used in combination with this
chapter.
The stages in determining the crystal structure of a material have been
described as: (i) obtain a suitable sample, (ii) collect the data, (iii) determine a
trial structure using ab initio methods, and (iv) refine the data.
However, with zeolites it is not as simple as the above infers since subtle
changes in the zeolite framework can influence, to a greater or lesser extent,
both the observed intensities and the symmetry. These subtle changes in the
observed intensities and the symmetry can cause serious problems for crystallo-
graphers performing a zeolite structure analysis. The crystallographic problems
include:
Severe overlap of reflections in powder data leading to problems with the
techniques used to decompose the peaks into individual reflections
Incorrect determination of the space group especially when the true symme-
try is masked by pseudo-symmetry
The effect of framework flexibility on the structure analysis
Disorder of the non-framework species and its effect on the structure
solution
Faulting within the framework
Problems caused by isomorphous replacement of framework atoms
The effects due to small crystal size and the limits on the crystal size that can
be used
In order to help those in the zeolite community to better appreciate the beauty
of an excellent crystallographic study while learning to evaluate the pitfalls that
are present in an incorrect study, several structures, published in the last decade
and that are examples of the problems listed above, will be reviewed.
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 3

2
Severe Overlap of Reflections in Powder Data
For a single crystal structure determination one crystal is chosen from the
sample and it is assumed that the chosen crystal is both suitable for the study
and typical of the bulk material. Often several crystals have to be evaluated be-
fore a good crystal for the study is found. In contrast, it is relatively easy to
obtain a sample for a powder study and to use a synchrotron source to obtain the
best data. Synchrotron X-ray data are high intensity and high resolution data
and, as such, are far superior to in-house data. The improvements in the quality
of the data obtained from the synchrotron have reduced the magnitude of the
problems that plagued early attempts at structure determination. However,
there is still only one dimensional intensity information in the powder pattern
and it is not a trivial task to determine the correct three-dimensional unit cell
dimensions especially if a few weak peaks from an unknown impurity phase are
present.
A successful structure determination starts with a set of accurately deter-
mined peak positions. Unfortunately, this task is often left to the computer with
disastrous results. With carefully deconvoluted data the currently used indexing
programs [3, 4] often yield a number of equally probable answers. When com-
bined with even partial unit cell information from electron diffraction, it is
usually possible to reduce this number to one or two unit cell sets. If no other
data are available then the wrong choice between two equally probable unit cells
may prevent the structure from being accurately determined. Even when a unit
cell is derived it may later prove to be incorrect (too highly symmetric) once
the structure has been refined. Unfortunately, the only way to know that a
chosen unit cell is correct is to solve the crystal structure.
Table 1 lists part of the data obtained from a new material. It was known from
TEM/SEM studies that the synthesis product was impure and that the impurity
was an offretite material based on observed d-spacings and a knowledge of the
synthesis conditions. These offretite peaks were removed from the data before
using the indexing programs. However, the best unit cell obtained did not index
all the reflections suggesting that there might be three phases present in the
sample which seemed unlikely. The final solution used several common reflec-
tions (such as that at 2 q = 9.958) that came from both the offretite impurity and
the new phase and indexed all 60 observed reflections, out to a d spacing of
3.04 . The only difference between the first and final unit cell solutions was the
value for the c dimension. The number of un-indexed reflections now became
zero (see Table 1). Thus it is very important to account for all observed peaks in
a pattern even those assigned to other phases and to review even small differ-
ences between the observed and calculated 2q values, in order to be sure that
the calculated unit cell dimensions are reasonable.
In order to determine the crystal structure, the intensity of the exactly or par-
tially overlapping reflections are usually separated by a number of simple tech-
niques such as splitting them fifty-fifty. However, these structure determina-
tions were often unsuccessful and more sophisticated methods were developed
to partition the intensity of the overlapping reflections.
4 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

Table 1. A partial list of the observed and calculated 2q values for a new phase with an
offretite impurity a

2q Values Solution 1b Final solution c


hkl hkl
Observed Calculated Difference

2.402 2.396 0.007 100 100


4.142 4.150 0.008 110 110
4.784 4.792 0.009 200 200
6.606 1 0 0 (Off.) 1 0 0 (Off.)
6.338 6.341 0.003 210 210
7.189 7.191 0.002 300 300
8.302 8.305 0.003 220 220
9.595 9.593 0.002 400 400
9.958 9.957 0.001 0 0 1 (Off.) 0 0 1 (both)
10.244 10.243 0.001 001 101
10.463 10.456 0.007 320 320
10.793 10.791 0.002 U 111
11.451 1 1 0 (Off.) 1 1 0 (Off.)
11.815 11.813 0.002 U 211
12.002 11.999 0.003 500 500
12.295 12.293 0.002 U 301
12.478 12.471 0.007 330 330
12.704 12.701 0.003 420 420
12.980 12.980 0.000 U 221
13.369 13.367 0.002 510 510
13.843 13.843 0.000 U 401

Off. indicates an offretite reflection and U an unindexed reflection


a Personal communication, Smith W, Bennett JM.
b Solution 1 had a = 36.147(3) and c = 7.329(1) .
c Final correct solution had a = 36.150(2) and c = 7.541(1) .

The use of Direct Methods in determining a weighting scheme for partition-


ing the intensities was developed by Jansen, Peschar and Schenk [5, 6]. The
method was tested on a structure containing 22 atoms in the asymmetric unit
cell; of the 527 observed reflections, 317 overlapped within half of the peak full
width at half the peak maximum (FWHM) as determined in the fitting process
[7]. Estermann et al. [8] described the structure determination of SAPO-40
(AFR) 1 using a different method for partitioning the intensities of the overlap-
ping reflections. This Fast Iterative Patterson Squaring (FIPS) method indicated
how to partition the intensity and only after this redistribution did an ab initio
structure determination become possible.
Yet another method was applied to the structure determination of VPI-9
(VNI; [9]). This method uses a set of random starting phases for the intensities
1
The arrangement of the tetrahedral atoms in most of the zeolite structures is indicated by a
three letter code. This code is independent of the composition of the zeolite, the space group
and symmetry. A full list of all currently assigned codes can be found in the Atlas of Zeolite
Structure Types by W.M. Meier, D.H. Olson and Ch. Baerlocher, Fourth Revised Edition,
published on behalf of the Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association by
Elsevier, London, Boston, 1996.
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 5

obtained from the powder pattern and is then combined with a topological
search routine in the Fourier recycling procedure. With this method both che-
mical and structural information are incorporated into the partitioning proce-
dure used for the powder diffraction profile. With seven crystallographically
unique tetrahedral sites, VPI-9 is the most complex framework arrangement
currently solved from powder diffraction without manual intervention.
Since one-dimensional intensity data from powders is resolved into three-
dimensional intensity data for single crystals, the problem with obtaining indi-
vidual intensity data is not present with single crystal data. Therefore, the deter-
mination of the unit cell and symmetry is less difficult. Using the correct unit
cell dimensions the intensities of all the single crystal reflections can be mea-
sured without serious overlap in most cases.
The lack of individually measured reflections with powder data also has a
detrimental effect on the structure determination and refinement procedure. In
powder diffraction the ratio between the number of observations and the num-
ber of parameters to be refined is very often less than or equal to one. However,
with single crystal data this ratio usually ranges from three to ten. This over
abundance of data allows an incomplete, or even partly wrong starting model to
be used to yield a successful solution and final refinement of the structure. A
recent example, illustrating the difference between powder and single crystal
data, is the structure determination of GaPO4(OH)0.25 (CLO; [10]). Even with
high-resolution synchrotron powder data, 552 of the first 617 reflections have
exact 2q overlaps. This extreme example of the overlap of the individual inten-
sity data could not be overcome until a large single crystal became available for
conventional analysis. Then 2776 independent reflections were measured and
the refinement converged smoothly.

3
Incorrect Determination of the Space Group

Space groups are determined from a list of hkl reflections that are not observed.
This is very difficult with powder data because of the occurrence of overlapping
reflections. Without a space group no crystal structure solution can be complet-
ed. However, in many cases it is not necessary to determine the space group that
will result from a successful structure refinement. It is often only necessary to
determine the starting space group that defines the maximum symmetry of the
topology (maximum topological symmetry). For example, it is not necessary to
differentiate between the tetrahedral aluminum and phosphorus atoms in a
microporous aluminophosphate material in order to determine the correct fra-
mework topology. Fortunately, there have been found to be only a small number
of maximum topology space groups that are applicable; some of them are C2/m,
Cmcm, I41/amd and P63/mmc. Since the choice of unit cell dimensions will affect
the systematic absences and ultimately the space group, this knowledge of appli-
cable space groups can be helpful when choosing between two different, but
equally possible, unit cells. However, it must be remembered that the space
group chosen must account for all of the low hkl systematic absences.
6 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

There are many different techniques used by crystallographers to arrive at the


starting topology of a new material. All techniques, except model building, re-
quire that the space group be correctly determined. However, this very important
step of determining the starting topology is often not adequately reported, pos-
sibly because it is the most time consuming step of a powder structure determi-
nation. It is possible to spend months to years determining the correct topology
which, when determined, can lead to spending only days to weeks on the final
refinement. The powder pattern of the proposed topology can be simulated after
refinement of the interatomic distances using a Distance Least Squares (DLS)
refinement [11] procedure and can then be compared to the experimental pat-
tern of the material. Even when there is a passable match between the observed
and simulated powder patterns it does not mean that the proposed framework
arrangement is correct. Probably, any partially incorrect topology can be refined
with the Rietveld technique [12] to yield an apparently acceptable solution.
ZSM-18 (MEI; [13]) is the only aluminosilicate zeolite that has been reported
to contain a three tetrahedral atom ring (a T3-ring)2. However, similar frame-
work structures, such as MAPSO46 (AFS; [14]), CoAPO50 (AFY; [14]) and
beryllophosphateH (BPH; [15]), do not support this novel arrangement. An
examination of the reported framework topology shows that the three ring
arrangements can be replaced by a vertical SiOSi unit with practically no change
in the positions of the remainder of the framework atoms. Lowering the sym-
metry by removing the six-fold axes and changing to orthorhombic symmetry
allows the framework to rotate off the original six-fold axis thereby reducing the
vertical SiOSi bond angles of 180, which are undesirable but observed in the
proposed structure. Unfortunately, any DLS refinement of an orthorhombic
arrangement always refines back to a pseudo six-fold axis. The final answer to
the question of whether ZSM-18 contains three rings will require a complete
structure determination using powder data and consideration of the possibility
that the original space group used to determine the structure was incorrect.
A postulated framework arrangement based on a DLS refinement should
always be treated with suspicion because very few DLS refinements use the full
symmetry of the chosen space group since the only symmetry operations need-
ed are those that generate bonds that lie across the asymmetric unit cell bound-
aries. In addition, there is always the possibility that the space group chosen is
incorrect and that therefore the final structure is incorrect as well. Several cor-
rect structures have been refined in two or more space groups and illustrate that
there are subtle changes in the framework topology depending on the choice of
space group [16].
An example showing that the observed distortions of the framework are
dependent on the choice of the space group is given by the refinement of SAPO-
40 (AFR; [17, 18]). The ordering of aluminum and phosphorus in the structure
required that the c-axis be doubled and the space group be changed from
orthorhombic Pmmm to monoclinic P112/n. Subsequently, it was realized that

2 The standard method used to describe the number of atoms in a ring of a zeolite structure
is to only count the tetrahedral (T) atoms. Thus a three ring opening would have three sili-
con atoms and the interconnecting three oxygen atoms for a total of six atoms.
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 7

this doubling generated c-glide planes and that the correct space group was
actually orthorhombic Pccn. This change reduced the number of variables from
186 (for P112/n) to 95 (for Pccn) without affecting the quality of the profile fit. In
addition many of the distances and angles, which were different in the P112/n
refinement, become equivalent in Pccn. From a practical point of view it is very
difficult to say which refinement yields a truer picture of the material and what
effect the framework distortions will have on the material properties.
Sometimes the question of how material properties are affected by changes in
the framework can be answered. In the case of VPI-5 (VFI; [19]) the recognition
that octahedral aluminum is present in the structure of VPI-5 required that the
symmetry be lowered from P63cm to P63. Only after this symmetry change did
the refinement of the structure proceed smoothly. The presence of a triple helix
of occluded water molecules became evident because these water molecules
were required to complete the octahedral coordination of half of the aluminum
atoms in the fused 4-rings. The same octahedral coordination of aluminum was
postulated for AlPO4H2 (AHT; [20]), since both structures contain a triple
crankshaft chain with fused 4-rings. Once the similar octahedral configuration
was shown to be present, it was suggested that these octahedral distortions on
the aluminum sites promote the reconstructive phase transition of VPI-5 to
AlPO4-8 (AET) above room temperature and of AlPO4H2 to tridymite (Fig. 1) at
higher temperatures. The phase transition of AlPO4H2 to tridymite is irrever-

Fig. 1a, b. Schematic illustration of the framework transformation of a VPI-5 to AlPO4-8 and
b AlPO4-H2 to AlPO4-tridymite. Large dots indicate Al positions. Reproduced by permission
of the Royal Society of Chemistry from [20]
8 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

sible; conflicting reports exist as to whether the transition of VPI-5 to AlPO4-8 is


reversible or not [2124].

4
Effect of Framework Flexibility
The difficulty in determining zeolite structures from diffraction data is in-
creased when there are changes in cell dimensions and/or symmetry caused by the
framework flexion in response to having different cations or other non-frame-
work species present. The TO4 tetrahedra are rigid but interconnected through
oxygen atoms which act as flexible hinges [25]. In collapsible frameworks, such
as ABW, GIS, NAT, RHO and SOD, all angles around the TO4 tetrahedra co-rotate
in the same sense when cell dimensions and volumes change. The frameworks
wrap themselves around occluded non-framework species or collapse until the
smallest angle of the TOT hinges (~126) is reached [26]. MFI and MEL are also
collapsible frameworks but do it through a shearing of the pentasil layers paral-
lel to the crystallographic c axis [27]. In non-collapsible frameworks, such as
LTA, FAU and KFI, the TOT hinges rotate in opposite directions when the cell
dimensions and volume change. The frameworks are very flexible at interme-
diate values of the cell dimensions [28].
The distortions observed in the collapsible framework structures MAlSiO4
(ABW) depend on the exchangeable cation M (where M is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl or
Ag) [29]. Even though it is theoretically possible to double the unit cell volume
(Fig. 2), the space group usually remains Pna21 even with structures such as
LiGaAlSiO4 H2O [31], LiBePO4 H2O, LiZnPO4 H2O, LiZnAsO4 H2O [32] and
LiBeAsO4 H2O [33]. Because there is no change in the observed space group
these framework structures are relatively easily determined from powder dif-
fraction data, and, more importantly, they are relatively easily recognized from
their powder patterns.
Powder structure determination becomes more complicated when changes in
both cell dimension and symmetry occur and in these cases similar arrange-
ments of the framework atoms can go unrecognized. An example is the case of
zeolites with the gismondine-type framework arrangement (GIS). This frame-
work is extremely flexible and changes in both the framework and non-frame-
work atoms cause structural changes. Several minerals, with different composi-
tions, but with the GIS framework arrangement with topological symmetry
I41/amd, have been refined using single crystal data in different space groups
(such as I112/b, Fddd, P21c, P21, P212121, Pnma, I2, I4, Pmn21 and P21/a) [34]. The
framework deformation in dehydrated gismondine from Montalto di Castro,
Italy (Ca3.91Al7.77Si8.22O32 17.57H2O) was determined by single crystal X-ray dif-
fraction (Fig. 3; [36]). On dehydration the symmetry of this material changes
from P21/c to P212121 with a doubling of the unit cell volume combined with an
observed shrinkage of the (doubled) unit cell volume by 17%. These subtle sym-
metry changes, that are easily observed using single crystal data, are much more
difficult to observe from powder data. It is much more difficult to recognize
from powder data that two framework connectivities are identical when there
are significant changes in the space group and cell dimensions.
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 9

a c max min

Fig. 2 a c. The ABW framework. a The maximum volume unit cell projected down [001]:
a = 8.96, b =9.50, c=5.49 . Approximately the same unit cell is observed in anhydrous Cs-
ABW. b The minimum volume unit cell projected down [001]: a = 9.50, b = 5.49, c = 4.48 .
Approximately the same unit cell is observed in anhydrous Li-ABW. c Six-ring in the maxi-
mum (max) and minimum (min) volume unit cell seen along [100] with [001] vertical. Repro-
duced by permission of Elsevier Science from [29]

a
b
Fig. 3a, b. Framework deformation in gismondine: a non-dehydrated (space group: P21 /c),
b after dehydration in vacuum at room temperature for 24 h (space group: P212121). Repro-
duced by permission of Elsevier Science from [36]
10 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

For zeolites with the RHO topology [32, 39] the cubic unit cell dimension
varies from a = 13.100 in the dehydrated beryllophosphate mineral pahasa-
paite [44] to a = 15.098 in dehydrated deuterium exchanged rho [49]. If a is
larger than 14.95 the centrosymmetric space group Im3m is observed and if a
is smaller than this the acentric space groups I43m or I23 are observed. In the
centrosymmetric form the double 8-rings are essentially circular, while in the
acentric forms the 8-rings are elliptical (Fig. 4). The ellipticity parameter (EL) is
a measure of the difference between the major and minor axes of the elliptical
8-ring [42] and is a function of both the cation type present and the degree of
hydration. A regression analysis of the acentric aluminosilicate framework
structures gave EL = 13.265 0.798x (unit cell dimension) [48]. A similar linear
variation of the EL parameter against the cubic unit cell dimension is observed
for the beryllophosphates but with an offset from the trend observed for the
aluminosilicates due to the differences in radii of beryllium and phosphorus as
compared to those of aluminum and silicon [46]. All the structural details were
obtained from powder diffraction data, except for those for the mineral pahasa-
paite. The datum for pahasapaite, determined from a single crystal structure
determination, lays on the regression line determined from the powder data and
so strengthens the significance of these data.
Extensive studies on zeolites with NAT [25, 50] or SOD [54] topology have
shown that, in order to accommodate different sizes of non-framework species,
the frameworks collapse by tilting, shearing and/or deformation of the TO4
tetrahedra. In the NAT frameworks this flexibility leads to a variety of space
groups (e.g., I42d, Fdd2, F1d1, Fd11, C112 and F2), and most of these structures
have been determined by single crystal diffraction. In contrast, nearly all SOD
frameworks exhibit the same (P43n) space group symmetry and nearly all these
structures have been determined by powder diffraction. Therefore, it seems rea-
sonable to state that, when only powder samples are available, a powder pattern
refinement is more successful when the choice of the possible space groups is
limited and the number of refinable parameters is small.

a b

Fig. 4a, b. The centric (a) and acentric (b) form of the RHO framework projected down [001].
Reproduced by permission of Elsevier Science from [45]
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 11

Subtle symmetry changes are frequently deduced from diffraction data.


Lowering of symmetry usually increases the number of variable parameters and
also increases the number of reflections which, especially with powder data, can
complicate the analysis of the symmetry changes enormously because of over-
lapping reflections. A successful explanation of such a subtle symmetry change,
caused by shearing of TO4 layers, has been given from the single crystal X-ray
diffraction data of high-silica zeolite ZSM-5 (MFI). The structure of as-synthe-
sized ZSM-5, containing the tetrapropylammonium (TPA) ion, was described
using the orthorhombic space group Pnma [71]. The empty, calcined frame-
work, H-ZSM-5, shows a reversible displacive phase transition at about 340 K.
The precise transition temperature is dependent on the number and type of
atoms substituting for the framework silicon atoms [72, 73]. H-ZSM-5 exhibits
monoclinic symmetry below and orthorhombic symmetry above this transition
temperature. The high-temperature H-ZSM-5 phase is a single crystal with the
same orthorhombic Pnma symmetry and geometry as the as-synthesized ZSM-
5 crystal (containing TPA) (Fig. 5a; [74]) and it is concluded that the template
does not deform the framework significantly. Upon cooling, the empty ortho-
rhombic Pnma crystal changes into an aggregate of twin domains with mono-
clinic P21/n11 symmetry.
Rotation photographs from a H-ZSM-5 crystal at different temperatures
(Fig. 6) illustrate this phase transition. At 295 K splitting of the reflection spots
is observed. From these photographs and the framework topology it can be con-
cluded that the twin formation can be ascribed to a mutual shift (a shear) of suc-
cessive (010) pentasil layers along the + c or c axis with equal probability

(010) layer

a
Fig. 5. a (100) pentasil layer in H-ZSM-5 with orthorhombic Pnma symmetry. b (100) Pentasil
layer in monoclinic H-ZSM-5 at room temperature. Random (exaggerated) shift of (010)
layers along +c and c, leading to a twinned crystal with P21/n11 symmetry. The size of the
twin domains in the actual crystal is at least about 50 unit cells (~1000 ). c Monoclinic
H-ZSM-5 after application of mechanical stress. A perfect monoclinic single crystal is shown.
d (100) Pentasil layer showing the strictly alternating shift of successive (010) layers along c,
leading to orthorhombic P212121 symmetry
12 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

Fig. 5 (continued)
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 13

Fig. 6. Details of rotation photographs of a H-ZSM-5 crystal around [100], [010] and [001]
(left to right) at 400 K (top) and 295 K (bottom). The rotation axis runs vertical in the plane
of the paper

(Fig. 5b; [27]). H-ZSM-5 appears to be ferroelastic: application of an appropri-


ate uniaxial mechanical stress during the orthorhombic/monoclinic transition
changes the population of the monoclinic twin domains and a monoclinic
(nearly) single crystal can be produced (Fig. 5c; [76]). From Fig. 7 it can be seen
that the ratio of the intensities in the 0kl doublets change drastically upon appli-
cation of a uniaxial mechanical stress. The volume fraction of one of the twin
14 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

b
Fig. 7a, b. 0kl-Weissenberg photographs before (a) and after (b) application of an appropriate
uniaxial mechanical stress on a H-ZSM-5 crystal

domains changes from 0.5 to 0.06 after application of this mechanical stress to
the crystal used for structure determination [77]. At room temperature, the
monoclinic/orthorhombic symmetry change can be reversibly induced by sorp-
tion/desorption of various organic molecules (e.g., p-xylene, p-dichloroben-
zene, p-nitroaniline and naphthalene [78]). The sorbate loaded and sorbate free
H-ZSM-5 shows orthorhombic and monoclinic symmetry, respectively. At low
sorbate loading, when there are (sufficient) sorbate molecules in the straight
channels only, H-ZSM-5 exhibits the orthorhombic space group Pnma [78, 80,
86]. High sorbate loadings, when there are additional sorbate molecules in the
sinusoidal channels, bring about yet another symmetry change. The shift of
adjacent (010) pentasil layers along c now strictly alternates and the H-ZSM-5
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 15

framework transforms to orthorhombic symmetry with space group P212121


(Fig. 5 d; [78, 79, 82, 84]). All these symmetry changes were studied using single
crystal data. It would be nearly impossible to determine these changes using
powder diffraction data. Moreover, since the ratio between the number of obser-
vations and the number of unknowns is dangerously smaller than one, it would
be even more difficult to refine the data.
Zeolite A (LTA) is an example of a non-collapsible framework. The flexibility
of this framework has been effectively summarized by Baur (Fig. 8). Single
crystal and powder structural data from 108 determinations were extracted
from ZeoBase [87]. In one extreme configuration, the TO1T angle is almost
180 with the corresponding TO2T angle of almost 128, and in the opposite
configuration the angles are reversed. The size and shape of the 8-ring is there-
fore almost the same in the two extreme configurations but rotated 45 with re-
spect to each other (Fig. 9). For a circular ring opening both TOT angles
should be close to 155; the framework is very flexible at these intermediate

Fig. 8. Plots of TOT angles against the unit cell constant a0 in 108 zeolites with LTA topolo-
gy.As TO2T increases, TO1T tends to decrease. The TO3T angles (not plotted) increase
in the same sense as the TO2T angles, but their increase with a0 is much less. Reproduced
by permission of Academic Press from [28]
16 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

a b

Fig. 9a, b. The two extremes of possible distortions in LTA: a Dehydrated K-exchanged zeolite
A; a0 = 12.31 ; TO1T = 128.5, TO2T = 178.4, TO3T = 153.7. b Dehydrated Li-ex-
changed zeolite A; a0 = 11.96 ; TO1T = 171.6, TO2T = 140.4, TO3T = 133.4. Repro-
duced by permission of Academic Press from [28]

angles. Furthermore the effective size of the pore openings in Zeolite A can be
modified by the appropriate choice of exchangeable cations which partially
block the pore windows. In such a way pore cross sections of 3 (K+ exchanged
form), 4 (Na+ exchanged form), or 5 (Ca2+/Na+ form) can be produced. The
symmetry changes from Pm3m to approximately Fm3c with a corresponding
eight fold increase in unit cell volume. In most cases only a few very weak reflec-
tions are available to support refinement in Fm3c. Therefore, many single crystal
structure refinements were carried out in the higher symmetry space group
Pm3m [88]. However, because the higher symmetry space group constrains the
framework atoms on more special positions, many of the calculated interatomic
distances are in error. A successful refinement in Fm3c has been reported for a
fluoride containing GaPO4-LTA using powder data [91] illustrating the potential
of current powder diffraction methods.

5
Disorder of Non-Framework Species

Another crystallographic problem inherent to zeolite structure analysis is the


localization of non-framework species. The often high symmetry of the frame-
work is rarely obeyed by the guests such as templates, adsorbed molecules or
cations leading to partial occupancies, disorder and pseudo-symmetry. In near-
ly all zeolite structures presently studied, the occluded material is disordered.
When the point group symmetry of the site where the guest molecule resides is
much higher than the symmetry of the guest molecule itself, the induced dis-
order is many fold and an accurate determination of the position and geometry
of the extra-framework molecules becomes very difficult. If, in addition, the
occluded material partially occupies two or more positions not related by a sym-
metry operation of the space group, the electron density of the atoms is spread
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 17

over many sites within the zeolite and the localization of the material becomes
nearly impossible.
Very highly disordered template molecules can sometimes be successfully
modeled as molecules with spherical electron density such as the guest mole-
cules quinuclidine in AlPO4-16 (AST; [92]) and 1-aminoadamantane in dodeca-
sil-1H (DOH; [93]).A novel chiral zincophosphate, (CZP; [94, 95]), very probably
contains a (disordered) infinite helix built up of sodium cations and water mole-
cules. The structural role of the non-framework species is important here be-
cause the framework, which is stable under ambient conditions, irreversibly
collapses to a condensed structure on dehydration.
In some cases fully ordered positions of the template molecules have been
observed and the structure analysis provided valuable information as to the
host-guest interaction. For example, the triple helix of water molecules in VPI-5
(VFI; [19]) probably plays an important role as structure directing agent and
exhibits the same symmetry as the framework (Fig. 10). In this structure there is
no disorder and a very accurate description of the structure was obtained, even
though the organic molecule (di-n-propylamine), present in the synthesis mix-
ture, could not be found in the refined structure. This observation raises an

Fig. 10. The triple water helix, represented by the three grey tubes, within the 18-ring channel
in VPI-5. Reproduced by permission of Elsevier Science from [19]
18 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

important question, that cannot be answered here, as to the role of the di-n-pro-
pylamine in the synthesis of VPI-5.
Another example of template ordering was observed for cobalticinium nona-
sil (NON; [96]). The point group symmetry of the cobalticinium template cation,
Co(C5H5)2+, is 2/m and its center of symmetry coincides with the center of

symmetry of the large cage (point group P1 ) and the template ion is perfectly
ordered. In the final example of template ordering the framework symmetry of

AlPO4-34 (CHA; [97]) is very low (P1 ) and the morpholinium template resides
in a fixed general position. The template cations tetraethylammonium in
AlPO4-18 (AEI; [98]), tetrapropylammonium in SAPO-40 (AFR; [17, 18]),
18-crown-6-Na+ in EMC-2 (EMT; [99]) and DABCO in CoGaPO-5 (CGF; [100]),
are only two-fold disordered because of the small difference in symmetry be-
tween the templates and the frameworks at the position of the templates. The
results for NON, CHA and CGF were obtained from single crystal data and
those for AEI, AFR and EMT from high-resolution powder data. Thus with
either technique, accurate information on the localization of the template can
be obtained as long as their positions are completely ordered or only slightly
disordered.
The same order/disorder problems arise when (organic) molecules are adsorb-
ed into the zeolites and only a few examples of a successful localization of the
adsorbate within the framework have been reported. The study on the structure
of disordered m-xylene sorbed on barium exchanged X (FAU; [101]) at different
loadings shows that with careful attention to detail excellent results can be ob-
tained from powder data. The study revealed that when the loading increases,
different molecular orientations are adopted by the m-xylene molecules in order
to maximize methylmethyl distances and minimize the intermolecular repul-
sion. Other examples which illustrate the potential of accurate powder diffrac-
tion are the studies of various organic molecules adsorbed into type Y (FAU)
zeolites. The sites of aniline and m-dinitrobenzene, simultaneously adsorbed
in NaY using selective deuterated organic molecules, were studied by neutron
powder diffraction [102]. UV spectroscopy gives evidence of a charge transfer
interaction between aniline and dinitrobenzene. In the rare earth exchanged
Na,YbY/1,3,5- trimethylbenzene system [103], the mesitylene molecules occupy
two distinct sites. The molecules on site I are two-fold disordered, while site II is
only singly occupied. In contrast, the other Na,YbY/sorbate systems [104, 105]
show highly disordered organic molecules. At the present time these differences
in results cannot be satisfactorily explained.
No serious order/disorder problems are involved in several H-ZSM-5/sorbate
systems. Single crystals of H-ZSM-5 (MFI) have been successfully loaded with
several organic molecules (see also Sect. 4). The structure of a single crystal of
low-loaded H-ZSM-5, containing about three molecules of p-dichlorobenzene
(pdcb) per unit cell, has been determined in the orthorhombic space group
Pnma [83]. The sorbed pdcb molecules prefer the position at the intersection of
channels (Fig. 11a, b). Although the symmetry of the pdcb molecule is compa-
tible with the site symmetry of the framework it turns out that the molecular
mirror plane perpendicular to the ClCl axis does not coincide with the crystal-
lographic mirror plane and a 2-fold positional disorder around the mirror plane
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 19

a b

c d

Fig. 11a d. ORTEP drawings [106] of the position and orientation of adsorbed molecules at
the intersection of channels in low-loaded H-ZSM-5. Open bonds connect framework atoms
and solid bonds connect atoms in adsorbed molecules. a p-dichlorobenzene molecules in
H-ZSM5/2.6 p-dichlorobenzene, viewed down the straight channel axis. b as in a but viewed
down an axis inclined 20 with the straight channel axis. c naphthalene molecules in H-ZSM-
5/3.7 naphthalene, viewed as in b. d p-nitroaniline molecules in H-ZSM-5/4.0 p-nitroaniline,
viewed as in b
20 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

Table 2. Orientation of adsorbates at the intersection of channels in H-ZSM-5

Code a PDCB1 NAPH PNAN b PXYL PDCB2

x 0.4860 0.4860 0.4858 0.4894 0.4824


y 0.2400 0.2366 0.2332 0.2379 0.2439
z 0.0188 0.0352 0.0260 0.0180 0.0175
ac 47.1 40.5 44.3 31.1 26.2
a Codes are as follows:
PDCB1: H-ZSM-5 containing 2.6 molecules p-dichlorobenzene/u.c.
NAPH: H-ZSM-5 containing 3.7 molecules naphthalene/u.c.
PNAN: H-ZSM-5 containing 4.0 molecules p-nitroaniline/u.c.
PXYL: H-ZSM-5 containing 8.0 molecules p-xylene/u.c.
PDCB2: H-ZSM-5 containing 8.0 molecules p-dichlorobenzene/u.c.
b Molecular center calculated disregarding the oxygen atoms.
c The angle a is defined in the text and illustrated in Fig. 11a.

occurs. The location and rotational orientation of the sorbate at the intersection
can, in a first approximation, be described by the fractional coordinates (x,y,z)
of its molecular center and the angle a between the positive a axis and the vec-
tor normal to the aromatic ring plane (Fig. 11a; Table 2).
In single crystals of H-ZSM-5 loaded with four molecules of naphthalene [81]
or four molecules of p-nitroaniline [86] per unit cell, both exhibiting ortho-
rhombic Pnma symmetry, the organic molecules at the intersection are in an
analogous orientation as in the low-loaded H-ZSM-5/pdcb system (Fig. 11b, d;
Table 2). In H-ZSM-5, fully loaded with eight molecules p-xylene per unit cell,
the adsorbate has been found to be ordered in the orthorhombic space group
P212121, allowing its packing determination (Fig. 12a; [79]). One of the p-xylene
molecules lies at the intersection of the straight and sinusoidal channels with its
long molecular axis nearly parallel to (100) and deviating about eight degrees
from the straight channel axis.
The second p-xylene molecule is in the sinusoidal channel. Its long molecular
axis is practically parallel to (010) and deviates almost six degrees from [100].
The structural aspects of H-ZSM-5 loaded with eight p-dichlorobenzene (pdcb)
molecules per unit cell [84] are in all details comparable to those in the high-
loaded H-ZSM-5/8 p-xylene system (compare Figs. 12a and 12b).
The phase transition from Pnma to P212121 can be connected to a sudden
increase in ordering of the sorbed phase with increasing coverage [79, 107, 108].
This commensurate crystallization of molecules within the H-ZSM-5 frame-
work is assumed to be stabilized by establishing contacts at the channel inter-
section between adjacent molecules (See Fig. 12; [109]). However, the me-
thyl(H)aromatic ring interactions in H-ZSM-5/8 p-xylene are replaced by
Cl-ring (C,H) interactions in H-ZSM-5/8 pdcb, which are substantially weaker.
The importance of these interactions in stabilizing the guest structure within
the zeolite host framework might therefore need reconsideration. The ring-
(C,H)framework (O) contacts, which are the same in both structures, might be
important in stabilizing the actually observed packing arrangement.
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 21

Fig. 12a, b. Position and orientation of adsorbed molecules in high-loaded H-ZSM-5. a p-xy-
lene molecules at the intersection of channels and in the sinusoidal channel in the high-loaded
H-ZSM-5/8 p-xylene system. The angle between the view direction and the straight channel
axis is 15. b As in a with p-xylene replaced by p-dichlorobenzene and viewed down the
straight channel axis

The longest dimension of the adsorbed molecule, being similar to the length
of the straight channel axis, very probably determines the commensurate
crystallization by a flexible response of the channel pores in the zeolite host
framework. The rotational orientation of pdcb in the low-loaded system differs
73.3 (= 47.1 + 26.2) and 78.2 (= 47.1+31.1) from the rotational orientation of
the pdcb and p-xylene molecules trapped at the intersection in the high-loaded
H-ZSM-5/sorbate systems (see Table 2). These two rotational orientations corre-
22 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

spond to the directions of the two maximal pore dimensions observed in the
clover-like window in the empty H-ZSM-5 framework at 350 K [74].
From Table 2 it can be seen that the molecular center (disregarding the oxy-
gen atoms) is approximately the same off-intersection center position in all
structures. The same type of disorder is observed in all low-loaded systems.
Refinements of the low-loaded systems show that the starting orientation of the
sorbate molecule may be rather far away from its minimized orientation as long
as its geometry is reasonable and its molecular center is not too far away from
the minimized value. The examples illustrate that sorbed molecules can be locat-
ed within the zeolite framework by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods
when the symmetry of the adsorption site is compatible with the symmetry of
the sorbed molecule and also in some cases when these symmetries do not coin-
cide and disorder occurs.
Cations often occupy special positions in the structure and their (assumed)
spherical symmetry often coincides with the local framework symmetry. The
positions of these cations have been accurately determined in many zeolites
(particularly in the zeolites with either the FAU, LTA, NAT, RHO or SOD topolo-
gy). One example is the single crystal structure of zeolite A (LTA) exchanged
with Pb2+ at pH = 6.0 and evacuated at 300 K [89] which contains, in each soda-
lite cage, a distorted Pb4O4 cube from which one Pb2+ has been removed. The
four oxygen atoms that were connected to the missing Pb2+ ion, are now coordi-
nated to four additional Pb2+ ions thus stabilizing the [Pb7O(OH)3]9+ ion (Fig.
13). The structure determination illustrates the ability of zeolites to capture
solute structures.
It is not possible to cover even a small number of the papers describing many
different zeolite/cation systems. The reader should review a compilation of

Fig. 13. The [Pb7O(OH)3]9+ cluster within and extending out of the sodalite unit. Reproduced
by permission of Elsevier Science from [89]
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 23

extra-framework sites in zeolites [110] published by the Structure Commission


of the International Zeolite Association. It is planned to publish an updated issue
in 1998, which will include the most recent results.An inexperienced user should
be very careful in assigning extra-framework sites to maxima in a difference
electron density map because simulations in pseudo-symmetric sodalites [60]
and refinement of cation positions in Linde Q (BPH; [111]) have shown that
some of the extra-framework electron density observed in a difference map is
an artifact caused by the Fourier technique used in the refinement of the frame-
work structure.

6
Faulting Within the Framework
Faulting within the zeolite framework is one of the difficulties encountered in
zeolite structure analysis. When faulting occurs repeatedly but in an irregular
manner the resulting structure is disordered. In cases where the repeat distances
between the faults become small enough diffuse stripes perpendicular to the
fault planes are observed in the diffraction pattern. When the fault planes repeat
in every unit cell a new framework topology emerges and the resulting diffrac-
tion pattern again contains peaks only at Bragg positions. Faulting on a very
small and/or irregular frequency will seriously hamper a precise structure
determination. Such faulting is usually evident when a powder pattern has
broad and sharp peaks. Powder patterns can also have broader and sharper
lines when one dimension of the crystal is very thin but this is usually evident
from an electron microscopy photograph.
In the classical sense the explanation of faulting and the calculation of the
resulting powder pattern should not be called a structure determination, yet it
represents one of the more difficult tasks that can be undertaken. Examples are
the studies on zeolite beta, FAU-EMT, MFI-MEL, OFF-ERI, RUB-n and the SSZ-
n/CIT-n series. It must be emphasized that any time the powder pattern consists
of sharp peaks only then faulting is an unsatisfactory explanation for difficulties
with a structure determination. An examination of the three proposed end
members for zeolite beta [112] shows why the material faults. There are several
different sequences of five and six rings around a 12-ring. The only connection
between one arrangement and another would be the chosen crystallographic
symmetry. But this is an artificial choice, because crystallographic symmetry is
a result of the arrangement of the atoms in a structure and not the driving
force. The structure of beta has been shown to be an almost random arrange-
ment of sequences and has an almost uniform powder pattern. The accessibility
of the pore system is not affected by the degree of faulting nor does it change the
diameter of the pore openings. Single crystals of the pure end-members have not
been synthesized yet and therefore no single crystal structure analysis of the
polymorphs of zeolite beta has been performed [115]. Even the beta mineral
analogue, Tschernichite [116], has a powder pattern almost identical to those of
the synthesized beta materials.
In contrast, both a wide range of different intermediate phases and unfaulted
examples of the end-members can be obtained for other intergrown materials.
24 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

Thus, end members of FAU and EMT [117], MFI and MEL, OFF and ERI, some
end-members in the RUB-n series (the zincosilicates RUB-17 (RSN; [120]) and
VPI-7 (VSV; [121, 122]), the beryllosilicate lovdarite (LOV; [123]), the decasil
RUB-3 (RTE; [124]), the borosilicate RUB-13 (RTH; [125])), and one end-mem-
ber in the SSZ/CIT series (the borosilicate CIT-1 (CON; [126, 127])) can all be
produced by a proper choice of synthesis conditions and templates. Blocking
of the pores can occur in some of the faulted intergrowths thereby drastically
changing the properties of the materials. Only the syntheses of zeolite X (FAU)
and ZSM-5 (MFI) currently give single crystals suitable for an accurate X-ray
structure analysis [71, 128].

7
Isomorphous Replacement of Framework Atoms
Isomorphous replacement of framework atoms has been studied in several zeo-
lites. The problem with this type of diffraction experiments is that the difference
in scattering power of a tetrahedral site with and without the substitution
is often small. For example, replacement of 10% of the aluminum atoms at one
site by manganese ((Al9Mn)P10O40 ; AEL; [129]) is equivalent of looking for one
extra electron on a site where there is already an atom. The detection of partial
replacement of phosphorous by silicon, such as in SAPO-43 (GIS; [35]), is even
more difficult.
The incorporation into the framework of tetrahedral atoms with a radius dif-
ferent from the radius of the substituted tetrahedral atom can lead to a change
in unit cell volume and X-ray diffraction can be used to follow these changes.
Cell expansion or contraction does not conclusively establish the actual incor-
poration of tetrahedral atoms into the framework, since extra framework spe-
cies may also change the cell volume. The actual distribution of the incorporat-
ed tetrahedral atoms on the framework sites has been studied using diffraction
data by examining both the refined TO distances (and sometimes the OTO
angles) and the refined population parameters. From statistical studies on the
TO distances it was inferred that in substituted Nu-1-type frameworks (RUT;
[130]) the boron atoms were uniformly distributed over all the tetrahedral sites.
This conclusion may be in error because both the accepted value for a SiO
distance was used and it was assumed that the TOT angle would be un-
changed. A recent paper on a material with the same topology (RUB-10; [131])
now indicates that the boron atoms may be ordered but the space group has
been changed to P21/a.
In several of the cited papers the population parameters (or site occupancies)
of the framework atoms have been refined. The population parameter is fre-
quently used as a parameter which mimics the success/failure of isomorphous
substitution. However, it is dangerous to draw too many conclusions from
changes in the refined population parameters because, like the (anisotropic)
displacement parameters, they act as a waste-basket for all systematic and non-
systematic errors occurring in a refinement. For example, missing tetrahedral
atoms influence the population parameter in a non-systematic way and even the
actual scattering factors used in the refinement affect the site occupancies. It has
Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Diffraction 25

also been shown that in dodecasil-1H (DOH; [93]) when the oxygen atoms are
disordered, the population factors of the tetrahedral atoms appear smaller than
1.0 and this was shown to be an artifact of the least squares algorithm used.
Other examples include the single crystal determination of the structure of
ZAPO-M1 (ZON; [132]), where both the distribution of the TO bond lengths
and the population parameters were consistent with a non-uniform distribution
of the zinc atoms. It has also been claimed that from very precise single crystal
diffraction studies it was observed that the substitution of silicon for phos-
phorus in SAPO-31 (ATO; [133]) and of cobalt for (exclusively) aluminum in
both CoAPO-5 (AFI; [134]) and CoSAPO-34 (CHA; [135]) had taken place. In
many other structure reports the opposite conclusion was reached, namely that
replacement of framework atoms could not be established from the analysis of
X-ray diffraction data alone.

8
Crystal Size Limitations
The possibility of using single crystal data rather than powder X-ray diffraction
became much more feasible with the development of area detectors for use
with high-intensity synchrotron X-ray sources. A 30 30 30 m crystal of
(Mg,Al)PO4-STA-1 (SAO; [136]) was successfully used for structure determina-
tion at the ESRF in Grenoble using a diffractometer equipped with a CCD detec-
tor. Unfortunately, no low angle data were collected which probably accounted
for why the template could not be localized. Data from crystals of this size have
been previously collected using rotating anode generators [34] and even sealed
tube data from crystals of about the same volume [137] have been measured.
Unfortunately, the use of these data was restricted to only determining the
framework structure. In the structure analysis of a 35 20 15 m crystal of
AlPO4-34 (CHA; [97]) synchrotron diffraction data were collected at the SRS at
Daresbury and used to determine the location of the morpholinium cation.
Theoretically the coherence length of about 0.1 m determines the lower size
limit for single crystal diffraction [138] and the physical ability to handle such
small crystals may finally prove to be the limiting factor in their use.
As the size of the crystal that can be used decreases it can be expected that the
use of single crystal diffraction facilities at synchrotron sources by the zeolite
community will increase enormously in the coming years. However, many new
microporous materials are synthesized with crystals that are only 1 m in size
still too small to be utilized for single crystal work and only can be studied by
powder techniques.

9
Conclusions
As hopefully explained here, the problems with attempting structure deter-
minations of unknown materials requires that an accurate starting model be
obtained and all of the possible problems that could cause subtle framework
26 H. van Koningsveld J.M. Bennett

changes be evaluated. This requires that the unit cell dimensions and space
group be correctly determined. Molecular modeling techniques have started to
be applied to determining starting models. They are currently restricted by
being difficult to use to compose a framework arrangement within a defined
unit cell and space group. Other techniques are focusing on using the power of
current computers to try to determine a framework arrangement by starting
with random arrangements of atoms and hoping that the program can refine the
starting models to the correct topology.
While all these techniques will continue to improve over the next few years,
the quality and accuracy of the final crystal structure will depend on how good
the data are and how well the unit cell and space group have been determined.
While not covered in this paper, it should be also realized that input from many
other characterization techniques should be used as an aid in the determination
of an unknown structure, that the final solution should be in agreement with
data from all the different techniques employed and that the solution should
make chemical sense. When the structure has been correctly determined, it is
possible to use the information to explain framework distortions, cation and
sorbate locations, isomorphous substitutions and other subtle variations in the
behavior of the structure. But, the use of the structure of a material requires a
correct structure determination and obtaining that solution is both a science
and an art and not a trivial exercise.

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Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction
A.N. Fitch 1 and H. Jobic 2
1 ESRF, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex, France; e-mail: fitch@esrf.fr
Department of Chemistry, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
2 Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, 2, avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex,
France; e-mail: jobic@catalyse.univ-lyon1.fr

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2 Neutrons and Neutron Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3 Investigation of the Framework and Cations in Zeolites . . . . . . . . 38


3.1 Gallosilicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.2 Aluminosilicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.3 Aluminophosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4 Other Microporous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4 Location of Adsorbed Hydrocarbon Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


4.1 Benzene in Faujasite Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2 Adsorption of Pyridine in Na-Y and Gallozeolite-L . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.3 Xylenes and Other Aromatics in Zeolites X and Y . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.4 Benzene in Potassium Zeolite L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.5 Benzene in MFI Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

5 Location of Small Physisorbed Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

6 Single-Crystal Studies on Natural Hydrated Minerals . . . . . . . . . 57

7 Proton Positions and Hydronium Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

8 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

1
Introduction
Neutron diffraction from single crystals and powders is a powerful technique for
investigating the crystal structures of zeolites and microporous materials, as
well as other inorganic compounds. Whereas X-ray diffraction is the method by
which the framework structures of new zeolites are generally determined, either

Molecular Sieves, Vol. 2


Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999
32 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

from a laboratory or synchrotron radiation source, neutrons can be used to


probe in greater detail the arrangements of water molecules, hydrogen bonds
and cations in the cavities, and the location of adsorbed molecules. The ordering
of the tetrahedral atoms of the framework can also be investigated. Neutron
diffraction is therefore complementary to other investigative techniques such as
magic-angle-spinning NMR. Microporous materials, with the exception of some
natural minerals, do not generally form good quality crystals of a size suitable
for single-crystal neutron diffraction. Powder diffraction is therefore the tech-
nique that is most usually applied. However, for materials where single crystals
are available, this is the preferred approach, because the absence of peak overlap
greatly enhances the reliability of the refinements of complex structures. The
investigation of zeolites by powder neutron diffraction was reviewed in 1986 by
Newsam [1]. This article will review powder work from around this period
onwards, as well as previous single-crystal studies. Other articles that are of
interest which cover many of the practical aspects of powder diffraction include
the reviews by Baerlocher [2], Baerlocher and McCusker [3], McCusker [4, 5],
and Cheetham and Wilkinson [6]. The latter discuss many aspects of modern
neutron and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. An overall introduction to
neutron diffraction may be found in the books by Bacon [7] or Squires [8].

2
Neutrons and Neutron Diffraction
A neutron is an electrically neutral particle that has a spin of 21 and hence a
magnetic moment. Its rest mass (mn) is 1.675 1027 kg, so, by de Broglies rela-
tionship (l = h/mn u) a neutron travelling with a speed (u) of 3956 ms1 has a
wavelength (l) of 1 . This is of the same order of magnitude as the interplanar
spacings in a crystal lattice, and hence is a suitable wavelength for carrying out
diffraction experiments. The neutron is scattered by interaction with the nucle-
us of an atom via the strong nuclear force, or the magnetic moment can interact
with unpaired spins via the electrostatic interaction. The nuclear scattering
gives information about the arrangement of the atomic nuclei in the structure,
whereas the magnetic scattering reveals the ordering of unpaired electron spin
density. It is the nuclear scattering that is of most relevance in the investigation
of zeolite structures.
A plane wave of neutrons incident on an isolated nucleus considered fixed at
the origin is described by a wave function
yin = exp (i k z)
where k is the magnitude of the wave vector, i.e. 2p/l, and z is taken along the
direction of travel of the neutrons towards the nucleus. The incident neutron
flux is u | yin | 2. After interacting with the nucleus, the scattered wave is spheri-
cally symmetrical and has the form
ysc = (b/r) exp (i k z)
where r is the distance from the nucleus, and b is the scattering length for the
atom. If k is the same before and after scattering, i.e. the wavelength is unaltered,
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 33

no energy has been exchanged between the neutron and the nucleus, and the
scattering is said to be elastic. The outgoing current of scattered neutrons inte-
grated over all directions is given by 4 p r2 u | ysc | 2. The scattering cross section,
s, of the nucleus is defined as
outgoing current of scattered neutrons
s = 0000004
incident neutron flux
4 p r 2 u |(b/r) exp(i k z)| 2
= 0000
u |exp(i k z)| 2
= 4 p b2 .
Hence the bigger the value of b for a nucleus, the greater the probability that an
incident neutron will be scattered.
The nuclear scattering length, b, depends on the structure of the atomic
nucleus and therefore varies, seemingly erratically, from one element to the next,
and indeed from one isotope to another of the same element (Fig. 1). Within a
factor of say 3 or 4, most atoms scatter neutrons equally well, which contrasts
with the case of X-ray diffraction, where the scattering power increases steadily
with the number of electrons in the atom. For example, uranium (element 92)
scatters X-rays much more strongly than nitrogen (element 7), whereas with
neutrons, nitrogen scatters 11% more strongly than uranium. Furthermore,
because the range of the strong nuclear force ( 1015 m) is very small compared
to the wavelength of the neutron, the neutrons are scattered spherically, i.e.
there is no dependence of the scattering power on angle. This again contrasts
with X-rays, where the electron cloud that scatters the photons is of a similar size
to the wavelength; interference between the waves scattered from different parts
of the electron density leads to a fall off in scattering power with angle, or form-
factor (Fig. 2). With neutron diffraction, therefore, the intensities of the diffrac-
tion peaks decrease less rapidly with angle as compared to X-ray diffraction.

Fig. 1. Average neutron scattering lengths [10] for elements, and isotopes 1H, 2D and 7Li
34 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

Fig. 2. Neutron (solid line) and X-ray (dotted line) scattering factors for nickel as a function of
sin q/l. Neutrons are scattered isotropically, whereas with X-rays there is a form-factor fall off
of scattering power with angle

For nuclei that have nuclear spin, the magnetic moment of the nucleus can
interact with the magnetic moment of the neutron to modify the nuclear scatter-
ing length, depending on the spin state. Thus for normal hydrogen, 1H, the pro-
ton has spin 12 and hence two nuclear spin states of + 12 and 12 occur. More gen-
erally, for a nuclear spin J there are 2 J + 1 spin states.With hydrogen, the two spin
states have scattering lengths of 1.04 fm and 4.7 fm. These occur with equal
probability, yielding an average scattering length of 3.741 fm. Nuclei with posi-
tive and negative scattering lengths scatter neutron waves with opposite phases.
For an assembly of nuclei, the nuclear scattering length varies randomly from
one nucleus to the next, depending on the nuclear spin state. In a similar way,
when a natural element has more than one isotope, the scattering length varies
between nuclei depending on which isotope is actually occupying a particular
position. These fluctuations in scattering length over an assembly of nuclei give
rise to a coherent and an incoherent scattering cross section for the element,

given by scoh = 4 p (b )2 and sinc = 4 p {b 2 (b )2}, respectively. The coherent scat-

tering depends on the mean value of the scattering lengths, b , over the assembly,
which is the same for all equivalent atomic sites. Consequently, it can give rise to
interference effects, such as diffraction, and hence to structural information.
The incoherent scattering depends on the random distribution of the deviations
of the scattering lengths from their mean value. Being randomly distributed
over the assembly, no interference effects can occur and hence no structural
information is available from incoherent scattering. However, by studying the
incoherently and inelastically scattered neutrons, information about the dyna-
mics of the incoherent scatterers in an assembly can be obtained. In this respect,
normal hydrogen, with its two spin states, has a very high incoherent scattering
cross section, of 79.9 1028 m2, whereas its coherent cross section is much
smaller, 1.8 1028 m2. Inelastic neutron spectroscopy is an important tool for
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 35

studying the dynamics of systems containing hydrogen, including microporous


materials [9]. Rotational and translational motions can be characterised by qua-
sielastic neutron scattering (QENS). These motions occur at very small energy
transfers and yield a continuous spectrum centred about the elastic peak [9].
The general uses of nuclear neutron diffraction include the location of light
atoms, such as hydrogen, lithium, etc., which can scatter as strongly or more
strongly than heavier elements, differentiation between neighbouring elements
in the periodic table, for example the neutron scattering lengths of Al, Si and P
are 3.449, 4.149, and 5.13 fm, respectively [10], and the characterisation of disor-
dered systems since the absence of a form factor leads to much stronger scatter-
ing at high values of sin q/l, i.e. at small diffraction d spacings. The neutron is
highly penetrating and is strongly absorbed only by those atoms with an appro-
priate nuclear transition, such as 10B, 6Li, 113Cd, etc. Hence sample environments
are easily constructed, and neutrons are useful for studying the behaviour of
materials with temperature, pressure, or for following the course of a solid-state
chemical reaction in a reaction vessel constructed from a low-absorbing mate-
rial such as silica glass. When investigating systems containing hydrogen atoms,
it is generally desirable, if possible, to use a deuterated form of the sample, to
avoid the high incoherent background due to 1H, which is detrimental to the sta-
tistical quality of the data.
Neutrons for diffraction experiments are produced by the fission of uranium
in a nuclear reactor, or by the bombardment of a heavy metal target (e.g. urani-
um or tantalum) by an energetic beam of particles, such as protons. The former
gives a steady-state source whereas the latter can give either a steady source or a
pulsed source depending on the time structure of the proton beam hitting the
target. The neutrons are emitted from the nuclei with very high energies, and
must be at least partly moderated, by exchanging thermal energy with their sur-
roundings or with hydrogenous materials such as liquid methane placed in their
path, so that they have a distribution of energies appropriate for the diffraction
experiment.
From the source, the neutrons are led to the experimental area in guide tubes.
With a steady-state source, neutrons with a narrow distribution of wavelengths
(Dl) are selected using Bragg diffraction from a crystal monochromator. The
monochromatic beam is incident on the sample, and the scattered neutrons are
detected by scanning a bank of detectors around the sample position. Compared
to even a conventional X-ray source the flux from a reactor is quite low. Hence
the highest flux at the sample, the maximum detector efficiency, and a relatively
large volume of sample are required to ensure reasonable counting times.A typi-
cal scan to collect data with a high-resolution powder diffractometer may last
several hours. As an alternative to scanning a bank of single detectors, position-
sensitive detectors can be used, but these tend to have poorer angular resolution
and are used principally for dynamic measurements, rather than high-resolu-
tion experiments for the characterisation of complex crystal structures.
With a pulsed source of neutrons the time-of-flight method (TOF) can be
used. Here the detectors are placed at fixed scattering angles (2 q) around the
sample, and the time taken for each neutron to travel from the source to the
detector is recorded. Since a neutrons speed is related to its wavelength by de
36 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

Broglies relationship, the wavelength of each neutron can be calculated, and the
spacing dhkl between the reflecting lattice planes in the sample obtained from
Braggs law, dhkl = l/2 sin q.
Both methods have their advantages.With the TOF method the whole powder
diffraction pattern is collected simultaneously, and because the moderation of
the neutrons is incomplete, to maintain a temporally compact pulse, there are
many short-wavelength neutrons available so that data can be easily collected to
high values in sin q/l. The resolution of the instrument can also be made super-
ior in this regime by having a long flight path and detector banks at high angle,
which has advantages for the accurate refinement of crystal structures. By con-
trast, there are fewer long-wavelength neutrons available, making measurement
of the large d-spacings from a specimen more difficult. This is more easily
accomplished using longer wavelength neutrons at low 2 q values such as are
available using a reactor source.With monochromatic neutrons the treatment of
the data is much simpler because there is no need to make energy-dependent
corrections such as absorption, or to correct for the variation of the incident flux
with neutron energy.
Whether using monochromatic radiation, or the TOF technique, the diffrac-
tion pattern consists, in the single crystal case, of a set of intensities for reflec-
tions from the various lattice planes of the crystal. For a powder, the diffraction
pattern is recorded as intensity vs. scattering angle 2 q for monochromatic radia-
tion, or vs. d spacing or TOF for pulsed radiation. The intensity of the radiation
scattered from a set of crystal lattice planes is dependent on the structure factor
Fhkl which is determined by the arrangement of the atoms within the unit cell of
the crystal, i.e.


N 1 1 2
Fhkl = bi exp{2 p i (hxi + kyi + lzi)} exp 3 Bi 6
i=1 4 dhkl
where the summation is over all the N atoms in the unit cell at positions (xi , yi ,


1 1 2
zi ). The term exp 3 Bi 6 is the isotropic DebyeWaller factor which
4 dhkl
takes account of small displacements, either static or due to thermal motion, of
the atoms about their mean positions in the structure. The larger the value of Bi ,
which is usually referred to as the isotropic temperature factor, the greater the
root mean square displacement of the atom i about its mean position.
To refine the structure from single-crystal data, the various parameters that
characterise a crystal structure, e.g. atom positions, occupancies, DebyeWaller
factors, etc., are allowed to vary so as to obtain the best least-squares agreement
between the observed reflection intensities and those calculated from the struc-
tural model. In the powder case, there is usually overlap between adjacent peaks,
so that the individual intensities are no longer measurable. Nevertheless, as illus-
trated in Fig. 3, the overlapping peaks produce a complex diffraction profile that
clearly contains a lot of structural information. The refinement of a crystal
structure from powder data makes use of the Rietveld method [11]; the complex
diffraction profile is calculated from an initial structural model as a sum of over-
lapping reflections, and compared to the observed pattern. To do this a peak-
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 37

Fig. 3. A powder neutron diffraction pattern measured with a monochromatic beam of neu-
trons. The points represent the counts measured on the diffractometer, the solid line is the dif-
fraction profile calculated from the best structural model fitted by least-squares using the
Rietveld method. The bottom solid line is the difference between the observed and calculated
profiles. Ideally, with a perfect model, differences between the observed and calculated pro-
files should be due only to counting statistics. In reality, there are always deficiencies in a
model (both in the structure and the description of the peak and profile parameters) leading
to additional features in the difference curve. Vertical lines indicate the 2q positions of each of
the reflections contributing to the profile. As can be seen, especially at high angle, peak over-
lap is extensive

shape function must be assumed. For monochromatic data, this is usually a


Gaussian, or more likely, a pseudo-Voigt function, which is the normalised sum
of a Gaussian and a Lorentzian component. For TOF data more complex func-
tions are required. The positions of the peaks are calculated from the unit-cell
parameters of the model structure, the peak widths have a simple dependence
on 2 q or d, and the peak intensities are determined by the arrangement of atoms
in the crystal. By varying the unit-cell parameters, the parameters that describe
the variation of peak width with angle or d, and the atomic parameters, the best
least-squares fit between observed and calculated diffraction profiles can be
obtained, and hence the best crystal structure is refined. Figure 3 shows the
result of a typical Rietveld refinement from monochromatic powder neutron
data.
38 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

3
Investigation of the Framework and Cations in Zeolites

Early work using powder neutron diffraction was mainly devoted to studying
variations of the framework caused by cation exchange, changes in composition,
temperature, dehydration etc., and the nature (if any) of ordering of Si and Al.
Examples can be found in reviews [1, 12].

3.1
Gallosilicates

A hydrated lithium gallosilicate with the ABW framework [13] LiGaSiO4 H2O
was investigated at 19 and 298 K [14, 15] and was shown to have strict alterna-
tion of Si and Ga in the framework, as might be expected from Loewensteins
rule [16]. One lithium-ion site and one water molecule were located. The lithium
is tetrahedrally coordinated by three framework oxygens and the oxygen of the
water molecule. The positions of the hydrogen atoms indicate only weak hydro-
gen bonding to a framework oxygen and an adjacent water molecule. It is clear
that the position of the water molecule is dominated by the interaction with the
lithium ion, and that the hydrogen bonding is of secondary importance (Fig. 4).
The SiO bond lengths are slightly longer than normally expected [mean
distance of 1.647(5) ] which is believed to arise from the influence of the lithi-
um ions, the acute nature of the average SiOGa bond angle, and the direct
electronic effect of having Ga in the framework rather than Al.

Fig. 4. View along the channel of the ABW gallosilicate showing the framework ordering, the
lithium cation position, the position of the adsorbed water molecule, and the weak hydrogen
bonding [14]
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 39

For the analogous aluminogallosilicate, LiAl0.5Ga0.5SiO4 H2O, a similar struc-


ture was seen [17]. There is no evidence for the formation of a supercell, or for a
reduction in the symmetry, which would be required if there were ordering of
the Ga and Al atoms. Hence Loewensteins rule applies, with the segregation of
Si and Al/Ga onto separate sites, but on the Al/Ga site the arrangement is dis-
ordered on the long-range crystallographic scale. A single Si4(Al/Ga) peak in
the 29Si NMR spectrum is also consistent with a disordered Ga/Al distribution.
Hydrated and dehydrated synthetic sodium-cesium gallosilicates, with higher
Si/Ga ratios in the range 2.452.49 and the ANA framework [13], were found to
have compositions comparable to those of the natural aluminosilicate pollucite,
with Ga replacing Al [18]. No evidence was found for long-range ordering of Si
and Ga which were assigned a single crystallographic site. For the hydrated spe-
cimens, the positions of the water molecules were consistent with an early neu-
tron single-crystal study on analcime [19], with water molecules occupying the
same site at (1/8,1/8,1/8) as Cs, to give overall full crystallographic occupancy.
There is little change in the framework on dehydration, although a small shift in
the Na position is seen, to accommodate the loss of the partly coordinating water
molecules which are at a distance of 2.43 in the hydrated samples.
The structures of three gallosilicates with the FAU framework [13], NaxGax-
Si192xO384 , (with x = 85, 72 and 57, Si/Ga = 1.25, 1.67 and 2.36, corresponding to
aluminosilicate zeolites Na-X, an intermediate composition, and Na-Y), were

refined [20]. The space group was consistently found to be Fd3 m with long-ran-
ge disorder of Si and Ga over one crystallographic site, as opposed to the lower

symmetry space group Fd3 , which would result if there were two sites for
the framework tetrahedral atoms because of Si and Ga segregation. The occu-
pancies of various sodium-ion sites were refined, but only four were found to
be relevant for this system, i.e. sites I, I, II, and III [21]. Site II in the supercage is
always fully occupied. The occupancies of site I, in the centre of the hexagonal
prism, and site I, in the six-ring window just inside the sodalite cage next to
the hexagonal prism, appear to adhere to the notion that occupancy of site I
excludes occupancy of the two adjacent site I positions because of their prox-
imity. The maximum occupancy for these sites is thus given by 2 site I + site
I = 32. Hence if the total occupancy of sites I and I is less than 32, then, for a
given hexagonal prism, either the SI site is occupied or the two adjacent SI sites.
As the number of sodium ions increases with x, so the occupancy of site I
increases at the expense of site I, so that in zeolite X, site I is fully occupied with
32 ions per unit cell. This trend is consistent with the occupancy of sites I, I and
II seen for Na-Y [22]. Site III appears to accept the overspill that cannot be
accommodated in sites I, I and II. It seems likely that the way the occupancies of
the cation sites evolve with composition is responsible for the discontinuities
seen in certain framework properties in FAU zeolites such as lattice parameter
rather than effects associated with long-range coherence in the local Si/Al
ordering schemes.
40 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

3.2
Aluminosilicates

The ionic conductivities of dehydrated alkali-metal zeolites X and Y have been


studied [23]. Substitution of a small amount of Li+ into Na-X causes a large
decrease in conductivity below 150 C. However, the conductivity of Li-X is
higher than that of Na-X above 350 C. A powder neutron diffraction study of
Li-X and Li-Y, with a very high level of Li exchange, revealed two sites for Li in
Li-Y, at sites I and II, and for Li-X, a third position at site III was also found. The
negative scattering length of Li for neutrons means that the first two sites were
seen as negative peaks in the Fourier maps. The third site for Li-X was located
via a systematic investigation of possible positions of the cation in the refine-
ment. The SII site is fully occupied in Li-X, but only 67% occupied in Li-Y, which
contrasts with the situation in Na-X and Y, where the SII site always appears to
be full. The site III is located in a mirror plane near the twelve-ring window. The
lithium ion is coordinated on one side by two O(4) atoms at 2.13(5) , two O(1)
at 2.30(5) , and one O(3) at 2.22(8) .
Synthesis of a dealuminated zeolite Y of a highly crystalline zero defect
nature was evident from the sharp diffraction peaks seen in a time-of-flight neu-
tron diffraction study [24]. Dealuminated (or ultrastable) zeolite Y is of particu-
lar importance in the petroleum cracking industry because of its enhanced ther-
mal stability. The sample was synthesised by treating Na-Y with silicon tetra-
chloride vapour, and was then washed and heated to remove aluminium that
may have accumulated in the pores. Refinement of the occupancy of the tetra-
hedral framework atoms showed no significant deviation from being entirely
silicon. No aluminium in the framework or sodium ions in the channels are
therefore present. Attempts to locate adsorbed benzene molecules at a coverage
of around one molecule per supercage at 4 K were not successful. Although the
increase in lattice parameter with respect to the bare zeolite confirms benzene
is in the sample, the absence of any cation sites implies a very flat potential
energy surface so that the benzene is highly disordered in the channels, dis-
tributed over a range of low symmetry sites greatly reducing its influence on the
Bragg intensities. Deuterium NMR studies of this system indicate that the be-
haviour is different from that observed in Na-Y (uide infra).
Zeolite ZK-4 is a more silicious analogue of zeolite A. Zeolite A was the subject
of much study in the early 1980s by powder neutron diffraction and solid-state
NMR to assess the nature of the framework ordering [1, 12].With a Si/Al ratio very
close to unity, Loewensteins rule is expected to hold, with strict alternation of Si
and Al in the framework.Hence the structure is described in the cubic space group

Fm3 c with a lattice constant of approximately 24 . For sodium ZK-4, with a Si/Al
ratio of 1.65, the absence of superstructure peaks indicate that the structure
can be described in a subcell, in space group Pm3m, with a lattice parameter of
12.19 [25]. This implies that there is no long-range ordering of Si and Al, though
local ordering is no doubt present, as suggested by 29Si MAS NMR. The sodium
ions were located in the expected position in the six-ring window. Additional
peaks in the difference Fourier maps suggest some residual material from decom-
position of the organic template, or slight dealumination of the framework.
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 41

Measurements by NMR, IR, and neutron diffraction of deep-bed calcined


zeolite D-ZK-5 show that calcination at 500 and 650 C causes dealumination of
the framework, and the loss of bridging OH groups [26]. Methanol adsorption is
75 and 45% of the theoretical maximum for calcination at 500 and 650 C, re-
spectively. Cesium ions in the sample are found at the centre of a single eight-
ring window. A difference Fourier map reveals density that appears to be the Al
and O atoms of aluminium removed from the framework. The occupancy of this
site is higher in the sample calcined at the lower temperature. This is possibly
because at higher temperatures the aluminium removed from the framework
forms more randomly oriented clusters, thus reducing their prominence in the
Fourier maps.
Detailed studies of the framework changes and the location of non-frame-
work aluminium following calcination have been reported for zeolite D-Rho.
The studies involve deep-bed calcination at 500 and 700 C [27], shallow-bed cal-
cination at 500 and 600 C [28], and shallow-bed calcination in steam at 500 C
[29, 30]. Deep-bed calcination results in extensive dealumination, whereas shal-
low-bed results in less damage. With steam, around half the framework-Al is
removed, and a weakly acidic bridging hydroxyl group can be identified.
Zeolite Rho is renowned for the flexibility of its framework, which responds
to changes in the level of hydration or cation exchange. This offers perhaps the
prospect of tailoring shape selectivity in catalytic processes by correctly siting
cations to cause the appropriate framework distortion, e.g. changes to the aper-
ture of the openings connecting the cages. In situ X-ray diffraction was used to
examine changes to various samples of zeolite Rho containing divalent cations
(Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Cd2+) as a function of temperature [31]. Mixed Ca2+/Cs+ and
Ca2+/NH+4 samples were also investigated. For the latter, the effects of dehydra-
tion (at 100 C) and the evolution of ammonia (at 400 C) were clearly evi-
dent. Neutron diffraction studies of Ca2+/ND+4 exchanged samples show that at
room temperature there are two coexistent phases, with either a high ND+4 and
low Ca2+ content, or vice versa. Structural parameters were refined for both pha-
ses by a multiphase Rietveld refinement. The sample with the higher Ca content
has the smaller lattice parameter, because the polarising Ca2+ ion causes more
distortion to the zeolite framework. After deammoniation by heating to 400 C,
the two-phase mixture becomes single phase, with a redistribution of calcium
ions to form Ca/D-Rho. Comparison of the frameworks of H-Rho with that of
Ca/D-Rho shows a very significant distortion to the eight-rings which form
highly anisotropic ellipses. The distortion leads to a 21% decrease in unit-cell
volume, illustrating the enormous flexibility of the framework [32] (Fig. 5).
The framework distortion and the location of Rb and water molecules were
compared in the dehydrated aluminosilicate Rb10Al10Si38O96 and the novel
berylloarsenate Rb24Be24As24O96 3.2D2O [33]. Both have the Rho framework.
Whereas the structure of the aluminosilicate could be easily refined from
powder neutron diffraction data, yielding two Rb sites, a combined refinement
with X-ray diffraction data was required for the berylloarsenate in order to
provide greater contrast between Rb and water, as the scattering powers of
oxygen and hydrogen for X-rays are very much lower than Rb. Four Rb and three
water sites were obtained, and an elliptical distortion to the framework eight-
42 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

a b

Fig. 5a, b. Projection of the zeolite Rho framework for a D-Rho (a = 15.0976(4) ) and b Ca/D-
Rho (a = 13.9645(7) ), illustrating the enormous flexibility of the Rho framework [32]

rings was seen that appeared to follow the same trend with lattice parameter
established for other materials with the Rho framework. Further work has
used neutron and X-ray powder diffraction to characterise various Rb- and
Tl-substituted compounds with beryllophosphate, berylloarsenate and alumino-
silicate frameworks [34].
A highly silicious analogue of ferrierite has been investigated by synchrotron
and neutron powder diffraction, 29Si MAS NMR, and energy minimisation cal-
culations [35]. Ferrierite is reported to have excellent shape selectivity in the
catalytic isomerisation of n-butene to isobutene. The crystal structure of natu-
ral ferrierite is reported in the high symmetry space group Immm. However this
imposes a 180 TOT bond angle, which may indicate that the symmetry is in
reality lower, thus allowing a relaxation from this value. Both the X-ray and neu-
tron refinements produce better fits in space group Pmnn, a subgroup of Immm,
with weak reflections in the X-ray data that are forbidden in Immm confirming
the lower symmetry. The final refinements were made simultaneously to both
X-ray and neutron data sets, to produce the most precise determination of the
atomic parameters. The 180 bond angle relaxes to 170 in the lower symmetry
description. Atomic positions calculated from empirical force fields for silicates
produced excellent agreement with the experimental structure. Furthermore,
the 29Si NMR spectrum cannot be fitted assuming four distinct Si atoms (in the
ratios 4:8:8:16) as required for the model in space group Immm, but can be
fitted qualitatively using the five resonances of the lower symmetry Pmnn
model, provided they are allowed to have different line widths.

3.3
Aluminophosphates
Aluminophosphates (or AlPOs) are microporous materials built from vertex-
sharing AlO4 and PO4 units in a way analogous to aluminosilicate zeolites.Whilst
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 43

some of these compounds and their substituted derivatives have the same struc-
tures as zeolites, others have structures for which there is no aluminosilicate
equivalent. From a chemical viewpoint, strict alternation of Al and P in the
framework is to be expected. Because Al and P have different scattering lengths,
neutron diffraction should be a sensitive probe of this ordering in the frame-
work, whose occurrence can also be confirmed from 31P and 27Al MAS NMR.
For AlPOs, powders with a high degree of crystallinity have often been hard
to synthesize. Hence peak broadening in the powder diffraction patterns is usual.
With large unit cells, and complex structures, there are many overlapping reflec-
tions, and this problem is exacerbated by the peak broadening. The alternation
of Al and P in the framework leads to strong pseudosymmetry, with a close
resemblance to a disordered structure without Al/P ordering. Under these con-
ditions it is very difficult to refine an ordered structural model, even from neu-
tron diffraction, and several studies have been limited to a description of the
overall average structure in a higher symmetry space group than that required
for Al/P ordering.
Nevertheless important structural information has been deduced from neu-
tron powder diffraction studies on AlPOs. Thus the structure of AlPO4-11 was
solved from a combination of methods [36]. From electron diffraction the unit
cell and lattice type were deduced, and were found to be consistent with X-ray
powder diffraction patterns. The framework topology was obtained from a
modelling technique, and revealed a new structure, related to AlPO4-5 by remo-
val of one set of four-rings. The refinement of the structure was carried out from
time-of-flight powder neutron diffraction data in space group Icmm, with Al and
P disordered in the framework. The refinement confirmed the proposed frame-
work structure. Ordering of the Al and P in the framework requires a reduction
in symmetry to Icm2. Refinements were attempted in this space group [37] and
appear to confirm the ordered structure. However, because of the complexity of
the ordered model, problems with the convergence of the refinement were
encountered, and the ranges in bond lengths and angles are larger than ex-
pected.
In a similar manner, the highly complex structure of AlPO4-54, or VPI-5, was
determined from powder diffraction data [38]. The unit cell and hexagonal sym-
metry suggested a similarity to the (then) theoretical network 81, which has an
eighteen-ring channel. The structure was refined from neutron powder data,
without framework ordering in the space group P63/mcm; again the proposed
structure, the first of its kind, was confirmed. High resolution X-ray powder
diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation and a highly crystalline sample
showed that the symmetry must be reduced to space group P63 , which is lower
than that required for simple ordering of P and Al in the framework (space
group P63cm), leading to six crystallographically distinct T-atoms in the frame-
work. The water molecules were also located running in a triple helix of hydro-
gen-bonded chains down the eighteen-ring channel [39]. The relationship be-
tween AlPO4-8 and VPI-5, from which AlPO4-8 can be prepared by calcination,
led to the solution of the latters structure, in conjunction with evidence from
electron microscopy and model building [40]. Because of the problems posed
by a complex structure with pseudosymmetry, the refinement from neutron
44 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

diffraction data was conducted in the higher symmetry, disordered space


group.
One of the simplest microporous aluminophosphates is AlPO4-5. Single-
crystal X-ray diffraction determinations of the structure before calcination
showed hexagonal symmetry, with strict alternation of Al and P in the frame-
work (space group P6cc) [41, 42]. A refinement of the structure of calcined ma-
terial from powder neutron diffraction data did not provide a convincing
answer, and a satisfactory fit was only achieved in the higher symmetry space
group P6/mcc where again there is disorder of the Al and P [43]. This result was
unexpected as it conflicts with the evidence of the single-crystal X-ray studies.
The problem arises because during calcination the framework undergoes a
small distortion to an orthorhombic structure. The distortion is revealed by tiny
splittings to diffraction peaks that are seen from a well-crystallised sample using
high resolution X-ray powder diffraction of synchrotron radiation [44]. The pre-
sence of other very weak peaks shows a further reduction in symmetry. A num-
ber of models in different subgroups of the hexagonal space groups were inves-
tigated, and that in Pcc2 was found to give the best fit to both the X-ray data, and
a new powder neutron diffraction pattern taken of the same well-crystallised
sample. The neutron data, with the greater contrast between Al and P, ought to
be a more stringent test of the different models. The final model adopted was
that refined from the neutron data (Fig. 6). A better refinement was obtained
because of the higher quality of the neutron data out to small d-spacings, and
because the enhanced contrast between Al and P leads to a reduction in the
pseudosymmetry as compared to the X-ray pattern. However, the angular reso-
lution of the neutron data was much lower than that of the X-rays, and without
the latter, the reduction in symmetry from hexagonal to orthorhombic would
have been very hard to see. As with ferrierite above, there is much to be gained
when studying complex microporous systems by using a number of comple-
mentary techniques.

3.4
Other Microporous Materials

The ingenuity of the chemist knows no bounds, and more and more micro-
porous materials are being synthesised using elements from throughout the
periodic table. Where these cannot be grown as single crystals, powder methods
must be used for structural solution. Whereas X-ray data is often the method of
choice for an initial determination of the structure, neutron diffraction often
plays its role to investigate framework-atom ordering, to locate light atoms, dis-
ordered cations and adsorbed water molecules, to investigate hydrogen bond-
ing, and to provide good quality structural refinements. It is generally true that
the accuracy of structural refinements from powder neutron data is often
higher than that from X-ray data, because the data extends to lower d-spacings,
and there are fewer problems with absorption, and preferred orientation with
a large sample.
Some examples where neutron diffraction has contributed to studies of novel
microporous materials include studies of LiZnPO4 H2O, where the positions of
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 45

Fig. 6. View down the c-axis of AlPO4-5 showing the Al and P ordering in the orthorhombic
space group Pcc2. In this space group there are two crystallographically distinct twelve-ring
channels
46 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

lithium, water and the hydrogen atoms are located in the cavities [45]. The fra-
mework is of the type ABW, and the Li cation and the water molecule take up
positions as in the analogous gallosilicate LiGaSiO4 H2O discussed above [14,
15]. A dehydrated magnesium-sodium beryllophosphate, Mg19Na58(BePO4)96 ,
was found to have the faujasite structure [46]. Strict alternation of Be and P in

the framework reduces the symmetry from Fd3 m found in zeolite Y to Fd3 .
Magnesium and sodium ions were ordered onto separate sites. Mg is at the cen-
tre of the hexagonal prism (SI) and Na is found on its preferred position in zeo-
lites X and Y, the SII site. The structure of a sodium zinc arsenate, Na6(ZnAsO4)6 ,
was solved by simulated annealing from X-ray powder diffraction data. However
the final refinements were made from low-temperature neutron diffraction data
[47]. The framework is of the condensed hexagonal stuffed tridymite structu-
ral type and undergoes a reversible transformation on rehydration to a frame-
work analogous to sodalite, which involves the breaking of TOT bonds and
their reforming into a different framework, whilst still maintaining Zn/As alter-
nation. There is no equivalent transformation in the aluminosilicate analogue.
The structure of a complex, non-centrosymmetric gallophosphite, Ga2-
(HPO3)3 4H2O, was solved from a combination of high-resolution synchrotron
radiation diffraction and powder neutron diffraction [48]. Twenty-nine distinct
atoms were located in the asymmetric unit of the crystal structure. The overall
structure was solved using direct methods and Fourier synthesis from the X-ray
data, to reveal the positions of 17 atoms. Hydrogen-atom positions were ob-
tained from subsequent analysis of the neutron data, in which the fourth water
molecule was found, whose presence was not expected following the initial ther-
mogravimetric analysis of this new compound. The structure is made up of
units comprising two GaO6 octahedra linked by three phosphite groups through
shared oxygen atoms. The units are connected into a three-dimensional frame-
work by sharing oxygens with other units and by hydrogen bonding. This pro-
duces small elliptical channels lined with hydrogen atoms. The X-ray data can-
not be used to reveal the arrangement of hydrogen atoms in this compound,
and the structure is too complex to be solved by neutron diffraction data alone.
Splitting the problem into two manageable stages, structure solution and heavy-
atom structure from X-rays, light atom structure from neutrons, greatly in-
creases the complexity of the structures that can be solved by powder diffraction
techniques.
The gallophosphite contains octahedrally coordinated Ga atoms in the frame-
work. Structural units other than tetrahedra will become more common as the
diversity of elements incorporated into microporous compounds progresses.
Other compounds containing octahedra in the framework are the members of
the series M4 x Hx Ge7 O16 nH2O, where M is virtually any univalent cation. The
arrangement of water molecules, hydrogen bonds and cations in the silver-sub-
stituted (Ag4) and sodium-ammonium (Na3NH4) forms were also obtained from
a combination of high-resolution powder X-ray and neutron diffraction [49].
The strongly scattering Ag+ ions were easily located in two sites by the X-rays,
and the water molecules and hydrogen atoms were found sequentially by analy-
sis of the X-ray and neutron data. Nitrogen is a strong scatterer of neutrons (with
a scattering length of 9.36 fm) and the neutron data can be used to confirm the
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 47

replacement of one of the Ag+ sites by ND+4 , and the other by the three Na+ ions.
In these two isomorphous compounds, the water molecules and cations form
two-dimensional sheets that run perpendicular to the body diagonal of a
rhombohedral unit cell that is only slightly distorted from cubic.

4
Location of Adsorbed Hydrocarbon Molecules
Molecules adsorbed into zeolites are very often disordered. The disorder can
arise from there being more than one chemically distinct site for the location of
the molecules, or because the high symmetry of some zeolites means that there
are many symmetrically equivalent sites for the molecules. For steric reasons,
not all sites can be occupied simultaneously. The forces between the adsorbed
molecules and the framework or interchannel cations are generally quite weak,
leading to considerable thermal motion of the molecules at ambient temperatu-
res. Hence there are frequently a number of partially occupied sites for adsorbed
molecules with relatively facile exchange between them. Neutrons are therefore
well suited to investigating these systems. The absence of a form factor means
that diffracted intensities are stronger at high angle than is the case with X-rays,
leading to a more reliable distinction between the effects of partial occupancy
and the effects of thermal motion. For hydrocarbon (preferably deuterated)
molecules, the hydrogen atoms make a large contribution to the scattering, thus
improving the chances of accurately locating the molecules.

4.1
Benzene in Faujasite Structures

One of the earliest investigations of the position of adsorbed hydrocarbon mole-


cules in zeolites by powder diffraction was the location of deuterated benzene in
dehydrated sodium zeolite Y (Si/Al = 2.43) [12, 22, 50, 51]. Three samples con-
taining no benzene, approximately 1.1 and 2.6 molecules per supercage, were
studied at ambient temperature and at 4 K. After analysis of the data from the
bare zeolite, which revealed the presence of three sites for the sodium ions in
agreement with previous X-ray studies [52], this arrangement was used as a start-
ing model for the data from the sample containing the lower coverage of ben-
zene at 4 K. Fourier difference maps revealed the presence of the first benzene
position, which lies perpendicular to the body diagonal of the cubic unit cell at
an average distance of 2.70(1) from the SII sodium ions in the supercage. This
sodium-ion site is fully occupied and is coordinated to six oxygen atoms form-
ing the hexagonal face of a sodalite cage. There is clearly an interaction between
the polarising sodium ion and the p-electron density of the benzene stabilising
the molecule in this position.
At higher coverage, a second benzene site was found in the twelve-ring win-
dow between supercages. As well as an interaction between the hydrogen atoms
of the molecule and the oxygen atoms of the window, there are favourable
distances to the hydrogen atoms of neighbouring benzene(1) sites and these also
48 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

help stabilise this position in the window. A small occupancy of the second site
was subsequently refined at lower coverage, and it seems that the proportion
of benzene in the second site increases with overall coverage, supporting the
notion that this site is stabilised by interaction with occupied benzene(1) sites.
Small angle neutron scattering studies of benzene in Na-Y [53] indicate that at
low coverages (1 molecule per supercage) the benzene molecules are distributed
rather evenly throughout the channels, whereas at higher coverages (2.5 mole-
cules per supercage), clusters of molecules with a size of around 20 form. The
arrangement of molecules in such clusters can be easily envisaged from the two
benzene positions found by neutron diffraction. Each supercage has four ben-
zene(1) sites and there is sufficient room for all four to be occupied simul-
taneously. If four molecules in each of two adjacent supercages are linked by a
molecule in the window site, then a compact cluster with the appropriate dimen-
sion is formed (Fig. 7). Small shifts in the positions of the sodium ions and the
centres of the benzene molecules at higher coverage seen in the diffraction experi-
ment are compatible with the formation of such clusters. The room-temperature
studies showed that the molecules are in similar positions to those at 4 K, but the
high temperature factors indicate they undergo vigorous molecular motion.
Theoretical papers [54, 55] appear to reproduce well the behaviour deter-
mined by neutron diffraction. NMR investigations of the distribution of the
molecules throughout the zeolite cavities [5660], and spectroscopic measure-
ments [61, 62] are in good agreement.
Similar positions are seen for the location of benzene in H-SAPO-37 [63],
the silicoaluminophosphate equivalent of zeolite Y with Al/Si/P ratios of
1.0:0.31:0.69. At a coverage of one molecule per supercage, the preferred
adsorption site is in the twelve-ring window (22% occupancy) with about half

Fig. 7. Two adjacent supercages in sodium zeolite Y, showing a cluster of adsorbed benzene
molecules, formed from 8 benzene(1) molecules bonded to the SII sodium ions in the two
supercages, linked by a benzene(2) molecule in the twelve-ring window
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 49

as much (12% occupancy) adsorbed above the six-ring window. In this position
the benzene has two orientations about its molecular sixfold axis, rotated by 30
with respect to each other, and is stabilised by a facial interaction with the hydro-
gen atom attached to the six-ring oxygen atom O(2), whose location is similar to
that of the SII cation in Na-Y. Prior to adsorption of the benzene, the neutron dif-
fraction data from the bare zeolite confirm the occurrence of Al/P ordering in
the framework, with Si substituting for P, and show that hydrogen atoms are at-
tached to O(1), O(2) and O(3), with occupancies of 20, 6 and 4%, respectively.
However, after adsorption of benzene, hydrogen is found attached only to O(2).
Hence hydrogen atoms are redistributing themselves to interact more favour-
ably with the sorbate molecules. This deduction is compatible with the accom-
panying infrared measurements. The authors postulate, based on the observed
similarity of the diffusion of benzene in H-Y, H-SAPO-37 and ultrastable-Y
(determined from NMR T1 measurements), that proton migration to the O(2)
site might occur in all these systems. This would imply that the Brnsted acid
activity of a zeolite catalyst may be determined to some extent by the sorbate,
and the extent to which favourable interactions can be formed between the sor-
bate and the acid sites.

4.2
Adsorption of Pyridine in Na-Y and Gallozeolite-L

Spectroscopic studies indicate that pyridine in Na-Y is adsorbed at a Lewis acid


site [64, 65]. A neutron diffraction study at low coverage [66] suggests that the
only adsorption site for pyridine is centred in the twelve-ring window, very simi-
lar to the position of benzene(2). The pyridine molecule has sixfold orientatio-
nal disorder with the nitrogen atom pointing towards the O(4) atoms of the win-
dow. The apparent nitrogen-to-oxygen distances of 3.84 [to O(4)] and 3.83
[to O(1)] are too long as to allow any charge transfer to the framework, and
there is no direct coordination to any sodium ion. This site is possibly stabilised
by the dipole moment of the molecule interacting with the charge distribution
around the window, which depends on the local arrangement of the aluminium
atoms; in a diffraction study, which yields a structure that is an average over time
of all the unit cells of the sample, six-fold disorder is apparent. More detailed
analysis, and experiments carried out at higher coverages, suggest that the site
adjacent to the SII sodium ion also becomes occupied, but with a high degree of
orientational disorder for the pyridine molecules [67].
In potassium gallozeolite-L [68], the nitrogen atom is coordinated, as one
might expect, to one of the K+ ions, K(4), at 3.00 distance, and is oriented so as
to lie close to the channel wall, thus optimising its interactions with the frame-
work. The position of pyridine was also investigated by energy minimisation
calculations, using atom-atom potentials that included van der Waals and elec-
trostatic terms between the molecules and the zeolite. Excellent agreement is
reported between the experimentally determined and calculated locations.
50 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

4.3
Xylenes and Other Aromatics in Zeolites X and Y

Xylenes in FAU Structures. The location of the three xylene isomers in Yb, Na-Y
zeolite was studied at 5 K by Czjzek et al. [69, 70]. This zeolite was chosen be-
cause the activity of Y-zeolites for reactions like isomerisation and dispropor-
tionation of xylenes increases when sodium ions are replaced by rare earth
cations. For neutron diffraction, ytterbium is a good candidate because it has a
large coherent cross section and relatively small incoherent and absorption
cross sections compared to the other rare earth metals. The Yb3+ ions are not in
direct contact with xylenes since they are mainly located at the position SI in the
sodalite cage. They do however interact with the framework leading to a con-
traction of the lattice (the cell parameter is 24.58 in Yb, Na-Y compared with
24.85 for Na-Y [22]). Upon xylene adsorption, a further slight modification of
the unit-cell parameter is observed [70], depending on the sample composition.
This flexibility of the framework is also seen on adsorption of benzene. For the
three isomers, two crystallographic sites A and B are found (Fig. 8). In both sites,
xylene molecules are perpendicular to the [111] axis and interacting with Na+
ions in site II. Position B is rotated by 30 with respect to position A, so that the
carbon atoms lie on the intersecting mirror planes. Six equivalent orientations
are found for o-xylene on each site by rotating the molecule through 60. For
p-xylene, three orientations are possible on each site, by rotating the molecule
through 60 and 120. However, m-xylene molecules occupy only site B at low
loading and they have only three possible orientations because the two methyl
groups then have short contacts to the O(1) framework oxygens (2.82 ).At high
loadings (2.5 molecules per supercage), some m-xylene molecules are found on
site A but the favoured site remains site B. For p-xylene and o-xylene, most of the
molecules are also adsorbed at low loading on site B. Site A has a higher occupa-
tion at high loading to minimise steric hindrance between methyl groups of
adjacent molecules. The distance of the aromatic ring centre to the sodium
cation is 2.41 for p-xylene in Yb, Na-Y. This increases to 2.57 for o-xylene
and to 2.65 for m-xylene, indicating a decrease of the interaction in the fol-
lowing order: p- > o- > m-xylene.
The rotational dynamics of p-xylene and m-xylene in Na,Yb-Y have been stu-
died by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) in the temperature range
100460 K [71]. At 100 K, only methyl groups rotate while the aromatic ring
stays fixed, on a time scale of 1011 s. Some methyl groups, however, are blocked
due to different interactions with the framework. With increasing temperature,
a uniaxial rotation of the whole molecule about the axis perpendicular to the
molecule sets in and the amplitude of motion increases with temperature.
Isotropic spherical rotation is never reached indicating strong interaction with
the cations. For a loading close to the saturation, the molecules still rotate but the
amplitude is restricted by molecule-molecule interactions.
Molecular simulations have also been carried out to study the structure, ener-
getics, and diffusion properties of p-xylene in Na-Y zeolite [72]. The predicted
adsorption site is located inside the supercage, in front of the SII sodium cations,
with the same orientation as the main species located by neutron diffraction
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 51

Fig. 8. Part of the unit cell of zeolite Y showing the supercage, viewed through the twelve-ring
window, and the two possible sites for xylene isomers (here ortho) [70]
52 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

[70]. Minimisations performed at higher loadings suggest that the other orien-
tation is due to clustering. The rotational dynamics were also investigated [72].
It was found that the rotation around the C6 axis of the aromatic ring is much
faster than the out-of-plane rotation and that this motion becomes slower as
the loading increases. Furthermore, C6 rotation was found to be fast compared
to migration between adsorption sites. All these results obtained for rotatio-
nal dynamics by simulations are in agreement with the experimental QENS re-
sults [71].
The diffraction studies performed on xylenes in Yb, Na-Y have been extend-
ed by Mellot et al. to Ba zeolite X [7375]. The Ba-X zeolite is of great interest
because of its higher selectivity for p-xylene when competitive adsorption of
xylenes occurs. This zeolite is used for the industrial separation of p-xylene
from other C8 aromatics, (i.e. o- and m-xylene and ethylbenzene). A molecular
model for the filling of the supercages by m-xylene and p-xylene has been pro-
posed. Up to two molecules per supercage, m-xylene molecules are adsorbed as
in Fig. 8, with the orientation B. The center of the aromatic ring is 2.44 from
the Ba2+ cation in position SII. A very short distance of 2.38 is found between
the deuterium atoms of the methyl groups and the O(1) atoms, indicative of
hydrogen bond type interactions. Close to the saturation of the zeolite (loading
2.8 molecules per supercage) all m-xylene molecules interact with barium
cations in site SII; some migration of these cations into the supercages occurs
as the loading increases. However, the positions of the molecules are different
from those found at low coverage. Approximately two molecules are adsorbed
in position B and one in position A (Fig. 9). The Ba2+-to-ring distance observ-
ed in position B (2.75 ) is shorter than in position A (2.90 ). The third
m-xylene molecule provokes a reorientation of the two molecules adsorbed in
site B to the less favourable B position in order to allow the third molecule to
occupy site A. The situation was found to be more complicated after p-xylene
adsorption. The first two molecules were found in position A (Fig. 8), at a
distance of 2.8 from Ba2+, but the third molecule could not be located. This
third p-xylene molecule has no direct interaction with barium cations and it
does not affect the two molecules in site A. Although it is less energetically
adsorbed, possibly through the window, it has been found by QENS that, at high
loading, the average rotational motions of p-xylene molecules are more
blocked than those of m-xylene [76].
On the other hand, Descours et al. [77] found that in Na-X, m- and p-xylene
are adsorbed near the SIII cation site, at low coverage, in preferance to SII. Re-
orientations of the molecules near SIII are observed for loadings larger than
2 molecules per supercage.

Other Aromatic Molecules in FAU Structures. The two adsorption sites deter-
mined for benzene in Na-Y were also observed for aniline in Yb, Na-Y [78]. For
the site in front of the sodium cation SII, the molecule has a threefold orienta-
tional disorder (Na+-to-ring distance: 2.59 ). As for m-xylene in the same
zeolite, these orientations involve short contacts of the ND2 group with O(1)
oxygens. For the window site, a sixfold orientational disorder is observed. The
ND2 group points in the direction of the O(4) atoms. Contrary to benzene, the
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 53

Filling of the zeolite indicated in number of molecules per supercage

O Ba D C
Fig. 9. Adsorption of m-xylene in Ba-X zeolite showing the different positions for the mole-
cules as a function of the loading [75]

two sites are equally occupied by aniline. A contraction and a flattening of the
window are observed, as in the case of benzene [22]. However, because of its size,
aniline is found to be tilted out of the window plane.
Mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) is a bigger molecule than aniline and
therefore does not fit into the twelve-ring windows. This molecule was located
inside the supercage of Yb, Na-Y, with two different orientations in front of the
SII sodium ions, as in Fig. 8 [79].
The preferred adsorption sites of several aromatic molecules, benzene, tolu-
ene, xylenes, mesitylene, aniline, m-nitroaniline, and m-dinitrobenzene, were
investigated by molecular mechanics calculations [80]. The nonpolar molecules
were all located in front of the six-ring window, with Na+-to-ring distances in the
range 2.52.8 , in good agreement with experiment. m-Xylene and mesitylene
were found essentially in the orientation B (Fig. 8), due to attractive interaction
of methyl groups to the O(1) oxygens.Aniline was located in front of the six-ring
window, like the nonpolar aromatic molecules, in agreement with neutron dif-
fraction [78]. An increase in polarity, by introducing one or two nitro substitu-
ents, leads to completely different adsorption sites. For m-nitroaniline, the cal-
culation shows that the nitro group points towards the SII Na+ cation whereas
the aromatic ring crosses the twelve-ring window so that the amino group is
located in the adjacent supercage. The computed structure of m-dinitrobenzene
54 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

found the molecule in front of the four-ring window. Both structures were found
to be in reasonable agreement with X-ray diffraction data.
Recently, powder neutron diffraction studies have been made on m-dinitro-
benzene in Na-Y at different loadings, homogenisation temperature and water
content [81]. The polar nitro group favours interactions with the cations rather
than with the negatively charged framework. Complex behaviour is seen for
these systems, with variations in the arrangements of the cations and the sorbed
molecules. The most important factor controlling the adsorption is due to polar
interactions; the cations take up positions where coordination by the oxygen of
the framework, water or guest molecules is possible and the molecules take up
positions so that the nitro groups interact with as many cations as possible.
Other factors are the minimisation of steric hindrance between the framework
and the guest, and sample preparation and history.
Coadsorption of aniline and m-dinitrobenzene in Na-Y shows two adsorp-
tion sites for each of the molecules [82]. The different molecules were distin-
guished by studying samples containing deuterated aniline and normal m-
dinitrobenzene, thus exploiting the difference in the neutron scattering lengths
of D and H, 6.671 and 3.739 fm, respectively. Final refinements were conducted
on fully deuterated samples. All the molecules lie perpendicular to the cube dia-
gonal of the cubic unit cell.Aniline molecules are found bound to the SII Na+ ion
and near the twelve-ring window. The dinitrobenzene molecules are far from
any window at intermediate positions. Although in the diffraction experiment
this arrangement appears highly disordered because of the high symmetry of
zeolite Y, visible-UV spectroscopy shows a broad band around 400 nm indi-
cating a charge transfer interaction between the two molecules, so that the
molecules are arranged in a coplanar manner, stacked alternately one above the
other along the unit cell diagonal. The arrangement of the sodium ions is
markedly modified by the aromatic molecules and their location helps stabilise
the adsorbed molecules.

4.4
Benzene in Potassium Zeolite L
Studies at room temperature and 78 K have located benzene in dehydrated zeo-
lite L, K9Al9Si27O72 [83, 84]. In characterising the bare zeolite prior to adsorption
of benzene the ratio of Si to Al was refined for the two crystallographically
distinct framework T-sites [85]. Thus it was possible to show that the Si(1) site
of the twelve-ring window is more favourably occupied by the Al atoms, in
agreement with the different average TO distances of 1.650(4) and 1.636(3)
seen for Si(1) and Si(2), respectively. In a previous X-ray study [86], no direct
refinement of the preferred occupancy of Al was possible, and both T-sites were
given the average occupancy based on the chemical composition. By means of
structural refinement, Fourier calculations and interactive molecular model-
ling, various models for the location of benzene were assessed.Although favour-
able in the modelling calculations, the site in the twelve-ring window was found
to have zero occupancy at the coverage investigated, i.e. 1 molecule per unit cell.
The sole site for benzene was found capping one of the five crystallographically
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 55

distinct potassium ions in the channel side walls. The interaction between p
density of the benzene molecules and the cations appears similar to that be-
tween benzene and sodium SII in Na-Y. This arrangement affords facile re-
orientation in the molecular plane, as indicated by deuterium NMR measure-
ments above 150 K.

4.5
Benzene in MFI Structure

The location of eight molecules of benzene per unit cell adsorbed into ZSM-5 at
77 K has been investigated by Taylor [87, 88]. The arrangement of molecules is
complicated, with three general locations. Two of these are in the intersection of
the straight and sinusoidal channels, and the third is at the centre of symmetry
in the straight channel. There is considerable disorder in these positions, and six
independent molecules were required to fit the powder diffraction pattern.
Sacerdote-Peronnet and Mentzen [89] have investigated benzene at a lower
coverage, four molecules per unit cell, and saw molecules adsorbed only in the
intersection. Two benzene orientations are required to fit the data. Benzene in
ZSM-5 has also been studied by powder X-ray diffraction, again with indications
of complex behaviour for the molecules [90].
Recently, a new study of this system has been made using high-resolution
powder neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction data collected using syn-
chrotron radiation [91]. The structure is refined to both data sets simultaneous-
ly, thus increasing the amount of information available to define the structure.
The structural model must fit well to both data sets, thus decreasing its vulnera-
bility to systematic errors, either in the data collection or in the data analysis.
The different relative scattering power of the atoms for neutrons and X-rays
means that different atoms contribute differently to the two patterns, e.g. the
hydrogen atoms contribute very little to the X-ray pattern, but are strong scatter-
ers of neutrons. As well as improving the reliability of the final crystallographic
model, this approach, which has already been mentioned in the section describ-
ing studies of the frameworks of zeolites, allows the exploitation of the natural
complementarity of the different radiation sources.
For benzene in ZSM-5, both X-ray and neutron diffraction can be used to
show the general whereabouts of the adsorbed molecules. However, because
some of the chemically distinct sites are close together, and all sites are in the
proximity of symmetry elements, there are superimposed positions which can-
not be occupied simultaneously. Furthermore, the molecules perform signifi-
cant molecular motion at room temperature, so that unravelling the details of
the molecular orientations is very difficult from a single diffraction technique
alone, since diffraction sees only the average scattering density. In the X-ray pat-
tern only the positions of the carbon atoms can be observed, and the proximity
of alternative sites means that different models, involving quite different orien-
tations of the molecules, can fit the data equally well. For neutrons, both the car-
bon and deuterium atoms scatter strongly, and such a complex and blurred
volume of scattering density is observed that it is again impossible to deduce
the true orientations of the molecules. However, from a combined approach,
56 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

a model that accounts for both sets of data can be developed, and this
should be the model that is closest to the true positions of the adsorbed
molecules.
For a coverage of 34 molecules per unit cell, benzene was located only in the
intersection. Two crystallographic sites are required to describe the scattering
density. Each of these is twofold disordered by the mirror plane that passes mid-
way through the intersection. Hence in each intersection, one benzene molecule
can be accommodated, and it may reside in any one of four actual positions. At
higher coverage, 78 molecules per unit cell, molecules were found adsorbed
into a site in the intersection, in the sinusoidal channel, and in the straight chan-
nel. Each site is twofold disordered by symmetry. The positions found agree very
well with the results of theoretical predictions of the location of benzene in
ZSM-5 [92, 93]. Hence it appears that the combined refinement of neutron and
high-resolution X-ray data is a powerful way to unravel complex problems in the
characterisation of zeolite and zeolite-adsorbate structures.

5
Location of Small Physisorbed Molecules

Attempts to induce molecular hydrogen to form a super-fluid Bose-condensed


phase have tried to suppress the temperature of the bulk liquid-solid transition
at 13.8 K, by confining the hydrogen to small volumes in porous media.
NMR studies of H2 adsorbed in zeolite 13X appeared to show a suppression of
the transition to around 8 K. However, time-of-flight powder neutron diffraction
measurements of D2 in zeolite 13X, which is expected to behave in a manner
similar to that of H2 , showed that the deuterium molecules are adsorbed at
two distinct sites in the host [94]. Hence the deuterium becomes an integral
part of the crystal structure, and can no longer be viewed in terms of a bulk
solid or liquid phase. No details of the sites were given. However they differ
in stability, the second site starting to fill once the more stable site becomes
saturated. When the second site is full, a bulk phase forms on the surface of
the zeolite.
The physisorption of rare gases and small molecules in MFI and AFI struc-
tures [13] has been studied by Llewellyn et al. [96, 97] and by Coulomb et al. [97].
Stepped isotherms were measured for these systems and interpreted by localised
adsorption. In situ neutron diffraction experiments were performed at different
points of the adsorption isotherm, at low temperature. In silicalite I, it was found
that argon and krypton undergo a liquid-solid-like phase transition at high
loadings but that methane remained disordered [96]. Despite the difference in
size between Ar and Kr, the uptakes at saturation are the same. The adsorption
sites in silicalite I appear homogeneous to physisorption, which means that
these atoms do not seem to distinguish between the straight or sinusoidal chan-
nels and the intersections. The solid-like phases of Ar and Kr are identical in
structure and commensurate with the silicalite I microporous network. Similar
results were obtained for nitrogen and carbon monoxide in the MFI structure,
except that two substeps were found in the isotherms of both molecules [96].
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 57

The first one was assigned to a phase transition from a disordered (fluid)
phase to a lattice fluid-like phase and the second one to a crystalline-like solid
phase.
A more quantitative analysis was carried out for H2 , Ar, CH4 and CF4 adsorb-
ed into AlPO4-5 and SAPO4-5 [97]. The structure of this aluminophospate is
much simpler than the MFI structure and consists of one-dimensional 12-mem-
bered ring channels. The molecules appear to be extensively disordered in the
one-dimensional channels of the zeolite. For methane, a transition is reported to
occur during loading from a disordered fluid phase to a more-ordered arrange-
ment of molecules. A model comprising chains of CD4 dimers (four molecules
per unit cell) gives good agreement with the measured powder diffraction
pattern.
In these systems, neutron diffraction has been used to obtain information on
short- and long-range order. However, no Rietveld refinement has been at-
tempted so far to derive the positions of the physisorbed molecules.

6
Single-Crystal Studies on Natural Hydrated Minerals

Neutron diffraction has been used to locate the water molecules and to study
hydrogen bonding in several natural zeolites. The heavier atoms had usually
been previously located in X-ray structure refinements but neutron diffraction
yielded more precise locations for the hydrogen atoms. The Si/Al order or dis-
order can also be evaluated more precisely from neutron than from X-ray dif-
fraction because of the larger difference in the scattering amplitudes of these
elements.
It appears that the first neutron diffraction study to locate water in zeolite
single crystals was performed by Torrie et al. [98] in natrolite (vide infra). This
was also the first water/zeolite system to be studied by inelastic neutron scatter-
ing [99]. Other pioneering studies were made by Bartl in leonhardite [100] and
by Ferraris et al. in analcime [19]. Analcime, Na16Al16Si32O96 16 H2O, has Si and
Al atoms randomly distributed and the 16 Na cations have a disordered distri-
bution over the 24 sites available to them. When there is such a disorder, the
atoms are more difficult to locate precisely, especially the water molecules, and
large temperature factors are usually obtained.
With natrolite, Na2Al2Si3O10 2H2O, in addition to the work of Torrie et al.
[98], two more recent neutron refinements have been performed by Pechar et al.
at room temperature [101], and by Artioli et al. at 20 K [102]. The natural single
crystals used in both studies possessed fully ordered Si/Al distributions. This
could be checked from the refinement of the Al and Si scattering lengths and
also from the large differences between the lengths of the b and a unit-cell para-
meters (b a) a criterion introduced by Alberti and Vezzalini [103]. The final
atomic coordinates are similar in both neutron studies, with lower estimated
standard deviations in the measurement performed at 20 K. In particular the
isotropic B factor for the water molecules is smaller by a factor of 2 at 20 K (the
B factors for the hydrogens are 1.87 and 2.1 2). The mean SiO distances are
58 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

1.620 and 1.622 and the mean AlO bond length is 1.747 . The sodium cation
is coordinated to 2 water oxygens (distance 2.37 and 2.39 ) and to 4 framework
oxygens (two short distances of 2.37 and 2.39 and two longer ones at 2.5 and
2.6 ). The water molecules are all equivalent, each water oxygen is linked to
2 sodium ions (distances given above), and the hydrogens are bonded asymme-
trically to 2 oxygens of the framework (distances 1.88 and 2.10 ). Similar posi-
tions were obtained by X-ray diffraction at room temperature [104]. However
for the water molecules the OwH distances from the X-ray study are too short
(mean value of 0.66 ), the hydrogen bonds with the framework are too long
(2.21 and 2.35 ) and the HOH angle is too large: 117 compared with 108 in
[98], 107.9 in [102] and 110.3 in [101] (in the gas phase the value is 104.5). It
should be noted that in the X-ray study [104], some dehydration of the crystal
was observed after a long period of data collection, and this was attributed to
absorption of radiation energy.
The structure of another fibrous zeolite, edingtonite, Ba2Al4Si6O20 7H2O, has
been studied by neutron diffraction at 294 K [105]. The ideal unit cell has 8 water
molecules but some dehydration occurs at room temperature. Complete Si/Al
ordering was also found in this zeolite. Each barium ion lies in the centre of the
channel which is pulled into an elliptical shape by bonding to 6 framework oxy-
gens (at 2.893.04 ) and to 4 water oxygens. Four water molecules are coordi-
nated to the barium cation and linked to oxygens of the framework. Weak inter-
action of water with the framework is reflected by the large distances between
the hydrogens and the oxygen atoms (1.9152.103 ). The crystal structure of
another sample was studied at 293 and 100 K by Belitsky et al. [106], and refined
parameters in agreement with those reported by Kvick and Smith [105] were
obtained. The neutron data gave essentially the same results for both tempera-
tures, but with a lower symmetry at 100 K due to shifts in one hydrogen position.
In addition to the neutron diffraction work, a combined 27Al, 1H and 2H study
gave evidence of a structural phase transition below 200 K and of anomalous
librational motions for some water molecules [106].
The structure of scoletite, CaAl2Si3O10 3H2O, is similar to that of natrolite but
the cations and water molecules occupy different positions. There is also a small
monoclinic distortion and the structure has been described in different space
groups and unit cells. Neutron diffraction studies have been performed at room
temperature [107, 108] and at 20 K [109]. The calcium ion is strongly coordi-
nated to 3 water oxygens and linked to 4 oxygens of the framework (at 2.48
2.59 ). The 3 water molecules are shown in Fig. 10. All water molecules are
involved in one strong and one weak hydrogen bond to the framework (due to
Al/Si ordering). The HOH angle varies from 106.6 to 111.1.
Heulandite has an ideal composition, Ca4Al8Si28O72 24H2O. If severely dehy-
drated, there is an irreversible collapse of the lattice and of the zeolite channels.
Hambley and Taylor have studied at room temperature the hydrated and par-
tially dehydrated forms of a single crystal of heulandite close to the ideal com-
position [110]. It was found that dehydration leads to significant changes in the
lattice constants, to a depletion in the water and cation sites and to the occupa-
tion of a new water and cation site. The influence of this cation and water move-
ment upon dehydration was discussed in the context of the thermal stability of
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 59

Fig. 10. The hydrogen bond scheme in scoletite at 20 K [109]


60 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

this zeolite. In clinoptilotite, which has a higher Si/Al ratio and where much of
the calcium is replaced by monovalent cations (Na and K), the occupancy of
additional sites was suggested as the reason for the greater thermal stability of
this structure.
The bonding of water molecules in another fibrous zeolite, thomsonite, of
composition close to NaCa2Al5Si5O20 6H2O, was studied by Pluth et al. at 293 K
[111]. Again, precise positions for all the heavier atoms and correct but impre-
cise positions for the hydrogen atoms had previously been derived from X-ray
diffraction [112]. The neutron refinement gave precise positions for all atoms,
including the hydrogen. The refinement indicated Si/Al ordering. There are
4 independent water molecules. Each water oxygen is bonded either to one Ca,
or to two Na or Ca ions that together form a site of mixed occupancy. Two frame-
work oxygens, O1 and O2, are bonded to two hydrogens, while two other oxy-
gens, O3 and O4, are only bonded to one hydrogen. There is some positional dis-
order combined with thermal disorder which is reflected by the large isotropic
temperature factors for some water atoms.
As in analcime, the Si/Al atoms in brewsterite, (Sr, Ba)2[Al4Si12O32] 10 H2O, are
randomly distributed.A neutron diffraction study on a natural single crystal with
little Ba was carried out by Artioli et al. at room temperature [113]. Multiple pro-
ton positions were found for 3 out of the 4 types of water molecules, and they
could not be related to a local arrangement of Si and Al atoms. The Al substitu-
tion was estimated from the TO distances. Multiple choices were derived for
short-range order models. It was concluded that the bonding scheme was tolerant
of a variety of Al distributions, and that each bond distance or angle was subject
to a minor perturbation in response to the actual distribution of nearby atoms.
The disordered water distribution in a sample of stellerite, of composition
Ca7.7Na0.3(Al, Si)72O144 50H2O, was studied at room temperature by Miller and
Taylor [114]. Stellerite, stilbite and barrerite have the same aluminosilicate
framework structure but vary in the concentrations of sodium and calcium
cations. Stellerite has the highest symmetry structure and the single crystal
neutron diffraction study was described in the space group Fmmm. Contrary to
previous examples, the calcium ion in stellerite is completely isolated from the
framework by an encompassing sphere of disordered water molecules. The
hydrogen atoms point away from calcium and interact weakly with framework
oxygen atoms. Attempts were made to study dehydration. However, the crystals
disintegrated when heated to 100 C in air or in vacuum, indicating that water
molecules are an essential part of this zeolite structure, even if weak hydrogen
bonding is observed.
A neutron diffraction study of gismondine, Ca3.91Al7.77Si8.22O32 17.6H2O, was
carried out at 15 K by Artioli et al. [115]. The atomic coordinates of all frame-
work atoms, calcium, and the first 4 water oxygens was in agreement with a pre-
vious X-ray refinement performed at room temperature [116]. An essentially
ordered Si/Al distribution was found in the neutron study. Again, neutrons are
essential to describe precisely the hydrogen bonding system. As shown in
Fig. 11, the cation is attached to one side of the eight-ring channels, coordinating
2 framework oxygens (O4, O8) and 4.3 water molecules. Two possible configura-
tions are envisaged: 6-coordination of calcium with 70% occurrence (O4, O8,
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 61

Fig. 11. Cation coordination and hydrogen bonding in gismondine. The Ca2+ ion on the left of
the picture is shown six coordinated (70% occurrence) and that on the right is shown seven
coordinated (30% occurrence) [115]

OW1, OW2, OW3, OW4), and 7-coordination with 30% occurrence (O4, O8,
OW1, OW2, OW3, OW5, OW6). In the latter case, the 2 sites OW5 and OW6 re-
place OW4. Apparently, O8 is the only framework oxygen found in a zeolite
involved in a Ca interaction and H-bonding at the same time. Proton positions
were determined for all water molecules, disordered hydrogen sites were found
for OW3 and OW4. No simple relationship could be proposed between the
hydrogen bonding system and the dehydration process.
The bonding of water molecules in yugawaralite, CaAl2Si6O16 4H2O, is even
more complex than in gismondine. Although yugawaralite has an ordered Si/Al
distribution, 7 different water oxygen locations with only 2 fully occupied oxygen
sites and a multitude of alternative hydrogen sites were found by neutron diffrac-
tion by Kvick et al. [117]. The calcium cation is bonded to 4 framework oxygens
(at 2.482.558 ) and to 4 water oxygens (at 2.3152.541 ). Hydrogen bond
62 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

distances were found in the range 1.87 to 2.71 , indicating a wide range of
interaction strength. A water molecule in a partially occupied site was found
to be not coordinated to calcium and would therefore be eliminated first upon
heating.
The crystal structure of bikitaite, Li2Al2Si4O12 2H2O, was studied at 13 and
295 K by Sthl et al. [118]. The structures obtained at the two temperatures
are very similar, except for thermal parameters (the B factor averaged over all
H-atoms decreases from 5.7 2 at 295 K to 2.33 2 at 13 K). The structure is
triclinic, space group P1, with a high degree of Si/Al ordering. The lithium
cations are each coordinated to 3 framework oxygens and 1 water oxygen. The
highlight of this system is that the two independent water molecules are linked
to each other and form one-dimensional chains, stabilized by coordination to
the cations (Fig. 12). Such chains of hydrogen-bonded water molecules were
found in VPI-5, here a triple helix, by synchrotron powder diffraction [39]. Two
hydrogen atoms, H11 and H21, are not involved in hydrogen bonding since
there are no contacts shorter than 2.54 (Fig. 12). Furthermore, hydrogen bond
distances are 1.997 and 2.002 at 295 K, indicating weak bonding. This suggests

Fig. 12. The water chain in bikitaite at 13 K. Hydrogenoxygen distances less than 3 are
given [118]
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 63

a large mobility of the water molecules, or even proton conduction by transfer


of the protons H12 and H22 within the bonds followed by water reorientation.
However, 1H NMR spin-relaxation studies identified only one type of dynamic
process in the temperature range 224418 K, that is 180 flip motions of the
water molecule about its quasi twofold axis [119].
Laumontite, ideally Ca2Al4Si8O24 16H2O, dehydrates under normal condi-
tions (295 K, 1 atm) to leonhardite with 14 H2O [100]. A complete rehydration
process appears to be difficult. Artioli et al. have studied two samples at 15 K by
neutron diffraction: a natural leonhardite and a specimen soaked in water in an
attempt to obtain laumontite [120]. Structure refinements proved however both
crystals to be partially hydrated with 13.4 and 14.2 water molecules per unit cell,
respectively. At the lowest water loading, 8 positions for water oxygens were
located and 11 positions at the highest loading. This zeolite is the one showing
by far the highest degree of disorder for water. This shows that an ordered Si/Al
distribution does not necessarily yield an ordered water structure. The calcium
cation is linked to 4 framework oxygens and to water molecules. The coordina-
tion of calcium varies between 6 and 7. The presence of 6 and 7 coordinated cal-
cium ions was noted in gismondine (vide supra). Some water molecules are not
bonded to calcium. They take part in a complex hydrogen bonding net across the
channel, linking water molecules connected to different calcium ions.
Some conclusions can be drawn from these neutron diffraction studies. The
interaction of the cation with the water oxygen is usually strong and is essential
for the location of the water molecule. The interaction of water hydrogens with
the oxygens of the framework is weaker. A compilation was made by Kvick for
natural zeolites [121]. In the majority of cases, the water molecules are hydrogen
bonded to the framework as well as coordinated to the cations. The hydrogen
bonds tend to be asymmetric, the shortest distance being 1.764 (Fig. 10a).
There is a preference for oxygen atoms bonded to 1 Si and 1 Al to be the hydro-
gen bond acceptors (Fig. 10c being the only exception). Weakly bonded water
has an HOH angle close to the gas phase value (104.5) with OH distances
only slightly longer than the value of 0.9572 observed in the gas phase. In the
compilation made for 27 ordered water molecules [121], the HOH angle varies
between 96.9 and 112.5. The general trend correlating the lengthening of
the OH distance with increasing hydrogen bond strength is confirmed in the
natural zeolites.

7
Proton Positions and Hydronium Species

Location of protons in zeolites is of interest because they constitute potential


Brnsted acid sites. Proton positions can be determined more easily with neu-
tron diffraction as compared to X-ray diffraction studies owing to their enhanc-
ed scattering power. Quite often, the protonated form of the zeolite is used,
despite the background due to the incoherent scattering, to simplify the prepa-
ration of the samples: during dehydration, zeolites containing hydrogen ions
may suffer significant framework degradation. The first powder neutron dif-
64 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

fraction experiments were performed by Jirak et al. for a series of Na, H-Y sam-
ples with different degrees of cation exchange [122124]. The signal-to-noise
ratio was rather poor and the pattern was limited up to 2 q values of approxi-
mately 45. Nearly all the hydrogen atoms were found in the H3 and H1 posi-
tions. The hydrogen atoms are coplanar with the T-O-T atoms, the protons lying
on the symmetry axis. Protons in H1 and in H3 are oriented into the supercage
and into the sodalite cage, respectively. Distances between O and H atoms were
calculated in the range 0.741.26 . However, all the atomic parameters for the
protons and the cations were not refined and large estimated standard devia-
tions were reported.
In La-Y, two different proton positions were found by Cheetham et al. [125].
In this study, protons attached to framework oxygen O4 were localised at a
distance of 1.2 . This observation of H4, also pointing into the supercage, is
unusual because in all other studies occupation near O4 is zero or close to zero
[122 124, 126, 127]. Furthermore, the hydrogen of a hydroxyl group attached to
the La3+ ion was clearly seen, indicating that hydrolysis of the cation in the
cavity occurred during dehydration.
In D-RHO, a bridging hydroxyl group has been localized by Fischer et al.
[29]. The position of the deuterium atom was refined, leading to an OD distance
of 0.96 . As in previous work [122124], the arrangement of the T-atoms and
the H-atom around the bridging O-atom is approximately planar.
The determination of hydrogen positions in Y zeolites has been reinvestigat-
ed by Czjzek et al. [126]. In this work, both H-Y and D-Y samples were studied.
Owing to their negative scattering length for neutrons (Fig. 1) protons appear as
negative peaks in difference Fourier maps for H-Y samples, whereas deuterium,
which has a positive scattering length, appears as positive peaks for D-Y sam-
ples.At high proton content, the preferred proton site is near O1, followed by O3,
then O2 (see Fig. 13). The proton located near O2 points into the six-ring win-
dow between the sodalite cage and the supercage. Contrary to previous work
this site has a non-negligible occupation: approximately 10 protons per unit cell.
For the H-Y sample, an average value of 0.943 is obtained for the OH distance.
For a D-Y sample containing 15 water molecules per unit cell, the deuterium
atom near O3 was found to be shifted in the direction of a water molecule locat-
ed on the site I in the sodalite cage. The distance OwD3 is 1.16 while the
distance O3D3 is 2.04 . Hence the formation of a hydronium ion in the soda-
lite unit was suggested.
Another study on D-Y was made by Sun and Seff using pulsed neutron pow-
der diffraction [127]. Deuterium atoms were only located near O1 and O3, with
a rather long OD distance: 1.26 . Approximately 8 deuterium atoms per unit
cell could not be located.
The distribution of acid sites in H-SAPO-37, the silicoaluminophosphate ana-
logue of zeolite Y, was studied by Bull et al. [128]. For the protons, only their
occupancies were refined. The final refinement led to site occupancies following
the order O1 > O2 > O3, a distribution different from H-Y [126]. Upon benzene
adsorption, protons could only be found at O2 [63]. Although a proportion of
protons could not be detected, it appears that some protons have moved to O2 in
order to bind to the benzene located above the six-ring (vide supra).
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 65

Fig. 13. Part of the structure of Na, H-Y showing a sodalite cage and a hexagonal prism, indi-
cating proton positions near O1, O2 and O3 [126]

A much debated question is whether water can be protonated on Brnsted


sites in zeolites. Conflicting interpretations of the spectroscopic results can be
found. Ab initio calculations performed so far on small clusters are in favour of
a water molecule attached to the acid site via two hydrogen bonds, in a neutral
complex [129, 130]. Studies of water adsorbed into H-ZSM-5 by incoherent in-
elastic neutron scattering spectroscopy also indicated that for this system the
neutral complex was the preferred mode of adsorption [131]. However, a recent
powder neutron diffraction study of water in H-SAPO-34 [132] confirms the
existence of hydronium ions. In this silicoaluminophosphate analogue of chaba-
zite, two acid sites were found. Two different water molecules are associated with
these sites. One is hydrogen bonded to an acid site on the six-ring, but the other
is clearly a hydronium species, sitting in the eight-ring channel of the structure.
66 A.N. Fitch H. Jobic

8
Concluding Remarks
When applied to large single crystals of natural zeolites, or to microcrystalline
natural and synthetic powders, neutron diffraction yields detailed information
on the structure and ordering of the tetrahedral atoms in the framework, the
positions of cations and water molecules, and the nature of any hydrogen
bonding in the channels. For dehydrated compounds, the method is effective in
locating sorbed species, such as hydrocarbon and small physisorbed molecules.
This information is vital for an understanding of the ion-exchange, molecular-
sieving and catalytic properties of zeolites, and for the development of theoreti-
cal models of zeolite behaviour.
When carrying out neutron diffraction studies, there is frequently a lot of
information already available from previous X-ray diffraction measurements.
The two techniques are in many ways complementary, as both methods look at
the same structure, but the atoms have different scattering power for X-rays and
neutrons, so different aspects of a structure are emphasised in the data analysis.
The absence of a form factor and the narrower range in the scattering powers of
atoms mean that refinements from neutron data are generally considered more
accurate than those from X-rays. Hence neutrons have been used to refine more
detailed structural models than is possible solely from X-ray data. Where struc-
tures have been solved from powder data using high-resolution laboratory or
synchrotron X-rays, it is possible to obtain the basic heavy-atom structural
model from the X-ray data, and complete the determination of the light-atom
structure with neutrons, as, for example, for the novel gallophosphite [48]. The
final and most complete structural model is frequently refined from the neutron
data alone, as this contains information about all atoms present.
Crystallographic studies using powders suffer from more problems than
single-crystal studies, because peaks are obscured by the one-dimensional na-
ture of the powder diffraction pattern. In principle, these can be disentangled
and recovered in an accurate Rietveld [11] refinement, yet there are always pro-
blems and ambiguities in any structural analysis that are exacerbated using the
powder technique. The greater the amount of reliable information that can be
included in the analysis of a crystal structure, the more likely it is that the re-
fined structure will be accurate, and free from the effects of systematic errors
introduced in the collection of the data or in the data analysis. Chemical infor-
mation in the form of bond distance and angle restraints can help the stability
of a refinement, and ensure that the structural parameters have sensible values.
Including additional data sets can also be an advantage. Hence for complex
structural refinements, joint fitting to neutron and X-ray data sets is possible
using modern Rietveld refinement programs (e.g. [133135]), to harness the
full complementarity of X-ray and neutron data, as was carried out, for example,
in the studies of ferrierite [35] and benzene in ZSM-5 [91].
Whether used as a unique tool in its own right, or in conjunction with
complementary X-ray studies, neutron diffraction is a powerful method of
investigating crucial structural aspects of zeolites and other microporous
materials.
Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction 67

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Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science
O. Terasaki
Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and
CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan;
e-mail: terasaki@msp.phys.tohoku.ac.jp

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
1.1 What is a Microscope and What is an Electron Microscope? . . . . 72
1.2 Lenses for Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
1.3 Atomic Scattering Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
1.4 Diffraction and Image of Electrons by Specimens . . . . . . . . . 74
1.5 Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes . . . . . . . . . 75
1.5.1 The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
1.5.2 The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) . . . . . . . . . . . 75

2 Why is EM a Good Technique for the Study of Fine Structures


of Zeolites? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

3 Electron Microscopy on Zeolites; a Personal Historical View . . . 78


3.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
3.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

4 High Resolution Electron Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79


4.1 Basic Principle of the HRTEM Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.2 Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

5 Experimental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.1 Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
5.2 EM Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

6 Case Studies of Fine Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


6.1 High Resolution SEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.2 High Resolution TEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.2.1 Fine Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.2.1.1 As-Synthesized LTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.2.1.2 FAU, EMT and Their Intergrowth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.2.1.3 MFI and MEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.2.2 Surface Structure and Crystal Growth Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.2.3 Clusters on or in Zeolites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Molecular Sieves, Vol. 2


Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999
72 O. Terasaki

6.2.3.1 Pt/K-LTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.2.3.2 Metal Compounds in FAU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.2.4 Modulation and Modification of the Framework Structure . . . . 97
6.2.4.1 Si/Al Concentration Modulation in MOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.2.4.2 Dealumination of the Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.2.5 New Structure Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.2.5.1 BEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.2.5.2 SSZ-26 and SSZ-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.2.5.3 ETS-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.2.5.4 New Porous Materials, MCM and FSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

7 Electron Radiation Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

8 Other Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106


8.1 Image Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.2 High-Voltage HRTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
8.3 Electron Crystallography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

9 Note Added at Revision (24 June 1997) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107


9.1 Mesoporous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
9.2 Quantitative Analysis of ED Patterns and HRTEM Images . . . . . 109

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

1
Introduction

1.1
What is a Microscope and What is an Electron Microscope?

The optical microscope is an instrument that uses lenses to produce enlarged


images of small objects, especially of objects too small to be seen by the naked
eye. It was invented in the late 16th century by a Dutch spectacle-maker. In an
optical microscope, the spatial distribution of absorption or reflectance of light
is enlarged. Other microscopes are analogous in their functions but employ
other radiations/waves than visible light. Enlargement is usually a keyword for a
microscope but a wider meaning is to give structural information which is not
obtainable by the naked eye such as the X-ray or acoustic microscope. Among
different types, an electron microscope (EM) is a microscope in which the out-
put signal is produced by incident electrons, and scanning tunneling micro-
scopes may be included in this category. In this context, two types of EM, i.e.
scanning EM (SEM) and transmission EM (TEM), are discussed.
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 73

1.2
Lenses for Electrons

Electrons are deflected by magnetic fields by the Lorentz force. Electrons can
thus be focused by an electromagnetic lens. It was shown in 1926 that an axial
magnetic field acts as a concave lens for incident electrons which are parallel to
the axis [1]. This is simply explained by the force in the following. In a magnetic
field with rotational symmetry, the radial and axial components (Br and Bz) of
the magnetic field, B, act independently, although there is a relationship,
(rBr)/r = r Bz /z, between Br and Bz because div B = 0. Electrons traveling
parallel to the axis will be rotated by Br . Once a rotational component of elec-
trons is produced they will then be deflected towards the axis by an axial com-
ponent Bz. It is therefore to be noted that the lens for electrons is always concave
not convex and that the aberration cannot be diminished by a combination of
the two types of lenses, which is sometimes possible in an optical microscope. In
1931, Knoll and Ruska invented the first EM for which Ruska was awarded the
Nobel prize for physics in 1986 [2].

1.3
Atomic Scattering Factors

X-rays are scattered by electrons in an atom. The atomic scattering factor for
X-rays, fx (s) (in ), is given by
fx (s) = e2/mc2 r (r) exp ( is r) dr = 2.82 105 r (r) exp ( is r) dr
where s is the scattering vector, and is given by s = 4 p sinq/l (in 1), r (r) is the
electron charge distribution and other terms have the standard meaning.
Electrons are scattered by the electrostatic potential formed by the electrons
and nuclei of the constituent atoms. The atomic scattering factor for electrons,
fe (s) (in ), is related to that for X-rays by the Mott formula given by the fol-
lowing equation:
fe (s) = me2/2h2 [Z fx (s)]/(sin q/l)2
= 2/aB [Z fx (s)]/(4 p sin q/l)2 = 0.02393 [Z fx (s)]/(sin q/l)2
where Z is an atomic number, and aB is the Bohr radius (0.529 ). The wave-
length of electrons l (in ) is given by de-Broglie at an accelerating voltage E,
which is measured in volts:
l = (h2/2me)1/2 [1/E (1+ eE/2mc2)]1/2 = 1.226/[E1/2 (1+ 0.9778 106 E)1/2]
The differences in diffraction behavior between electrons, X-rays and neu-
trons are summarized in Table 1.
It is important that the atomic scattering factor for electrons is approximate-
ly 104 and 105 times as large as for X-rays and for neutrons, respectively. This
suggests that smaller scatterers can provide sufficient information and thus
much smaller objects can be studied as single crystals with electrons. Further-
more, we can make lenses and therefore observe both the electron diffraction
(ED) pattern and the image using the EM.
74 O. Terasaki

Table 1. Diffraction behavior electrons, X-rays and neutrons

Principal scatterer Amplitude () Wavelength ()


(at s = 0 for Si)

electrons electrostatic potential 5.8 0.037 (100 kV)


X-ray electron a 3.9 104 1.54 (Cu ka)
neutron nucleus b 4.1 105 1.33 c
a
Scattering amplitude for the nucleus is ca. 103 smaller than for the electron.
b
Scattering amplitude for the magnetic electron is about the same order.
c
Room temperature.

1.4
Diffraction and Image of Electrons by Specimens
In electron diffraction, information is accumulated from all the areas irradiated
by the incident electrons as shown in Fig. 1. Relative scattering amplitudes for
the different reflections are different for each column depending on its struc-
ture. Intensity for each reflection is the accumulation from that of different

IMAGE

DIFFRACTION PATTERN

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of diffraction and image


Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 75

columns (j is the summation over j columns). It is therefore necessary to use


dark field imaging to identify the place where a particular reflection or diffuse
scattering is coming from. However, an EM image itself gives local or spatial
information. From the observed image we can obtain the Fourier diffractogram
from the specified area in the image by using optical diffraction (Fourier trans-
formation). In this respect, high-resolution transmission electron microscope
(HRTEM) images are generally more useful than ED patterns. The big advanta-
ge, however, will be obtained by the combination of ED patterns and HRTEM
images for electron crystallography (Sects. 8.3 and 9.2). This technique will soon
come to the attention of the zeolite community. It is to be noted that the state of
clusters in the spaces of zeolites, i.e. size, relative position to the framework and
density, is often non-uniform, in this case HRTEM images can give very useful
local information.

1.5
Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes

1.5.1
The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

In the SEM, a source of electrons is focused into a very fine probe that is raster-
ed over the surface of crystals by a scanning coil. A schematic diagram of the
SEM is shown in Fig. 2. The output signal can then be used to modulate the
brightness of a cathode ray tube (CRT) as a function of the surface position whe-
re the electrons are focused. When high energy incident electrons interact with
atoms, they will be scattered elastically or inelastically. In an inelastic scattering
event, a part of the incident energy is transferred to other electrons in atoms (if
the energy transferred exceeds the work function of the crystal, secondary elec-
trons can exit from the crystal) or produces light or X-rays induced by the tran-
sition between an excited state and the ground state. Several different kinds of
outputs can be used including secondary electrons, back scattered electrons,
X-rays, transmitted electrons, beam induced current and light cathodolumines-
cence. Hereafter, the output of the SEM will be confined to secondary electrons.
The secondary electron yields increase with the decreasing glancing angle of the
incidence to the specimen surface, i.e. the yields depend on the surface topolo-
gy. The superiority of the SEM over the optical microscope is the particularly
high spatial resolution and the great depth of focus, and therefore we can ob-
serve surface-topological information from a large specimen area at high reso-
lution.

1.5.2
The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

In the TEM, there are two modes, i.e. information is either in wave vector (reci-
procal) space at the back-focal plane or in real space at the image plane. The first
corresponds to an ED pattern and the latter to an image. More details will be dis-
cussed in Sect. 4.1.
76 O. Terasaki

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of an SEM

There are three independent contrast mechanisms for TEM images, which
are: (i) intensity contrast (absorption), (ii) amplitude contrast (diffraction), and
(iii) phase contrast (out-of-focus).
Absorption contrast comes mainly from a loss of incident electrons in the
transmission beam by multiple inelastic scattering of the electrons, and diffrac-
tion contrast comes from the removal of scattered electrons from the image-form-
ing beam, because they fall outside of an objective aperture, hence the objective
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 77

aperture is frequently called the contrast aperture. Since zeolite crystals are
weak phase objects, and essential structural information is carried out by the
reflections within an objective aperture normally used, the latter is the most
important for the present subject and will be described in detail in Sect. 4.

2
Why is EM a Good Technique for the Study of Fine Structures
of Zeolites?
Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicate materials with the nominal composition
Mx/m [AlxSi1xO2]nH2O, where M is a cation of valence m. Their frameworks are
built from corner-shared TO4-tetrahedra (T stands for Si or Al) to produce
channels or cavities (hereafter called spaces) of molecular dimensions inside
the crystals [3]. Zeolites are mostly synthesized as particles of ca. 1 m in size.
Briefly summarized below are the five major advantages for using EM for the
study of zeolites, which will be discussed in more detail in Sect. 6:
(i) If zeolites are free from defects, their structures can be determined by X-ray
powder diffraction. However, they may often contain different types of
defects and, moreover, their chemical and physical properties can heavily
deviate from their expected ideal structures. It is therefore essential to char-
acterize any defects which may occur, as reported for the case of LTL [47].
(ii) Zeolites form many different families in which common structural building
units are found in the frameworks. They have a strong tendency to form
intergrowths between different structures within the same families, such as
ERI/OFF in ABC-6 [8, 9] and EMT/FAU in the FAU family [1012]. There are
also many polymorphs where structures are well described by the stacking
sequence of the sheets such as BEA [13] and the titanosilicate ETS-10
[1416]. To characterize these, electron microscopy is the most useful tech-
nique.
(iii) In order to synthesize high quality or novel zeolites, two factors are very
important to know: (a) what kind of molecular units are the elemental unit
of the structure for growth, and (b) how to control the connection of the
unit by using structure directing agents. If new methods to control and sup-
ply the unit, for example by CVD (chemical vapor deposition), could be
found then it might be possible to grow larger single crystals. Therefore a
knowledge of the surface structures of zeolites is very important both for
understanding crystal growth processes expected in order to synthesize
high quality or novel zeolites and for understanding catalytic reactions
which may occur on the surfaces more quantitatively. Examples of this type
are found in FAU [6, 12, 17] and LTL [18] systems.
(iv) Zeolites have been used as containers to make new quantum materials in
their spaces [1923], and also used as complex catalysts by the incorpora-
tion or suspension of clusters of metals or compounds. In these cases, it is
vitally important to determine the size of the clusters and locate their posi-
tions, whether they are in the spaces of the zeolites or on the external sur-
face, and also to check whether the crystallinity of the zeolites is retained
78 O. Terasaki

after the treatment [6, 7, 24, 25]. Electron microscopy provides the crucial
starting point for characterizing the fine structures and solving such com-
plex problems. Fine details of the structure and the nature of disorder can
be directly revealed by HRTEM images.
(v) A crystal with high crystallinity shows mostly a regular crystal morphology
which is either an equilibrium form or a growth form, even though the
crystal size is small, (ca. 1 m). Both forms must be commensurate with the
point symmetry to which the crystal belongs. It is very informative that
natural zeolites show beautiful crystal shapes and have very good crystalli-
nity. Thus we can obtain some information about the crystallinity from the
external morphology. Zeolites are normally synthesized under conditions
of high supersaturation, and therefore a growth form rather than an equi-
librium form is observed. The growth form is governed by the anisotropy
of the growth rate which is sensitive to the growth conditions. From ex-
perience we have come to the conclusion that there is a strong correlation
between the thermal stability and the stability of crystals under an electron
beam, and that electron stability of zeolites is strongly dependent on the
crystallinity. Therefore, a few years ago at the Annual Meeting of the
Japanese Zeolite Association we proposed that the simplest way to find syn-
thesis conditions for a crystal (in the same framework structure and the
same Si/Al ratio) with a high thermal stability was to observe a crystal with
a nice morphology by SEM irrespective of crystal size, and this is a very
apparent indication of high crystallinity.
There are two major disadvantages for the study of zeolites by TEM:
(i) Zeolites are quite electron beam sensitive, (this is the most serious [26])
(ii) HRTEM images suffer from artificial electron optical effects [2729]; these
will be discussed briefly later.
In this review, I will describe the history of EM studies on zeolites in Sect. 3, the
basic principles in Sect. 4 and show some examples on the fine structures of zeo-
lites in Sect. 6. On the whole I will try to show in what way electron microscopy
is a powerful and invaluable technique for the study of the fine structures of zeo-
lites and related materials.

3
Electron Microscopy on Zeolites; a Personal Historical View

3.1
Transmission Electron Microscopy

Menter first observed lattice fringes of platinum phthalocyanine by EM in 1956


[30] and then observed two sets of lattice fringes of {111} type of natural FAU
with 110 incidence [31]. These two specimens have large lattice spacings which
should be larger than the resolution limit (ca. 10 at that time). However, it is
astonishing that he recorded the lattice fringes from those specimens, since they
are now known to be quite electron beam sensitive materials. These images
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 79

were basically two- or three-beam interference fringes (lattice fringes). After


Menters pioneering work, EM was mostly applied to studies of zeolite fine
structure by obtaining ED patterns from small crystals for LTL, OFF and ERI
[32]. The authors stated that As X-ray powder diffraction is not easily able to
detect the presence of small amounts of impurities, the samples were examined
in the electron microscope [32] and that The importance of electron diffrac-
tion was also shown [33]. As far as I know, imaging was first applied indepen-
dently to the study by two groups. One was the direct observation of
planar faults in ERI [34], and the other was the observation of a lattice image of
LTL in 1972 [35].
In the early seventies, Sanders and co-worker developed the image from a lat-
tice image to the structure image [36], with which I am concerned in this article.
Later he applied the technique for the study of the fine structure of zeolites with
a deep understanding of electron microscopy [37, 38]. In late 1970s, Thomas and
his group in Cambridge developed many techniques useful for HRTEM obser-
vation of zeolites, such as to modify zeolites in order to improve their life under
the electron beam by removing zeolitic water or replacing Al by Si (dealumina-
tion), to give higher contrast by ion exchange with heavy ions and to use com-
puter modeling and simulation, and elaborated the techniques presently avail-
able for the study [26, 3941].

3.2
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Most zeolite studies with SEM have been carried out with natural zeolites. One
publication [42] gives encyclopedic information on the natural zeolites but,
compared to recent technical improvements, no basic studies have been found.

4
High Resolution Electron Microscopy
4.1
Basic Principle of the HRTEM Image
The velocity of incident electrons will be changed in a crystal due to the elec-
trostatic potential and they must satisfy continuous boundary conditions at
both the entrance and exit surfaces of the crystal. We will take the direction of
incident electrons to be the z-axis. The role of the objective lens is to transfer the
Fraunhofer diffraction pattern produced by the crystal at infinity to the back
focal plane of the lens, i.e. to give the Fourier transform of the electron wave field
at the exit surface of the crystal [transmission function f (x, y)] at the back focal
plane. Electron diffraction patterns are observed as an intensity distribution in
reciprocal space. The lens further Fourier transforms the diffraction pattern to
an image plane (EM images are observed as an intensity distribution in real
space) as schematically shown in Fig. 3. As a first approximation, the crystal is
treated as a periodic object which will modify only the phase of the electron
wave function, (weak phase object approximation).
80 O. Terasaki


Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of HREM imaging

From analogy with light optics, the refractive index of the crystal for elec-
trons, n, is given by:
n = lvac /lcryst = SQRT [(E + f)/E] 1+f/(2E)
where lvac and lcryst are the electron wavelengths in a vacuum and in the crystal,
respectively, E is the accelerating voltage and f is the mean crystal potential. The
phase shift, q, is the phase difference between the electrons traveling in the
crystal and a vacuum of thickness t and is given by
t
q = 2 p (n 1) t/l p f (x, y, z) dz/lE s fp (x, y)
0

where s is the interaction parameter of the electrons with the crystal, s = p/lE.
The projected potential, fp (x, y), is the crystal potential of the crystal with
t
thickness t and fp (x, y) = f (x, y, z) dz (in volt ). For simplicity we assume
0

that the crystal has a center of symmetry and fp (x, y) is taken to be real.
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 81

The electron wave field at the exit surface, i.e. the transmission function
f (x, y), will be:
f (x, y) = exp [ i sfp (x, y)]
where | f (x, y) | 2 = 1.
From the assumptions of the weak phase object, that is sfp (x, y) 1, then
f (x, y) 1 isfp(x, y). If the lens is perfect and there is no defocus, the Fourier
transform, , of the transmission function, f (x, y)
 {f (x, y)} F (h, k) = d (u0,0) is {fp (x, y)} = F (u0,0) + F(uh,k)
will be formed at the back focal plane, where uh,k is the wave vector for a reflec-
tion (h,k) and is given by the equation u2h, k = (h/a)2 + (k/b)2 for an orthorhom-
bic crystal. The first term corresponds to the transmission wave (0,0) and the
second to the reflections (h,k). It should be noted that the phase of the diffrac-
ted beams is changed by p/2 from the above equation.  {f (x, y)} is proportio-
nal to and derived from the crystal structure factor for electrons, Fe (h, k). The
wave field at the image plane, F (x, y), is given by the  of F (h, k), and the ima-
ge (intensity) is given by I (x, y) = F (x, y)F* (x, y) which is uniform, i.e. there is
no contrast.
The objective aperture will take the beams, passing through the aperture,
for image formation. We introduce an aperture function, A(uh,k), where A(uh,k)
= 1 for uh, k < umax and A (uh, k) = 0 for uh, k > umax .
Fortunately, the objective lens introduces an additional phase shift depending
on the direction of the diffracted beams, uh, k , the amount of defocus f and the
spherical aberration Cs of the lens. When the incident electrons are parallel to
the EM optical axis, the phase of the reflection (h, k) will be changed by the lens
relative to the direct beam by c (uh, k), where:
c (uh, k) = 2 p (Df l u2h, k/2 + Cs l3 u4h, k/4)
exp {i c (uh,k )} is known as the contrast transfer function, CTF, which will be
discussed later.
Therefore the wave field, F (x, y), at the image plane is given by:
F (x, y) =  {F (h, k) exp {i c (uh, k)} A (uh, k)}
= 1 is fp ( x, y) *  {A (uh,k) exp {i c (uh, k)}}
where * is the convolution operation.
To give contrast, the imaginary part of  {A(uh,k)} exp {i c (uh, k)} and there-
fore sin c (uh, k) plays an important role, since exp{ic (uh, k)} is cos c (uh, k) +
i sin c (uh, k). Sin c (uh, k) is shown in Fig. 4 for a JEOL 4000 EX EM.
The intensity distribution obtained as an HRTEM image will therefore be:
I (x, y) = F (x, y) F *(x, y) 1 + 2 s fp (x,y)*  {A(uh,k) sin c (uh, k)} .
The function  {A (uh, k) sin c (uh, k)} is a function with a negative value that
has a sharp peak. The CTF plays a similar phase-changing role in the optical
82 O. Terasaki

Fig. 4. Imaginary part of CTF, sin c (uh, k) for a 4000 EX at optimum focus condition (D f =
485 ). The thin curves are sin c(uh, k) and envelop a function due to chromatic aberration
(not discussed); the thick curve is the product of their multiplication

microscope to Zernikes phase plate of l/4 [43]. If the crystal has no center of
symmetry and fp (x, y) has an imaginary part, f ip( x, y), then part of cos
c (uh, k) will give an effect as a correction.
We have come to the very important conclusion that the contrast of HRTEM
images is proportional to the projected potential of the crystal, which is smear-
ed by convolution with  {A (uh, k ) sin c (uh, k)}, the so-called impulse response
function. This is the key to obtaining structural information from HRTEM
images.

4.2
Resolution

The resolution of any optical microscope is limited by the diffraction aberration,


dd , as dd = 0.61l/a, where a is an effective aperture angle known as the Rayleigh
criterion. It is possible to reach a 1 for a light optical microscope, therefore the
attainable resolution is around the wavelength of light. According to Table 1, the
wavelengths of electrons are far less than 1 . Can we obtain such a high resolu-
tion (to the wavelength of an electron) in an EM? What are the major factors for
limiting the resolution of the TEM and SEM?
(i) For the TEM,in contrast to an optical microscope, the resolution of the TEM
is limited not by the wavelength but by the spherical (and chromatic) aber-
ration of the objective lens through the contrast transfer function CTF. This
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 83

is because the resolution is given not only by the Rayleigh criterion but also
by the effect of the aberration (dab) of the lens, as:
d = SQRT(dd2 + d 2ab) dab [1 + dd /(2 dab)]
since dab  dd as is seen in the following. The CTF was given in the previous
section as: CTF = exp {i c (uh, k)}, where c (uh, k) = 2 p (Df l u2h, k /2 + Cs l3
u4h, k/4).
An optimal focus is given by the condition when the first zero cross and
sin {c (uh, k)} values have maximum values in the widest region for uh, k ,
and is known as the Scherzer focus, defined as Df = (Cs l)1/2.
The resolution (dab) obtainable in this condition is 0.43 (Cs l3)1/4 from the
inverse value of u0 at the first zero cross of CTF at the focus condition (see
Fig. 4).
In order to obtain better resolution in HRTEM, one should (i) reduce the
wavelength, (ii) reduce the spherical aberration coefficient, and (iii) image
restoration by correcting the functional dependence of CTF on uh, k . The
first two factors are obvious from the functional dependence of CTF on
them. Roughly speaking, Cs reduces as the focal length of the objective lens
decreases, that is, as the excitation of the objective lens increases, and the
values of Cs and the focal length become almost equal. It is more effective to
reduce l for better resolution as is given by 0.43 (Cs l3)1/4. Information from
the area beyond the zero crossing is also useful if we take the phase change
into account. Using a highly coherent electron beam, there have been
attempts to extend the resolution higher by recovering information from
this oscillating area (focal series and tilt series reconstructions).
(ii) The resolution of an SEM is essentially limited by the electron probe size on
the specimen. Electrons from a source of size s0 are de-magnified through
condenser lenses by some factor M to a probe at the specimen surface of size
d0 . Other independent factors also blur the size, and the effective probe size,
d, is given by:
d 2 = d02 + ds2 + dc2 + dd2
where ds ~ Cs a3 is the size produced by spherical aberration (Cs) of an objective
lens, dc ~ Cc a (DE/E) due to chromatic aberration (Cc) of the lens (E and DE are
incident energy and energy spread) and dd ~ Cc (l/a) is a spread due to diffrac-
tion of an aperture, respectively. DE/E becomes larger for a lower accelerating
voltage of incident electrons. This is further blurred (convoluted) by the size of
the specimen volume giving rise to the signal, i.e. lengths of diffusion of inci-
dence and of escape of secondary electrons. By developing a very bright cohe-
rent electron source together with smaller aberrations of the objective lens, we
can make the electron probe size smaller and smaller and the resolution better
and better. Now it is possible to reach a resolution in the SEM image using secon-
dary electrons from 10 to 15 with the use of field emission guns (FEG).
84 O. Terasaki

5
Experimental

5.1
Sample Preparation

Zeolite crystals were dispersed in acetone either by crushing in an agate mortar


or by use of ultrasound and subsequently placed on a micro-grid for TEM obser-
vation. Removing zeolitic water from the crystals helps to lengthen their lives
under the electron beam.
For SEM observations, the powders were directly dispersed on a conductive
tape or dispersed in acetone using ultrasound and drops were placed on the
tape. With this treatment, as no crushing is employed, the morphology of the
crystals will not be altered from the original form.

5.2
EM Observation

Since zeolites have large unit cells, basic structural units and large void spaces,
most of the structure can be determined from the arrangement of the spaces.
The resolution necessary for the study of fine structures of zeolites is normally
not so high as required for other systems and a resolution of around 2.5 is suf-
ficient. It is essential to reduce the number of electrons and/or to reduce electron
density as much as possible during observation. The time for tilting the crystal
to the proper orientation is much longer than that for image recording, and spe-
cial care must be taken to ensure that ED patterns can be observed with much
smaller density. It is very important for the EM to be equipped with a TV system
for adjusting electron optical systems, especially correcting astigmatism and
finding the best focus conditions for the objective lens just before HRTEM image
recording. For recording media, there are several possibilities, (i) ordinary film,
(ii) CCD camera (slow-scan), and (iii) imaging plates. For ordinary film, it is bet-
ter to use higher sensitivity film, although making the sensitivity of film higher
and the grain size of photographic emulsion smaller are contradictory, the grain
size is still enough to resolve the fine structure of a zeolite even at low magnifi-
cation.
For HRTEM recording, it is better to choose a lower magnification, at which
information about the structure concerned is attainable, normally between
100,000 and 150,000 in order to reduce the electron density required for re-
cording.

6
Case Studies of Fine Structures
Most of the HRTEM and ED patterns were taken with (i) a 400 kV EM (JEM
4000) which has a spherical aberration coefficient (Cs) of 1.0 mm and (ii) a 1 MV
EM with Cs = 11.0 mm. ED patterns will be discussed under each problem.
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 85

6.1
High Resolution SEM

Scanning EMs equipped with field emission guns (FEG) have provided an enor-
mous advantage especially in obtaining high-resolution images from non-con-
ductive materials such as zeolites. Using a low accelerating voltage has two
advantages; firstly in producing selective information from the surface region
because of the small penetration depth for low energy electrons, and secondly
the ratio of incident to secondary electrons is close to 1 and therefore charging
problems common for insulators are not serious as the accelerating voltage
decreases. However, in order to obtain high-resolution images at low accelerat-
ing voltage, an electron source with high brightness and coherence is essential
(FEG satisfies these requirements). It is also important to reduce the chromatic
aberration of the objective lens especially for a low accelerating voltage.
Here, we confine ourselves to the case of high resolution SEM (HRSEM) ima-
ges. Several examples are shown in Fig. 5. These are low magnification images of

Fig. 5ac. Scanning EM images of FAU


86 O. Terasaki

a single crystal of FAU (Fig. 5a), and a high magnification image (Fig. 5b) of a
part of the right-hand crystal indicated by an arrow in Fig. 5a. In Fig. 5b, arrows
show twins in FAU. Figure 5c shows surface steps observed on one of the {111}
surfaces of a single crystal of FAU; despite the low contrast, the steps are discer-
nible. Low and high magnification images of -CLO are shown in Figs. 5d, e. In the
images craters of rectangular parallelepiped shape on the {100} or trigonal pyra-
mids on {111} can be seen, as marked by large and small arrows, respectively.
The parallelepiped-shaped voids are also observed in HRTEM images in which
no discernible distortion of the framework structure was observed [44]. Figure 5f
shows an SEM image of LTA, on which FAU crystals have overgrown.

Fig. 5df. Scanning EM images of -CLO (d, e) and


LTA (f)
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 87

6.2
High Resolution TEM

6.2.1
Fine Structures

6.2.1.1
As-Synthesized LTL

LTL has a unit cell of a = 18.4 , c = 7.5 (space group P6/mmm), and contains
a one-dimensional channel with 12-membered rings ca. 7 in diameter. The
channels are well separated by the framework atoms and therefore very attrac-
tive for making one-dimensional materials in the channels. Figure 6 shows a
schematic drawing of a projection of the framework structure along [001] (a)
and an HRTEM image along [001] (b). All channels shown in Fig. 6a are observ-
ed distinctly in the image. A single planar defect, which is not parallel to the
channel, may destroy the one-dimensional character. Indeed, it is quite common
in LTL to find the growth of one crystal onto another [4 7]. Although the
orientation relationship between the crystallites is easily determined by electron
diffraction (ED) patterns, HRTEM observation is essential to determine the
spatial relationship between them, whether they have blocked each others

Fig. 6a, b. A schematic drawing of the framework structure of LTL a viewed along [001] and b
a corresponding HRTEM image of LTL taken on a 400 kV EM
88 O. Terasaki

Fig. 7. HRTEM images of LTL taken on a 400 kV EM with [001]. Moir effects are due to over-
lapping crystals with rotation angles of ca. 10 (A) and 4 (B). A coincidence boundary of
R32.2 (C) and a tilt boundary of ca. 30 (D) are also observed


channels or not. We have reported coincidence boundaries of Z13 Z13 R32.2
where one crystal grows on another with a rotation of ca. 32 (a non-multiple of
60) along the c axis, i.e. the channel direction [4]. More than 90% of the one-
dimensional channels are blocked in the overlapped region.
The HRTEM image in Fig. 7 shows a few different boundaries or faults in LTL
in the same film. Two different Moir patterns are observed in the image, that
is, rotational angles between the two crystals are different at the regions of A and
B. The coincidence boundary (C) and a crystallite grown in a wedge shape (D)
can also be observed.

6.2.1.2
FAU, EMT and Their Intergrowth

The ideal framework structure of FAU has the space group Fd3 m with a lattice
parameter a = 24.7 (ignoring the difference between Si and Al). The structure
is described by sodalite cages which are linked via D6R to four other sodalite
cages in such a way that all the sodalite cages are related by inversion at the
centers of the D6Rs, while the framework of EMT has hexagonal symmetry with
the lattice parameters a = 17.4 and c = 28.4 . This was first synthesized by
Delprato et al. using the crown ether 18-crown-6 as a structure directing tem-
plate [45]. Similar to the FAU framework, EMT is constructed from sodalite
cages connected through D6Rs; however, one of the four connections, viz. along
the c-axis, is related by a mirror operation. Therefore structures of both FAU and
EMT can be described by the common structure unit the faujasite sheet. If a
pair of sheets are related by an inversion center then the FAU framework is
obtained. Conversely, if a pair of sheets are related by a mirror plane then the
EMT framework is obtained. Schematic drawings of the sheet and framework
structures of FAU along [110]c and EMT along [100]h are shown in Fig. 8 (sub-
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 89

faujasite sheet

Fig. 8. Schematic drawings of the faujasite sheet (above). Stacking of channels for FAU; left
viewed along [110]c ; right EMT along [100]h

script c and h refer to the cubic and hexagonal structure, respectively). In inter-
growth structures, these two directions are coincident. Since channels are imag-
ed as white dots in HRTEM images at the optimum focus condition (see Sect. 4),
it is clear from this drawing that the stacking of white dots shows one to one cor-
respondence to that of the sheets. The stacking of white dots is ABCABC for FAU
along the [111]c direction, while that of EMT is ABAB along the [001]h (see foot-
note in [11,12] for a more precise structural description).
In FAU there are four independent 111c directions along which EMT may
intergrow, but only one direction out of the four is chosen in the synthesis using
the mixture of crown-ethers of 18-crown-6 and 15-crown-5 [1012]. High reso-
lution TEM images of FAU, EMT and their intergrowth are shown in Fig. 9.
During this study, we observed oscillatory growth of FAU and EMT, which may
be related to the Liesegang ring of gel formation. Figure 10 shows an example of
oscillatory growth of the intergrowth in an extreme case. There are many
crystallites, and all the EMT are sandwiched by thin FAU layers. An enlarged
image of a part of Fig. 10a (indicated by an arrow) is shown in Fig. 10 b.

6.2.1.3
MFI and MEL
Two types of crystal, ZSM-5 and ZSM-11, which belong to MFI and MEL types,
respectively, were reported at almost the same time [46, 47]. However, the direct
evidence of the existence of pure MEL-type has been obtained only quite recent-
ly [48], although there were very interesting reports on post synthetically deal-
uminated high silica ZSM-11 by Fyfe and his colleagues [49]. The characteristics
of MFI and MEL-type structures are summarized below:
MFI Type. Figure 11ac shows projections of the framework structure of MFI
along [100], [010] and [001], respectively. One can clearly observe the two-fold
rotational axes at the points marked by dots in the projection along [010] in
90 O. Terasaki

Fig. 9ac. HRTEM images a of FAU taken with[110]c and b EMT with [001]h and c their inter-
growth

Fig. 10a, b. An HRTEM image of EMT/FAU taken on a 400 kV EM with [110]c or [100]h

Fig. 11b, which correspond to inversion centers for three dimensions, and also
the mirror plane parallel to (010) in the [001] projection (Fig. 11c). Figure 11df
shows simulated electron diffraction (ED) patterns (for a specimen thickness of
100 ) corresponding to Fig. 11ac, respectively, by taking dynamic scattering
of electrons into account.
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 91

a b c

d e f
Fig. 11af. Projections of the framework structure of MFI-type along [100] (a), [010] (b), and
[001] (c). Simulated ED patterns (df) for a, b and c, respectively

MEL Type. Figure 12a, b shows the framework structure of MEL along [100]
and [001]. Since MEL belongs to the tetragonal system, the [100] and [010] direc-
tions are equivalent, and there is a four-fold axis along the [001] direction.
Figure 12c, d shows simulated ED patterns along the [100] and [001] directions,
respectively.

How To Differentiate the Two Types. Comparing Figs. 11 and 12, it is very clear
that the [001] incidence is the best orientation to observe the difference between
the two types. Since the symmetry of the projection along the [001] is p2gm for
MFI and p4mm for MEL, either the ED pattern or the HRTEM image alone is suf-
ficient to differentiate between the two. An HRTEM image of MEL taken with
[001] is shown together with the ED pattern in Fig. 13. The arrows in the ED pat-
tern show 200 and 020 reflections, both are equivalent by symmetry. Both the
HRTEM image and the ED pattern show clearly, by exhibiting 4-fold symmetry,
that pure MEL-type has been synthesized. In the other two principal directions
[100] and [010], we must observe both an ED pattern and an HREM image as a
set in order to demonstrate that the crystal is the MEL-type. The ED pattern in
Fig. 11d is very similar to that in Fig. 12c, but the corresponding projected
framework structures are quite different as shown in Figs. 11a and 12a. In order
to observe the small difference between Fig. 11b and Fig. 12a by HREM images,
it is necessary to distinguish between the two different types of 5-rings, which
are indicated by two different stars in the figures, due to their different contrast
92 O. Terasaki

a b

c d

Fig. 12ad. Projections of the framework structure of MEL-type along 100 ([100] or [010])
(a) and [001] (b). Simulated ED patterns(c and d) for a and b, respectively

or size [50, 51]. Unfortunately, this is not an easy task, and, therefore, the condi-
tions under which to observe the difference in symmetry by an ordinary EM are
discussed elsewhere [51].

6.2.2
Surface Structure and Crystal Growth Units

The surface structure is an important factor to be studied for a better under-


standing of the chemical reaction occurring at the surface. Observation of the
growth steps on an atomic scale will provide vital information about the crystal
growth mechanism. Figure 14 shows HRTEM images to illustrate growing
steps at the surface, i.e. the surface structure of FAU taken along [110]. The
height of these steps on the crystallite surface is basically equal to the spacing of
(111)c FAU, i.e. one faujasite sheet shown in Fig. 8. The image is sufficiently cle-
ar to allow determination of the nature of the terminating structures at the
crystal faces by comparing them with simulated images. The following three dif-
ferent terminating surface models for FAU were simulated by use of the multi-
slice method: (I) with an incomplete sodalite cage, (II) with a complete sodalite
cage, and (III) with a complete D6R. These models are shown schematically in
Fig. 15. The top is the crystal surface. The simulated images of the type I surface
fit very closely to the images of Fig. 14 and they are inserted in the figures,
while another HRTEM image of FAU, such as Fig. 10, synthesized by a different
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 93

Fig. 13a, b. An ED pattern (a) and an HRTEM image (b) of MEL taken with [001]

Fig. 14. High resolution TEM surface profile images of {111}c of FAU taken on a 400 kV EM
along [110]c. Simulated images (specimen thickness of 50 ) for the surface model I and focus
of 900 (above) and 700 (below) are inserted
94 O. Terasaki

Fig. 15. Three different surface structure models for the {111}c surface of FAU viewed along
[110]c

method, fits the simulated image of the type III surface. We have therefore
observed two different types of surfaces, that is, structures (I) and (III) in FAU.
Both have the common feature that they are related with completed D6R. Struc-
ture (II), on the other hand, consists of a S6R at the surface. We propose there-
fore that the D6R is an important unit in the growth for FAU [11, 12, 17]. This
does not necessarily mean that the crystal is formed by the unit of D6R from the
gel. Different polymeric molecules may be adsorbed and desorbed in their life-
times. However once D6R is formed at the surface step, this is so stable that it will
not desorb and the step advances to the next. D6R is the key unit for the crystal
growth of FAU and Si/Al ordering of the framework. This evidence was also
observed inside the crystals as a reflection of growth procedure. The details are
discussed in [12].

6.2.3
Clusters on or in Zeolites

There have been many attempts aimed at incorporating metal or metallic com-
pound particles into the spaces of zeolites. The accurate characterization of the
particles, which consists of the determination of the particle sizes and their loca-
tion relative to zeolite framework structures, is the main issue. High resolution
TEM is a powerful and direct method for this purpose, but it is not easy to deter-
mine decisively whether the particles are located inside the channels of the zeo-
lite or on the external surface of the crystals if the particle size is small. This is
because the strong contribution from the framework structure masks the con-
trast in the HRTEM image from the clusters especially when incident electrons
are parallel to the direction of the channels in order to obtain a structure image,
and because the electron-optical effect causes an artifact. Furthermore, zeolites
are quite electron-beam sensitive as mentioned previously. In order to overcome
this difficulty, a few methods have been proposed: image processing [29, 52],
HRTEM observation of serial ultra thin sectioned specimens [53, 54] and the
Z-contrast method [55, 56]. It is normally believed that the particles are inside,
if the particles are not observed on the external surface in the HRTEM image
when looking at the direction perpendicular to the channel. A question then
arises, how can small particles be observed in HRTEM images under certain
conditions? My present answer to this question is given in the next section.
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 95

6.2.3.1
Pt/K-LTL
Pt-containing LTL has attracted a lot of attention as a catalyst. The Pt particles
are sputtered on the outer surface of the crystals; therefore, we are sure that the
particles are on the external surfaces in this experiment.With the electron beam
parallel to the channels, we can observe contrast from the Pt clusters which are
on the (001) plane, if the particles are larger than approximately 30 and this is
more than four times larger than the channel aperture. It is easier to observe the
particles on the (001) plane by taking HRTEM images with the electron beam
perpendicular to the channels.
Figure 16 shows a set of sequential HRTEM images. Platinum particles are
stationary on the surface during the electron beam irradiation, which is different

Fig. 16ac. A sequence of HRTEM images of Pt/LTL taken on a 400 kV EM with [100]
96 O. Terasaki

from the previous observation of metallic particles [57]. The Pt particles, with a
diameter of ca. 1015 , are situated on the (001) surface. They can be seen
situated above the row of channel openings at the surface in the projection
shown in Fig. 16a. It is clear from all the observations that 1015 Pt particles
are easily detectable. These Pt particles may be useful as arrayed dots although
they are materials not confined in the spaces but on the external surfaces. One
can see the lattice fringes of Pt particles in both Figs. 16b and c. It is quite
obvious that the K-LTL crystal changes its morphology and the Pt particles
migrate and change their sizes due to the influence of the beam. Therefore one
must be careful to measure the particle size from the HRTEM image after the
destruction of the framework, although it is easier to observe contrast from the
particles [7, 18].

6.2.3.2
Metal Compounds in FAU

There are several methods to incorporate metal compounds into the spaces of
zeolites. Among them, two methods, (i) to incorporate volatile compounds
followed by a chemical reaction, and (ii) ion exchange with metal ions followed
by reduction and chemical reaction, are the most common procedures. Molyb-
denum oxide/sulfides and iron oxide clusters were synthesized in the spaces of
FAU by a few cycles of chemical reactions of adsorbed Mo(CO)6 and Fe2(CO)5
with oxygen or H2S gas. Clusters of MoO3 , MoS2 and Fe2O3 have been success-
fully fabricated in the spaces of FAU [5860]. The most important point of
this study, from a structural point of view, is the confirmation that the frame-
work structure is not destroyed by the treatment and that no surface precipitates
are observed on the external surfaces. An example of a HRTEM image of MoSx/
FAU (Fig. 17) clearly shows molybdenum sulfide, perhaps MoS2, clusters are
incorporated into the spaces without any serious damage to the framework
structure. A variation of contrast, which may correspond to different sizes of the
clusters, is observed.

Fig. 17. An HRTEM image of MoS2/FAU taken on a 400 kV EM with [110]c


Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 97

6.2.4
Modulation and Modification of the Framework Structure

6.2.4.1
Si/Al Concentration Modulation in MOR

Modulation of the Si/Al ratio is common in a zeolite framework, and this is nor-
mally observed through an X-ray analysis (compositional mapping) in SEM. In
order to observe the modulation by HRTEM, a fine probe is needed to detect it.
Fortunately, the Al atoms in the framework always carry the same number of
cations and produce electric fields with multipoles, which give rise to physical
adsorption. If adsorbed atoms have large enough scattering amplitudes to pro-
duce contrast in HRTEM images, then we can detect the modulation on an
atomic scale through the contrast.
During the study of making isolated Se-chains in the one-dimensional chan-
nels of synthetic MOR, we observed an unusual black and white band contrast
in the HRTEM image (Fig. 18). This peculiar contrast was determined as an
amplitude contrast due to modulation of the Se-content along the b axis [20, 21].
It has been confirmed from our optical absorption spectra of Se confined in the
spaces that a finite number, 1020, atoms of Se are physically adsorbed at each
dipole [22]. Selenium atoms have large electron-scattering amplitude; therefore,
they can be used as probes to detect the compositional variation of Al in the
framework on the unit cell size by producing contrast in the HRTEM images. It
should be mentioned that the crystal of MOR used had a plate-like character,
extended along the b-axis and thin along the c-axis. This is quite different from
natural MOR or other synthetic MOR single crystals which are long along the
c-axis. Compositional modulation may be responsible for this characteristic
shape, through a dependence of the crystal growth rate (anisotropic) on the
Si/Al ratio under the synthetic conditions.

Fig. 18. An HRTEM image of Se-MOR taken on a 1000 kV EM with [001]


98 O. Terasaki

6.2.4.2
Dealumination of the Framework

As a modification of the framework, dealumination is a well-established tech-


nique for improving thermal stability and enhancing acidity of zeolites.We were
able to remove quite a number of Al atoms from the framework using this treat-
ment. In order to observe the effect of dealumination on an atomic scale, especi-
ally on the external surfaces, the early stage of the process should be studied by
HRTEM [56]. The very regular octahedral shape of FAU and hexagonal plate
shape of EMT were chosen and mildly dealuminated by hexafluorosilicate.
Figure 19 shows HRTEM images of FAU after dealumination taken with 110.
Figure 19b is a high magnification image from the top part of the same crystal
shown in Fig. 19a. The crystal shape of FAU is an octahedron and therefore the
projection along the direction appears as a rhombus. The prominent features for
dealuminated FAU observed by HRTEM are summarized as follows: (i) a dense
non-crystalline layer, which follows the original crystal shape, of approximately
20- thickness is formed, (ii) between this and the crystalline phase is a layer of
less dense amorphous material approximately 80- thick, (iii) many mesopores
are formed between the amorphous layers and crystals, (iv) mesopores are
bounded on all sides by {111}c surfaces, and (v) defects are preferentially
attacked. The suggestion that the dense outer layer is deposited silica [61] has
been confirmed by recent work [unpublished]. An HRTEM image of EMT

a b

Fig. 19 a, b. An HRTEM image of FAU dealuminated by ammonium hexafluorosilicate taken on


a 400 kV EM with [110]
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 99

Fig. 20. An HRTEM image of EMT dealuminated by ammonium hexafluorosilicate taken on a


400 kV EM with [100]

viewed perpendicular to the c axis ([100]) after dealumination is shown in


Fig. 20. The feature due to the dealumination of EMT looks different but the
essential point is the same for both FAU and EMT. From the images it may be
speculated as a summary that the apparent change by dealumination is the
reverse of the crystal growth process. In the case of the intergrown samples,
dealumination occurs preferentially in regions with a higher level of stacking
disorder and for applications where some mesoporosity is desirable, this is
potentially a method of producing a controlled number of larger pores.

6.2.5
New Structure Determination

6.2.5.1
BEA

Zeolite beta (BEA) was synthesized in 1967 and showed high catalytic activities,
from which it was speculated that BEA has a three-dimensional 12-ring frame-
work structure. But the structure was not solved. This is because crystals of BEA
always contain severe structural faulting and hence show strong diffuse scatte-
ring in diffraction patterns. In 1988, Treacy and Newsam succeeded in solving
the structures by use of primarily electron microscopy [13]. The tertiary build-
ing unit (TBU), a constituent of the rod, and its connectivity relation were
determined from HRTEM images and ED patterns. They proposed structure
models with an interpenetrating channel arrangement so as to keep high sorp-
tion capacity despite the presence of extensive stacking disorder. Two poly-
morphs, A and B, which are described by a different stacking sequence of the
sheets, are proposed as the end members. The basic process in solving the struc-
tures of BEA and ETS-10 is very similar.
100 O. Terasaki

6.2.5.2
SSZ-26 and SSZ-33
The new zeolites SSZ-26 and SSZ-33 were synthesized purposefully to contain
a three-dimensional pore system comprised of intersecting 10- and 12-ring
pores [62]. Their basic structural components, such as pore diameter and
channel dimensions, were proposed from independent measurements of N2
and 2,2-dimethylbutane adsorption, and density measurement. The unit cell
with a = 13.26 , b = 12.33 , and c = 21.08 (orthorhombic) for SSZ-33 was
determined by X-ray powder diffraction. The essential points of the framework
structures were determined by the observations of ED patterns and HRTEM
images. But it seems to me that further experimental confirmation might be
necessary.

6.2.5.3
ETS-10
A new microporous titanosilicate ETS-10 was first synthesized in 1989 [63], but
the structure remained unsolved until recently [1416]. The process to deter-
mine the framework structures for BEA, SSZ-26, SSZ-33 and ETS-10 is similar,
so the case for ETS-10 is explained here in detail. The SEM image (Fig. 21) sug-
gests that the material has a pseudo 4-fold symmetry along an axis indicated by
the large arrow (hereafter this direction is referred to as the z-axis), and also
reveals faults perpendicular to the z-axis indicated by the small arrows. This is
clearly confirmed from HRTEM images and ED patterns (see [1416]). The
basic unit cell was determined by ED patterns to be triclinic with a = b = 15.1 ,
c = 14.9 , a = b = 104.7 and g = 90.
High-resolution TEM images and corresponding ED patterns taken along an
axis perpendicular to z (assigned as the x-axis) are shown in Fig. 22 together with
a schematic drawing. In the images a number of characteristic features are seen:
Large white dots (indicated by white stars) are arranged along the y-axis with
a period of ca. 15 . There is a group of black contrast between the two white
dots as indicated by black stars. These, as a whole, form sheets, three of which
are indicated by the medium-sized arrows (Fig. 22a, b).

Fig. 21. An SEM image of ETS-10


Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 101

Fig. 22ad. High resolution TEM images of ETS-10 along the x-(or y-) axis taken on a 400 kV
EM (a and b), the corresponding ED pattern (c) and a schematic drawing of HRTEM images
(d)
102 O. Terasaki

Between the successive sheets, rows of small white dots are arranged in a zig-
zag manner along the y-axis as indicated by small arrows (Fig. 22a, b).
Large white dots in successive sheets shift by one quarter of the period of the
dots along the y-axis (ca. 15 ) either to the left or the right, and the structu-
re can then be described by the stacking of the sheets in the z-direction using
ABCD or ABAB, etc (Fig. 22a, d).
There are many large channels, indicated by large arrows, in the sheets crea-
ted by stacking faults. The stacking sequence of the left side of the larger
channel is ABCBADC and that of right side is ABAB as marked in the image
(Fig. 22a, b).
Diffuse streaks with some maxima are therefore observed in the ED pattern
along the direction perpendicular to the sheets (Fig. 22c). Exactly the same
features as above are also observed in an HRTEM image taken with the in-
cidence parallel to the y-axis.
From the above observations, a structure unit (a rod) and its connectivity rela-
tionship are determined as shown in Fig. 23, where Si, O and Ti are distinguis-
hed by the different solid circles, by considering the framework composition
ratio of Si/Ti = 5. The rod consists of a one-dimensional titanium oxide chain
(OTiOTiO)n and two 3-membered rings with Si on either side.
Many different stacking sequences are observed in HRTEM images. The only
rule is that a shift must be introduced to the next sheet by one quarter of the
period of the dots. Figure 24 shows two extremes of ETS-10 which represent two
ordered polymorphs. Figure 24a, corresponding to an ABAB repeat stacking,

c
Fig. 23ac. Schematic diagrams of the rod structure. a Top view, b side view and c a possible
example of the connectivity
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 103

d
Fig. 24ad. Projected models for the structures of two end members, a polymorph A (ABAB
stacking) and c polymorph B (ABCD stacking). Schematic channel systems for polymorph A
(b) and for polymorph B (d)
104 O. Terasaki

has unit cell parameters a = b = 14.85 and c = 27.08 (the tetragonal space-
group P4122 or P4322). There is a spiral channel with a 12-membered ring aper-
ture which spirals along the c-axis in a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction as
shown in Fig. 24b, and this is a chiral crystal system. Figure 24c, corresponding
to an ABCD repeat stacking, has unit cell parameters a = b = 21.00 , c =
14.51 and b = 111.12 (the monoclinic space-group C2/c). In this polymorph
a straight 12-membered ring channel runs parallel to the c-axis as shown in
Fig. 24d.

6.2.5.4
New Porous Materials, MCM and FSM
Electron microscopy also plays an important role in characterizing porous
materials [6469]. In these materials, the following structural points have to
be characterized: i) whether the wall is amorphous or crystalline and, if it is
amorphous, how to specify it, ii) wall thickness, iii) pore diameter, and iv) an
arrangement of pores including the symmetry of the system. Electron diffrac-
tion patterns can be obtained from a single domain and therefore they give
information on the problems i) and iv), and HRTEM images give information on
ii), iii) and iv). Electron microscopy will shed light for finding a difference be-
tween MCM-41 [64 67] and FSM-16 [69], if they are different. Recent work by
Alfredsson and Anderson showed interesting results on the structure of cubic
MCM-48 using electron microscopy with computer modeling and simulation
[68]. This kind of technique, i.e. a combination of EM and other computing
methods such as MD or Monte Carlo simulation, will extend the study of the
fine structures of zeolites with some kind of disorder or irregularity for which
classical diffraction techniques cannot give enough information. Electron
crystallography (Sect. 8.3) will open a new field to characterize/determine
structures of new porous materials.

7
Electron Radiation Damage
Zeolite materials are electron beam sensitive, and Bursill and Thomas have dis-
cussed the damage process and methods for stabilization [3941]. There are two
major elementary processes of electron damage; knock-on and radiolytic dam-
age. The first arises from direct interactions between incident electrons and the
nucleus of the atoms in the specimen. The cross-section for the knock-on pro-
cess increases from a certain threshold energy, for moving an atom from the
proper site into an unstable position, with increasing accelerating voltage. The
second consists of several electron excitations, such as (i) inner shell ionization,
(ii) plasmon loss, (iii) creation of locally bound electron-hole pairs (excitons),
and the cross-section for radiolysis decreases with increasing accelerating
voltage. Csencsits and Gronsky discussed these two elementary processes for
FAU, and measured electron dose to vitrification as a function of accelerating
voltage and of Si/Al ratio of the frameworks. They confirmed experimentally
that FAU materials with higher Si/Al ratios are more stable under electron ir-
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 105

radiation, and that the radiolytic process is the main part of vitrification in
the range 80200 kV [70]. It is rather difficult to indicate the electron dose
sufficient to destroy the crystallinity of zeolites, as it is strongly dependent
on the type of zeolite, Si/Al ratio, water content, energy of incident electrons
and so on. Treacy and Newsam claimed a dose rate of about 50 electrons 2 s1
for LTL [71] and McComb and Howie mentioned a dose from 103 to 105 elec-
trons 2 [72].
The radiation damage process is sometimes not uniform, as first observed by
Treacy and Newsam for LTL [71]. The sequence of HRTEM images of LTL taken
with [100] is shown in Fig. 25 under electron irradiation. From these images it is
very clear that the degradation of LTL under an electron beam is not uniform.
The crystallinity at the top and bottom (001) surfaces stays longer than at the
middle part, and the crystal shape changes from a cylindrical plate to a cotton-
reel shape (to form a waist) as shown schematically in Fig. 25d. This may be
explained by the amorphous material produced by the electrons having a higher
density than crystalline LTL. Treacy and Newsam have also confirmed the pre-
vious observation that the rate of vitrification depends sensitively on the degree
of hydration.
Although the presence of water in a zeolite crystal especially shortens the life-
time of the crystal under the electron beam, we now realize that the most impor-
tant factor for stability of the crystal is the quality of their crystallinities. We can
observe beautiful HRTEM images even from fully hydrated ordinary Na-FAU
(Si/Al = 2.8) [7].

Fig. 25ad. A sequence of HRTEM images of LTL taken on a 400 kV EM with [100] in order to
show anisotropic damage under an electron beam (ac). d Schematic drawing of c
106 O. Terasaki

8
Other Topics
8.1
Image Processing
To obtain the intuitive HRTEM images, in which the contrast is proportional to
the projected potential for electrons as discussed in Sect. 4, it is necessary to
include as many reflections for image formation (i.e., Fourier synthesis of dif-
fracted beams) as possible. Therefore, it might be necessary by extending zero
cross u0 to have an EM with better resolution which is essentially determined by
the CTF as discussed in Sect. 4.2. But in the case of zeolites, the situation is com-
plicated. Information at small wave vectors, which is most important for image
formation in zeolites with a large lattice constant, is inevitably transferred less
as the resolution of the EM becomes higher. This causes artificial contrast at the
centers of channels in HRTEM images when the images are taken along the
channel direction. It is therefore important to distinguish this contrast from that
of the materials confined in the spaces of zeolites. By knowing the origin of the
artifacts we can remove artificial contrast with image processing [28, 29, 52] as
a makeshift.

8.2
High-Voltage HRTEM
The advantages of using high-voltage EM for the study of the fine structures of
zeolites are i) better resolution, ii) less damage, iii) observation of the fine
structures from thicker specimens, and iv) fulfilment of the weak phase object
approximation through the dependence of the interaction parameter s on E (see
Sects. 1.3 and 4.1). The use of high-voltage HRTEM will become more important
especially for the observation of grain boundaries in membrane zeolites or in
sintered zeolites without a process/destruction. An advantage of using high-
voltage HRTEM for an observation of the fine structure from thick specimens
has already been shown [7, 52]. We interesting results showing all the above ad-
vantages for zeolites by using a new re-installed 1.25 MeV EM at our university.

8.3
Electron Crystallography
In addition to the advantages of electron scattering over X-ray and/or neutron
scattering as discussed in Sect. 1.3, I want to mention two other points in parti-
cular for the study of fine structures of zeolites and clusters/zeolites.
1. Electron atomic scattering factors are very sensitive to the electronic state
(outermost electrons) of the atom at small scattering vectors, and it is also
anisotropic in the vectors for covalent bonding character [73]. In the case of
zeolites, fortunately we have many reflections in the range where the electron
atomic scattering factor is very sensitive to the electronic state of the consti-
tuent atoms. For example, the values of sin q/l for the 111 reflection of FAU
(a = 24.7 ) and 200 of LTA (a = 12.4 ) are 0.035 and 0.08 1, respectively.
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 107

2. Electron atomic scattering factors change with atomic number but the depen-
dence is not as strong as for X-ray scattering (see International Tables for
X-ray Crystallography, vol. 4, IUCR). We can obtain a relatively large amount
of information from a constituent atom of a light element (small Z number)
in clusters which are composed with large Z number atoms.
Recent development in recording media for electrons with a computer enables
us to treat the data, ED patterns and HRTEM images, more quantitatively. If we
are able to define experimental conditions, such as crystal thickness, beam tilt-
ing to the crystallographic axis and focus conditions, we can use intensity dis-
tributions of ED patterns in a quantitative way for structure determination by
relying on the theory of electron dynamic scattering. Even a relatively low-reso-
lution HRTEM image will be useful for a phase recovery of reflections. Further-
more, a combination of computational methods with qualitative analysis may
open a new field for the study of the structures of zeolites and clusters in or on
zeolites.
Finally, the recent work by Nicopoulos and his colleagues should be mention-
ed as the first application of electron crystallography to a study of zeolite struc-
ture, in this case, MCM-22 [74].

9
Notes Added at Revision (24 June 1997)

9.1
Mesoporous Materials

Many papers have been published on mesoporous materials to study the points
mentioned in Sect. 6.2.5.4 by EM, but most of all HRTEM images of MCM-41
have been used only to show that the channels are hexagonally arranged
[6467]. The images should be treated with care as they contain a lot of in-
formation although the images depend on experimental conditions, especially
on out of focus and specimen thickness. Recently, Sakamoto et al. observed
HRTEM images of FSM-16s, both as-synthesized and calcined [75, 76]. From
careful image simulations it is reported that a circular channel can be imaged
not as a circle, but as a regular hexagon under certain experimental conditions
(Fig. 26). If the crystal thickness increases, this effect becomes prominent
under ordinary focus conditions. For as-synthesized FSM-16, they showed the
following:
The wall thickness is uniform and corresponds to double sheets of silicate.
Therefore there is no indication of a periodic change of single and double
sheet silicates as expected from the proposed growth model by Inagaki et al.
[69], the Folded Sheet Mechanism, from which the name of FSM-16 comes.
The shape of channels is more or less hexagonal.
The characteristic external morphology of a hexagonal plate (angles of 2p/3
between two neighboring edges in projection), which is observed in MCM-41,
is not observed.
108 O. Terasaki

Fig. 26. A simulated image of FSM-16 with a circular aperture of the channel (above), and an
observed HRTEM image of as-synthesized FSM-16 (below)
Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science 109

The length along the channel direction is much longer than that perpendicu-
lar to the direction.
They proposed a growth mechanism of FSM-16 based on their observations.
They also reported the change caused by a process of calcination, that is, the wall
becomes much thicker and the channel shape changes from hexagonal to circu-
lar after the process, which is consistent with the previous observation in X-ray
diffraction [75].

9.2
Quantitative Analysis of ED Patterns and HRTEM Images

New improvements in recording media, such as the imaging plate and the slow-
scan CCD camera with an output of higher linearity and a larger dynamic range
than ordinary photographic films, enable us to analyze ED patterns and HRTEM
images quantitatively. An example has been shown recently for ZSM-5 to reveal
TPA cations, which are used as templates for synthesis. The presence of TPA is
shown in a Fourier map of electrostatic potential distribution of ZSM-5 with
TPA (Fig. 27), which was obtained from the ED pattern of [010] incidence [77].
The authors discussed the amount of TPA in the channels from the observed
contrast. Generally, to obtain a Fourier map, it is necessary to speculate a relative
phase relationship between the reflections, but from the corresponding HRTEM
image we can determine experimentally the relationship for the reflections

Fig. 27. A Fourier diagram obtained from 98 independent reflections in the ED pattern of
TPA/ZSM-5, [010] incidence
110 O. Terasaki

within the window of CTF (smaller than u0, as discussed in Sect. 4.1). A
study to apply the direct method, which has been developed for X-ray diffrac-
tion to analyze ED patterns and/or to combine analysis of both ED patterns and
HRTEM images for clarifying structures of clusters confined in the spaces of
zeolites, is underway.

Acknowledgements. The author is grateful to D. Watanabe, S. Andersson, J.M. Thomas, the late
J.V. Sanders, T. Ohsuna, J-O Bovin, V. Alfredsson, M.W. Anderson, K. Hiraga, N. Ohnishi and
Y. Sakamoto for their continuous encouragement, support and collaboration. Thanks are also
expressed to the Royal Society and the British Council (UK), the Swedish Natural Science
Research Council, NFR, CREST, the Japanese Science and Technology Corporation (JST), and
Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan for their support.

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in Microporous Materials
W. Depmeier
Universitt Kiel, Institut fr Geowissenschaften, Olshausenstr. 40, D-24098 Kiel, Germany;
e-mail: depmeier@min.uni-kiel.de

List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

2 Ideal and Real Structures in Zeolites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

3 Zeolite Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

4 Bond Lengths and Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

5 Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

6 Systematic Tetrahedron Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

7 Conformational Changes of Zeolite Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

8 Structural Relaxation Around Isolated AlO4 Tetrahedra


in a Silica Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

9 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

10 Structural Modulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

11 Rigid Unit Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

12 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

List of Abbreviations
CAW Aluminate sodalite of composition Ca8[Al12O24](WO4)2
CAM Aluminate sodalite of composition Ca8[Al12O24](MoO4)2
CAS Aluminate sodalite of composition Ca8[Al12O24](SO4)2
SAM Aluminate sodalite of composition Sr8[Al12O24](MoO4)2
SAW Aluminate sodalite of composition Sr8[Al12O24](WO4)2
OTO, TOT Angles OTO, TOT

Molecular Sieves, Vol. 2


Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999
114 W. Depmeier

4R, 6R, 8R Ring of four, six or eight tetrahedra in the zeolite framework
NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance
MAS-NMR Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
DOR-NMR Double rotation nuclear magnetic resonance
QCC Quadrupole coupling constant
FCD Framework contribution to the tetrahedron distortion
CCD Cation contribution to the tetrahedron distortion

1
Introduction
This article will discuss some of the characteristics of the real structures of zeo-
lites and clathrasils. For simplicity, the term zeolite will be used for all classes
of microporous materials. The term real structure indicates that the structure
under discussion is distorted from an ideal one, for example, by changing tem-
perature, pressure, different chemical composition, a chemical reaction, or
adsorption/desorption processes. The distortion will mainly concern the tetra-
hedra and the framework conformation. The topology of the framework does
not change but also contributes to the distortion.
The article will begin with some necessary remarks on the basic properties of
zeolite frameworks, including the geometry and symmetry aspects. Systematic
tetrahedron distortion can be induced by the topology of the framework. This
will be discussed in Sect. 6. Cooperative movements of the tetrahedra change the
conformation of the framework and this can result in structural collapse. The
correlation of the cooperative movements can extend to infinity, or can be local-
ized. Examples of both types are discussed in Sect. 7. Structural relaxation of the
framework around an isolated defect is the subject of Sect. 8. The action of one
intensive variable, viz. temperature, on the framework will be briefly described
in Sect. 9. Owing to space limitations the important structural distortions which
occur under the action of pressure, during hydration/dehydration processes, or
upon adsorption of molecules are not covered in this article. The important sub-
ject of structural phase transitions has also been omitted. Modulations are long-
period distortions of a structure. The commensurate and incommensurate
modulations occurring in the sodalite family will be discussed in some detail.
The question will be posed as to whether such modulations can also be expect-
ed in large-pore zeolites. Finally, short reference to Rigid Unit Modes is made.

2
Ideal and Real Structures in Zeolites
The terms ideal and real structures are used in a similar way to Megaws aristo-
type and hettotypes [1]. The ideal structure is the simplest and most symme-
trical member of a structural family. The real structures are more complex, e.g.,
in their chemical composition, and are often of lower symmetry. For a given zeo-
lite there is only one unique ideal structure, but usually a manifold of real struc-
ture types exists. The term ideal will also include the meaning of the fully
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 115

expanded framework in the case of collapsible zeolites. In many cases real struc-
tures of zeolites have a partially collapsed framework.
The members of a structural family are related by one-to-one mapping of all
their atoms. Zeolites are capable of hosting in the cavities of their frameworks
important quantities of non-framework species, i.e., various ions, molecules, or
water. Such derivatives will also be regarded as real structures of a given struc-
tural family. Stacking variants of different framework types and lattice defects,
such as screw or edge dislocations, are beyond the scope of this chapter.
The differences between a given ideal structure and any of its associated low-
symmetry relatives in terms of atomic coordinates are so small that their expe-
rimental determination is often difficult. If the electron density of the ideal
structure is r0 , and the small deviation of any real structure from the ideal struc-
ture is designated by Dr, then the real structure is:
r = r0 + Dr (1)
In diffraction methods for structural analysis a small Dr results in only minor
changes in reciprocal space. The contribution of Dr to the total diffracted inten-
sity is often of the order of only 1%, or less. Hence, it is expected that contribu-
tions from Dr will cause only slight modifications in the ideal diffraction pat-
tern, such as small shifts of peak positions, split powder diffraction lines, weak
extra reflections, or small intensity differences. The differences are often of the
same order of magnitude as the resolution of the experiment, or even smaller.
Without proper care being exercised these differences can easily be missed. This
is true for all pseudo-symmetric structures, e.g., perovskites, but zeolites
present the additional difficulty that their crystal quality is often low and their
size is small. These facts make diffraction experiments on zeolites even more
difficult, and their results sometimes questionable.
There are cases where researchers are content just to establish the general
building principles of a new zeolite, for example, if they are mainly interested in
aspects of its technical applications.Then the knowledge of the idealized structure
may be sufficient, and the often laborious task of working out the real structure
can be avoided. On the other hand, if it is necessary to know structural details,
such as the distribution of cations or the correct symmetry and the associated
crystal properties, then a knowledge of the real structure is indispensable [2].
Given their potential in modern applications, the determination, understanding
and control of their real structures will become a key issue in the field of zeolites.

3
Zeolite Frameworks
The basic structural building unit of the zeolites is the TO4 tetrahedron, where T
represents a small, highly charged cation, usually Si 4+ or Al 3+. The quite rigid
TO4 tetrahedra are all-corner-connected via common oxygens, thus forming a
three-dimensional framework. The framework can be mapped onto a class of
mathematical objects, so-called four-connected nets. These and other nets have
been studied extensively in the past, not least because they allow the enumeration
of possible zeolite frameworks [36].An infinite number of such nets exsists, but
116 W. Depmeier

only a limited number can be realized as zeolite structures. These nets allow for
reasonable inter-atomic distances and angles, given that the nodes are not
mathematical points, but more or less rigid TO4 tetrahedra. Klein used these con-
straints, and the fact that in real structures the number of topologically different
TO4 tetrahedra tends to be small, to develop a graph-based method which pro-
vides a complete enumeration of already known and hypothetical new zeolite
frameworks for given numbers of independent tetrahedra [7, 8].
If a synthetic or natural zeolite containing a new framework is discovered, it
is labelled by a three-letter code, after approval by the Structure Commission of
the International Zeolite Association. The code then represents the framework
type of the zeolite, regardless of its actual chemical composition, its symmetry,
the degree of structural distortion, or the presence or absence of possible non-
framework species. In other words, it corresponds to the ideal structure. The
framework type code will be used in this chapter where appropriate.
A total of 108 different framework types are listed in the fourth edition of the
Atlas of Zeolite Structure Types [9], together with much useful information. A
website can be found under http://www.iza-sc.ethz.ch. The information given
there includes topological characteristics of the framework, such as the coordi-
nates of the T atoms in the topological symmetry, the loop configuration of the
T atoms, and coordination sequences. The number, orientation, size and vari-
ability of channels and cavities of a zeolite are important for appraising possible
applications.Approximate cell parameters and the channel and cavity diameters
are also listed. These results were obtained by a distance-least-squares method
[10] assuming a pure SiO2 framework. Schematic drawings of the respective fra-
mework type complete the information. Finally, synthetic or naturally occurring
representatives of the framework type are mentioned.
As a very useful tool it is possible to calculate and display the powder pattern
for many zeolites. In some cases it is even possible to perform the calculation for
several real representatives of a given framework topology, and to study the
effects of the change of a real structure on the diffraction pattern.

4
Bond Lengths and Angles

For a given T cation the TO4 tetrahedron has only a narrow range of variability
with respect to its TO distances and OTO angles, even when it is part of a dif-
ferent framework type. This fact has been demonstrated for many examples, and
explained by the partial covalent character of the TO bond [1114].
With a new large and highly complete data base on zeolites [15] becoming
operational soon, it can be expected that more detailed compilations will be per-
formed, and results with much higher statistical weights than ever will be
published. It is certain that the basic statements about the geometry of the TO4
tetrahedra will not change.
In real structures there is the possibility of systematic distortions of the TO4
tetrahedra. The influence of the topology and of chemical composition on the
tetrahedral shape in the cases of SOD and LTA will be discussed in Sect. 6.
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 117

When a single aluminum (Al) atom replaces silicon (Si) in a given alumino-
silicate framework, its larger size and lower charge induce strain and the frame-
work has to relax around this defect. A knowledge of this phenomenon is of
great importance for the understanding of catalytic properties of zeolites. This
point will be discussed in Sect. 8.
In contrast to the TO bond lengths and OTO bond angles, the TOT angles
scatter over a large range of values. This is demonstrated in the histogram
shown in Fig. 1 [16], and substantiated by Fig. 2 [17, 18]. In the deformation map
in Fig. 2, the potential energy of the Si2O7 group in a H6Si2O7 molecule is shown,

500
Zeolites, angles Si-O-Al and Si-O-Si, N=2436

400

300

200

100

0
120 130 140 150 160 170 180
Fig. 1. A histogram of 2436 SiOSi and SiOAl angles from 317 zeolite crystal structures
(from [16])

Fig. 2. The potential energy surface for H6Si2O7 , plotted as a function of the SiO bond length
R(SiO), and the SiOSi angle. The energy increments of 0.001 a.u. relative to the minimum
(+) are represented by contours. The experimental data points refer to several silica poly-
morphs (from [39])
118 W. Depmeier

as obtained by quantum mechanical methods. It is plotted as a function of two


variables, viz. the SiO bond length and the SiOSi angle. From the shape of the
valley in the potential energy hyper-surface it is evident that changes in the TOT
angle cost only little energy, whereas the narrow cross section of the valley and
the steep slopes in the direction of increasing or decreasing SiO bond length
illustrate its low variability. The potential also shows that below about 120 the
TOT angles become highly unfavorable, and the structure therefore unstable.
The distribution of experimental data points plotted in the theoretical potential
hyper-surface suggests that the results obtained for the H6Si2O7 molecule can be
used to explain the major features of the SiO4 tetrahedral frameworks as well.
However, specific constraints, imposed by the topology of the framework or by
the non-framework atoms, have to be taken into account. This can be illustrated
by the following example.
Figure 2 suggests that distorting the molecule to a TOT angle of 180 does not
cost much energy. If the structure were able to gain enough energy from other
sources, then straight angles might become possible. However, the fitting of
Si2O7 groups into a three-dimensional framework of all-corner-connected tetra-
hedra will certainly alter the details of the potential energy. The increase in the
potential energy when the TOT angle approaches 180 can be much steeper in a
framework than in the molecule. In Sect. 7 we will discuss the case of sodalite,
where topological constraints set an upper limit on the TOT angle. The question
of whether straight TOT bridges exist in zeolites has been a matter of debate in
the past. It seems to have found a negative answer, as recent structure refine-
ments have indicated lower symmetry in some questionable cases, where the
assumption of the topological symmetry would have required straight angles
[1921].
Many features of the behavior of a tetrahedral framework can be rationalized
by a simple rule, viz. that the relative force constants for the TO bond stretching,
the OTO and the TOT angle bending, are in a ratio of 1.0:0.1:0.01 [22]. For many
purposes the behavior of a tetrahedral framework can conveniently be repres-
ented by a mechanical analogue. It consists of rigid tetrahedra, which are
connected by angle brackets. The brackets have a preferred angle of about 140,
but can be strained considerably in response to requirements of the structure [1].

5
Symmetry

The topological symmetry of a zeolite framework can be described by one of the


230 three-dimensional space group types [23]. The symmetry of the real struc-
ture belongs to the same space group type, or to one of its subgroups. A knowl-
edge of the true symmetry is necessary for understanding the structural distor-
tions in a zeolite. In some cases the occurrence of commensurate or incommen-
surate modulated structures requires the use of superspace groups [24]. Irredu-
cible representations of space groups and point groups, as well as isotropy sub-
groups, are other useful concepts for the discussion of structural distortions
[2527].
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 119

Many zeolite framework types possess high topological symmetry. Of the 108
zeolite structure types listed in the atlas [9], 58 have high topological symmetry;
they belong to the cubic (12 types), hexagonal (23), trigonal (6), or tetragonal
(17) system. Low symmetry space groups occur only in 50 cases (orthorhombic:
35, monoclinic: 15). Zeolites with triclinic topological symmetry do not seem to
have been reported yet.
The real symmetry of zeolites is lower than the topological symmetry. The
symmetry assignment in the first publication corresponded in only 49 cases to
the topological symmetry. This was often revised in later publications; the num-
ber of zeolites crystallizing in their topological symmetry is therefore even
lower.
The reduction from the topological symmetry to the real space group can
often be broken down into smaller steps of groupmaximal subgroup relation-
ships. Such a scheme is useful for detecting and discussing relationships be-
tween crystal structures, or for the understanding of phase transitions [28].
Phase transitions are common causes for structural distortions in zeolite frame-
works. The following is an incomplete list of zeolite frameworks which are
known to undergo structural phase transitions without change of the topology
[15, 29]: ABW, AEL, AFI, ANA, APD, ATV, EDI, GIS, LTA, MFI, NAT, RHO, SOD. A
complete compilation of structural phase transitions in zeolites is still to be
published. The powerful method of induced representations of space groups
could be applied to the analysis of the atomic distortions of a zeolite-type
framework during a phase transition [30, 31].

6
Systematic Tetrahedron Distortion

Usually the TO4 tetrahedra in zeolite frameworks deviate more or less from the
ideal geometry.Various methods have been proposed to describe the distortion.
Some methods use basically a scalar quantity to describe the total extent of
distortion by summing up, in one way or another, weighted differences between
observed and ideal values for distances or angles [12, 13, 32]. Others take the
symmetry aspects of the distortion mode explicitly or implicitly into account
[3338]. The reasons why tetrahedra distort and how the distortion relates to
the structure and its properties have been discussed in the literature [14, 33, 34,
39, 40].
A case of a particularly strong, systematic tetrahedron distortion was en-
countered in aluminate sodalites [41]. The AlO4 tetrahedra are compressed
along the 100 directions. This results in two large and four small OTO angles
(a and a ). The large angles exhibit record-high values of more than 120,
whereas the small angles are of the order of 105. Because of the resulting appro-
ximate symmetry of the tetrahedron the effect is called tetragonal tetrahedron
distortion [33].
This strain is the result of topology-induced stress, and its extent depends on
the average framework composition: the higher the Al/Si ratio, the larger the
angle a. In the sodalite framework each TO4 tetrahedron belongs to two 4R and
120 W. Depmeier

to four 6R. Ring tension is strongest in the small 4R. The structure can gain more
energy if the ring tension is reduced in these rings. This is why the large angles
a are in the 4R.
The ring tension can be reduced more effectively if longer and more ionic
TO bonds allow an easier opening of the angle a. Therefore, aluminate sodali-
tes can display much stronger tetrahedron distortion than their more covalent
aluminosilicate homologues. The latter have to change their framework con-
formation instead (see Sect. 7). The dependence of the tetrahedron distortion
angle a on the Al/Si ratio is almost linear [33].
A small influence of the nature of the guest ions on tetrahedron distortion
was found in the case of an aluminogermanate sodalite [42].
NMR techniques allow the determination of the distortion of the AlO4 tetra-
hedra on a local length scale. For a series of aluminosilicates, the quadrupole cou-
pling constant, QCC, for 27Al was related to the respective tetrahedron distortion
[32]. Two parameters were introduced, namely a longitudinal strain | a |, and a
shear strain | y |. The QCC was found to depend strongly on | y |, but is almost
independent of | a |. A linear relationship between | y | and QCC holds for a whole
series of various aluminosilicates, including natrolite. An attempt to assign reso-
nances in a given NMR spectrum to symmetrically independent, and thus in-
dividually distorted, AlO4 tetrahedra was hampered by resolution problems.
The problem with the standard MAS-NMR technique is that it cannot cope
with second-order interactions. These result in strong line broadening for the
resonances of quadrupolar nuclei, such as 27Al.A new technique, DOR-NMR, has
allowed the problem to be overcome and has also allowed the registration of
spectra of unprecedented resolution from such nuclei [43].
One of the first examples where the new method was able to demonstrate its
superiority was CAW, which was known to contain seven independent, highly
distorted, AlO4 tetrahedra [41]. These features made CAW an ideal case for
testing the new method. The test was successful, and the dramatic peak sharp-
ening allowed the easy identification of the expected seven central resonances
[44]. The linear relationship between QCC and the tetrahedron distortion
described by the authors [32] were confirmed and improved.
NMR spectroscopy is complementary to X-ray or neutron diffraction. The
NMR spectra of orthorhombic CAW and CAM on the one hand, and of tetra-
gonal SAW and SAM on the other, were shown to match almost perfectly. This
indicates that the corresponding tetrahedra have practically identical distortion,
in apparent contradiction to the results of X-ray and neutron data [45, 46]. Re-
finements from low resolution diffraction data had indicated different degrees
of distortion for the AlO4 tetrahedra in each pair, although the differences were
below the significance level [47]. The same technique allowed an independent
confirmation of the space group of SAS [48].
Mixed crystal effects could be studied in the system (Ca1xSrx)8[Al12O24]-
(WO4)2 . Even for x = 0.1, heavily broadened 27Al-MAS-NMR spectra were found.
The overall shape of the spectra did not change. This is interpreted to be due
to superposition of many differently distorted environments of the 27Al nuclei.
Different distortions result from different distributions of non-framework
atoms around the AlO4 tetrahedra.
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 121

NMR spectra in the middle range of the composition are much broader, but
otherwise similar to those of the non-cubic end members. The X-ray patterns of
the same samples appear cubic. This indicates that the crystals are cubic on the
characteristic length scale of X-rays (say 1000 ), but non-cubic on the much
shorter 1020 length scale of the NMR technique [47].
Another example of a topology-induced tetrahedron distortion occurs in the
framework of LTA. Its topology is more complex than that of sodalite, as it con-
tains 8R, in addition to 6R and 4R, the latter being part of double-4R. An ideal-
ized LTA framework of cubic symmetry and with identical T atoms was analyzed
geometrically. In the model all TO4 tetrahedra are symmetrically equivalent
under space group Pm-3m. The site symmetry of the T atoms contains a mirror
plane parallel to {100}, with two oxygen atoms, O1 and O2, being in the same
plane. The remaining two atoms O3 and O3 are mirror-related. Symmetrically
independent framework oxygen atoms are also topologically distinct: The O1
atom is shared between two 4R and one 8R, O2 belongs to two 6R and one 8R,
and O3 to two 4R and one 6R. Note that O2 is not involved in a 4R, in contrast to
O1 and O3.
As in the case of sodalites, ring tension is likely to be highest in the small 4R.
The structure will thus gain energy if the angles in these rings become larger.
This concerns the angles O1TO3, O1TO3 and O3TO3. The remaining
three angles involve the O2 atom, hence they belong either to a 6R (two) or to a
8R. These angles are less susceptible to ring tension and become smaller, presu-
mably in order to keep the average OTO angle close to the ideal one. The two 6R
and one 8R around the TO2 bond make angles of approximately 120 with each
other. Therefore the resulting shape of the distorted TO4 tetrahedron is close to
a flattened trigonal pyramid with the O2 atom at the apex, and O1, O3 and O3
forming the base. The trigonal distortion is thus the result of the unequal distri-
bution of 4R, 6R and 8R around the TO4 tetrahedron. Because it depends main-
ly on the framework, it is called the framework contribution to the tetrahedron
distortion, or FCD.
In some cases the FCD is superposed by a second effect, called the cation con-
tribution to the tetrahedron distortion, or CCD. In the simple model both effects
are purely additive. It is known that the 6R and the 8R are the favored loci of
exchangeable cations, especially in the dehydrated state. The small 4R normally
do not contain cations. If all 6R and 8R are fully occupied by cations, as in the
case of a dehydrated alkaline zeolite A, the O2 atoms at the apex of the trigonal
pyramid are symmetrically surrounded by cations, and there is no reason why
the ideal FCD-related trigonal distortion should change significantly.
A different situation occurs in the case of calcium-exchanged dehydrated zeo-
lite A [49]. The 8R are empty, but both 6R are still occupied by cations. The
unsymmetrical coordination by Ca attracts the O2 atom towards the bisector
between the Ca in the 6R, thereby opening the angle O1TO2. Little has chang-
ed, on the other hand, for the remaining oxygens and the corresponding angles
will change much less, mainly in response to the need to have average values of
about 109.5. The O1TO2 angle is more susceptible to different cations and to
the way these are distributed around the TO2 bond than the other OTO angles.
The described relationships find their signature in the mean values of the OTO
122 W. Depmeier

Table 1. Averages and standard deviations for the TOT angles in the frameworks of 30 different
zeolite A species [34]. 4R,6R, 8R denote the type of ring the respective OTO angle is involved in,
FCD and CCD indicate framework contribution and cation contribution to the distortion

TOT angle Average (e.s.d.) Type of ring Controlled by

O1TO3 (2) 111.5 (0.95) 4R FCD


O3TO3 110.3 (1.42) 4R FCD
O2TO3 (2) 106.3 (1.74) 6R FCD
O1TO2 110.5 (4.02) 8R FCD + CCD

angles, and even more in their standard deviations, as shown in Table 1. These
values were calculated from the refined atomic coordinates of 30 different zeoli-
te A species [34]. Note the difference in the standard deviations. The FCD-con-
trolled O1TO3 angle varies much less than the CCD-controlled O1TO2
angle. The average value of the latter is higher than would be expected from FCD
alone. This is because CCD opens the O1TO2 angle. Its purely FCD-controlled
value would be comparable to that of the O2TO3 angles.
Any change in a zeolite A which affects the cation distribution is likely to
change the TO4-tetrahedron distortion. Such changes can be expected to occur as
a result of dehydration, adsorption of molecules, heating or compression of the
crystal. In particular, dehydration or rehydration will change the strong mitigat-
ing effect of water on the cations influence on the framework. It will not always
be easy to detect the resulting changes in the tetrahedron distortion, because the
rather subtle effects are superposed by tilt-like framework distortions.
The study of zeolite A species has also revealed systematic bond length distor-
tions. The scatter of the TO bond lengths increases almost exponentially with
the tilt angle (see Sect. 7). From this relationship it seems unlikely that an LTA
framework with a tilt angle above 35 will be stable [34].
We cannot see any reason why systematic tetrahedron distortions should not
occur in other zeolite frameworks as well. When the number of independent
tetrahedra becomes larger than in zeolite A, or even sodalite, the effects are like-
ly to be smaller and less systematic, and thus more difficult to detect. Systematic
studies of the relationships between the topology of a given framework and
systematic trends for tetrahedron distortions seem to be lacking for all except
the two mentioned zeolite frameworks. This is even more true for the variation
of tetrahedron distortion with temperature, pressure or chemical composition.

7
Conformational Changes of Zeolite Frameworks

A tetrahedral framework with a given topology can exist in many different con-
formational states which are distinguished by the relative orientation of adja-
cent tetrahedra. Mutual re-orientation of the tetrahedra leads to different con-
formers. One possible way to distinguish between them is to specify the TOT
angle at the oxygen atoms.
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 123

In contrast to what is insinuated by Fig. 2, the TOT angles are subject to con-
straints. The topology of the framework forces the rigid TO4 tetrahedra to be
part of rings. The geometry of the tetrahedra has to fit the conditions set by the
ring size, and the TOT angles may systematically deviate from the preferred
values. In small rings, in particular, this may result in ring tension, which has to
be compensated for.
The tetrahedra in a framework are not free to move independently of each
other; instead they have to cooperate. The pattern of such a cooperative move-
ment is called a tilt system. A knowledge of its existence is important for under-
standing the behavior of a given framework structure. The so-called tilt angle
specifies the tilting. A tilt angle of 0 refers to the ideal, i.e., the undistorted state.
In this zero-tilt system the tetrahedra of the framework have an orientation
which has to be defined for each type of framework. This state is often of higher
symmetry than the tilted one and may be identified with the ideal structure. The
concept of a tilt system helps to understand intuitively the behavior of a frame-
work in terms of a mechanical analogue. This can be useful when the framework
expands upon heating, is compressed by high pressure, or is influenced in one
way or another by adsorption of guest molecules. In applying the mechanical
model one should be aware of its limits. In particular, the assumption of rigid
tetrahedra must be reconsidered in each case.
Tilt systems have been studied systematically and in much detail for the octa-
hedral frameworks of the perovskite family [1]. For tetrahedral frameworks a
similar systematic approach does not seem to exist. Nevertheless, the very exis-
tence of the effect has been known since at least 1930, when Pauling described
the partial collapse of natrolite and sodalite [50, 51]. The term collapse indi-
cates that the volume is involved. Many tilt systems reduce the volume of the unit
cell when the tilt angle increases. Such frameworks have been called collapsible
[52]. However, not all cooperative rotations of the tetrahedra in a framework
reduce the unit cell volume. Frameworks exist in which important changes in
individual TOT angles do not imply significant volume reduction, because the
contributions of individual tetrahedra cancel each other out. While still being
flexible, such frameworks are called non-collapsible [16, 5254]. The difference
between a collapsible and a non-collapsible, but flexible, framework is illustrat-
ed by the different thermal expansions of zeolite RHO and zeolite A, see Sect. 9.
How far can a framework collapse? Baur [53] proposed three processes that
would stop the collapse of a framework: (1) this happens when framework oxy-
gens come too closely into contact with guest species, such as cations, anions,
water, or other molecules; the non-framework species act as a kind of spacer for
the framework, (2) if the framework is empty, or the cations are very small, the
framework cannot continue to collapse when too small TOT angles bring non-
bonded oxygen atoms of adjacent tetrahedra into their van der Waals distances
where the steep increase of the repulsion term prevents any further approach,
and (3) the collapse becomes topologically impossible if the TOT angles around
the TO4 tetrahedra rotate in the opposite sense [52]. The latter is the case of non-
collapsible, but flexible, frameworks such as LTA, FAU, or the feldspar framework.
The classical tilt systems of NAT and SOD as described in the literature
[50,51] extend to infinity. Recently, other tilt systems have been found which are
124 W. Depmeier

restricted to a small number of tetrahedra. These local cooperative distortions


are ordered in the framework. One example is the so-called shearing in sodalite
frameworks [41, 55]. Random local framework distortions of a zeolite frame-
work can occur around single defects, such as a big cation or molecule.
Now we will discuss a few typical examples of tilt systems which occur in zeo-
lite frameworks. NAT belongs to the class of fibrous zeolites in which so-called
41 secondary building units form chains along the c-axis. The chains are late-
rally connected by common oxygen atoms. In a projection down the chains the
structure resembles a checkerboard pattern where the black fields represent the
cross sections of the chains, and the white fields the tunnels in between. The tun-
nels accommodate the cations and water molecules. Neighboring chains can
rotate in an opposite sense, with the connecting oxygens serving as hinges. The
c-axis runs parallel to the chains and is therefore virtually unaffected by the tilt.
The perpendicular a- and b-axes are shortened. The tilt also reduces the volume.
This model explains the behavior of Na-NAT and, with some restrictions, also
that of the K-exchanged form. It fails, however, to explain the measured shorten-
ing of the c-axis in the Li-exchanged form. A structure refinement revealed that
internal crumpling of the chains is responsible for the shortening. The crump-
ling along the chains is not cooperative in the sense of a tilt system.
Why does Li-NAT need two distortion mechanisms, while Na-NAT needs only
one? The probable explanation is related to the fact that the TOT angles at the
hinges are already at their lower limit in Na-NAT. The small Li cations require
further reduction in the volume of the unit cell. Crumpling of the chains affects
those TOT angles which have not already been involved in the tilt system [56].
The case of NH4-exchanged NAT demonstrates that weak chemical bonds can
also alter drastically the conformation of a framework. The chains are internal-
ly twisted and crumpled by hydrogen bonds, but the cooperative tilt system, as
in the case of Na-NAT, does not occur [57].
The classical tilt system in the SOD framework [33, 51, 58, 59] is three- rather
than two-dimensional as in the case of NAT, and it is depicted in Fig. 3. If the tilt
angle j = 0, and only one type of T atom is present, the space group is Im-3m.
When j deviates from 0, the inversion center is broken, but the cubic symme-
try retained, and the space group becomes I-43m. Various symmetry aspects of
sodalites have been discussed [60].
The TO4 tetrahedra in the sodalite framework are systematically distorted, as
discussed in Sect. 6. Well-defined relationships exist between the tilt angle, the
TOT angle and the tetrahedron distortion angle OTO [33, 58]. Since the tetra-
hedron distortion angle depends on the average size and electronegativity of the
T atoms, and, in addition, the three angles are not independent of each other,
there is only a limited range of accessible values for these angles. This is prob-
ably the reason why it is difficult for an aluminosilicate sodalite to assume a tilt
angle of 0, i.e., the fully expanded state [33].
Up to now the particular case of shearing has only been found in aluminate
sodalites [41, 46], but it can also be expected to occur in the sulfate-bearing
aluminosilicate sodalite, hauyne. Its accomplishment is briefly described in
Sect. 10 and illustrated in a publication [55]. Shearing is characterized by the
following facts: (1) it breaks the cubic symmetry, (2) it breaks translational
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 125

Fig. 3. Schematic drawing of the upper half of the unit cell of sodalite in the fully expanded
(left) and tilted state (right). Numbers are relative heights. The partial collapse of the unit cell
upon tilting is indicated by the mismatch of the respective lattice parameters in the middle of
the drawing (from [59])

symmetry, such that superstructures are formed (see Sect. 10), (3) its occur-
rence depends on the arrangement of the tetrahedral oxyanions in the sodalite
cages, (4) the latter depends on the nature of the cage cations, therefore different
shearing patterns occur for different compositions, and (5) it is highly probable
that shearing occurs locally and temporally in the cubic phases of aluminate
sodalites.
The adaptation of the non-collapsible LTA framework to different chemical
compositions cannot be accomplished by changes in the relative orientation of
rigid tetrahedra alone, but requires additional tetrahedron distortion. This was
shown in a geometrical analysis of the LTA framework [34]. The deviations from
the aristotype, with ideal TO4 tetrahedra being parallel to the cubic unit cell
edges, were decomposed into three contributions, viz. (1) bond length distorti-
on of the tetrahedra, (2) distortions of the OTO angles of the tetrahedra, as dis-
cussed in Sect. 6, and (3) a tilt system about axes parallel to 100. It was shown
that for a given tetrahedron distortion the cubic lattice parameter and the three
independent TOT angles depend on the tilt angle. Most importantly, two adja-
cent TOT angles in the 8R of the framework were shown to change in the oppo-
site sense, in accordance with other work [52, 53]. A scatter plot of the ex-
perimental data of 30 chemically different species [34] demonstrates that most
of the different zeolite A species are tilted and distorted to such a degree that the
lattice parameter becomes maximum, and the TOT angles are almost equal. The
distribution of the data points suggests that during chemical reactions, e.g.,
dehydration or upon heating or compression, the TOT angles have to change
quite significantly. In situ structure determinations would help to clarify these
points, but are still missing. Increasing the tilt angle away from the relaxed state
results in increasing bond length distortion and probably in destabilization of
the corresponding zeolite.
Geometrical modeling of some frameworks containing the sodalite cages as
building units, viz. SOD, LTA and FAU [61], referred to the description of a co-
126 W. Depmeier

operative tilt of the tetrahedra in LTA [60]. The model explains quantitatively
the major features of the LTA framework.
The analysis of the distortion of the framework of dodecasil 3C-tetrahydro-
furan, [Si68O136] 4(CH2)4O, exhibited new features. The distortion could be
broken down into a tetragonal tetrahedron distortion of one of the SiO4 tetra-
hedra, and a localized tilt system. Both distortion mechanisms have their proper
mode of symmetry-breaking and their activation is related to phase transitions
in this system [62, 63].

8
Structural Relaxation Around Isolated AlO4 Tetrahedra
in a Silica Matrix
Small amounts of Al atoms replacing Si in the TO4 tetrahedra in highly siliceous
zeolites are necessary for their catalytic properties. The substitution produces
stress around the AlO4 tetrahedron. It is interesting to discover how the frame-
work relaxes around such a disturbance. Experimentally, this kind of informa-
tion is not easy to obtain. When quantum mechanical computational methods
were used to determine the re-orientation potentials of the tetramethylammo-
nium cation as guest molecule in the b-cages of tetramethylammonium sodalite,
N(CH3)4[AlSi5O12] [64], the desired information was obtained as a by-product.
The periodic model of space group P1 contains three symmetrically inde-
pendent TO4 tetrahedra: Si0O4 has no direct connection with AlO4 ; it is con-
sidered to represent the undisturbed silica matrix. SiIO4 , as intermediate, links
Si0O4 on all four corners to AlO4 tetrahedra as second-nearest neighbors. Simi-
lar to Si0O4 , the AlO4 share corners with SiIO4 tetrahedra only. SiIO4 has one Si0O4 ,
one AlO4 and two SiIO4 as nearest neighbors.
Tetrahedron distortion and local twist are both involved in the reduction of
stress. The local twist concerns the AlO4 tetrahedron, whereas the SiIO4 tetra-
hedra suffer from heavy bond length and angular distortion. The AlO4 and SiIO4
tetrahedra show only topology-induced tetragonal tetrahedron distortion. The
twist relaxes back to zero over only three TO4 tetrahedra, or half the edge length
of the cubic unit cell.
The example demonstrates that the sodalite framework can relax over rela-
tively short distances. Bond length distortion, angular distortion, and local
twisting contribute to the relaxation. The results are believed to also be signifi-
cant for the random distribution of the few Al centers in a highly siliceous zeo-
lite framework as long as the distance over which the framework relaxes is
shorter than the average distance between the centers. The applicability of the
results to other zeolites has still to be tested.

9
Thermal Expansion
The classical model of anharmonic atomic pair potentials is normally insuf-
ficient if the thermal expansion of tetrahedral framework structures is to
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 127

be described. The distortion mechanisms on the microscopic level must be


taken into account, as these may contribute to the expansion. They may also
cancel out or even result in zero or negative expansion coefficients. Different
extremes can be illustrated by the collapsible dehydrated Cs-exchanged zeolite
RHO and the non-collapsible dehydrated Na-A zeolite [52]. For the zeolite RHO
the cubic lattice parameter varies by 1.84% between 11 and 573 K [65]. For zeo-
lite A in a comparable temperature range between 4.5 and 603 K the change is
only 0.03%. Since the measured change between 4.5 and 295 K is 0.22%, the
thermal expansion of zeolite A must therefore be negative at higher tempera-
tures [66].
For the thermal expansion of framework structures additional non-linear
behavior can be expected. The unfolding of a partially collapsed framework will
contribute strongly to expansion. This will continue until it comes to a stop,
for instance, when the fully expanded state is attained, or if other forces resist
further unfolding.At this point a discontinuity will be expected. If the tetrahedra
in a flexible framework become dynamically disordered, vibrational movements
may result in apparent bond shortening and negative expansion for lattice pa-
rameters and volume.
Many of the concepts underlying these phenomena have been discussed [1].
The effects of not only temperature, but also of pressure or chemical composi-
tion, on crystal structures and their microscopic and macroscopic variations are
also discussed in detail [67]. An excellent textbook compiling the theories of
thermal expansion, experimental techniques and methods for data evaluation
has recently been published [68]. The techniques of X-ray diffraction at high
temperatures have been discussed [69].
The most extensively studied zeolite family, in regard to thermal expansion
behavior, is that of the sodalites. The thermal expansion of 15 different cubic
alkali halide aluminosilicate sodalites was determined by precise X-ray powder
diffraction experiments [70]. In a few cases of sodalites with big cage anions,
strong thermal expansion (about 22 106 K1) at lower temperatures changed
discontinuously to a regime of low thermal expansion (about 8 106 K1) at
higher temperatures. There is no doubt that at lower temperatures unfolding of
the framework is responsible for the strong expansion, whereas bond anharmo-
nicity contributes practically alone at higher temperatures. However, the nature
of the discontinuity in the slope of the thermal expansion curves has been a mat-
ter of debate for several years.
One point of view taken was that the framework attains the fully expanded
state at the discontinuity [70]. Another idea was that by expansion of the bonds
between cage anions and cage cations the latter are pressed against the frame-
work, which expands passively by giving way to this action. The process was
believed to come to an end when the cations reach the 0.25, 0.25, 0.25 position in
the cubic sodalite structure. This was believed to be a particularly stable one for
the cation [58, 71]. This point of view was in turn in conflict with a model of the
sodalite structure which showed that the 0.25, 0.25, 0.25 position of the cations
cannot be particularly stable. It was proposed instead that the topology of the
sodalite framework creates a barrier against further unfolding of the frame-
work. The barrier was believed to be at TOT angles of about 160 [33].
128 W. Depmeier

A recent study employing temperature-dependent neutron powder diffrac-


tion and Rietveld refinement revealed the concerted movement of the atoms
during the unfolding of the framework of the cubic aluminate sodalite
(Ca0.5Sr0.5)8[Al12O24](WO4)2 [47]. The cations were observed passing beyond the
0.25, 0.25, 0.25 position without stopping, and no discontinuity in the thermal
expansion curve was observed. The TOT angle remained below 160. This ob-
servation is thus in accordance with that already reported [33].
The effects of ferroelastic phase transitions have been measured for several
aluminate sodalites by temperature-dependent determination of the lattice
parameters [55]. In SAM, the a = b lattice parameters continue their almost
linear downward slope across the cubic tetragonal transition, apparently
without any excess contribution, whereas c decreases strongly below Tc. It
follows a power law behavior, as does the volume. This peculiar behavior could
be explained by assuming the superposition of two main effects, viz. a spon-
taneous strain and a volume strain. Both strains cancel out their effects on the
a-lattice parameter, but combine for c, thus yielding the observed behavior [72].
A surprising behavior was found for both Sr- and NH4-exchanged zeolite
RHO. The volume of the respective high-temperature forms is about 7% smaller
than that of the low-temperature modification. Both modifications are cubic, but
differ in the distribution of the large cations. At lower temperatures they are
situated at the centers of single 8R. Here, they lock the collapse of the framework
which therefore retains a large volume. At a high-temperature phase transition
the cations are set free and move to the centers of the double-8R. They no longer
block the cooperative anti-rotation of the tetrahedra, the framework is able to
collapse and the volume becomes smaller. It is an interesting detail that, in spite
of being of the reconstructive type, the transition between the respective high-
and low-temperature forms is fully reversible [73, 74].

10
Structural Modulations

In the past two to three decades it has been found that many inorganic or or-
ganic materials form periodically distorted, i.e., modulated, structures under
defined thermodynamic conditions. Sometimes the wave describing the distor-
tion does not match the underlying lattice periodicity. The modulation is said to
be incommensurate. Although perfectly ordered, such a structure no longer has
the characteristics and properties of a three-dimensionally periodic crystal. If
the ratio between the wavelength of the modulation and the underlying lattice
parameters of the undistorted structure (the basic structure) is integral, it is
called commensurate. The typical wavelength of a modulation wave is of the
order of 50100 and, if incommensurate, it depends on parameters such as
temperature, pressure or composition.
In this section we will describe the modulations which occur in one class of
microporous materials, viz. sodalites, and will then turn to the question as
to whether such modulations can also be expected to occur in large-pore zeo-
lites.
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 129

All reflections of the reciprocal lattice of a classical crystal can be indexed


with three integers h,k,l. For an incommensurately modulated crystal this is not
possible, because so-called satellite reflections in the diffraction pattern require
an extra contribution to the reciprocal lattice vector R*, which can be written (in
the simplest case):
R* = ha* + kb* + lc* + mq (2)
with a*, b*, c* defining the normal reciprocal lattice, h, k, l, m are integers, and
q = aa* + bb* + gc* (3)
is the so-called modulation vector.At least one of a, b, or g must be irrational if the
structure can be called incommensurate. The reflections with m = 0 are the main
reflections. They can be indexed with three integers only, and they form a conspi-
cuous subset of, on average, strong reflections. This is because they represent the
Fourier transform of the average structure. Satellites have m 0. They carry the
information about the structures deviation from the basic structure, i.e., on the
modulation. Their intensity is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the
modulation wave. Since the latter is small, satellites usually have weak intensities,
101 104 times the intensity of the strongest main reflection, or even lower.
From the occurrence of satellite reflections, it is clear that an incommen-
surately modulated crystal has lost translational symmetry in at least one direc-
tion. In the classical sense it can therefore no longer be called a crystal. On the
other hand, the sharp main and satellite reflections in the diffraction pattern
reveal long-range order. Because of the loss of the translational symmetry many
concepts and tools of conventional crystallography can no longer be applied.
This concerns, for example, the lattice, the space group symmetry and the struc-
ture factor. The problem can be overcome by embedding the aperiodic crystal
into a fictitious higher dimensional space, the so-called superspace. Here, the
periodicity is recovered, and the crystallographic concepts can once more be
applied after proper adaptation. In the simplest case of a one-dimensional
modulation the embedding in a (3+1) dimensional superspace is sufficient to
recover the periodicity. The modulated crystal is obtained by calculating the
intersection of the superspace with the real space. The theory of symmetry in
superspace has been elaborated, and tables of superspace groups and how to
determine them from systematic extinctions of main and satellite reflections are
available [24]. Programs for structure refinements, calculations of Fourier maps,
distance functions, etc., are also available.
In principle, commensurately modulated structures could be treated classi-
cally as superstructures in three-dimensional space. In many cases phase tran-
sitions between incommensurate and commensurate phases of the same com-
pound exist, the so-called lock-in phase transitions. This demonstrates that
commensurate modulations are actually special cases of incommensurate struc-
tures, and the superspace approach is more appropriate. Commensurate modu-
lations require special care with respect to the phases of the modulation waves.
The nature of a distortion wave can be quite different. One frequently encoun-
tered example is that of substitutional order of atoms, e.g., if atoms, or clusters
of atoms, exchange periodically their occupancy on a common site. In extreme
130 W. Depmeier

cases block-waves can be used to describe such modulations, and the situation
can be described as ordering into antiphase domains. Another kind of modula-
tion is found in the so-called displacive distortion waves. Atoms are displaced
periodically from their positions in an undistorted structure. The displacement
can be perpendicular or parallel to the propagation vector. The corresponding
waves are transverse and/or longitudinal. The shape of modulation waves can be
simply harmonic or more complicated. In the latter case the shape can conveni-
ently be represented by a Fourier series. The diffraction patterns of substitutio-
nal and displacive modulations have been shown to be different [75]. Care must
be taken with the interpretation of the diffraction patterns. In studies on modu-
lations occurring in feldspars and sodalites, some of the schematic drawings
[75] were misinterpreted and the error propagated through the literature (refe-
rences on request from the author).
Depending on the nature of the crystal there are various possible physical
causes for the occurrence of a modulation. Zeolites are almost exclusively insu-
lators. A model of competing forces as the cause for the occurrence of modula-
tions in insulating crystals has been proposed [76]. For example, a possible com-
petition could occur between ferroelectric polarization and ferroelastic strain.
The interactions change sign along the direction of the modulation, and they
can be represented as plane waves. The competing interactions are intimately
interwoven in such a way that the component waves are in quadrature, i.e., have
a phase shift of p/2. If one interaction has its maximum amplitude, the other one
is zero, and vice versa.
In an intuitive one-dimensional model a chain of atoms is placed on an
underlying periodic potential. The atoms of the chain are connected by harmo-
nic strings. This model has been treated theoretically in great detail and depth
(see, e.g. [77]). For our present purposes the following result is the most impor-
tant. The ratio between the string constant and the depth of the potential wells
determines what kind of modulation results. A commensurate phase will be for-
med if the string constant is strong relative to the potentials. On the other hand,
a chaotic structure will result from random fixing of the atoms in deep potenti-
al wells if the string constant is relatively weak. An incommensurate phase is
found only if the relative strengths of the sub-systems are well balanced. If the
balance changes, e.g., if the string constant becomes smaller, the modulation
wave is expected to change as well.
A zeolite-type material where such a kind of competitive interaction has been
identified is that of the aluminate sodalite CAW. Even in the earliest publications
on CAW and its homologue CAS, the occurrence of superstructure reflections in
the X-ray powder patterns was reported [78, 79]. The nature of these extra reflec-
tions could not be resolved before crystals of a size suitable for single crystal
work became available for CAW. The room-temperature phase was first deter-
mined employing a conventional superstructure approach [41], but the inter-
pretation of the highly complex and pseudo-symmetric structure with seven
independent AlO4 tetrahedra remained a puzzle. It could only be understood
when it was realized that the structure is in fact commensurately modulated.
The modulation could be confirmed by a Rietveld refinement employing the
superspace approach [80].
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 131

In the conventional description, the space group of CAW is Aba2 and the unit
cell is 2(a+b), (a+b), c, where a, b, c are pseudo-cubic lattice parameters of
about 9.3 . In the superspace approach the corresponding superspace group is
Abm2 (1/2, 0, 0 ) 0 s 0 and the basic unit cell (a + b), (a + b), c. The modulation
vector is an unusually short one with q = 1/2a*.
A model for the formation of the structural modulation in CAW is as follows.
The structure of aluminate sodalites can be regarded as consisting of three
building units: (1) the framework [Al12O24]12, (2) the cage cations (Ca2+ or Sr2+)
near the center of the 6Rs of the framework, and (3) one tetrahedral oxyanion,
e.g. WO42, at the center of the sodalite cage. The symmetry of the tetrahedral
cage anions does not fit the latent symmetry of the sodalite cage. Non-spherical
cage anions seem to be important for the occurrence of modulations in soda-
lites. The structural units interact via Coulomb and elastic forces. The positive
cage cations are attracted by the negatively charged framework and cage anions,
respectively. The interaction between the anions and the framework is repulsive.
The requirement of the cage cations to have a sufficiently high number of oxy-
gen atoms in their coordination spheres must also be taken into account.
The resulting structure is depicted in Fig. 4 [81], which actually represents the
real structure of the room-temperature phase of CAW [41]. Let us consider the
situation in a narrow region where the cations acquire a good coordination, e.g.,
around x = 0.25. This implies that the two neighboring cage anions assume an
orientation in which some of their oxygens are at very short distances from the
oxygens in the framework. Strong repulsive forces are directed onto the frame-
work. Because these forces act along the diagonal of a 4R of the framework, the
latter is locally distorted by shearing (cf. Fig. 35 in [55]). Concomitantly, the tilt
angle of the affected tetrahedra decreases. This means that the cation acquires
favorable coordination only at the expense of a strong distortion of the frame-
work. The situation is reversed in the adjacent region. Opposite orientation of
neighboring cage anions now implies a minimum of repulsion with the frame-
work, but an unfavorable coordination number of the cations. The described
arrangements of cations and anions repeat periodically, and the framework is
periodically distorted as well. Note in Fig. 4 that the two component waves show
the required phase shift of p/2. The local symmetry also changes periodically
along the direction of the modulation wave.
We can apply the above-mentioned one-dimensional model to the three-
dimensional case of aluminate sodalites. The sodalite framework forms the
underlying periodic potential. The atomic chain is replaced by the interacting
building units and the string constants by the Coulomb and elastic forces.
These forces depend on the nature of the atoms and on their distances from each
other. Changes in the composition or in the temperature will therefore change
the string constants. On the other hand, the periodicity of the underlying
potential remains fairly constant because it is fixed by the topology of the soda-
lite framework. Therefore, it is not surprising that all known end members of the
aluminate family form modulated structures. The characteristics of the modu-
lations change as a result of different string constants and depend on the actual
composition and on parameters such as temperature or pressure. For instance,
if the Ca in CAW is replaced by Sr the (3 + 3) dimensionally modulated structure
132 W. Depmeier

Fig. 4. A projection of the room temperature structure of CAW onto the a,b-plane. The frame-
work is indicated by open tetrahedra. Hatched tetrahedra represent WO4 groups. Large solid
circles are Ca atoms. Some heights are given as n/100. Two-component modulation waves
on the right-hand side describe the distortion of the sodalite framework. The wave on the
left represents the shearing, the wave on the right the tilt. Both component waves are in
quadrature (from [60])

of SAW is obtained, instead of the (3 + 1) dimensional structure of CAW. This


case and others have been discussed in the literature [55, 81, 82].
The subtle balance of forces results in complicated TX phase diagrams. A
recent study on modulations in aluminate sodalites focused on the Ca-rich part
of the solid solution system (Ca1xSrx)8 [Al12O24](WO4)2, and employed mainly
X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, as well as solid-state NMR techniques
[47, 83]. The resulting phase diagram for this composition range is shown in
Fig. 5.
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 133

Fig.5. The X-T phase diagram of the calcium-rich part of the aluminate sodalite solid solution
(Ca1xSrx)8[Al12O24](WO4)2 . The symmetry groups of the phases are given. Open symbols
represent measured transition temperatures (DSC). The fitted solid curves are discussed in
[83]. The low temperature behavior as determined from X-ray experiments is indicated in the
inset (from [83])

Below the disordered cubic a-phase all phases are modulated. The room-tem-
perature phase of CAW can incorporate up to 12% of Sr and is denoted
g-C1xSxAW. The superspace group is Abm2 (a,0,0) 0 s 0. Because a = 1/2, this
can be reduced to the conventional space group Aba2 and a unit cell with a
doubled a-lattice parameter. g-C1xSxAW borders on the fields of b-C1xSxAW
and g-C1xSxAW. The latter is incommensurate, but otherwise very similar to the
g-phase. The superspace group is Abm2 (1/2, 0, g) 0 s s, with g ~ 0.05.
The b-phase of pure CAW has long been known to exist. By electron diffrac-
tion it was then established that the modulation is two-dimensionally commen-
surate. The (3 + 2) dimensional superspace group description is Abm2 (a, 0, g) 0
s 0, 0 0 0, a = 1/4, g = 1/4. From the different intensity distribution it was deduced
134 W. Depmeier

that its modulation must differ fundamentally from those of either the g-or
g -phase.
The incommensurate g -phase does not extend up to pure CAW. This lends
support to the speculation that the occurrence of incommensurability in this
system requires a contribution from disorder at the cation positions.
The occurrence of satellite reflections and/or diffuse streaks in the diffraction
patterns of various aluminosilicate sodalites containing non-spherical cage
anions has been known for decades. Examples are hauyne, nosean and lazurite.
The phenomena were characterized and interpreted on different levels and with
various models [8494]. A problem with many studies on natural crystals are
their chemical and structural inhomogeneities. Well-defined synthetic crystals,
such as the aluminate sodalites, are a prerequisite for studies of subtle effects
such as structural modulations, which depend so strongly on a delicate balance
of forces.
The experience with sodalites can be used in an attempt to appraise the pro-
bability of finding modulated phases in large-pore zeolites. The problem trans-
lates into the one-dimensional model as having atoms in the chain with much
longer distances and, hence, smaller string constants than in sodalites. This
means that the solution to the problem will tend to be close to the chaotic regi-
me. Incommensurate or even commensurate modulations are not likely to exist
in large-pore zeolites. This estimation agrees with experimental experience. To
the best of our knowledge modulated phases similar to those in sodalites have
not been reported for large-pore zeolites. The frequent observation, that the
cations in large-pore zeolite frameworks occupy various random sites, is also in
accordance with the assumption of a chaotic structure.
Attempts were made to find modulated structures in zeolites with slightly
larger cages than in sodalites, but still small compared with real zeolites. The
family chosen was that of the clathrasil dodecasil 3C with MTN topology and
neutral guest molecules. The phase transitions were studied in detail and were
found to happen at the G-point of the Brillouin zone, i.e., no modulation oc-
curred [62, 63]. This fact does not necessarily mean that the possibility of a
modulation in such a framework has to be excluded for ever. With stronger
interactions, bigger guest species, and purpose-chosen geometry of the guests,
it still seems possible to bring about modulations in the MTN framework.
The same is probably true for frameworks with even larger pores. Given that
the dimensions of a zeolite framework are practically constant, one has to mani-
pulate the nature of the guest species in order to get the necessary balance of
forces for the modulation. There are various conceivable ways of doing so.
Using bigger guest molecules or polymerization of guests in channels are just a
few.
It seems that an effect of this kind was observed in the case of the adsorption
of alkanes in silicalite-1. Hexane and heptane exhibit kinked adsorption iso-
therms. This is in contrast to short-chain (C1 to C5) and long-chain (C10) alkanes
which display simple isotherms. Computer simulations suggest that this arises
from the interplay between the length of the zig-zag pores and the length of the
alkanes. Only when these two are comparable, can the molecules freeze
in a configuration that is commensurate with the pore structure [95].
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 135

11
Rigid Unit Modes
When the conformation of a tetrahedral framework changes, for example, in
response to a change of temperature or pressure, then to a good approximation
the TO4 tetrahedra do not change, and the change of the framework can be
described by a rigid unit mode, or RUM. If we apply the 1.0:0.1:0.01 rule for the
relative force constants of the TO bonds, the OTO angles and the TOT angles, it
is clear that much less energy is needed to distort the framework via changes
of the latter than by changes of the former. These low energy modes are thus
natural candidates for distortion modes of the framework. The RUM model was
first developed for phase transitions in quartz [1, 96].
The idea was further developed by Heine, Dove and coworkers and applied to
other frameworks, tetrahedral and others [97101]. They developed a method
to calculate the complete RUM spectrum for any framework silicate. The main
trick is that the oxygens which join two rigid TO4 tetrahedra are treated as split
atoms. The two halves are held together by a strong harmonic force, the force
constant of which is related to the rigidity of the TO4 tetrahedra. The RUMs are
those modes in which the tetrahedra can vibrate without the split oxygens
becoming separated. By using established methods and programs of lattice
dynamics, modes can be found in the phonon spectrum which calculate with
zero or very low frequency [100]. These are then the RUMs.
In one of their classical papers on RUMs, the authors argue that a framework
can only distort if the number of the degrees of freedom exceeds the number of
constraints [102]. Since each rigid tetrahedron has six degrees of freedom (three
translational, three rotational), and three constraints per oxygen that prevent the
split atom from separating, one is left with an equal number of constraints and
degrees of freedom. Thus one would expect no deformation mode at all, at least
with rigid tetrahedra, and yet the frameworks distort! This is due to the fact that
not all constraints are independent, because of symmetry.
The authors have exploited their model very successfully to find answers to a
number of puzzling questions, mostly related to structural phase transitions and
their characteristics. They have also tackled such problems as to explain why
some frameworks have small or even negative thermal expansion, or why some
zeolites are collapsible, while others are not. They could also answer the questi-
on as to how some frameworks fold locally around cations or molecules without
distorting the rest of the structure. They found that this is accomplished by line-
ar combinations of static RUMs. For example in the idealized high-symmetry
sodalite structure there is a whole band of RUMs throughout the Brillouin zone.
By forming localized wave packets, rings or clusters of oxygens can be formed
around a cation without cost of elastic energy. For zeolite A and faujasites an
even greater number of localised RUMs can be expected and may be related to
the known binding sites in these zeolites.
136 W. Depmeier

12
Conclusions
While being topologically quite stable, the tetrahedral framework structures of
zeolites and related compounds undergo a multitude of conformational changes.
The reasons are, for example, changes of temperature or pressure, hydration or
dehydration, loading with extra-framework molecules or cations. Only the effect
of temperature has been discussed in this chapter. The remaining points have
been omitted owing to space limitations.
Often the conformational changes, or tilt systems, are cooperative, i.e., their
correlation length tends to infinity. Localized tilt systems also exist. Structural
stress built into a given framework by random defects, e.g., by the replacement
of a SiO4 tetrahedron by AlO4, has to be removed. It has been shown that the
relaxation involves angular and bond length distortion of the tetrahedra, and is
relatively short ranged.
The tetrahedra behave as rigid units over large ranges of the changing para-
meters. However, systematic and sometimes strong tetrahedron distortions
occur as the result of topological stresses. The amplitude of this effect depends
significantly on the chemical composition, SiO4 tetrahedra being harder than,
for example, AlO4.
With changing external variables, e.g., temperature, the conformational
changes may occur more or less smoothly, or with an anomaly in one of the
derivatives of the free energy. Usually, the symmetry is broken at such struc-
tural phase transitions. This interesting topic has also had to be omitted due to
limited space.
Sometimes the broken symmetry corresponds to some general point within
the Brillouin zone and, consequently, an incommensurately modulated crystal is
formed. The concept of structural modulations can also be applied to cases of
commensurate superstructures. Incommensurate or commensurate modula-
tions can be discussed in terms of weak or strong interactions between com-
peting subsystems. If the interactions are still stronger the same concept
explains the formation of chaotic structures. In this chapter it is argued that in
large-pore zeolites chaotic behavior probably prevails over commensurate or
incommensurate modulations. By way of contrast, the latter cases have been
found in certain small-pore frameworks, and they are discussed in some detail.
Utilization of concepts and methods of lattice dynamics has resulted in the
successful model of rigid unit modes, or RUMs.
From an experimental point of view the structural distortions discussed here
are only minor disturbances of an ideal structure. Because of their small ampli-
tude they are difficult to detect. Powerful radiation sources, high resolution
instruments, and sophisticated methods of data evaluation are necessary pre-
requisites to detect the deviations from the ideal state. Despite the small ampli-
tude of the disturbances, their influence on macroscopic properties and, hence,
applied aspects of zeolites should not be underestimated.
Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials 137

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Zeolite Type Frameworks:
Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations
W.M. Meier 1 and C. Baerlocher 2
1 ETH-Zentrum HUT, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland; e-mail: meier@kristall.erdw.ethz.ch
2 Laboratory of Crystallography, ETHZ, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland;
e-mail: Ch.Baerlocher@kristall.erdw.ethz.ch

List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

2 General Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

3 Comparison of Silicate and Phosphate Framework Structures . . . . . 148

4 Framework Densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

5 Attempts to Classify Zeolite Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

6 Fault Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

7 Loop Configurations and Coordination Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . 155

8 Framework Conformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

9 Are Zeolite Framework Structures Predictable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

List of Abbreviations

DLS distance least squares


FD framework density
FP fault planes
ST structure type
TD topological density

1
Introduction
Zeolite-type framework structures are normally based on fully cross-linked
tetrahedra containing Si, Al, P and occasionally other atoms. These are general-
ly called T-atoms. The bridges are invariably formed by oxygen atoms. In a few

Molecular Sieves, Vol. 2


Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999
142 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

cases, a small fraction of the TOT bridges are missing, and in such instances
the term interrupted framework is used. The topology of a particular observed
crystalline framework is called a structure type (ST) irrespective of composi-
tion, distribution of T-atoms, unit cell dimensions, or symmetry. General terms
used when dealing with structure types are the topology of a 4-connected net-
work or the connectivity of a framework, the latter implying a chart or an
enumeration scheme of the T-atoms. It should be noted that the actual geome-
try including bond distances, valence angles etc. does not matter in describing
structure types, topologies or connectivities. The same applies to the term con-
figuration which has a similar meaning but refers to a local part of the frame-
work and not to the entire 4-connected assemblage. Examples of frequently
encountered configurations include cages, apertures, secondary building units
(dealt with in Sect. 5), chains, and loop configurations (see Sect. 7 for details).
When considering conformations, however, the actual geometry of configura-
tions or of an entire framework structure must be taken into account. Unlike
conformations of molecular structures, those of tetrahedral frameworks are
completely fixed by TO bond distances, OTO and TOT angles [1].
The number of established structure types has increased progressively in the
last 4 or 5 decades of highly active research in the field of zeolites. The steady
growth of the number of STs is shown in Fig. 1 including both silicate- and phos-
phate-based materials. STs, which were first observed in phosphate-based mate-
rials (AlPOs), are shaded in this diagram. Recent progress has been due to both
silicate- and phosphate-based materials and the general progress of elucidation
of their structures is reflected in Fig. 1. The number of established STs is now
clearly in excess of 100. There is no indication that the progressive increase,
which is so evident in Fig. 1, might level off in the foreseeable future. Figure 2
demonstrates that powder X-ray diffraction has played an increasingly impor-
tant role in solving zeolite structures. (This and the possible use of microcrystals
combined with synchrotron radiation has been responsible for much of the pro-
gress in the structural field). In the early 1950s, when the pioneers in zeolite re-
search started work on the very basis of zeolite chemistry, only 6 STs were
known and it was difficult or nearly impossible to learn much from the meager
data available at that time.
The structural information which has become available on zeolite-type mate-
rials is quite substantial. Fortunately, a compilation of structural data, the ATLAS
OF ZEOLITE STRUCTURE TYPES [2], was started in the early 1970s when the
volume of available data could still be managed and assessed with the necessary
care. This review draws heavily on the 4th edition of this compilation (published
in 1996) as well as subsequent updates [3]. The Atlas has been one of the main
projects of the IZA Structure Commission. The principal aims of the project
have been

a) to provide a reference work based on structural data which has been sub-
jected to critical evaluation,
b) to promote some desirable uniformity in recording such data,
c) to fill in gaps in available data, and
d) to facilitate studies and analyses of data.
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 143

Fig. 1. Development of the number of structure types. The fraction due to phosphates (based
on the type material) is indicated in gray

Fig. 2. Development of the number of structure types indicating the fraction established on
the basis of XRD powder data (based on [2])
144 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

2
General Aspects
All structure types which have been established beyond doubt are assigned a
code consisting of three capital letters. This is done by the IZA Structure Com-
mission on behalf of IUPAC. These mnemonic codes should not be confused or
equated with actual materials. As indicated before, STs do not depend on com-
position, distribution of T-atoms (Si, Al, Ga, Ge, B, Be, Zn, Co etc.), cell dimen-
sions or symmetry. They simply denote the topology or the connectivity of a
tetrahedral zeolite-type framework which has actually been observed. Hypo-
thetical structures are not included. The codes are generally derived from
the names of the type materials (see below) and do not include numbers and
characters other than capital Roman letters. For interrupted frameworks the
3-letter code is preceded by a hyphen. However, as a rule, interrupted frame-
works are not assigned a ST code unless there is a close resemblance with some
zeolite-like framework structures and unless the non-connected TO bonds are
relatively few in number.
Table 1 lists all zeolite structure types approved up to the middle of 1997, their
codes, type materials, as well as a selection of isotypes (a more extensive list of
isotypes is to be found in the Atlas). The type material is the species first used to
establish the ST. It should be noted that this is not necessarily the material which
was first synthesized. Isotypes, which are quite frequent, are based on the same
ST. Isotypes are even found among zeolite minerals. Numerous examples in-
clude analcime (isotypic minerals: leucite, pollucite, wairakite), sodalite (dana-
lite, hauyn, nosean, tugtupite etc.) and stilbite (barrerite, stellerite) although the
IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names has become more
restrictive in recent years.

Table 1. Structure types and associated data (based on [2] and [8])

Structure Type material Selected isotypes a S/P b FD FDSi c Sieve


type code type d

ABW Li-A(BW) BePO-ABW, ZnAsO-ABW S/P 19.0 17.6 *


AEI AlPO-18 P 14.8 15.1 **
AEL AlPO-11 MnAPO-11 P 19.1 19.2 *
AET AlPO-8 MCM-37 P 17.6 18.2 *
AFG Afghanite S 15.9 16.9
AFI AlPO-5 SSZ-24, CoAPO-5, SAPO-5 S/P 17.5 16.9 *
AFO AlPO-41 P 19.0 19.2 *
AFR SAPO-40 P 14.9 15.2 **
AFS MAPSO-46 P 13.7 14.6 **
AFT AlPO-52 P 15.2 15.1 ***
AFX SAPO-56 SSZ-16 P 14.7 15.1 ***
AFY CoAPO-50 MgAPO-50 P 12.5 14.1 ***
AHT AlPO-H2 P 18.4 19.2 *
ANA Analcime Leucite, Wairakite, AlPO-24 S/P 18.6 19.2
APC AlPO-C P 18.0 17.7 **
APD AlPO-D P 19.8 18.0 **
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 145

Table 1 (continued)

Structure Type material Selected isotypes a S/P b FD FDSi c Sieve


type code type d

AST AlPO-16 Octadecasil S/P 16.7 15.8


ATN MAPO-39 P 18.0 17.8 *
ATO AlPO-31 SAPO-31 P 19.2 18.8 *
ATS MAPO-36 P 16.4 16.1 *
ATT AlPO-12-TAMU AlPO-33 P 16.7 17.1 **
ATV AlPO-25 GaPO-ATV P 20.0 18.9 *
AWW AlPO-22 P 16.7 16.9 *
*BEA Beta Tschernichite, Borosilicate- S 15.0 15.3 ***
BEA
BIK Bikitaite Cs Aluminosilicate-BIK S 20.2 18.7 *
BOG Boggsite S 15.6 16.1 **
BPH Beryllophos- Linde Q S/P 16.4 14.6 ***
phate-H
BRE Brewsterite S 17.5 18.3 **
CAN Cancrinite Tiptopite, basic CAN, ECR-5 S/P 16.7 16.9 *
CAS Cs Alumino- S 20.6 18.8 *
silicate (A)
CGF Co-Ga-phos- P 17.4 19.0 **
phate-5
CHA Chabazite AlPO-34, MeAPO-47, Phi S/P 14.6 15.1 ***
CHI Chiavennite S 20.9 19.9 *
CLO Cloverite P 11.1 11.1 ***
CON CIT-1 SSZ-26/SSZ-33 S 16.1 15.7 ***
CZP Chiral Zn- P 16.7 21.3 *
phosphate
DAC Dachiardite Svetlozarite S 17.3 17.5 **
DDR Deca-dode- Sigma-1, ZSM-58 S 17.6 17.9 *
casil-3R
DFO DAF-1 P 14.1 14.9 ***
DOH Dodecasil-1H S 18.5 17.0
EAB TMA-E(AB) Bellbergite S 15.4 16.0 **
EDI Edingtonite K-F, Linde-F S 16.6 16.3 ***
EMT EMC-2 S 12.9 13.3 ***
EPI Epistilbite S 18.0 17.7 **
ERI Erionite AlPO-17, LZ220 S/P 15.6 16.1 ***
EUO EU-1 TPZ-3, ZSM-50 S 18.2 17.1 *
FAU Faujasite X, Y, SAPO-37, ZnPO-X S/P 12.7 13.3 ***
FER Ferrierite Sr-D, FU-9, NU-23, ZSM-35 S 17.7 17.5 **
GIS Gismondine Garronite, Na-P, MAPO-43 S/P 15.4 16.4 ***
GME Gmelinite S 14.6 15.1 ***
GOO Goosecreekite S 17.6 19.0 ***
HEU Heulandite Clinoptilolite, LZ219 S 17.0 17.5 **
IFR ITQ-4 S 17.0 17.2 *
JBW Na-J(BW) S 18.6 18.8 *
KFI ZK-5 P, Q S 14.7 15.0 ***
LAU Laumontite Leonhardite, CoGaPO-LAU S/P 17.7 18.0 *
LEV Levyne LZ-132, NU-3,SAPO-35 S/P 15.2 15.9 **
LIO Liottite S 15.7 17.6
LOS Losod Bystrite, LiBePO-LOS S/P 15.8 16.9
LOV Lovdarite synthetic Lovdarite S 18.4 16.8 ***
146 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

Table 1 (continued)

Structure Type material Selected isotypes a S/P b FD FDSi c Sieve


type code type d

LTA Linde type A SAPO-42, ZK-4, GaPO-LTA S/P 12.9 14.2 ***
LTL Linde type L Perlialite, (K,Ba)-G,L S 16.4 16.7 *
LTN Linde type N NaZ-21 S 15.2 17.0
MAZ Mazzite Omega, ZSM-4 S 16.1 16.7 *
MEI ZSM-18 S 14.3 14. ***
MEL ZSM-11 Silicalite-2, Borolite-D, TS-2 S 17.7 17.4 ***
MEP Melanophlogite synthetic MEP S 18.9 17.9
MER Merlinoite K-M, Linde W S 16.0 16.4 ***
MFI ZSM-5 Silicalite-1, Borolite C, TS-1 S 17.9 18.4 ***
MFS ZSM-57 S 18.2 17.4 **
MON Montesommaite S 18.1 17.7 **
MOR Mordenite Ca-Q, LZ-211, Zeolon S 17.2 17.0 **
MTN ZSM-39 Dodecasil 3C, Holdstite S 18.6 17.2
MTT ZSM-23 EU-13, KZ-1 S 20.0 18.2 *
MTW ZSM-12 CZH-5, VS-12 S 19.4 18.2 *
MWW MCM-22 ERB-1, ITQ-1, PSH-3, SSZ-25 S 16.8 15.9 **
NAT Natrolite Scolecite, Mesolite, Gonnardite S 17.8 16.2 ***
NES NU-87 Gottardiite S 17.7 16.4 **
NON Nonasil ZSM-51, Borosilicate NON S 19.3 17.6
OFF Offretite TMA-O, LZ-217 S 15.5 16.1 ***
OSI UiO-6 P 18.8 17.7 *
PAR Partheite S 18.2 19.5 *
PAU Paulingite ECR-18 S 15.5 15.9 ***
PHI Phillipsite Harmotome, Wellsite, ZK-19 S 15.8 16.4 ***
RHO Rho Pahasapaite, LZ-214 S/P 14.3 14.5 ***
RON Roggianite S 15.6 19.1 *
RSN RUB-17 S 16.8 16.8 ***
RTE RUB-3 S 17.3 17.2 *
RTH RUB-13 S 16.6 16.1 **
RUT RUB-10 NU-1, TMA-silicate-RUT S 18.7 18.1
SAO STA-1 P 13.9 14.2 ***
SGT Sigma-2 S 17.8 17.5
SOD Sodalite Tugtupite, basic SOD, AlPO-20 S/P 17.2 16.7
STI Stilbite Barrerite, Stellerite S 16.9 16.7 *
TER Terranovaite S 17.1 17.0 **
THO Thomsonite S 17.7 15.7 ***
TON Theta-1 ISI-1, KZ-2, NU-10, ZSM-22 S 19.7 18.1 *
VET VPI-8 S 19.8 20.2 *
VFI VPI-5 AlPO-54, MCM-9, H1 P 14.2 14.5 *
VNI VPI-9 S 16.7 17.6 **
VSV VPI-7 Gaultite S 17.1 16.8 ***
WEI Weinebeneite P 18.1 16.5 **
WEN Wenkite S 17.0 16.6 ***
YUG Yugawaralite Sr-Q S 18.3 18.0 **
ZON ZAPO-M1 GaPO-DAB, UiO-7, P 17.0 18.0 **
a A more extensive list of isotypes is given in the Atlas [2].
b Silicate and/or phosphate.
c
Famework density based on a pure (hypothetical) SiO2 framework (see in [3]).
d 1-, 2-, 3-Dimensional channel system indicated by the number of asterisks.
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 147

The characteristic channel systems in zeolite-type structures cannot be ade-


quately described in a simple manner. An unrefined but frequently adopted way
is to distinguish 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional channel systems only. Such a classifi-
cation is included in Table 1 and is only meaningful for rough surveys. For any-
thing more detailed, the Atlas should be consulted. The size and shape of the
apertures vary greatly, from an 8-ring opening to 9-, 10-, 12-, 14-, 18-, and 20-ring
structures (counting the number of T-atoms in the shortest circuit, which is not
trivial in the case of large and highly puckered rings). A survey of the observed
apertures is given in Fig. 3. 6-Ring systems are of limited interest in applications
involving sorption and are not considered as a rule. For more details on the
channels including crystallographic free diameters and the shape of the aper-
tures the reader is again referred to the Atlas.

Fig. 3. A listing of the structure types according to their largest aperture. A simplified projec-
tion of a typical framework is given to illustrate each aperture
148 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

3
Comparison of Silicate and Phosphate Framework Structures
Zeolite structure types include both silicates and phosphates. From a chemical
point of view these constitute two distinctive groups of microporous materials.
They have been listed using the abbreviations S or P in the respective column of
Table 1. The listing shows that there are three rather than two distinct groups to
be considered. Apart from those associated with silicates (59%) and phosphates
(26%) there is a sizable number of STs which have been found to occur both in
silicates and phosphates (15%). Detailed structural investigations of isotypic
pairs of this latter group (AFI e.g. [4]) provide a deeper insight into the stereo-
chemistry of these materials and still more is to be expected.
Soon after the first AlPO-structures (including AFI) were solved it was recog-
nized that the T-atoms in these frameworks are ordered, obviously for reasons
of local charge balance. As a consequence these phosphate systems can only
form frameworks containing even-membered rings which is in line with the
results of all structural investigations carried out so far. Thus, 5-membered
rings, which are so common in mineral zeolites and purely synthetic silicates
(particularly high-silica zeolites), are not expected to form in microporous
phosphates. Some further comparisons of zeolitic silicates and phosphates can
be found in Sect. 7.

4
Framework Densities (FD)
Zeolites and zeolite-like materials do not comprise an easily definable family of
crystalline solids. Thus, in several well-known mineralogical reference works [5]
analcime and bikitaite, for example, are not listed under zeolites. A straightfor-
ward criterion for distinguishing zeolites and zeolite-like materials from denser
tectosilicates is best based on the framework density (FD), the number of
T-atoms per 1000 A3. FD values for the various structure types are listed in
Table 1. The FD is obviously related to the pore volume but does not reflect the
size of the pore openings. Normally FD-values refer to the type material and
depend somewhat on composition since they rest on lattice constants. They can
be normalized on the basis of a (theoretical) all-silica framework structure
having optimal bond distances and angles [3]. These normalized FD-values are
also given in Table 1 for comparison. For most structure types FDs do not differ
by more than a few percent. Larger differences like the 10% observed in NAT, for
example, are due to lack of rigidity of the framework (see Sect. 8 for more infor-
mation in this respect).
In Fig. 4 the distribution of the FD-values for porous and dense frameworks
whose structures are well established are plotted against the smallest rings pre-
sent (adapted from [2]). Strictly speaking the boundaries defined in Fig. 4 for the
framework densities apply to fully cross-linked frameworks only.A gap (marked
by the hatched area in Fig. 4) is clearly recognizable between zeolite-type and
dense tetrahedral framework structures. The boundary ranges from just under
20 to over 21 T-atoms per 1000 A3, depending on the smallest rings present. The
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 149

Fig. 4. Plot of FD vs. smallest ring(s)


150 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

significance of the smallest rings in this context was first noted by Brunner and
Meier [6].
As can be seen in Fig. 4, the largest number of STs are in category 4. That is,
all of the T-atoms in these structure types are associated with 4-rings and the
4-rings are the smallest loops in the structure. In the case of category 4+, the
smallest loop is also a 4-ring, but some of the T-atoms are part of larger rings
only. This diagram defines a 2-dimensional range for zeolite-type structures.
A lower boundary for the FDs is also apparent. One important conclusion deriv-
ed from this plot has been that low-density frameworks are likely to contain
3-rings. This hypothesis has been tested by hypothetical structures and 3-ring
structures having FDs below 10 could in fact be generated [7]. Originally, the
only zeolitic material containing 3-rings was lovdarite, a beryllosilicate. New
structure types, in particular MEI and some zincosilicates (RSN, VNI, VSV), are
very significant for they show that silicates can also form tetrahedral nets con-
taining 3-rings, without Be being needed. This bodes well for the synthesis of
low-density materials based on 3-ring structures in the silicate field.
Considering the sharp increase in the number of structure types it is perhaps
noteworthy that the boundaries in the FD plot shown in Fig. 4 have not been
changed since it was first conceived almost 10 years ago.

5
Attempts to Classify Zeolite Frameworks
As was recognized quite early, a number of frameworks are obviously related
and the most important examples of these are to be found in Table 2. This table
contains only the STs listed in the 3rd edition of the Atlas [8].
The meaning of the designations used is as follows:
cha frameworks made up of single and/or double 6-rings (occasionally called
the ABC family)
cla clathrasils i.e. cage structures having no openings larger than 6-rings
fau frameworks consisting of sodalite or larger alpha cages
heu structures resembling that of heulandite
mor structures resembling that of mordenite
nat structures formed by chains found in natrolite
phi frameworks formed by chains of 4-rings (UUDD and UDUD chains ori-
ginally conceived by J.V. Smith) [9]
The entries found in Table 2 show quite clearly that these well-known families
of structures cover only about half of the STs presently known.
Zeolite frameworks can be thought of as consisting of finite or infinite (i.e.
chain- or layer-like) component units. The finite units or configurational con-
stituents which have been found to occur in tetrahedral frameworks are shown
in Fig. 5 (adapted from [8]). These secondary building units (SBU), as they are
normally called, contain up to 16 T-atoms and are derived under the assumption
that the entire framework is made up of one type of SBU only. It should be noted
that these constituent units must be non-chiral to be of use, or else additional
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 151

Table 2. Related structure types, classification systems, and fault planes (For explanatory notes
see Sects. 5 and 6)

Structure Examples of SBUs Brecks Gottardis Fault planes


type code related ST classif.a classif.

ABW 4, 6, 8 (B1) (010), (011)


AEI 4, 6, 66 (B4) (001)
AEL 62 (010)
AET 62 (100), (010)
AFG cha 4, 6 (B2) (001)
AFI 4, 6 (B2) (210)
AFO 41 (010)
AFR 4, 62
AFS 61 (001)
AFT cha 4, 6,66 (B4) (001)
AFY 4, 44 (B3)
ANA 4, 6, 62 B1 G2 (100)
APC phi 4, 8 (B1) (010)
APD 4, 8, 62 (B1) (100), (001)
AST 41
ATN 4, 8 (B1)
ATO 4, 6 (B2 ?)
ATS 4, 6, 62 (B1 ?)
ATT 4, 62 (B1) (001)
ATV 4 (B1) (100), (010)
AWW 4, 6 (B1 ?)
*BEA two 4 + 53 (001)
BIK mor 51 B6 G5
BOG 4, 6 (B1 ?) (011)
BPH 61 (001)
BRE heu 4 B7 G6 (010)
CAN cha 4, 6 B2 (001)
CAS 51 (B5)
CHA cha 4, 6, 66 B4 G4 (001)
CHI 52
CLO 4, 44 (B3)
DAC mor 51 B6 G5 (010)
DDR 51
DOH cla 5 + two 51
EAB cha 4, 6 (B2) (001)
EDI nat 4=1 B5 G1 (110)
EMT fau 4, 6, 66 (B4) (001)
EPI mor 51 B6 G5 (010)
ERI cha 4, 6 B2 G4 (001)
EUO 4 + four 51
FAU fau 4, 6, 66, 62 B4 G4 (111)
FER mor 51 B6 G5 (010)
GIS phi 4, 8 B1 G3 (101), (011)
GME cha 4, 6, 8, 66 B4 G4 (001)
GOO 62
HEU heu 44=1 B7 G6 (010)
JBW 6
KFI fau 4,6,8,66,62 B4
152 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

Table 2 (continued)

Structure Examples of SBUs Brecks Gottardis Fault planes


type code related ST classif.a classif.

LAU 6, 62 B1 G2
LEV cha 6 B2 G4 (001)
LIO cha 6 (B2) (001)
LOS cha 6, 62 B2 (001)
LOV 4 + spiro-5 (100)
LTA fau 4, 8, 44, 62 B3
LTL 6 B2
LTN 4, 6, 62
MAZ 4, 51 B2 G3 (010)
MEI 3 + two 61
MEL mor 51 (B6) (100)
MEP cla 5 + three 51
MER 4, 8, 88 G3 (100)
MFI mor 51 (B6) (100)
MFS 51
MON 4 (B1) (001)
MOR 51 B6 G5 (010), (100)
MTN cla 5 + two 51
MTT 51 (B6)
MTW 4 + four 51
NAT nat 4=1 B6 G1 (100)
NES 53
NON cla 5+6
OFF cha 6 B2 G4 (001)
PAR 4 (B1)
PAU fau 4 B1 G3
PHI phi 4, 8 B1 G3 (010)
RHO fau 4,6,8,88,62 (B1)
RON 4 (B1) G2
SGT cla 53
SOD cha, fau, cla 4, 6, 62 B2 G6 (111)
STI heu 44=1 B7 G6 (010)
THO nat 4=1 B5 G1 (100), (010)
TON 6, 51
VFI 6 (B2)
WEN two 6 + 8 (100), (210)
YUG 4, 8 B1 G2 (010)
a Entries in parentheses refer to new structure types which have also been classified based on
Brecks criteria. Question marks indicate considerable ambiguities.

specifications are required making the scheme impractical. Furthermore, a unit


cell always contains an integral number of SBUs. In some instances combina-
tions of SBUs have been encountered, i.e. the respective framework cannot be
generated from one type of SBU only. Examples include LOV, MEP and other cla-
thrasil-type frameworks. The SBUs for the various structure types are listed in
Table 2.
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 153

Fig. 5. SBUs (adapted from [8]) including frequency of occurrence in % (in parentheses)

Early classification schemes of zeolite framework structures date back to the


1960s when it did not seem to be a pressing problem, as the number of known
STs at that time was only around 25. It is remarkable that even at that time the
family of zeolite structure types was divided up into no less than 6 or 7 groups
based on SBUs and other structural similarities. This is still evident in Brecks
classification [10]. There were 35 known, different framework topologies and
an infinite number possible in 1973 according to Breck. (Based on present kno-
wledge the number stated should have been 30; v.i. Sect. 8). These structure types
154 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

were classified into 7 groups which are listed in Table 2 using the notation B1 to
B7 for each structure type considered. Brecks classification scheme was based
on the following set of SBUs:
Group 1 SBU 4 (single 4-ring) S4R
Group 2 SBU 6 (single 6-ring) S6R
Group 3 SBU 4 4 (double 4-ring) D4R
Group 4 SBU 6 6 (double 6-ring) D6R
Group 5 SBU 4 1
Group 6 SBU 5 1
Group 7 Group 441
Structure types which were established later have also been classified according
to Brecks scheme whenever possible, giving the group name in parentheses. The
listing shows that Brecks classification was quite acceptable in the 1970s but
in many cases (over 30%) could no longer be applied in 1992, nor could it be
readily extended.
A later attempt to classify the structure types by Gottardi and Galli [11] con-
ducted on similar grounds (but including chains and sheets) led to 6 groups but
was at least initially limited to natural zeolites. This classification is also listed in
Table 2 and labels used are G1 to G6. The groups were defined as follows:
Group 1 natrolite group (4 = 1)
Group 2 singly connected 4-ring chains
Group 3 doubly connected 4-ring chains
Group 4 6-rings (6 and 6 6)
Group 5 mordenite group (hexagonal sheet with handles)
Group 6 heulandite group (4 4 = 1)
Again this classification can only be applied to a limited number of the STs pre-
sently known. There is considerable but not complete overlap with Brecks clas-
sification.
The present account covers just two representative examples out of many
more attempts to classify the known zeolite framework topologies. From a gen-
eral point of view an acceptable classification system should (i) group together
comparable structure types, (ii) be based on criteria which can be applied
unambiguously, and (iii) be applicable to all structure types without having to
set up an excessive number of groups, which would of course serve no useful
purpose. SBUs alone fail to provide a classification system which would satisfy
all the aforementioned criteria. Thus, in view of criterion (i), ANA and PAU
should not appear in the same group (B1) simply because they both happen to
have an SBU in common, the single 4-ring. As is quite evident from Table 2, in
many instances the choice of an SBU is ambiguous. The same applies to other
configurations which may seem typical in a particular topology. A different
approach to the classification of STs would be based on the use of the smallest
ring(s) (see Fig. 4), an interesting feature discussed in the last section. The fore-
going criteria (ii) and (iii) would be readily fulfilled, there are no ambiguities
involved in assigning an ST to a particular group and the number of groups
would be remarkably small (4 at present). However, to have FAU, ERI, NAT etc. in
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 155

the same group is untenable. A structural classification system which satisfies


all three criteria is indeed yet to be found.

6
Fault Planes
Structural faults are quite abundant in zeolite crystals and can in particular
cases (e.g. zeolite beta) pose major problems in resolving details of the struc-
ture. The existence of fault planes (FP) means that layer-like segments of the
framework can be stacked in more than one way. Figure 6 serves in a schematic
way as an illustration of a potential FP. Likely FPs have been listed for known
structure types in Table 2 (taken from [8]). Well-known examples include the
ABC family of structures labeled cha in Table 2. The AABB stacking of 6-rings
in GME is hardly ever observed without some stacking fault (CC-layer), which
greatly affects the porosity in this instance. A different example of importance
is that of FAU (cubic) and EMT (hexagonal) in which faults do not affect the
porosity greatly, if at all. The faults in MFI and MEL are somewhat different in
nature but like all the others considered they are conservative, i.e. layers or seg-
ments of the structure are just stacked differently without adding or leaving out
any part. A possible FP means that the respective framework can easily contain
defects of this kind, which may be difficult to detect directly if they are few in
number. On the other hand, a high concentration of faults gives rise to structu-
ral intermediates. These include Linde T (ERI-OFF) and FAU-EMT interme-
diates [12] (e.g. CS1, ECR-30, ZSM-3 and ZSM-20), to quote just two examples.
The listing in Table 2 shows that many more framework structures are prone to
faulting than generally expected (around 60% of all STs).
Finally, a number of related structures (polytypes) can be readily postulated
on the basis of possible faulting (see Sect. 9 for more details).

Fig. 6. Schematic diagram illustrating faulting

7
Loop Configurations and Coordination Sequences
The loop configuration is a simple 2-dimensional graph showing how many 3-
or 4-membered rings a given T-atom is involved in. Figure 7 shows all observed
loop configurations and their frequency of occurrence [2]. Sato [13] used the
156 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

Fig. 7. Loop configurations and the frequency of their occurrence (adapted from the ATLAS)

term second coordination networks. Loop configurations serve to characterize


the immediate surrounding of the T-atoms in a zeolite framework and provide
useful at-a-glance information particularly in the case of complex networks.
They certainly supply information on the smallest rings present (dealt with in
Sect. 4). Their use for classification purposes has been investigated, but no con-
vincing scheme has yet been developed. More important are rules based on loop
configurations which allow some prediction as to the likelihood of a hypotheti-
cal framework [14]. When considering Fig. 7 it is quite apparent that some loop
configurations are very frequent while others are rare, and some (not shown but
easily deduced) have never been observed. Loop configurations can to some
extent also be correlated to the type of compositional system as shown in Table 3.
The concept of coordination sequences (CS) is, in a way, comparable to that
of loop configurations, only the latter relates to local parts of a tetrahedral net,
whereas the former comprises the full topology of the 4-connected net. In a zeo-
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 157

Table 3. Topological features of different zeolite-type frameworks

Framework composition Prevailing loop configurations

High silica zeolites

High alumina zeolitzes

Aluminophosphates

lite framework, each T-atom is connected to N1 = 4 neighboring T-atoms


through O-bridges. These neighboring T-atoms are then linked in the same
manner to N2 T-atoms in the next shell. The latter are connected with N3 T-atoms
etc., taking care to include T-atoms only once. In this way a CS can be deter-
mined for each T-atom of the 4-connected net of T-atoms. It follows that:
N0 = 1 N1 4 N2 12 N3 36 Nk 4 . 3 k1
Coordination sequences have been listed in the Atlas from N1 up to N10 for each
topologically distinct T-atom in the framework structure.A useful application of
coordination sequences is the possibility of carrying out a computer search in
order to find out whether or not a new topology has been observed before. In
this way, isotypic frameworks can be easily recognized even when the crystallo-
graphic data differ considerably. Another interesting application of coordina-
tion sequences is the calculation of topological density (TD) values. The TD is in
principle the total population of T-atoms up to a certain shell k. Unlike the FD
the TD-values do not depend on unit cell volumes which can change on com-
position. As might be expected, the CS is a periodic function. This has been
established for all observed framework topologies [15].

8
Framework Conformation
Non-rigid frameworks include those showing significant variations in FD. In
many cases configurations also lend themselves to problems of conformation.
Significant examples are apertures determining the size and shape of the free
opening of a molecular sieve structure. Customary values are frequently given
or assumed for the free diameters of channels with 8-, 10- and 12-ring apertures.
It should be clear from the data in the Atlas that the crystallographic free dia-
meter for a particular ring can vary greatly. The following example referring to
10-rings is representative
ZSM-5 5.3 5.6
Heulandite 3.0 7.6
158 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

The conformation of a ring is determined primarily by the connectivity and to


a lesser extent by extra-framework constituents.
A number of zeolite frameworks are also known to undergo marked confor-
mational changes.A good example is zeolite RHO [16, 17]. The framework struc-
ture of the desolvated NH4-form exhibits considerable distortion as shown
in Fig. 8, whereas the structures of the as-synthesized (Na,Cs)-form and the
H-form are close to ideal. The changes in conformation of this RHO-framework
are very pronounced though the desolvated NH4-form is still cubic. This note-
worthy example shows that cubic symmetry does not imply rigidity of the
framework as is sometimes assumed.
Another enlightening example of framework conformation was provided by
NaP1 which for quite some time was thought to be cubic. It was even assumed to
have a separate ST in the earlier literature before the structure was solved [18].
The structure determination based on powder data showed it to be an isotype of
GIS, the topology of which is clearly non-cubic. As shown in Fig. 9 natural gis-
mondine (the type material) and NaP1 are isotypic but differ considerably in
conformation. The difference is in fact so pronounced that the respective X-ray
powder diffraction patterns (Fig. 10) would seem to indicate two different struc-
ture types. This is a good example showing that the identification of a ST of a
zeolite-type material is not always a matter of routine.
On the other hand, it should be noted that conformational transformations
do not necessarily manifest themselves directly by distinct shifts in the diffrac-
tion patterns. The shifts are normally no larger than those observed upon ion

Fig. 8. Conformational changes in RHO. Left: H-form (Im3m), right: desolvated NH4-form
(I43m)

Fig. 9. Conformations of GIS-type materials. Left: gismondine (P21/c), right: NaP1 (I4)
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 159

Fig. 10. XRD powder patterns of two GIS-type materials (top: gismondine, bottom: NaP1)

exchange or sorption. A shift in a diffraction pattern is thus not a clear indica-


tion of a conformational change. Therefore, changes in the free pore openings,
due to changes in the framework conformation, cannot be detected directly by a
diffraction experiment. A complete structure refinement must be performed to
establish such changes.
Furthermore, it should be remembered that crystallographic free pore
openings generally refer to the structure at room temperature. Possible changes
in conformation have to be taken into account following chemical modification
and/or heat treatment. Regrettably, only a limited amount of such structural
information is available.

9
Are Zeolite Framework Structures Predictable?
Some 10% or more of the presently known framework structures were predic-
ted well before they were actually observed. Hypothetical zeolite structures date
back to at least the 1950s. Compilations of hypothetical frameworks have been
set up by several investigators in the field ever since. By far the most extensive
enumeration has been established by J.V. Smith (see for example [19]). Early
examples of postulated zeolite-like framework structures include EMT (the
hexagonal counterpart of FAU predicted by several investigators in the early
1960s but discovered only in 1990 [20]), DAC and RHO. In all these examples, the
predicted structures were closely related to known framework structures (i.e.
FAU, MOR and KFI, respectively).
The number of theoretical frameworks exceeds that of the observed ones by
at least two orders of magnitude. The number is certainly very large but not in-
160 W.M. Meier C. Baerlocher

finite as has been stated repeatedly (cf. Sect. 5). FPs in known structures provide
a simple basis for postulating hypothetical frameworks as already mentioned in
Sect. 6. The result is typically a series of theoretical networks. Based on additio-
nal FPs found in some of these theoretical networks more of these nets can be
generated in a systematic manner. This is only one of several procedures. Apart
from a visual approach, computer methods have also been developed to gener-
ate large numbers of 4-connected nets making use of graph theory [21]. It
should be noted, however, that a mere enumeration of theoretically possible
connectivities includes a fair proportion of unlikely configurations. Theoretical
frameworks should at least be tested using loop configurations and other means
to assess their likelihood [14]. Further tests of postulated topologies should
include distance least squares refinement (DLS) [22], a method specifically
developed to optimize the geometry of zeolite structures. DLS was recognized
quite early [1, 23] as a simple method to exclude structures containing unlikely
bond distances and angles.
Since ab intio structure solution from powder data has made significant pro-
gress in recent years, the use of hypothetical frameworks for the solutions of new
zeolite structures has lost some of its former importance. However, theoretical
frameworks are still very attractive as a source of ideas for the scientist trying to
synthesize new porous materials using various techniques and templating
agents.

Acknowledgements. We thank Lynne B. McCusker for many helpful discussions and for critical-
ly reading the manuscript.

References
References to particular structures can be found in the Atlas [2, 3] and are not listed.

1. Meier WM, Villiger H (1969) Z. Kristallogr. 129: 411


2. Meier WM, Olson DH, Baerlocher Ch (1996) Atlas of zeolite structure types, 4th edn.
Elsevier, New York. Published on behalf of the IZA Structure Commission
3. Baerlocher Ch, McCusker LB Atlas updates on http://www.iza-sc.ethz.ch/IZA-SC/
4. Bialek R, Meier WM, Davis M, Annen MJ (1991) Zeolites 11: 438
5. Strunz H, Tennyson Ch (1982) Mineralogische Tabellen, 8. Auflage. Akademische Verlags-
gesellschaft Geet & Portig K.-G., Leipzig; Deer WA, Howie RA, Zussman J (1992) An intro-
duction to the rock-forming minerals, 2nd edn. Longman, London
6. Brunner GO, Meier WM (1989) Nature 337: 146
7. Meier WM (1989) Zeolites and zeolite-like materials. In: Murakami Y, Iijima A, Ward JW
(eds) Proc. 7th Int. Zeolite Conf., Tokyo. Kodansha, Tokyo. p 13
8. Meier WM, Olson DH (1992) Atlas of zeolite structure types, 3rd edn. Butterworth-Heine-
mann, London
9. Smith JV, Rinaldi F (1962) Miner Mag 33: 202
10. Breck DW (1974) Zeolite molecular sieves. Wiley, New York, pp 45132
11. Gottardi G, Galli E (1985) Natural zeolites. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo,
pp 433
12. Treacy MMJ,Vaughan DEW, Strohmaier KG, Newsam JM (1996) Proc R Soc London A 452:
813
13. Sato M (1984) Framework topology and systematic derivation of zeolite structures.
In: Olson D, Bisio A (eds) Proc. 6th Int. Zeolite Conf., Reno. Butterworths, Guildford, p 851
Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations and Conformations 161

14. Brunner GO (1990) Zeolites 10: 612


15. Grosse-Kunstleve RW, Brunner GO, Sloane NJA (1996) Acta Cryst A52: 879
16. McCusker LB (1984) Zeolites 4: 51
17. Baur WH, Fischer RX, Shannon RD (1988) Relations and correlations in zeolite rho and
computer simulations of its crystal structure. In: Grobet PJ, Mortier WJ, Vansant EF,
Schulz-Ekloff G (eds) Innovation in Zeolite Material Science, Proceedings of an Inter-
national Symposium, Nieuwpoort (Belgium). Elsevier, Amsterdam. p 281
18. Baerlocher Ch, Meier WM (1972) Z Kristallogr 135: 339
19. Han S, Smith JV (1994) Acta Cryst A50: 302; Andries KJ, Smith JV (1994) Acta Cryst A50:
317
20. Delprato F, Delmotte L, Guth JL, Huve L (1990) Zeolites 10: 546
21. Sato M, Uehare H (1997) Stud Surf Sci Cat 105: 2299
22. Baerlocher Ch, Hepp A, Meier WM (1978) DLS-76, a program for the simulation of crystal
structures by geometric refinement. (Inst. f. Kristallographie und Petrographie, ETH,
Zrich)
23. Baur WH (1971) Nature 233: 135 and 447 (editorial)
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites
for Adsorption Processes
A. Pfenninger
CU Chemie Uetikon AG, Zeochem Division, CH-8707 Uetikon, Switzerland;
e-mail: pfenninger.armin@zeochem.ch

1 The Zeolite Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164


1.1 Major Zeolite Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
1.2 The Role of Natural Zeolites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

2 Industrial Synthesis of Zeolites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166


2.1 General Scheme of Zeolite Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
2.2 Starting Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
2.2.1 Silica Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
2.2.2 Alumina Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.2.3 Alkali Cation/Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.2.4 Hydroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.3 Development of a Commercial Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
2.3.1 Reaction Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
2.3.2 Scale-Up Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
2.4 Important Synthetic Zeolites for Adsorption Processes . . . . . . . 174
2.4.1 Zeolite A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
2.4.2 Zeolite X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
2.4.3 Zeolite ZSM-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

3 Forming Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180


3.1 The Ideal Binder System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
3.2 Binderless Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

4 Characterization of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes . . . . . . . 183


4.1 X-Ray Powder Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
4.2 Elemental Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
4.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
4.4 Bulk Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
4.5 Dust Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
4.6 Attrition of Agglomerated Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
4.7 Bead Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
4.8 Adsorption Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
4.9 Zeolite Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Molecular Sieves, Vol. 2


Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999
164 A. Pfenninger

5 Use of Zeolites in Miscellaneous Adsorption Processes . . . . . . . 193


5.1 Insulated Glass Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
5.2 Drying and Purification of Air and Petrochemicals . . . . . . . . . 195
5.3 Separation of Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
5.4 Separation of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

1
The Zeolite Market
The zeolite group of minerals was discovered in 1756 by the Swedish mineral-
ogist Baron Cronstedt, who described several varieties occurring as well-formed
crystals. He named them from the Greek zeos and lithos, meaning boiling
stones, in allusion to their peculiar frothing characteristics when heated in an
open test tube.
For the next 150 years not many investigations were done on zeolites. Beauti-
ful specimens have been found over the years, but they were regarded as a curio-
sity of nature, and zeolites did not awake the interest of professionals. It was in
the 1920s and 1930s when larger deposits of natural zeolites were found in the
western part of the United States. The majority of the professional world re-
mained unaware of these reports and occurrences. Only in the 1950s when
these sediments were studied in more detail, especially by means of X-ray dif-
fraction, was it discovered that these materials contained up to 90% of a single,
well-defined zeolite mineral. Thick tuffs of clinoptilolite were found in Japan
and large deposits of heulandite were detected in New Zealand. In the meantime
some 40 different natural zeolite forms are known and well characterized. For a
full historical perspective see [1].
In the middle of this century the first synthetic counterparts were prepared,
and the industry showed an immediate interest in the zeolites A and X. From
this starting position a huge market has developed over the last 50 years.

1.1
Major Zeolite Uses
A zeolite is a real stoichiometric inorganic polymer, each aluminum atom indu-
cing one negative charge in the framework which requires a positive counterion.
Zeolites became very attractive materials for many applications for the follo-
wing reasons:
zeolites are microporous materials with uniform pore dimensions;
certain molecules may enter these pores, while others are rejected this leads
to selective adsorption processes;
zeolites have very good ion exchange properties;
zeolites may become strong Brnsted acids after ion exchange with an acid
and, therefore, are good catalysts;
zeolites are thermally very stable and can be used at high temperatures.
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 165

Fig. 1. Zeolite market volume

Total world-wide zeolite usage has become very important and is approach-
ing 1.6 million tonnes per annum, zeolite A being the major part amounting to
1.1 million tonnes per year [2]. The segmentation of the market is shown in Fig. 1
[35].
The world demand for zeolite A is mainly by the detergent industry. In
modern detergents, zeolite A is the major component, amounting to about 40%
of the total weight. Each of Europes twelve most important detergent zeolite
producers has a capacity of 30,000 tonnes per annum or more [2].
In the field of adsorption and desiccation, it is again zeolite A which plays a
major role. It is mainly used for removal of moisture and foreign substances
from a gas or liquid mixture. One important application is as a desiccating agent
in sealed insulation glass, which is composed of two or three panes of glass with
a layer of dry air in between for heat insulation. In Europe and North America,
use of sealed double or triple glazing has become common practice, and the
demand for molecular sieves in that field is about 20,000 tonnes per annum. In
Japan, use of sealed insulation glasses is limited to the northern districts such as
Hokkaido and Tohoku, but their use is now increasing throughout the country
[3]. Zeolites are also frequently used to dry various types of gases such as na-
tural gas, ethylene, propylene, and air. After saturation with water vapor the
zeolite is thermally regenerated. This type of process is known as thermal swing
adsorption (TSA).
The separation of bulk chemicals has been carried out with zeolites for
almost 40 years, the separation of n-paraffins and iso-paraffins being one of the
first applications in this field [1]. The 1980s brought a huge number of pressure
swing adsorption (PSA) processes to separate bulk gas mixtures, mainly air and
reformer gases. This field of application is still a fast growing one.
In the catalytic application field, more than 90% of zeolites are used for fluid
catalytic cracking (FCC) applications and in the hydrocracking market. The
Y-type zeolites are typically used for these processes. FCC is an example where
zeolites have had a large impact on both the crude oil economy and the cracker
unit economy. Zeolite application made it possible to increase catalyst activity.
166 A. Pfenninger

At a world-wide use of more than 8 106 tonnes of oil per day, a 1% gasoline
yield increase represents an extremely high amount. Over the last two decades
the yield improvements were well above 10% [5].

1.2
The Role of Natural Zeolites

The natural zeolite market is small in Western Europe but quite large in Japan.
Natural zeolites are used for a number of quite different applications as is
shown in the following paragraph.
Clinoptilolite may be used as a soft, high-brightness additive to paper. The
material is first ground into fine particles and then cyclone-classified. The same
material may also be used as a filler in the paper industry. It is again clinoptilo-
lite which is used as a selective ion exchange agent, as it selectively removes cesi-
um and strontium ions in the presence of high concentrations of competing
ions. This process is especially useful for removing or concentrating and isola-
ting radioactive species from waste waters generated by nuclear installations. In
the early 1970s, natural, acid-washed mordenite had been used for the produc-
tion of 90% pure oxygen. The oxygen was produced on-site for steel-making.
Clinoptilolite was also studied for this process, although the nitrogen adsorp-
tion capacities of the samples tested are somewhat lower than those of mor-
denite. These zeolites have now been replaced by synthetic zeolites, which show
a much higher performance than the natural zeolites.
Natural zeolites have also been in use as dietary supplements for swine and
poultry. Up to 10 wt% of clinoptilolite and mordenite were added to the normal
protein diet of pigs and chickens, with significant increases in the final weight
of the animals and a concomitant reduction in the amount and cost of the
feed. Zeolites apparently adsorb certain of the nutrients in the feed and retain
them for longer periods in the animal digestive system, thus allowing a more
efficient use of the feed and consequent decrease in the costs. Furthermore,
the zeolite is able to bind the ammonia formed and thus helps to reduce odor
emissions.
Another new application is found in municipal waste water treatment plants.
Natural zeolites are able to bind significant amounts of ammonia, helping to
remove nitrogen from these streams.
Finally, it should be mentioned that natural zeolites may be used as ad-
ditives for fertilizers and for soil conditioning. It is believed that they may
retain desirable cations in the soil for a longer period of time. Their high
adsorption capacity may prove to be useful for carriers of pesticides and
fungicides.

2
Industrial Synthesis of Zeolites

By definition, zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicates of alkali and


alkaline earth cations, having three-dimensional silicate structures. They are
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 167

characterized by the ability to lose and gain water reversibly and to exchange
constituent cations, both without major changes of structure. The frame-
work consists of an arrangement of SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedra in a manner
which results in a remarkably open structure. The crystal structure of each
member of the zeolite group is unique as shown by X-ray diffraction patterns.
However, all of them are characterized by networks of channels or pores,
leading to sizable central cavities. In the hydrated form the cavities are filled
with alkali or alkaline earth cations which are surrounded by water molecules.
The water may be removed by heating to about 350 C, the cations then be-
coming coordinated with oxygen on the inner surface of the cavities. The
channel dimensions of many zeolite species are large enough to permit mole-
cules in the sub-nanometer range diameter to enter and become adsorbed in
the vacant cavities.
In the 1950s a number of commercially significant zeolites, namely types A,
X, and Y, were discovered [1, 68]. In 1954 Union Carbide Corporation com-
mercialized synthetic zeolites as a new class of industrial materials for separa-
tion and purification purposes. The earliest application included the drying
of refrigerants and natural gas. In 1959 the first process was introduced for
normal- and iso-paraffin separation. At that time the term molecular sieve
became quite popular. The 1980s saw major growth in the use of PSA for the
production of oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Processes for the purification of
gasoline oxygenate additives were also introduced at that time. All the early
molecular sieves had a low SiO2/Al2O3 ratio. Even today the major part of the
molecular sieves used industrially for adsorption processes are still those with
a low SiO2/Al2O3 ratio. The low-silica zeolites are hydrophilic with a relatively
weak acidity compared to the high-silica zeolites. The cation concentration in
this group of zeolites is extremely high, and therefore they show a high ion ex-
change capacity. The hydrophilic low-silica zeolites are extremely well suited
for removing water from organic compounds. In contrast, the hydrophobic
high-silica zeolites and silica molecular sieves can remove and recover organic
compounds from water streams and carry out separations in the presence of
water.

2.1
General Scheme of Zeolite Synthesis

The earlier methods all involve hydrothermal crystallization of a reactive alkali


metal aluminosilicate gel at low temperature and low pressure. The synthesis
mechanism is generally described as involving solution-mediated crystalliza-
tion of the homogeneous gel at a relatively high pH value. In the early alkali
aluminosilicate synthesis of the low-silica zeolites, it was proposed that the
hydrated alkali cation acts as a template a forming agent in the formation
of zeolite structural sub-units. Water and hydroxide ions were the mineralizing
agents. Crystallization of the zeolite was performed at a temperature close to
100 C. The synthesis was varied in due course, raw materials changed, composi-
tion and reaction conditions were varied, but the principal lay-out of the reac-
tion is still valid (cf. Fig. 2) [1].
168 A. Pfenninger

Fig. 2. Principle of zeolite synthesis

Each of the reagents used in the zeolite synthesis has its particular role. The
synthesis is normally performed in water as a solvent. This is identical with
the geological formation of natural zeolites. Water is not only a solvent to dis-
solve the starting materials but also a guest molecule as it hydrates the cations
and thus leads to the hydrated template. The silica source acts as a primary
building unit of the whole zeolite framework, each silica being connected with
four oxygen atoms to form a tetrahedral network. Alumina acts as the second
primary building unit and is connected to four oxygen atoms like silica, again
contributing to the tetrahedral network. As aluminum is trivalent, it becomes
the origin of the negative charge of the zeolite framework. According to Lwen-
steins rule, it is not possible to get two alumina centers as neighbors in the
zeolite framework, as the two negative charges would destabilize the whole
system [9]. Due to this fact, the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio always is 2. Hydroxide acts
as a mineralizing agent and has a big influence on the result of the zeolite syn-
thesis. The kinetics of zeolite formation is controlled partly by the hydroxide,
but the size of the zeolite crystals is also influenced by the basic compound. The
alkaline or the alkaline earth cation will counterbalance the negative charge of
the alumina built into the framework and acts as the template for the struc-
ture-forming process. The main functions of the reagents are summarized in
Fig. 3.
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 169

Fig. 3. Functions of the reagents

2.2
Starting Materials

2.2.1
Silica Sources

Depending on a particular synthesis, one silica source might be more favorable


than another [10]. Quite a number of factors will influence the choice of a silica
type. Pyrogenic silica is readily dissolved in the reaction mixture due to the
small particle size. The rate of dissolution is an important parameter with a
major influence on the rate of nucleation and crystallization meaning that
another silica source that dissolves much more slowly may lead to a lower rate of
zeolite formation or eventually to a different type of zeolite. Also the degree and
the type of impurities have to be considered carefully. Cations in particular may
act as templates and thus lead to another zeolite structure. The tetraalkoxy-
silanes are available in very good quality and may be further purified through
distillation, but they are expensive and produce 4 moles of an alcohol per mole
of silicon. For industrial applications this is a high barrier to overcome, as the
equipment is normally not set-up in an explosion-proof area.
The cost of raw material is an important consideration apart from the funda-
mental suitability of the materials. The water glass price is typically less than
0.5 US$ per kilogram, whereas pyrogenic silica grades may be ten times more
170 A. Pfenninger

expensive. For the industrially available molecular sieves, sodium water glass,
sodium disilicate, and precipitated amorphous silicas are the preferred starting
materials.

2.2.2
Alumina Sources

The same arguments hold as for silica sources. Quality, price, availability, safety
in handling, and solubility have to be evaluated. For the cheaper molecular
sieves, sodium aluminate or aluminum hydrate are the starting materials of
choice. Sodium aluminate has to be stabilized with an excess of hydroxide ions,
otherwise it will lead to a precipitation of aluminum hydroxide. This is a dis-
advantage as the mother liquor will contain an excess of hydroxide ions which
have to be neutralized or recycled in the process.

2.2.3
Alkali Cation/Template

If possible an inorganic cation, mainly an alkaline cation, is used for the synthe-
sis. Sodium hydroxide is used except for those cases in which the presence of
sodium ions prevents the formation of the desired zeolite type. For the produc-
tion of the high-silica zeolites, an organic template is frequently used. In the
open accessible literature a huge variety of different organic molecules are
described, charged and neutral molecules, quite often ammonium cations or
amine compounds [10]. For both practical and cost reasons, in industry the
quaternary ammonium cations are mainly used as templates. They are not
volatile and therefore easy to handle, they do not smell, and may be recycled to
some extent.

2.2.4
Hydroxide

Most zeolite syntheses are performed under basic reaction conditions, using
hydroxide as a mineralizing agent. Fluoride would be an alternative but is not
used on a commercial scale as it is very corrosive to the equipment used.

2.3
Development of a Commercial Process

To optimize a zeolite synthesis on a commercial scale, it is necessary to investi-


gate each unit operation very carefully. Quite commonly the zeolite synthesis is
divided into four steps (Table 1) [10]. At a relatively low temperature all the
ingredients are weighed or metered and mixed in the reactor. The easiest way is
to add them as solutions. The order of addition and the time required for the
addition is very important and has to be optimized for each individual applica-
tion, including the seeds if any are added. The starting mixture is stirred to get
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 171

Table 1. Sequence of events in zeolite synthesis

Temperature Event

<60 C Mixing of starting solutions


Forming reaction mixture
Gel formation
Heating Gel rearrangement
Dissociation of silicate
Dissolution of gel
<200 C Nucleation
Crystallization
<100 C Isolation of zeolite

a homogeneous gel. The pH value and the concentration used will influence
strongly the composition of the gel formed, mainly the degree of polymerization
which has an influence on the viscosity. The stirring time of the gel prior to heat-
ing leads to some rearrangement and aging. Without an aging step it is not
easy to produce a proper X zeolite that is not contaminated with other zeolitic
phases.
In the next step, the gel is heated to the desired temperature. At this stage of
the process the gel will rearrange, dissolve, and eventually nucleation of the
zeolite will start. A secondary effect may occur. The quaternary ammonium ions
may start to degrade and decompose to a tertiary amine and to a volatile olefin.
This may lead to an unwanted increase in pressure and to a decrease in pH, as
the hydroxide ions are consumed in such a Hoffmann degradation.
At the reaction temperature crystallization will start. Species in solution rear-
range from a continuous changing phase of monomers and clusters, e.g., poly-
silicates and aluminosilicates. These clusters form and disappear via condensa-
tion and hydrolysis processes. The clusters and cations will start to associate,
and the process particles reach the critical minimum size and become stable. For
zeolite A, this minimum dimension is about 1.0 nm. At this stage crystallization
starts. The liquid phase is continuously present between the dissolving dense gel
phase and the growing crystals, and the crystallization is solvent-mediated. The
size and homogeneity of the formed crystals will depend very much on the set
of parameters used [11].
Mostly, the product is isolated by centrifugation or filtration. This process is
followed by washing with water to remove the mother liquor and especially the
excess of hydroxide ions. This unit operation, usually done at slightly elevated
temperatures, is crucial. The valuable zeolites are metastable products and may
rearrange to more stable phases if not filtered and washed properly. The final
process in the zeolite preparation is the drying or calcination procedure. This
again is a delicate step as the metastable products may undergo hydrothermal
changes if not properly washed and dried in thick layers where a high partial
pressure of water vapor may build up. After the drying procedure, the void
volume is free for different modifications and/or applications.
172 A. Pfenninger

2.3.1
Reaction Parameters

A good industrial process should not only use cheap and readily available start-
ing materials but should also be easy to run on a large scale. Heating and cooling
a reaction mixture is a time-consuming and energy-intensive unit operation. In
an ideal case, all of the unit operations mentioned above run at the same tempe-
rature. Furthermore, the reaction time should be as short as possible. In a well
optimized system, the synthesis time for zeolite A or zeolite X does not exceed 3 h.
Zeolitic systems to be used for adsorption processes should be built up of
small crystals (14 m) to get reasonably fast kinetics. The crystal size is in-
fluenced through a number of parameters as shown in Table 2.
For zeolite A and zeolite ZSM-5, increasing the pH brings about an increase
in the crystallization rate. The hydroxide ion is a strong mineralizer, bringing the
reactants into solution. The higher the pH and thus the concentrations of the
dissolved reactants, the more the rate of crystal growth of the zeolite is enhanc-
ed, the more nucleation centers are formed, and the smaller is the crystal size.
It has been shown for many zeolites that raising synthesis temperatures within
the zeolite synthesis field increases the crystal growth rate. In the case of zeolite
A the crystal size does not change significantly, whereas in the case of ZSM-5
substantial variations in the crystal size are produced the higher the tempera-
ture, the larger the crystals.

2.3.2
Scale-Up Procedure

In order to develop optimum production processes for existing and new pro-
ducts, development is normally done in several stages. The first step consists of

Table 2. Parameters which influence the crystal size

Parameter Effects

pH variation High pH (high concentration of hydroxyl ions) will produce


small crystals
Low pH (low concentration of hydroxyl ions) will produce
large crystals
Na2O/SiO2 ratio A low Na2O/SiO2 ratio leads to large crystals
(nucleation is very slow)
A high Na2O/SiO2 ratio leads to small crystals
(nucleation is very fast)
Influence of seeds Large amounts of seeds quite often lead to smaller
crystals (especially for zeolite Y)
Addition of seeds normally leads to shorter synthesis times
Aging of the gel Aging of the gel favors nucleation in a short time and leads
to small crystals
Stirring speed Higher stirrer speed leads to smaller crystals
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 173

optimizing the synthesis on a laboratory scale. Preliminary experiments are


done on a very small scale, usually in small reactors of 100 ml to 1 l. The reactor
type is dependent on the reaction to be performed. A glass reactor is used if the
reaction temperature is not going to exceed 100 C. These reactors have the big
advantage of being transparent so the experiment can easily be followed by
visual inspection. The further advantage is that these reactors may be cleaned
quite easily. At this stage of development, it is absolutely necessary to work with
perfectly clean equipment in order to exclude cross contamination or unwanted
seed effects. Unfortunately, the glass reactors are not resistant to the reaction
conditions over a longer period.
If the reaction temperature is going to exceed 100C, a pressurized steel reac-
tor is needed. Advantageously, the reactor is teflon-lined to exclude metallic
effects from the autoclaves wall. The teflon liner is either new or is cleaned by
boiling with 30% sodium hydroxide for a couple of hours to destroy all the
crystalline contaminants.
Once the reaction works satisfactorily on a 100 ml scale, it will be performed
on a scale of 510 l. The same precautions will be taken as for the initial step.
A few new items are considered at this stage of development. The process has
to be made simpler and sturdier. The influence of some impurities are studied
at this stage. If the reactor for commercial scale production is not cleaned after
each operation, some residues may build up at the reactor wall after some
time. These residues in turn may act as seeds or, in a worst case, may help to
form an unwanted zeolitic phase. The quality of the raw material may change
over time. It is well known that the composition of water glass is very much
dependent on the dissolution process and does not remain constant over a
lengthy time period.
At this stage, the temperature limits of the reaction are studied. For instance,
an organic template, a quaternary ammonium salt, may undergo degradation
and build up a pressure that may become dangerous on a large scale.
Seeding techniques are studied to gain insight into the kinetics of the process
and to optimize the crystal size. Too large crystals may show poor kinetics in the
adsorption process or the catalytic reaction they are used for, while too small
crystals are not easy to filter and may not be stable enough for the envisaged pro-
cess.
Finally, ecological and economical aspects are studied. The composition of
the mother liquor is carefully analyzed to discover whether the reaction mixture
has to be adapted or whether some of the mother liquor may be recycled
(Table 3).

Table 3. Parameters which lead to an optimized zeolite synthesis

Make the process simpler and sturdier


Study the influence of impurities
Evaluate temperature limits of the reaction
Check different seeding techniques
Optimize the crystal size
Study ecological and economical aspects
174 A. Pfenninger

Fig. 4. Photograph of a semi-commercial plant for zeolite synthesis. Left is the stirred, pres-
surized reactor, middle is the pressurized reactor with heating coils, and right is the open
reactor with heating coils and stirrer

The final optimization stage is carried out in a semi-commercial plant with


reactors of a size of up to 1500 l. Open steel reactors with stirrers and heating
devices (double jacket or heating coils) are adequate to run syntheses of zeolites
such as the A type or the X type. A stainless steel reactor with a stirrer and a
working pressure of up to 12 bar is needed to develop the high-silica zeolites that
are synthesized with an organic template at elevated temperatures up to 160 C.
A closed steel reactor with a dense array of heating coils, which ensure a very
low temperature differential within the synthesis batch, may be needed for the
synthesis of zeolites that are not easily prepared under stirred conditions, for
example zeolite L (Fig. 4).
The finished zeolite is separated from its mother liquor and thoroughly
washed on a filter and finally dried in a muffle oven as shown in Fig. 5.

2.4
Important Synthetic Zeolites for Adsorption Processes

2.4.1
Zeolite A

Zeolite A was the first zeolite to be synthesized on a large scale, and it is still
the working horse for a wide range of present adsorption applications. It is
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 175

Fig. 5. Muffle oven of the semi-commercial plant to dry and calcine the zeolites after synthesis
and filtration

estimated that the world-wide consumption of zeolite A for adsorption and


desiccant application is about 95,000 tonnes per annum [3].
Zeolite A is synthesized in the sodium form to give a pore opening of 0.38 nm.
A simple ion exchange with potassium salt after the filtration and washing steps
reduces the pore size to 0.30 nm. Similarly, ion exchange with calcium salt can
increase the pore size to 0.43 nm. These seemingly small differences in pore
opening have a crucial effect for many applications. The potassium, sodium, and
calcium forms of zeolite A are usually referred to as zeolites 3 A, 4 A, and 5 A,
respectively.
The process flow sheet (Fig. 6) illustrates the type of equipment and the raw
materials used. Sodium water glass and sodium aluminate solutions are pre-
pared in premix tanks and then metered into the reactor in the correct ratio at
5070 C. The gel is formed and aged at this temperature. To this mixture seed
crystals may be added, and then the gel is heated to near the boiling point,
crystallization gradually taking place at this temperature. The resulting slurry is
filtered, washed, and then dried. For further processing the filter cake is ground
to a fine powder. Part of this powder is calcined directly to yield a product which
is used as a desiccant in the glazing and polymer industries.
The larger part is mixed with a natural clay binder and then shaped in large
granulator wheels. Sieving and calcination at above 600 C are the final steps
before the beads are packed in airtight polyethylene bags inside either card-
board boxes, steel drums, or large bags.
176 A. Pfenninger

Fig. 6. Synthesis of zeolite A: process flow sheet

Theoretically, zeolite A has a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of exactly 2.0, the lowest


figure possible according to Lwensteins rule [9]. In reality, however, zeolite A
has a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio that fluctuates between 1.92 and 2.08, and it has been
shown that the products with higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratio tend to be more stable
than those with a lower SiO2/Al2O3 ratio.
In the production of zeolite A, the stoichiometry of the reaction mixture can
be varied over a relatively wide range. However, efficient production requires
optimization of the composition from the point of view of product quality, yield,
and reaction time. One possible composition [12] is
2.04 Na2O:1.00 Al2O3:1.75 SiO2:70 H2O
and may be composed of 1350 parts of sodium silicate (9.4% Na2O; 28.4% SiO2),
575 parts of aluminum trihydrate (65% Al2O3 ; 35% H2O), 870 parts of sodium
hydroxide (50% NaOH in water) and of 3175 parts of water. This relatively con-
centrated reaction mixture yields about 150 kg of zeolite per 1000 l of reactor
volume.
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 177

The ion exchange of the filtered and washed zeolite crystals may be done at
various stages. One possibility is to do the ion exchange directly on the belt
filter where the zeolite was filtered and washed. In a subsequent step, potassium
or calcium salt solutions are added in the required amounts to achieve the ion
exchange. The salt solution is drained, and the filter cake is washed again with
water. Such systems are in use, but they do not lead to a homogeneous ion
exchange, and there is an ion gradient across the filter cake.
To achieve a homogeneous ion exchange, the filter cake is slurried in a tank
after washing and the potassium or calcium salt is added. After exchange, equi-
librium is achieved and the slurry is filtered and washed in the usual way. This
process leads to a uniform ion exchange level.
Still another approach starts from the formed zeolite, which is put into
an exchange column. The column is percolated with the salt solution to achieve
the ion exchange. After the ion exchange is completed the column is washed
with water and the zeolite activated in the usual way. Instead of a salt solu-
tion a hydroxide solution may be used to convert the kaolin binder into
zeolite (see Sect. 3.2). This conversion takes place at elevated temperatures of
8090 C.

2.4.2
Zeolite X
The synthesis of zeolite X is similar to the one of zeolite A, the pore size being
0.74 nm instead of 0.38 nm. Exchange of the sodium with other cations is also
possible, but the changes in the pore size have not gained the same importance
in practical applications as for zeolite 4 A. However, the exchange of the sodium
cation with calcium or lithium changes the electrostatic charge distribution and
leads to different adsorption properties of the zeolite. The calcium exchanged
zeolite A, and especially the lithium exchanged zeolite X, are used for the PSA
separation of air [13, 14].
There are some significant differences compared with the zeolite A synthesis.
Zeolite X is less stable than zeolite A and may easily be converted to zeolite P by
prolonged synthesis time or too high synthesis temperature. With variation of
the stirrer speed during synthesis from 150 to 350 rpm, the yield of zeolite X
passes through a maximum followed by a slow decrease in which zeolite X is
progressively converted to zeolite P [11]. Heating the reaction system to higher
temperatures than usual may produce zeolite A instead of zeolite X. Upon heat-
ing the finished zeolite X at temperatures of between 100 and 600 C in the pre-
sence of water vapor, the relative intensities of the lines in the X-ray pattern may
be appreciably changed from those existing in the unactivated zeolite X patterns
[6]. Zeolite X needs more hydroxide excess for crystallization as is seen from the
crystallization fields in Figs. 7 and 8 [11]. This causes extra problems in achiev-
ing an economically and ecologically suitable process.
Another interesting point is that zeolite X is available with different
SiO2/Al2O3 ratios between 2.0 and 3.0. Within a system containing only sodium
as cations, it is not easy to achieve the very low SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 2.0 [16]. How-
ever, adding potassium to the reaction system easily allows the synthesis of the
178 A. Pfenninger

Fig. 7. Crystallization field for zeolite A (the excess amount of NaOH per Al2O3 is 100300%)

low SiO2/Al2O3 ratio zeolite X (LSX) [17]. The LSX is an interesting product
because of higher density of cations which eventually leads to higher adsorption
capacities [15, 18]. A further important characteristic of zeolite X is its ability to
adsorb gases at low partial pressures. This property makes zeolite X useful in the
removal of impurities from gas and liquid mixtures [6]. As an example, zeolite X
may be used to remove carbon dioxide from a predried air stream.
A typical gel composition that may be used to synthesize zeolite X is [6]:
3.50 Na2O:1.00 Al2O3:3.00 SiO2:144 H2O
Thus, mixing 2000 parts of sodium silicate (9.4% Na2O; 28.4% SiO2) and
500 parts of aluminum trihydrate (65% Al2O3; 35% H2O) dissolved in 1600 parts
of sodium hydroxide solution (50% in water) and diluted with 7687 parts of
water will yield the above-mentioned gel formula and, after crystallization at
about 80 C, to zeolite X. A 1000 l reactor volume may yield about 90 kg of zeo-
lite X.
In making the sodium form of zeolite X, representative reactants are silica gel,
silicic acid, colloidal silica, or sodium silicate as silica sources. Typical alumina
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 179

Fig. 8. Crystallization field for zeolite X (the excess amount of NaOH per Al2O3 is 300%)

sources are activated alumina, g-alumina, alumina trihydrate, or sodium alum-


inate. Sodium hydroxide may supply the sodium ion and in addition assist in
controlling the pH.
As mentioned above, sodium as a cation may be replaced by other cations
through ion exchange. A preferred continuous method is to pack zeolite X
into a series of vertical columns, each with suitable supports at the bottom. Sub-
sequently, a water solution of a soluble salt of the cation to be introduced into
the zeolite is passed through the bed. The flow is switched from the first bed to
the second bed, as the zeolite in the first bed becomes ion-exchanged to the
desired extent [6].

2.4.3
Zeolite ZSM-5

Zeolite ZSM-5, with a pore size of 0.540.56 nm, may be synthesized from dif-
ferent silica sources using synthesis procedures with and without organic tem-
plates. In the syntheses with templates, the organic molecules serve as building
180 A. Pfenninger

blocks around which the specific structures of the zeolites can be synthesized.
The first criterion is the geometric size and shape of the molecule which has to
match the crystal cavities to be formed. Further considerations include the
stability against hydrolysis under synthesis conditions, the toxicity, and last but
not least the cost of the template. In most cases the template used is a partially
soluble amine or a tetrapropyl ammonium salt. After completion of the synthe-
sis, which is normally performed at 130160 C and under autogenous pressure,
the excess template has to be recirculated or recovered from the mother liquor
and wash water. This proves rather difficult in most cases, resulting in either high
cost for the recirculation operations or in high waste treatment costs plus the cost
of new template for the next batch.As the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of ZSM-5 can vary over
a wide range, ZSM-5 is not a single material but a family of zeolites. It was first
synthesized by Mobil researchers [19]. For SiO2/Al2O3 ratios up to about 50 the
non-templated synthesis is preferred. The SiO2/Al2O3 ratio can be adjusted over a
very wide range by altering the composition of the synthesis gel; if templates are
used, SiO2/Al2O3 ratios from 30 to infinity (aluminum-free form of ZSM-5, silica-
lite-1) can be achieved [20]. The crystal suspension obtained after synthesis is
worked up as described above for zeolite A. If an organic template was used, it
must be burned off from the ZSM-5 pores by heating to above 500 C in air.
ZSM-5 zeolite is a silica-rich zeolite and therefore highly hydrophobic. In the
field of adsorption it is mainly used to pick up volatile organic compounds from
a mixed gaseous or liquid stream.

3
Forming Processes
All the zeolites described in the previous sections are formed as fine powders,
the crystal size being in the range 15 m. These powders are used directly for
special purposes only. One of these applications is found in the polyurethane
industry. Zeolite A is added to the polyol component to adsorb the residual
water. Water would react with the isocyanate part of the polymerization system
and eventually form carbon dioxide which would lead to bubbles in the system.
Another important application is related to the insulating glass industry. The
aluminum profile filled with molecular sieve beads may be replaced by a porous
silicone foam system containing zeolite A powder as adsorbent.With these poly-
mer systems even better insulation values for the window panes are achieved
than with the existing solutions.
For most of the other applications the zeolites are used in agglomerated form,
either as cylindrical pellets (extrudates) or as spherical beads. These agglomera-
tes must have high physical strength and attrition resistance and should not form
any dust upon handling. Methods for forming the agglomerates include the addi-
tion of an inorganic powder, generally a clay. The mixture is thoroughly mixed
and wetted with water and then extruded [21] or formed into beads [22] in a gra-
nulation wheel. The shaped material is then dried at 100 C and subsequently cal-
cined above 600 C to convert the clay to the fixed binder. A dry purge gas should
be passed through the furnace during the firing operation to minimize the loss of
adsorptive capacity of the zeolite. The maximum temperature for the firing pro-
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 181

cess is the highest temperature at which the molecular sieve is structurally stable.
For zeolite X and zeolite A this temperature is typically 700 C.
The kaolin-type clays pass through an irreversible phase transition at 600 C,
providing a product having maximum crush strength and attrition resistance.
Attapulgite-type clays undergo an irreversible phase transition between about
425 C and 525 C [22]. The most important clays used for binding zeolites with-
out substantially altering the adsorptive properties of the molecular sieves are
kaolin, attapulgite, sepiolite, and bentonite.

3.1
The Ideal Binder System

Different clay types are in use for the forming process, depending on the appli-
cation field. The binder has to fulfill several requirements. As mentioned above,
the agglomerates must have a high physical strength. This may be achieved by
using a large amount of binder. The amount of binder used is a trade-off be-
tween crush strength and adsorption capacity of the final system, as the binder
is an inert material and does not contribute to the adsorption (Fig. 9). Normal-

Fig. 9. Influence of the amount of binder on the crush strength and the water adsorption
capacity [23]
182 A. Pfenninger

ly, the systems contain 1525 wt% of binder. A second important point is again
related with the adsorption process. The diffusion characteristics must not
interfere with the binder. The binder component must maintain a high macro-
porosity which does not increase the diffusion resistance. A very dense ex-
trudate, produced under strong shearing forces, may have a high density and a
high crush strength but low macroporosity. Therefore, the system has to be
optimized to achieve an extrudate of high density, with maximum crush
strength, but minimum restriction of diffusion.
Some applications are based solely on the equilibrium adsorption capacity of
the system with essentially infinite time being allowed for adsorption. Drying of
refrigerants in a cooling system or drying the air in an insulating double pane
glass system are examples of such processes. For these systems the kinetics of
diffusion are not as important as a high adsorption capacity for the agglomerat-
ed system.
Kaolin and attapulgite clays are used on a frequent basis but others such as
sepiolite and bentonite clays may also be used for special applications. To choose
the best binder one needs to know their characteristics fairly precisely.
The medium particle size and the particle size distribution of a binder
should be similar to the zeolitic powder. Only in these cases may high binding
forces develop during forming and calcining of the agglomerates. The bulk
densities of the various clays vary remarkably, the lower end being at 150 g/l,
the upper end at 1100 g/l. Choosing an appropriate binder may help to adjust
the bulk density of the finished product to the required values. Kaolin clays are
generally preferred as the binding material for extruded pellets. However,
while spheres may be prepared, the fired spheres have limited strength. On the
other hand, attapulgite-bonded spheres have superior fired strength to the
attapulgite-bonded extrudates. It is also to be noted that the attapulgite spheres
are generally much more attrition-resistant than the kaolin-bonded extru-
dates [22].
With some clay binders such as montmorillonite and bentonite the crush
strength of the non-calcined and the fired extrudates is good when the material
is dry but is seriously impaired by water.
Under optimized conditions, for each binder system extrudates were pro-
duced from 20% binder and 80% zeolite A powder. After calcination at 650 C
the apparent density and the crush strength of the extrudates were determined.
The density ranged from 820 to 1230 g/l and the crush strength from 42 N to
125 N for 1/8 extrudates. Interestingly, the BET surface areas vary a lot from one
binder type to another with values between 10 m2/g and 150 m2/g. Unfortun-
ately these figures are not easily correlated with the macroporosity and the
performance of the formed system.
Last but not least, the price of the binder is also an important factor. Obvious-
ly it depends on the purity of the binder, the availability, and the type. Some of
the main data are summarized in Table 4.
In the patent literature it is also claimed that the addition of organic additives
to the mixture of zeolite and binder will lead to improved crush strength of the
extrudates. Addition of 2 parts of lignosulfonate to a mixture of 80 parts of zeo-
lite X and 20 parts of a kaolin clay led to an improvement of the average crush
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 183

Table 4. Characteristic data of binders suitable for zeolites

Binder type Medium BET Bulk Bulk Crush


particle size surface of density of density of strength of
(m) binder binder extrudates extrudates
(m2/g) (g/l) (g/l) (N)

Kaolin 422 25 43 7301150 9901250 49126


Attapulgite 712 82112 350 770 850 930 42 81
Sepiolite 914 113148 150 550 830 910 50 82
Bentonite 10 12 870 1050 95

strength by a factor of 3.8 [21]. This effect was not found if kaolin was replaced
by attapulgite or bentonite.

3.2
Binderless Products

Several methods deal with the preparation of essentially binderless zeolites A


using kaolin as a starting material. The kaolin is shaped to the desired form of
the finished product as an extrudate or as a sphere. In a subsequent step the
formed material is fired at 500600 C to convert the kaolin to a metakaolin,
and then the agglomerates are treated with hydroxide solution and seeds near
the boiling point to convert the kaolin to the desired zeolite. Finally, the agglom-
erates are washed, dried, and activated to yield the final product [12, 24]. This
procedure does not normally lead to a very pure zeolite due to the impurities in
the starting material.
NaOH
2Al2Si2O5(OH)4 2 2Al2Si2O7 + 4H2O 9 Na12[(AIO2)12(SiO)12] 27H2O
Kaolin Metakaolin Zeolite A

A more modern manufacturing method uses crystalline zeolite A powder in the


form of a filter cake, which is mixed with the kaolin binder, formed, and cal-
cined. During calcination the kaolin is converted to the more reactive meta-
kaolin, which in turn may be transformed to zeolite A upon treatment with
sodium hydroxide. The finished product now consists mainly of pure zeolite A
[25, 26]. The pre-formed extrudates or beads may be converted by ion exchange
to other forms such as zeolite 5 A. These zeolites have an extraordinarily high
adsorption capacity, as they are not diluted with inert binder.

4
Characterization of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes
Production of the whole range of zeolites of a zeolite manufacturing plant is
monitored continuously through the production control laboratory. At different
stages of the production process samples are withdrawn, analyzed, and charac-
184 A. Pfenninger

terized in the laboratory. Special equipment is used to obtain all the required
information. Part of these instruments and of the techniques used are described
in this section. The analyses applied depend very much on the application for
which the zeolite is used. For detergent application, zeolite A has to have a uni-
form particle size, a given morphology, and a high ion exchange capacity,
whereas the same type zeolite A has to have a high water adsorption capacity
and good hydrothermal stability if it is to be used in a natural gas drying plant.
In principle, all methods employed for the investigation of solids can be used
for zeolites.

4.1
X-Ray Powder Diffraction

The X-ray diffraction pattern is a typical fingerprint which allows one to deter-
mine sample purity, degree of crystallinity, or the size of a unit cell of a zeolite.
Also, by sampling synthesis mixtures at regular time intervals, it is possible to
monitor the progress of a reaction very closely. The determination of the degree
of crystallinity is only possible by sample comparison with a standard material.
This so-called crystallinity is usually determined by comparing the identities
of selected reflections [27]. Damage to the zeolite structure by post-synthesis
processes like cation exchange, steaming, or calcining can also be assessed using
this technique and this equipment. However, two restrictions should be made.As
X-ray diffraction is not a very sensitive technique it may not be used to fine-tune
a synthesis to produce optimized adsorption processes. For these purposes

Fig. 10. X-ray diffraction pattern of zeolite A


Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 185

adsorption measurements are much more reliable and meaningful. After ion
exchange, the positions of the peaks in the X-ray pattern do not change, but their
intensities do. It is well known that the potassium forms of zeolite A and zeolite
X show much lower intensities in their X-ray peaks than their respective sodium
counterparts. Figure 10 shows a typical X-ray pattern for zeolite A.

4.2
Elemental Analysis

Elemental analysis is used to determine the chemical composition of a zeolite.


Especially interesting are the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio and the composition of the
cations present in the zeolite. The SiO2/Al2O3 ratio is important for zeolite A, as
it is generally accepted that the stability of this zeolite is higher if this ratio is
slightly above 2.00, i.e., between 2.00 and 2.05. Figure 11 shows typical measure-
ments on a number of subsequent batches.
The exchangeable cations usually alkali or alkaline-earth cations should
exactly counterbalance the amount of aluminum incorporated in the zeolite.
Therefore the determination of this number gives a good indication of the
quality of the product. Figure 12 gives the typical values of a number of sub-
sequent batches.
There are two different approaches to determine the elemental composition
of a zeolite. The first one is to dissolve the zeolite in a suitable matrix and do the
subsequent analysis of the solution obtained. It is easy to carry out this wet ana-
lysis on powders of the low-silica zeolites A and X, as they are readily soluble in
dilute sulfuric acid. The elements silicon, aluminum, and sodium are then
determined by classical, well known methods. Atomic emission spectroscopy
with inductively coupled plasma (AES-ICP), atomic absorption spectroscopy
(AAS), flame photometry, and gravimetric procedures are the methods of
choice. However, zeolites formed with a binder or high-silica zeolites do not

Fig. 11. SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of zeolite 4 A


186 A. Pfenninger

Fig. 12. Cation balance of zeolite 3 A [23]

readily dissolve in dilute acids and must be treated with concentrated hydro-
fluoric acid to bring them into solution.
Non-destructive physical methods might be an alternative, X-ray fluorescence
spectroscopy (XRF) being the most popular. After careful calibration of the
instrument it may eventually lead to quantitative measurements. However, the
calibration is not easy and only very skilled technicians may produce reliable
quantitative results.

4.3
Scanning Electron Microscopy

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has become a versatile technique in pro-


duct development and quality control during zeolite production. With a resolu-
tion of a few nanometers, it produces high quality images of single zeolite
crystals and of agglomerates. Zeolites with identical chemical compositions and
identical degrees of crystallinity may have different geometrical shapes. The
morphology is influenced by the conditions used during synthesis. SEM also
may show extra-zeolite phases or amorphous compounds. Figure 13 shows a
SEM photograph of zeolite 4 A which contains small amounts of sodalite or
amorphous material. This extra phase is visible as small spherical particles on
the outer surface of the cubic zeolite A crystals. Figure 14 shows a picture of
almost perfect, uniformly sized ZSM-5 crystals.
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 187

Fig. 13. SEM photograph of Zeolite 4 A

Fig. 14. SEM photograph of uniformly sized zeolite ZSM-5


188 A. Pfenninger

4.4
Bulk Density

For the engineering of an adsorption plant, it is not only necessary to know


the adsorption capacity of the zeolite, but is also important to know the bulk
density of the zeolitic material. Such measurements are generally done accor-
ding to method ISO 787. A measuring cylinder is filled with the formed zeolite,
weighed, and then the material is allowed to settle during 1000 cycles of tapping.
The volume is determined and the bulk density calculated in the usual way.
Figure 15 shows the bulk density of a formed zeolite 3 A that is used for cracked
gas drying.

4.5
Dust Formation

A precisely weighed amount of fully activated zeolite beads is put in a cylinder


which contains a number of baffles. Air at a defined flow is sucked through the
system for 5 min while rotating the cylinder. The air stream removes the dust
formed from the rotating cylinder. The dust is transported and deposited on a
filter installed between the cylinder and the pump. The filter, which must be
dried before use, is weighed before and after the process. The weight increase of
the filter is related to the weight of zeolite beads. If the filter is not dried before
use it may lose weight during the measurement due to the adsorption of water
on the zeolite while blowing air through the system. This would lead to appa-
rently too low figures for dust formation. Full details of the apparatus are given
in Fig. 16. Dust formation should be very small for zeolites used in the insulating
glass industry. While filling the aluminum profile with zeolite beads the dust

Fig. 15. Bulk density of zeolite 3 A used for cracked gas drying [23]
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 189

Fig. 16. Equipment for measuring dust formation

might penetrate the small slits and form a deposit on the inner side of the
window pane.

4.6
Attrition of Agglomerated Products

A weighed portion of fully activated formed zeolite is placed on a laboratory


sieve with a small mesh size. The material is shaken for 15 min in the presence
of 5 coins [22]. During the sieving process, the coins will hit the zeolite beads
or extrudates and produce a certain amount of fines that are sieved off. The
amount of fines formed by attrition gives some indication of the quality of the
product. For gas drying units, where the zeolite is used for many cycles of gas
drying and regeneration, the attrition value has to be low. In the adsorption
tower there is always some friction between the zeolite beads which causes attri-
tion. The formation of fines will increase the pressure drop along the adsorber
and the back pressure of the system, which in turn will shorten the lifetime of
the adsorbent.

4.7
Bead Size Distribution

For various technical applications bead size and bead size distribution contri-
bute much to the overall performance of the product. In a natural gas drying
process, the back pressure becomes higher the smaller the bead size, but on the
other hand the mass transfer zone becomes longer the larger the bead size. For
this particular application it is a compromise on bead size that leads to an opti-
mized process.
For the application in the insulated glass industry, the maximum bead size is
of importance. The aluminum profile is filled automatically through a very small
hole. One single zeolite bead of a larger diameter than this hole will block the
filling process.
For these reasons, bead size measurement is always an important item in the
characterization of zeolites. Bead size measurements may be done through the
190 A. Pfenninger

Fig. 17. Typical bead size distribution of zeolite 3 A beads used in the insulating glass industry

same types of sieves as used for the attrition test discussed above. With two
sieves of appropriate mesh size, it is possible to determine the undersize and the
oversize portion of the bulk material. To get insight into the bead size distribu-
tion, more sieves are used to determine the fractions between the undersize and
the oversize. In a more modern approach, a video camera and an imaging
system are used to determine the bead size distribution and the undersize and
oversize of the zeolite beads. This type of analysis gives the required results
within a few seconds. A typical bead size distribution is given in Fig. 17.

4.8
Adsorption Characteristics

Adsorption capacity for gases is an important criterion in the application of zeo-


lites. In earlier times, McBain balances were used for the precise determination
of adsorption capacity as a function of gas pressure, for both permanent and
condensable gases. Samples are placed in small pans inside a glass tube and sus-
pended by a fine quartz spring.After activation of the sample under vacuum, the
gas pressure is increased stepwise. The elongation of the spring upon adsorption
of gas is proportional to the change in weight. Stepwise measurements at in-
creased gas pressures give the raw data for drafting isotherms for any given
combination of zeolite and adsorbed gas at a constant temperature (usually
25 C). These isotherms yield the fundamental information required for most
technical applications of zeolites. The principle of the McBain balance is given
in Fig. 18.
An alternative to these measurements are the more modern and more auto-
mated volumetric methods. Such types of instruments are commercially avail-
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 191

Fig. 18. Function diagram of a McBain balance

able and may produce the whole isotherms. These are fully automated with the
support of computers. Instead of measuring the weight, as with the McBain
balance, the gas is introduced to the sample in incremental steps, and the pres-
sure difference is measured. Out of these raw data the full isotherm may be cal-
culated.
Thermal gravimetric analyses can provide useful information regarding the
thermal treatment of zeolites. Graphs of weight loss vs. temperature often give
clear indications as to the temperature required to burn off organic templates or
the temperature necessary for a complete or for an optimum regeneration in
TSA processes. The highest temperature a zeolite can withstand may also be
determined in this way.

4.9
Zeolite Stability

Zeolites have to be stable under operating conditions, meaning that they should
not change towards a denser phase nor dealuminate or turn into amorphous
compounds. Various methods are available to check this stability, the most ver-
satile being X-ray diffraction and adsorption measurements. In one approach,
the X-ray diffraction pattern is determined before and after thermal treatment.
Changes in degree of crystallinity, crystal structure changes, or dealumination
may be detected. Even more sensitive to changes in zeolite stability are the
adsorption values. Using a borderline probe molecule that may penetrate the
pores in a pure, undamaged zeolite, the adsorption measurements immediately
192 A. Pfenninger

indicate whether a zeolite was partially changed during thermal treatment. This
method, however, does not give any insight into the mechanism of degradation.
In low-silica zeolites, such as zeolite A (SiO2/Al2O3 = 2.0) or zeolite X
(SiO2/Al2O3 = 2.5) structural collapse in a dry atmosphere is observed above
660 C, while medium-silica zeolites such as zeolite Y (SiO2/Al2O3 = 5.0)
become amorphous above 700 C [12]. High-silica zeolites such as ZSM-5
(SiO2 /Al2O3 = 1000) are structurally stable up to 1000 C. Above the decompo-
sition temperature, recrystallization to a denser phase usually occurs.
In the presence of water vapor, the decomposition temperature is usually
found at much lower temperatures. The hydrothermal stability of a zeolite is of
practical importance, as during regeneration the desorbed water of a zeolite
builds up a high partial pressure of water. Figure 19 shows the hydrothermal
stability of zeolite 4 A and zeolite 3 A [23]. The percent of remaining original
water adsorption capacity after steaming at different temperatures is shown.
Figure 20 shows the adsorption capacity for carbon dioxide after having
treated zeolite 3 A at different temperatures. A sharp decrease in carbon dioxide
adsorption capacity indicates pore closure suitable for cracked gas drying appli-
cations [23]. The water adsorption capacity remains unchanged if the time of
calcination at higher temperature is chosen carefully.

Fig. 19. Hydrothermal stability of zeolite 4 A and zeolite 3 A


Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 193

Fig. 20. Influence of the calcination temperature on the adsorption capacity of zeolite 3 A for
carbon dioxide

5
Use of Zeolites in Miscellaneous Adsorption Processes
In its powder form, zeolite A is a very effective water scavenger in compounds
such as polyurethane systems, epoxy compounds, and metal dust paints. All
these compounds will react with water in an unwanted way. Addition of a few
percent of zeolite powder to these systems prevents these undesirable reactions,
and prolongs the shelf life of these compounds. The sodium form zeolite 4 A
and the potassium form zeolite 3 A are commonly used in these applications.
Zeolite 3 A is generally preferred because zeolite 4 A adsorbs nitrogen which is
liberated on adsorption of water. This creates undesirable small bubbles within
the polymerization mass which impairs product quality. The nitrogen adsorp-
tion of zeolite 3 A may be fully suppressed if it is slightly hydrothermally damag-
ed. If this process is carefully done the water adsorption capacity is not nega-
tively influenced.
However, most of the zeolites used in adsorption processes are needed as
extrudates or as beads. In such cases, the zeolite is mixed with natural clay
binders, wetted with water, formed, and calcined. Beads are usually formed in
the size range 0.55.0 mm. These beads are applied in a wide range of technical
applications, where adsorption of water is one of the most important fields.

5.1
Insulated Glass Industry

Static adsorption in insulating glass plays a major role. Sealed glazing units con-
sist of two (or three) panes of glass separated by a hollow metal spacer. The gas
space must be kept free of water vapor and organic vapors to prevent conden-
sation and staining on the inner glass surface. Zeolite beads are inserted in the
194 A. Pfenninger

Fig. 21. Triple pane window with metal spacer filled with molecular sieve

hollow metal spacer to adsorb all the water present between the window panes
(Fig. 21).
The beaded molecular sieves for the insulated glass industry are character-
ized by four major parameters.
1. The adsorption capacity of the molecular sieve employed should be very high
to guarantee a long lifetime of the window pane without condensation of
water.
2. The zeolite beads have to be sieved very carefully to the required specifica-
tions. The beads are filled into the metal spacer through a relatively small
Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 195

hole. Oversized molecular sieve beads may plug this hole and interrupt the fil-
ling process.
3. The beads have to be free from dust and should not undergo attrition during
the filling process. The fines would penetrate the openings of the hollow
metal spacer and enter the space between the window panes, leading to an
undesired deposit of fines on the glass surface.
4. The molecular sieve should adsorb water exclusively, but no nitrogen, oxygen,
or carbon dioxide. If it adsorbed gases in an activated state, it would release
such gases while adsorbing water from the glass system. This in turn would
build up a pressure between the window panes and eventually lead to glass
fracture. For this reason, the major portion of molecular sieve used for this
application is of the 3 A type.
A newer version of the insulating glass industry uses foamed silicone rubber
profiles as spacers. These profiles are loaded with molecular sieve powder. This
system is easier to work with and yields an even better thermal insulation value.

5.2
Drying and Purification of Air and Petrochemicals

Gases and liquids often contain water or other polar contaminants which must
be removed before further processing. Natural gas, for example, is usually satu-
rated with water. Before liquefaction it must be dried to a very low dew-point to
prevent the formation of water droplets in the plant or during transport. The gas
is passed through a fixed bed of activated zeolite beads to remove water down
to a dew-point below 70 C. The saturated zeolite beads are regenerated by
heating the bed in a dry gas stream to 230290 C. Two or more beds allow con-
tinuous operation of such units: one bed is in the adsorption mode, while the
other is being regenerated (Fig. 22).
A wide range of liquids and gases are processed using this principle. Purifi-
cation can include removal of small polar molecules such as carbon dioxide,
hydrogen sulfide, alcohols, ketones, mercaptans, and amines. Typical applica-
tions of dynamic adsorption processes include:
drying of petrochemicals and solvents of refineries (ethene, propene, ethylene
oxide, natural gas);
purification of hydrocarbon streams containing sulfur compounds (sweet-
ening);
drying and purification of compressed technical gases like air, nitrogen, or
rare gases.
The dynamic applications of zeolite X are basically the same as those for zeolite
A, except that zeolite X can be used where larger molecules have to be adsorbed.
Aromatic or branched aliphatic compounds may enter the pore system of a zeo-
lite X, and therefore this zeolite may be used to separate aromatics from a paraf-
fin stream and for adsorption of mercaptans from natural gas. However, a major
use of zeolite X is in the purification of air prior to liquefaction. Zeolite X has a
very high adsorption capacity for carbon dioxide, even at low partial pressure.
196 A. Pfenninger

Fig. 22. Dynamic adsorption unit

5.3
Separation of Hydrocarbons

Zeolite 5 A is used in large amounts for the continuous separation of normal and
branched alkanes in refineries. The n-alkanes may enter the pores of a 5 A zeo-
lite, whereas the branched alkanes cannot (Fig. 23). This process is therefore
related to chromatographic processes, and it is performed either in the liquid or

Fig. 23. Separation of n-paraffins and iso-paraffins


Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorption Processes 197

in the vapor phase at elevated temperatures. Quite often this process is used to
upgrade gasoline to a higher octane number. The normal paraffins are then
reprocessed in a subsequent process step and mainly used for the production of
surfactants. Such processes were developed in the 1950s and were improved in
due course. PSA processes in use are developed by UOP (Isosiv), Texaco (TSF),
Leuna (Parex-Leuna), ELF (N-Iself), Exxon, and BP [28, 29]. In some of these
processes desorption is achieved by displacement with ammonia or short-chain
n-alkanes. A further development of these processes is the Molex process of
UOP, a liquid phase process performed in the countercurrent mode.

5.4
Separation of Gases

Zeolite LiX is especially suited for producing oxygen with a purity of 9095%.
This oxygen quality meets the requirements for oxofuel-fired furnaces, waste-
water treatment, ozone production, pulp and paper bleaching, metal cutting,
and medical uses. Production costs of 9093% oxygen produced with a PSA
plant are now lower than with cryogenic plants which presently still have a
scale-up advantage in larger capacity plants [14]. The vacuum pressure swing
adsorption (VPSA) systems can deliver lower-pressure oxygen even more cost-
effectively [13]. Oxygen costs are being reduced by continued process improve-
ments.
The separation of oxygen from nitrogen is possible with these materials
because the nitrogen molecules, which have a quadrupole moment, are more
strongly bound to the zeolite than the oxygen molecules. The purity of oxygen
does not exceed 95% as argon cannot be separated with this process.

Acknowledgements. I would like to thank the following colleagues for the help and contributions
in various stages of this work: M. Braun, S. Chen, L. Harris, P. Hawes, S. Hitz, B. Kleeb, K. Lau-
be, A. Maggi, J. Strutz, R. Ulrich, and A. Vogt.

References
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Bekkum H, Flanigen EM, Jansen JC (eds) Introduction to zeolite science and practice.
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2. Asche W (1996) Chem Rundsch, April 4:1
3. Anonymous (1997) Japan Chemical Week, April 24:4
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istry, vol 28 A, 5th edn. VCH, Weinheim, p 475
5. Moscou LM (1991) The zeolite scene. In: Van Bekkum H, Flanigen EM, Jansen JC (eds)
Introduction to zeolite science and practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 1
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11. Barrer RM (1982) Hydrothermal chemistry of zeolites. Academic Press, London


12. Breck DW (1974) Zeolite molecular sieves. Wiley, New York, p 725
13. Monereau C (1996) Sci Tech Froid 147
14. Michael KP (1997) Chem Eng 104:72
15. Chao CC (1989) US Pat 4,859,217 Cl B01D 53/04 assigned to UOP
16. Lechert H, Kacirek H (1991) Zeolites 11:720
17. Khl GH (1987) Zeolites 7:451
18. Kirner JF (1993) US Pat 5,268,023 Cl B01D 53/04 assigned to Air Products and Chemicals
19. Argauer RJ, Landolt GR (1972) US Pat 3,702,886 Cl C01B 33/28 assigned to Mobil Oil
20. Jacobs PA, Martens JA (1987) Synthesis of high-silica aluminosilicate zeolites. Elsevier,
Amsterdam
21. Ribaud GL (1965) US Pat 3,219,590 assigned to Union Carbide
22. Mitchell WJ, Moore WF (1961) US Pat 2,973,327 assigned to Union Carbide
23. Rode EJ, Trent RE, Harris L, Jaussaud D (1997) Molecular sieve adsorbent properties and
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24. Haden WL Jr, Dzierzanowski FJ (1961) US Pat 2,992,068 assigned to Minerals and Chem-
icals Philipp
25. Chi CW, Hoffman GH, Eichhorn ET (1977) DE Pat 2,707,313 Cl C01B 33/26 assigned to WR
Grace
26. Goytisolo JA, Chi DD, Lee H (1975) US Pat 3,906,076 Cl C01B 33/28 assigned to WR Grace
27. Annual book of ASTM standards (1997). Standard test method for determination of rela-
tive X-ray diffraction intensities of faujasite-type zeolite-containing materials. American
Society for Testing and Materials. West Conshohocken, D 390697
28. Ruthven DM (1984) Principles of adsorption and adsorption processes. Wiley, New York,
p 396
29. Knoll H, Harms U, Hse W, Frtig H (1990) Chem Tech (Leipzig) 42:149
Subject Index

A A1P04-34 (CHA) 18,25


ABW 9 - location of the morpholinium cation
- framework of 9 25
adsorbate 18 - morpholinium template 18
- localization 18 - synchrotron diffraction data of 25
- m-xylene 18 - template ordering 18
- powder diffraction of 18 AlP04-54 43
adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules 47 - structure refined from neutron powder
- disorder of 47 data 43
- location of 47 - structure of 43
adsorption of benzene 49 - water molecules in 43
- neutron diffraction data of 49 AlPO,H2, (AHT) 7
adsorption processes 163 - octahedral coordination of aluminum 7
- zeolites for 163 - phase transition to tridymite 7
adsorption site 22 AlPOs 42,43,142
- symmetryof 22 - neutron powder diffraction by 43
adsorption of pyridine 49 - ordering in 43
- in gallozeolite-L 49 - overlapping reflections 43
- in Na-Y 49 - peak broadening 43
- neutron diffraction 49 - scattering lengths 43
AES-ICP 185 &PO-structures 148
agglomerated products 189 - even-membered rings in 148
- attrition 189 - local charge balance in 148
air 177 - ordered T-atoms in 148
- PSA separation of 177 alumina sources 170,179
AlO, tetrahedra 126 aluminate sodalite 128
- isolated 126 aluminate sodalites 119,131
A1P04-5 44,45 - structure of 131
- Al and P ordering 45 - tetrahedron distortion in 119
- calcination of 44 aluminogallosilicate, LiAlo.5Gao,5Si0, H,O
- distortion to an orthorhombic 39
structure 44 - disordered GalAl distribution 39
- neutron diffraction by 44 - positions of the water molecule 39
- structure of 44 aluminogermanate sodalite 120
- X-ray powder diffraction 44 aluminophosphates 42
AIP04-8 (AET) 7,43 aluminosilicate 42
- reconstructive phase transition of 7 - neutron powder diffraction by 42
A1P04-11 43 aluminum hydrate 170
- structure of 43 1-aminoadamantane 17
A1P04-16 (AST) 17 - spherical electron density 17
AlP0,-18 (AEI) 18 andcime 39,57,144
- template ordering 18 - leucite 144
Subject Index

analcime calculations 53
- neutron diffraction by 57 - by powder diffraction 47
- neutron single-crystal study of 39 - clusters of 48
- pollucite 144 - diffusion of 49
- wairakite 144 - disorder of 55
angular distortion 126 - in dehydrated sodium zeolite Y 47
aniline 53 - in faujasite structures 47
- adsorption sites by molecular mechanics - in H-SAPO-37 48
calculations 53 - in H-Y 49
- in Yb,Na-Y 53 - in MFI structure 55
antiphase domains 130 - inNa-Y 48
apertures 147,157 - in potassium zeolite L 54
- free diameters of 147,157 - in ZSM-5 55,56
- shapeof 147 - location of 55,56
Ar 57 - molecular motion of 55
- adsorbed into AlP0,-5 57 - neutron diffraction of 55
- adsorbed into SAP0,-5 57 - neutron scattering of 48
- neutron diffraction by 57 - NMR investigations of 48
argon 56 - orientations 55
- in AFI 56 - spectroscopic measurements of 48
- in MFI 56 - X-ray diffraction of 55
- in silicalite I 56 berylloarsenate 42
aristotype 114,125 - neutron powder diffraction of 42
atlas of zeolite structure types 142 beryllophosphate 42
atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) - neutron powder diffraction of 42
185 beryllophosphate, MglgNa,,(BePO,)g,
atomic emission spectroscopy 185 46
- with inductively coupled plasma - alternation of Be and P in 46
atomic scattering factors 73 - faujasite structure of 46
attapulgite 183 beryllophosphate-H, BPH 6
attapulgite-type clays 181 beryllosilicate 150
attrition 189,195 - 3-rings in 150
- of agglomerated products 189 beta 23
attrition resistance 180 - accessibility 23
- faulting of 23
B - polymorphs of 23
Ba-X zeolite 52 - powder pattern of 23
- higher selectivity for p-xylene 52 - structure of 23
barrerite 60 bikitaite, Li2A12Si40,,. 2 H,O 62
- framework structure of 60 - chains of hydrogen-bonded water
- neutron diffraction of 60 molecules in 62
BEA 99,100 - neutron diffraction of 62
- ED pattern of 99 - proton conduction in 63
- framework structures of 100 - SilAl ordering in 62
- HRTEM images of 99 - structure of 62
- polymorphs of 99 - water molecules in 62
- stacking disorder of 99 binders for zeolites 183
- structure of 99 - characteristic data of 183
- structural faulting of 99 block-waves 130
bead size distribution 189 bond anharmonicity 127
beads 195 bond length distortion 122,126
- oversized 195 bond lengths and angles 116
bentonite 181,183 borosilicate RUB-13 (RTH) 24
benzene 47,48,53 - 55 - end members of 24
- adsorption sites by molecular mechanics - protonated water 65
Subiect Index

. 10 H 2 0
brewsterite, (SX-,B~),[A~,S~,~O,,] - X-ray diffraction data of 25
60 COAPO-50 (AFY) 6
- neutron diffraction of 60 CoGaPO-5 (CGF) 18
- water molecules in 60 - template ordering 18
Brillouin zone 134- 136 coherent scattering 34
Brclnsted acid sites 63 - interference effects 34
Br~nstedsites in zeolites 65 complementarity 66
bulk density 188 - of X-ray and neutron data 66
configuration 142
C - apertures 142
carbon monoxide 57 - cages 142
- in MFI 57 - chains 142
cation positions 23 - loop configurations 142
- artifact caused by Fourier technique 23 - secondary building units 142
- in Linde Q 23 conformations 157,158
- in sodalites 23 - changes 158
cations 22 - connectivity 158
- positions in the structure 22 - of aring 158
- spherical symmetry of 22 conformational change 159
CF4 57 - diffraction pattern 159
- adsorbed into A1P04-5 57 conformations of 142
- adsorbed into SAP04-5 57 connectivity 142
- neutron diffraction of 57 contrast 81
CH4 57 contrast transfer function 81,82
- adsorbed into AIP0,-5 57 - imaginary part of 82
- adsorbed into SAP0,-5 57 coordination sequences (CS) 156,157
- neutron diffraction of 57 - application of 157
channels 147 - TD-values 157
- free diameters of 147 CoSAPO-34 (CHA) 25
chaotic structure 130,134,136 - isomorphous substitution in 25
chemical information 66 - X-ray diffraction data of 25
- bond distance and angle restraints 66 crush strength 181
classification systems 151,154,155 crystal growth units 92
- criteria 154 crystal size 25,172
- smallest ring(s) 154 - limitations of 25
- structure types 154 crystal structures 1,2,36
clathrasil-type frameworks 152 - accurate refinement 36
clays 181 - determination of 2
- for binding zeolites 181 - by X-ray diffraction 1
clinoptilotite 60,164,166 crystallographic problems 2
- neutron diffraction of 60 - crystal size 2
- thermal stability of 60 - disorder 2
cloverite (-CLO) 85,86 - faulting 2
- HRTEMof 86 - framework flexibility 2
- low and high magnification images of - isomorphous replacement 2
86 - overlap of reflections 2
- scanning EM images of 85 - space group 2
clusters 77,94 CSI 155
- HRTEM image of 94
- location in zeolites 94 D
coadsorption in Na-Y 54 D-RHO 42,64
- aniline 54 - framework of 42
- m-dinitrobenzene 54 - flexibility of 42
COAPO-5(AFI) 25 - hydroxyl groups of 64
- isomorphous substitution 25 - position of the deuterium atom in 64
Subject Index

D-Y 64 electron charge distribution 73


- deuterium atoms in 64 electron crystallography 75,106
- neutron powder diffraction of 64 - electron atomic scattering factors 106
DAC 159 electron diffraction (ED) 3,73,74
- prediction of 159 - intensity 74
dark field imaging 75 electron microscopy 77 - 79,104
dealumination 98 - of BEA 77
- of the framework 98 - of clusters 77
- studied by HRTEM 98 - of crystal growth 77
Debye-Waller factor 36 - of crystallinity of zeolites 77
decasil RUB-3 (RTE) 24 - of defects 77
- end members of 24 - electron diffraction patterns 104
diffracted beams 81 - of EMTIFAU 77
- phase of 81 - of ERIIOFF 77
deuterium 56 - of ETS-10 77
- in zeolite 13X 56 - of fine structure of zeolites 79
diffraction behavior 73,74 - of LTL 77
- electrons 73,74 - of intergrowths 77
- neutrons 73,74 - of mesoporous materials 104
- X-rays 73,74 - of natural mineral FAU 78
diffraction data 11 - of polymorphs 77
- symmetry changes 11 - of surface structures of zeolites 77
diffraction pattern 36,74,79 electron microscopy on zeolites 78
- Fourier transform of 79 - historical view 78
- powder case 36 electron radiation damage 104
- single crystal case 36 - knock-on damage 104
diffuse streaks 134 - radiolytic damage 104
dislocations 115 electron wave field 79
displacive distortion waves 130 - Fourier transform of 79
distance least squares (DLS) refinement 6, electrons 73,74,80,81
160 - aberration 73
- theoretical networks 160 - atomic scattering factor for 73
dodecasil3C 134 - crystal structure factor for 81
dodecasil3C-tetrahydrofuran 126 - diffraction behavior 74
dodecasil-1H (DOH) 17,25 - image 74
- population factors of 25 - lenses for 73
DOR-NMR 120 - Lorentz force on 73
drying and purification 195 - in magnetic fields 73
dust formation 188 - phaseshift 80
- refractive index 80
E - wavelength of 73,82
ECR-30 155 elemental analysis 185
ED patterns 79,109 ellipticity parameter (EL) 10
- of ERI 79 EM 77,82,84
- of LTL 79 - defects 77
- of OFF 79 - resolution of 82
- of TPAIZSM-5 109 - TV system for 84
- quantitative analysis of 109 EM image 73
edingtonite, Ba2A1,Si,0,, . 7 H 2 0 58 EMC-2 (EMT) 18
- neutron diffraction of 58 - template ordering in 18
- phase transition of 58 EMT 24,88,90,98,99,155,159
- SilAl ordering of 58 - faujasite sheet 88
- water molecules in 58 - HRTEM 90
electron atomic scattering factors 107 - HRTEM images after dealumination 98,
- of light elements 107 99
Subject Index

- intergrowth of 88,90 FAUIEMT 23


- prediction of 159 - end members of 24
- stacking faults in 155 - faulting in 23
EMTIFAU 24 faujasite sheet 89,92
- end members of 24 - crystal growth mechanism 92
ERIlOFF 24 - EMT 89
- end members of 24 - FAU 89
ETS-10 99-104 fault planes (FP) 151,152,155
- chiral crystal system 104 - table 155
- ED patterns 100,101 faulted intergrowths 24
- electron microscopy of 99 - blocking of the pores 24
- faults of 100 faulting 23
- framework composition ratio of SilTi = 5 - irregular 23
102 - new framework topology 23
- framework structures of 100 - powder pattern 23
- high resolution TEM (HRTEM) images of faulting planes (FP) 160
99,100 - 102 - theoretical networks 160
- models for the structures of 103 feldspars 123,130
- polymorphs of 99 - modulations occurring in 130
- SEM image of 100 ferrierite 42
- stacking sequences of 102 - energy minimization of 42
- structure of 99 - neutron powder diffraction of 42
- structure unit of 102 - Si MAS NMR of 42
extra-framework sites 23 ferroelastic strain 130
extrudates 182 ferroelectric polarization 130
fertilizers 166
F - additives for 166
fast iterative patterson squaring (FIPS) 4 fibrous zeolites 124
FAU 24,85,86,88,90,92 -94,96,98,99, filler 166
104,155 - in the paper industry 166
- clusters of Fe,O, in 96 fine structures 87
- clusters of MOO, in 96 - as-synthesized LTL 87
- clusters of MoS, in 96 - of zeolites 77
- crystal growth in 94 flame photometry 185
- D6R unit of 94 flexibility 10
- electron damage of 104 - ofNAT 10
- end members of 24 fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) 165
- faujasite sheet 88 fluoride 170
- growing steps of 92 - as mineralizing agent 170
- high resolution TEM surface profile forming processes 180
images of 93 four-connected nets 115
- HRTEM images 90,92 Fourier recycling procedure 5
- HRTEM images after dealumination framework 6,7,158
98,99 - density of 146
- intergrowth of 88,90 - distortions of 6,7
- metal compounds in 96 - rigidity of 158
- scanning EM images of 85 framework atoms 24
- SiIA1ordering in 94 - isomorphous replacement 24
- simulated images of 93 framework conformation 157
- surface model of 93 framework densities (FD) 146,148,
- surface steps on 86 149
- surface structure of 92 - criterion of 148
- surface structure models of 94 - normalized FD-values 148
- stacking faults of 155 - smallest rings 149
- twins in 86 - table 148
Subiect Index

framework flexibility 8 - hydrogen-atom position in 46


- in response to different cations 8 - neutron data of 46
- in response to non-framework - octahedrally coordinated Ga atom in 46
species 8 - structure of 46
framework structures 1,31,159 - X-ray data of 46
- of new zeolites 31 gallosilicates 38,39
- prediction of 159 - occupancies of various sodium-ion
- theoretical 159 sites in 39
- X-ray diffraction of I, 31 - structures of 39
framework topologies 153,154 - with the FAU framework 39
- classification system of 154 GaPO,(OH),,,, (-CLO) 5
framework topology 6 - large single crystal of 5
- spacegroup 6 - structure determination of 5
frameworks 8,122,123,148,150,160 gases 195,197
- ofABS 8 - drying and purification of 195
- collapsible 8, 123 - separation of 197
- conformational changes of 122 gel 172
- dense 148 - aging of 172
- finite units of 150 GIs 8,158,159
- of FAU 8 - conformationsof 158
- of GIs 8 - framework of 8
- hypothetical 160 - XRD powder patterns of 159
- of KFI 8 gismondine 9,62,63,159
- of LTA 8 - cation coordination in 61
- of MAISiO, 8 - framework deformation of 9
- of MEL 8 - hydrogen bonding in 61
- of MFI 8 - water molecules of 61
- of NAT 8 - XRD powder patterns of 159
- non-collapsible 8,123 gismondine, Ca3,,,A1,,77Si,,,,032. 17.6H20
- porous 148 60
- of RHO 8 - neutron diffraction by 60
- of SOD 8 - ordered SiIAI distribution in 60
- of TOT 8 - X-ray refinement of 60
- table of 150 gisrnondine-type framework 8
Fraunhofer diffraction pattern 79 GME 155
FSM 104 - stacking faults in 155
- electron microscopy of 104 granulation wheel 180
- electron diffraction patterns of 104 group-maximal subgroup relationships
FSM-16 104,107-109 119
- calcination of 109 guest molecules 16,17
- growth mechanism 109 - spherical electron density of 17
- HRTEM of 104 - symmetry 16
- HRTEM images of 107
- length along the channels of 109 H
- morphologyof 107 Hz 57
- observed HRTEM image of 108 - adsorbed into A1P04-5 57
- shape of channels in 107 - adsorbed into SAP04-5 57
- simulated image of 108 - neutron diffraction 57
- wall thickness of 107 H-SAPO-34 65
- X-ray diffraction of 109 - neutron diffraction of 65
- existence of hydronium ions in 65
G H-SAPO-37 49,64
gallophosphite 66 - AlIP ordering in 49
- structure of 66 - benzene adsorption in 64
gallophosphite, Ga2-(HPO,), . H20 46 - protons in 64
Subject Index

H-Y 64 HRTEM images 75,78,81,82,84,88-90,


- hydrogen positions in 64 92,95 - 99,107,109
H-ZSM-5(MFI) 11,13,14,18-21,65, - best focus conditions 84
187 - of channels 89
- adsorbed molecules in 21 - of clusters 75
- application of mechanical stress 11 - contrast of 82
- ferroelastic 13 - correcting astigmatism 84
- incoherent inelastic neutron scattering by - of dealuminated EMT 99
65 - of dealuminated FAU 98
- loaded with naphthalene 20 - of EMT 98
- mechanical stress in 14 - of EMTIFAU 90
- monocliniclorthorhombic symmetry - of FAU 92,98
changeof 14 - fine structure by 78
- monoclinic symmetry of 11 - ofFSM-16 107
- naphthalene in 19,20 - impulse response function 82
- neutral complex of water in 65 - intensitv distribution in 81
- organic molecules in 18 - of intergrowth structures 89
- orientation of adsorbate in 20 - of LTL 88
- orthorhombiclmonoclinic transition of - ofMCM-41 107
13 - of mesopores 98
- orthorhombic symmetry of 11 - of mesoporous materials 107
- p-dichlorobenzene in 18-21 - of modulation of Se-content 97
- p-nitroaniline in 20 - of MoS,IFAU 96
- p-xylene in 20,21 - nature of disorder by 78
- pentasil layer 11 - potential of the crystal 82
- phase transition of 11 - of PtlLTL 95
- rotational orientations of adsorbed - quantitative analysis of 109
molecules in 2 1 - of Se-MOR 97
- SEM photograph of 187 HRTEM recording 84
- sorbate free 14 - lower magnification 84
- sorbateloaded 14 hydrocarbons 196
- twin domains in 11,13 - separation of 196
H-ZSM-5 crystal 13 hydrocracking 165
- rotation photographs of 13 hydrogen 56
hauyne 124,134 - in zeolite 13X 56
hettotypes 114 hydrogen bond acceptors 63
heulandite 164 hydrogen bonding 38
heulandite Ca,A1,Si2,0,2 .24 H20 58 hydroniurn ion 64
- neutron diffraction by 58 hydroniurn species 63,65
high resolution SEM 85 hydrothermal stability 192
high resolution TEM 87,89 hydroxide 170
- of EMT 89 - as mineralizing agent 170
- of FAU 89
high-resolution transmission electron I
microscope (HRTEM) images 75 ideal and real structures 114
high-voltage HRTEM 106 image by electrons 74
Hoffmann degradation 170 image processing 94,106
HREM imaging 80 - artificial contrast 106
- schematic diagram of 80 - of particles 94
HRTEM 79,87,94 incoherent background 35
- of LTL 87 incoherent scattering 34
- of serial ultra thin sectioned specimens - dynamics of 34
94 indexing programs 3
- of particles 94 inelastic neutron spectroscopy
- of zeolites 79 34
Subject Index

inelastic scattering 75 - disorder of water in 63


- of electrons 75 - neutron diffraction by 63
insulated glass industry 193 - ordered SilAlin 63
insulation glass 165 - water molecules in 63
- zeolite A in 165 lazurite 134
intensities 4 leonhardite 57
- partitioning 4 - neutron diffraction by 57
intergrowth 89 LiBeAsO, H,O 8
- of EMT 89 LiBePO, . H,O 8
- ofFAU 89 LiGaAlSiO, . H 2 0 8
- oscillatory growth in 89 LiGaSiO, . H20 38,46
intermediates 155 - bondlengths in 38
- of FAUIEMT 155 - framework ordering in 38
- of Linde T (ERIIOFF) 155 - hydrogen bonding in 38
interrupted frameworks 142,144 - coordination of lithium in 38
- 3-letter code 144 - positions of the hydrogen atom in 38
- missing T-0-T bridges 142 - water in 38
ion exchange 177 lignosulfonate 182
ionic conductivities 40 lithium exchanged zeolite X 177
- i n X 40 LiZnAsO, H20 8
- inY 40 .
LiZnPO, H,O 44
isomorphous replacement 24 - neutron diffraction by 44
- change in unit cell volume by 24 LiZnPO, . H20 8
- distribution of the incorporated tetra- localization of particles by HRTEM 94
hedral atoms 24 lock-in phase transitions 129
- of framework atoms 24 longitudinal strain 120
isomorphous substitution 24 loop configurations 116,155- 157,
- population parameter 24 160
Isosiv process 197 - immediate surrounding of the T-atoms
isotropic temperature factor 36 156
isotropy subgroups 118 - theoretical networks 160
isotypes 144,146 lovdarite (LOV) 24,150,152
- list of 146 - end members of 24
isotypic pairs 148 - 3-rings 150
- ofphosphates 148 Lowenstein's rule 168,176
- of silicates 148 LTA 15,85,86
IZA Structure Commission 142 - FAU crystals overgrowth 86
- possible distortions in 16
K - scanning EM images of 85
kaolin 183 - SEM image of 86
kaolin binder 177 - topology in 15
kaolin-type clays 181 LTA framework 121
krypton 56 - idealized 121
- in AFI 56 LTL 87,88,95,105
- in MFI 56 - anisotropic damage under an electron
- in silicalite I 56 beam 105
- boundaries in 88
L - channels observed in 87
La-Y 64 - faults in 88
- hydroxyl group attached to the La3+ 64 - HRTEM image of 87
- proton positions in 64 - Moire effects in 88
large-pore zeolites 134 - blockage of one-dimensional channels
- modulated phases in 134 88
.
laumontite, Ca2A1,Si,0,, 16 H,O 63 - Pt-containing 95
- dehydrationlrehydration of 63 - radiation damage process of 105
Subject Index

M - adsorption sites by molecular


m-dinitrobenzene 53,54 mechanics calculations 53
- adsorption sites by molecular mechanics - inYb,Na-Y 53
calculations 53 metakaolin 183
- in Na-Y 54 methane 56
- neutron diffraction of 54 - in AFI 56
m-nitroaniline 53,54 - in MFI 56
- adsorption sites by molecular mechanics - adsorption sites by molecular mechanics
calculations 53 calculations 53
- in Na-Y 54 MFI 24,89,91,155
m-xylene 51,53 - end members of 24
- in Ba-X 53 - projections of the framework structure
- in Na,Yb-Y 51 91
- quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) of - simulated ED patterns of 91
51 - stacking faults in 155
- rotational dynamics 51 - structures of 89
M, _, HGe, O,, nH,O 46 MFIlMEL 23
- neutron diffraction by 46 - faultingin 23
- octahedra in the framework of 46 (Mg,A1)P04-STA-1(SAO) 25
- powder X-ray data of 46 - synchrotron diffraction data of 25
- structure of 46 mineralizing agent 168
magnetic scattering 32 modulations of structures 113,128,
- ordering of unpaired electron spin 130
density 32 - cause for 130
MAPSO-46 (AFS) 6 - commensurate 128
McBain balance 191 - incommensurate 128
MCM 104 modulation vector 129
- electron microscopy of 104 modulation wave 128
- electron diffraction patterns of 104 - in microporous materids 113
MCM-22 107 - wavelength of 128
- electron crystallography of 107 moire effects 88
- structure of 107 molecular sieves 71
MCM-41 104 - electron microscopy of 71
- electron microscopy of 104 Molex process 197
- HRTEMof 104 montmorillonite 182
MCM-48 104 mordenite (MOR) 97,166
- electron microscopy of 104 - acid-washed 166
mechanical stress 14 - Se-chains in 97
MEL 24,89,91-93,155
- ED pattern of 91,93 N
- framework structure of 91 N-Iself process 197
- HRTEM image of 91,93 Na, H-Y 64,65
- post synthetically dealuminated 89 - hydrogen atoms positions in 64
- projections of the framework structure - neutron diffraction of 64
of 92 - proton positions in 65
- simulated ED patterns of 92 Na-A zeolite 127
- stacking faults of 155 - dehydrated 127
- structures of 89 Nap1 158,159
MELlMFI 24 - conformations of 158
- end members of 24 - isotype of GIs 158
membrane zeolites 106 - XRD powder patterns of 159
- high-voltage HRTEM of 106 NAT 10
MEP 152 - frameworks collapse in 10
mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) - single crystal diffraction of 10
53 - topology of 10
Subiect Index

natrolite 57, 120 - cations 16


- neutron diffraction of 57 - disorder of 16
- ordered SilAl distributions in 57 - localization of 16
- water in 57 - partial occupancies 16
natrolite, Na,AI,Si,O,, . 2 H,O 57 - pseudo-symmetry of 16
- water molecules in 57 - templates 16
- X-ray diffraction of 57 non-templated synthesis 180
natural gas 167 normal- and iso-paraffin separation 167
- drying of 167 nosean 134
natural hydrated minerals 57 Nu-1-type frameworks (RUT) 24
- hydrogen bonding in 57 - isomorphous replacement in 24
- neutron diffraction of 57 nuclear neutron diffraction 35
- SiIAl order or disorder in 57 - characterization of disordered systems by
- single-crystal studies of 57 35
- water molecules in 57 - differentiation between neighboring
natural zeolite market 166 elements by 35
natural zeolites 79,166 - localization of light atoms by 35
- as dietary supplements 166 nuclear scattering 32
- scanning electron microscopy of 79 - arrangement of the atomic nuclei 32
neutron data 44 nuclear scattering length 33
- accuracy of structural refinements 44
neutron diffraction 3 1,32,38,40,66 0
- arrangements of water molecules 32 objective aperture 81
- cations 38 OFF 24
- framework 38 OFFlERl 23
- cations in the cavities 32 - end members of 24
- hydrogen bonds 32 - faulting 23
- information by 66 OTO bond angles 117
- by Li-X 40 overlap of reflections 3
- by Li-Y 40
- location of adsorbed molecules 32 P
- ordering of Si and A1 38 p-xylene 5 1,52
- powders 31 - hydrogen bond type interactions of 52
- refinements 66 - in Ba zeolite X 52
- single crystals 31 - inNa,Yb-Y 51
- structural information 31 - in Na-Y zeolite 52
neutron scattering 33 - molecular simulation 52
- elastic 33 - quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS)
neutron scattering power 33 51
neutrons 32,35,36,74 - rotational dynamics of 51,52
- diffraction behavior 74 pahasapaite 10
- flu 35 - powder data of 10
- long-wavelength 36 - single crystal structure of 10
- monochromatic beam of 35,36 pane window 194
- pulsed source 35 - filled with molecular sieve 194
- short-wavelength 36 Parex-Leuna process 197
- source 35 partial collapse 123
- steady-state source 35 - of natrolite and sodalite 123
- wavelength of 36 particle size 94
nitrogen 57 particles 94
- in MFI 57 - HRTEM images of 94
nonasil (NON) 18 - localization by HRTEM 94
- cobdticinium template ordering 18 partitioning the intensities 4
non-framework species 16 - direct methods 4
- adsorbed molecules 16 peak overlap 37
Subject Index

peak position of X-ray reflections 3 quaternary ammonium cations 170


- determination of 3 quinuclidine 17
peak-shape function 36 - spherical electron density of 17
perovskites 115,123
petrochemicals 195 R
- dryingof 195 rare gases 56
phase shift 81 - in AFI 56
- by objective lens 81 - in MFI 56
phase transitions 11,20,119,128 - localized adsorption 56
- ferroelastic 128 Rb10A110Si38096 41
- ordering of the sorbed phase 20 - location of Rb 41
- splitting of the reflection spots 11 - Rho framework 41
- structural 119 - water molecules in 41
platinum particles 95 Rb2,Be2,As2,0,, ~ 3 . 2D20 41
- HRTEM images of 95 - location of Rb 41
point groups 118 - Rho framework of 41
pollucite 39 - water molecules in 41
polymerization 134 reciprocal lattice vector 129
- of guests in channels 134 reflections 3 -5,ll
pore openings 159 - indexed 3
- effect of conformation 159 - overlapping 4,5,11
powder data 2,5,36 - space group 5
- accuracy of 2 refrigerants 167
- overlapping peaks 36 - drying of 167
- reflections 5 related frameworks 150
powder diffraction 66 - finite units in 150
powder neutron diffraction 32 - table of 150
powder patterns 3,6 related structure types 151
- observed 6 related structures (polytypes) 155
- simulated 6 resolution 82-84
- structure determination via 3 - aberration 82,83
powder structure determination 8 - contrast transfer function (CTF) 83
- cell dimension 8 - electron probe size 83
- symmetry 8 - HRTEM 83
precipitated amorphous silicas 170 - Rayleigh criterion 83
pressure swing adsorption (PSA) - reconstruction 83
165 - SEM 82,83
protons in zeolites 63 - TEM 82
- location of 63 - for the study of fine structures of zeolite
- neutron diffraction by 63 84
- position of 64 - wavelengths of electrons 82
- via X-ray-diffraction 63 RHO 10,158,159
pseudo-symmetric structures 115 - conformation of 158
Pt clusters 95 - conformational changes in 158
- HRTEM images of 95 - framework of 10
Pt particles 96 - prediction of 159
- HRTEM image of 96 - topology of 10
- lattice fringes of 96 Rietveld method 36,37
pyrogenic silica 169 Rietveld refinement 66,128,130
Rietveld technique 6
Q rigid unit modes (RUMS) 135
quadrupole coupling constant 120 RUB-10 24
quantum materials 77 RUB-13 24
quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) 35 RUB-17 (RNS) 24
- rotational and translational motions 35 - end members of 24
Subiect Index

RUB-n 23,24 - charging problems 85


-end members of 24 - high resolution 85
-faulting in 23 - low energy electrons 85
RUM 135 sepiolite 181,183
shear strain 120
S shearing 124,131
SAPO-31 (ATO) 25 - in sodalite frameworks 124
- isomorphous substitution in 25 Si-0 bond length 118
- X-ray diffraction data of 25 Si-0-Si angle 118
SAPO-40 (AFR) 6,18 SiIAl ratio 97
- template ordering in 18 - by HRTEM images 97
satellite reflections 129,134 - modulation of 97
SBUs 151,152 - inMOR 97
scanning electron microscope (SEM) 75 silica sources 169,178
- high spatial resolution 75 silicalite-1 180
- schematic diagram 75 silicoaluminophosphate 64
- surface topology 75 - protons in 64
scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 72, silicone foam 180
79,186 - containing zeolite A powder 180
- of natural zeolites 79 silicone rubber 195
scattering amplitudes 74 - loaded with molecular sieve powder
scattering cross section 33,34 195
- coherent 34 simulated ED patterns of MEL 91
- incoherent 34 single-crystal data 2,5,8
scattering factors 34 - accuracy of 2
- neutron 34 - determination of the unit cell 5
- X-ray 34 - of gismondine 8
scattering length 34 - reflections 5
- depending on the nuclear spin state 34 - symmetry 5
scattering vector 73 single-crystal neutron diffraction 32
Scherzer focus 83 - absence of peak overlap 32
- CTF 83 single-crystal studies 66
scoletite 59 sodalite (SOD) 10,144
- hydrogen bond scheme 59 - danalite 144
scoletite, CaA1,Si,Ol0 . 3 H,O 58 - frameworks collapse of 10
- AllSi ordering in 58 - hauyn 144
- neutron diffraction by 58 - nosean 144
- water molecules in 58 - powder diffraction of 10
sealed glazing units 193 - space group symmetry of 10
secondcoordination networks 156 - topology of 10
secondary building units (SBUs) 150,153 - tugtupite 144
seeding techniques 173 sodalites 127,128,130
seeds 172 - modulations in 128,130
- influence of 172 - thermal expansion of 127
SEM 76,78,83,84 sodium aluminate 170,175
- crystallinity 78 sodium disilicate 170
- field emission guns (FEG) 83 sodium water glass 170,175
- morphology 78 sodium zinc arsenate, Na,(ZnAsO,), 46
- resolution 83 - neutron diffraction of 46
- sample preparation for 84 - reversible transformation on rehydration
- schematic diagram 76 of 46
- stability of crystals under an electron - structure of 46
beam 78 - X-ray powder diffraction by 46
- symmetry 78 soil conditioning 166
SEM (HRSEM) 85 sorbate molecules 22
Subject Index

- by single-crystal X-ray diffraction 22 structure factor 36


- disorder of 22 structure refinement 37
- symmetry of 22 structure solution 5
space group 5,6 - spacegroups 5
- determination of 5 structure type codes 145,146,151,152
- maximum symmetry of the topology 5 - isotypes 145,146
- by powder data 5 - table 145,146
- starting topology for 6 - type material 145,146
space group types 118 structure types (ST) 142 - 144,147,150,
- three-dimensional 118 154
spherical aberration 81 - associated data 144
SSZICIT series (CON) 24 - classification by Breck 154
- end members of 24 - classification by Gottardi and Galli 154
SSZ-26 100 - classification system 154
- ED patterns of 100 - codes 144,151,152
- framework structures of 100 - isotypes 144
- HRTEM images of 100 - largest aperture 147
- X-ray powder diffraction of 100 - number of 143
ssz-33 100 - smallestloops 150
- ED patterns of 100 - table of 144
- framework structures of 100 structures 128
- HRTEM images of 100 - modulated 128
SSZ-nlCIT-n series 23 superspace 129
- faulting in 23 superspace groups 118,129
stacking faults 155 superstructures 136
starting models 26 - commensurate 136
- for molecular modeling techniques 26 surface structure 92
- space group for 26 - chemical reaction 92
- unit cell dimensions for 26 - crystal growth mechanism 92
starting topology 6 sweetening 195
static RUMS (rigid unit modes) 135 symmetry 8,118,119
- linear combinations of 135 - changes upon dehydration 8
.
stellerite Ca,,Na,,,(Al, Si),,O,,, 50 H,O 60 - of a zeolite framework 118
- structure of 60 - real 119
stilbite 60,144 - topological 119
- barrerite 144 symmetry changes 11
- framework structure of 60 - number of reflections 11
- neutron diffraction by 60 synchrotron X-ray data 3
- stellerite 144 synchrotron X-ray sources 25
stirrer speed 177 - single-crystal data 25
- during synthesis 177
stirring speed 172 T
string constants 131 T-0 bond lengths 117
structural distortions 113 T-atoms 141,144
- in microporous materials 113 - Si,Al,P 141
structural modulations 128 - Si, A1, Ga, Ge, B, Be, Zn, Co etc. 144
structure 6 TEM 84
- space groups 6 - sample preparation for 84
structure determination 99,107 TEM images 76
- by electron dynamic scattering 107 - amplitude contrast (diffraction) 76
structure determinations 25 - intensity contrast (absorption) 76
- of unknown materials 25 - phase contrast (out-of-focus) 76
- starting models for 25 template 180
structure directing agent 17 - cost of 180
- triple helix 17 template ordering 18
Subiect Index

template twisting 126


- cobalticinium template cation 18 - local 126
- morpholinium template 18
- powder data of 18 u
- single crystal data of 18 unfolding 127
tetraalkoxysilanes 169 - of the framework 127
tetragonal tetrahedron distortion 119 unit cell 3,9
tetrahedra 126 - determination of 3
- isolated 126 - maximum volume of 9
tetrahedron distortion 114,119,121,126
- cation contribution to 121
- framework contribution to 121 vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA)
- systematic 119 197
tetramethylammonium sodalite 126 vitrification 104,105
theoretical networks 160 - radiolytic process 105
- graph theory 160 VPI-5 (VFI) 7,8, 17, 18,43
thermal expansion 126,135 - di-n-propylamine for synthesis of 18
- negative 135 - octahedral aluminum in 7
- of tetrahedral framework structures - reconstructive phase transition of 7
126 - refinement of the structure 7
thermal swing adsorption (TSA) 165 - structure refined from neutron powder
thomsonite NaCa2Al,Si,0,0 - 6 H20 60 data 43
- neutron diffraction of 60 - symmetry of 7
- neutron refinement for 60 - synthesisof 18
- Si/Al ordering in 60 - transition of 8
- water molecules in 60 - triple helix of water in 17
- X-ray diffraction by 60 - water molecules in 43
three-ring opening 6 VPI-7 (VSV) 24
tilt angle 122,123, 131 - end members of 24
tilt systems 123,136 VPI-9 4,5
time-of-flight method (TOF) 35 - complex framework of 5
titanosilicate 100 - structure determination of 4
toluene 53
- adsorption sites by molecular mechanics W
calculations 53 water glass 169
topological density (TD) 157 water molecules 63
topological search routine 5 - coordinated to cations 63
topological symmetry 5,118 - H-0-H angle 63
topology 142 - hydrogen bonded to framework 63
topology-induced stress 119 - 0-H distances 63
TOT angles 117 wave field, @ (x, y) 81
TOT bridges 118
- straight 118 X
transmission electron microscope (TEM) 75 X (FAU) 18
- back-focal plane 75 - organic molecules adsorbed into 18
- image plane 75 X-ray diffraction 1,66,142
transmission EM (TEM) 72 - microcrystals 142
transmission function 4 (x, y) 79,8 1 - refinements 66
triple helix 7,43 - structure determination 1
- occluded water 7 - synchrotron radiation for 142
- water molecules in 43 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) 186
triple water helix 17 X-ray powder diffraction 184
- in VPI-5 17 X-rays 74
Tschernichite 23 - diffraction behavior 74
TSF process 197 XRD powder data 143
Subject Index

- number of structure types 143 - X-ray diffraction pattern of 184


xylene 50,52 zeolite A powders 180
- in Na-X 52 - in the polyurethane industry 180
- inYb,Na-Y 50 zeolite beta (BEA) 99
- modification of the unit-cell parameter - ED pattern of 99
by 50 - electron microscopy of 99
xylene isomers 50 - HRTEM images of 99
- inYb,Na-Y 50 - structural faulting of 99
xylenes 50,53 zeolitelcation systems 22
- adsorption sites by molecular mechanics zeolite crystals 155
calculations 53 - structural faults of 155
- in FAU structures 50 zeolite D-Rho 41
- neutron diffraction of 50 - dealumination of 41
- flexibility of the framework of 41
Y - non-framework aluminum in 41
Y (FAU) 18 zeolite D-ZK-5 41
- aniline in 18 - dealumination of 41
- m-dinitrobenzene in 18 - deep-bed calcined 41
- mesitylene in 18 - IRof 41
- organic molecules adsorbed into 18 zeolite frameworks 115
Y-zeolites 64 - neutron diffraction by 41
- hydrogen positions in 64 - NMRof 41
yugawaralite, CaA1,Si60,6. 4 H,O 61 zeolite L 54
- neutron diffraction by 61 - benzene in 54
- ordered SilAl in 61 zeolite materials 104
- water molecules in 61 - electron beam sensitivity of 104
zeolite Rho 41,42,127,128
z - Cs-exchanged 127
Z-contrast method 94 - flexibility of 42
- localization of particles by 94 - flexibility of the framework of 41
ZAPO-M1 (ZON) 25 - framework of 42
- structure of 25 - multiphase Rietveld refinement of 41
- X-ray diffraction data of 25 - neutron diffraction by 41
zeolite A, 3A, 4A, 5A (LTA) 15,16,22,121, - Sr- and NH,-exchanged 128
125,127,165,174- 176,178,180,184,188, - two coexistent phases of 41
192 zeolitestability 191
- bulk density of 188 zeolite structure types 148,153
- calcium-exchanged 121 - classification of 153
- crystallization field for 178 - phosphates 148
- demand for 165 - silicates 148
- effective size of the pore opening 16 zeolite uses 164
- exchanged with Pb2+ 22 zeolite X 177- 179,195
- framework flexibility of 15 - crystallization field for 179
- hydrothermal stability of 192 - in the purification of air 195
- in detergents 165 - industrial synthesis of 177
- industrial synthesis of 174 - low Si021Al,0, of 178
- interatomic distances in 16 zeolite Y 40
- non-collapsible framework of 15 - adsorbed benzene molecules in 40
- powder structural data of 15 - of a highly crystalline "zero defect"
- single-crystal structural data of 15 nature 40
- single-crystal structure refinements 16 zeolite ZK-4 40
- SEM photograph of 187 - framework ordering in 40
- symmetry changes of 16 - structure of 40
- synthesis of 176 zeolite ZSM-5 179
- thermal expansion of 127 - industrial synthesis of 179
--
Subject Index

zeolite ZSM-5 - ring openings of 147


- SEM photograph of 187 - topology 144
zeolite-like materials 148 zincophosphate (CZP) 17
- framework density (FD) of 148 - chiral 17
zeolites 78,148,166 zincosilicates 150
- criterion 148 - 3-rings in 150
- electron beam sensitivity of 78 ZSM-3 155
- framework density (FD) of 148 ZSM-5 (MFI) 11,109
- industrial synthesis of 166 - containing the tetrapropylammonium
zeolites for adsorption processes 183 (TPA) ion 11 '
- characterization of 183 - ED pattern of 109
zeolite-type framework structures 141, - HRTEM image of 109
144,147 - presence of TPA in 109
- apertures of 147 - structure of 11
- channel systems of 147 ZSM-18 (MEI) 6
- connectivity 144 ZSM-20 155
Author Index Volumes I and 2

Baerlocher C see Meier WM (1999) 2 :141- 161


Beck JS see Vartuli JC (1998) 1:97- 119
Bellussi G see Perego G (1998) 1:187-228
Bennett JM see Koningsveld van W (1999) 2: 1-29

Coker EN, Jansen JC (1998) Approaches for the Synthesis of Ultra-Large and Ultra-Small
Zeolite Crystals. 1:121- 155
Cool P, Vansant EF (1998) Pillared Clays: Preparation, Characterization and Applications.
1 :265 - 288

Depmeier W (1999) Structural Distortions and Modulations in Microporous Materials.


2:113-140

Ernst S (1998) Synthesis of More Recent Aluminosilicates with a Potential in Catalysis and
Adsorption. 1:65 - 96

Fitch AN, Jobic H (1999) Structural Information from Neutron Diffraction. 2:31- 70

Gies H, Marler B, Werthman U (1998) Synthesis of Porosils: Crystalline Nanoporous Silicas


with Cage- and Channel-Like Void Structures. 1:35-64

Jansen JC see Coker EN (1998) 1:121- 155


Jobic H see Fitch AN (1999) 2: 31 - 70

Kresge CT see Vartuli JC (1998) 1:97 - 119


Koningsveld van W, Bennett JM (1999) Zeolite Structure Determination from X-Ray Dif-
fraction. 2: 1-29

Marler B see Gies H (1998) 1:35-64


McCullen SB see Vartuli JC (1998) 1:97- 119
Meier WM, Baerlocher C (1999) Zeolite Type Frameworks: Connectivities, Configurations
and Conformations. 2: 141- 161
Millini R see Perego G (1998) 1:187-228

Perego G, Millini R, Bellussi G (1998) Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Sieves


Containing Transition Metals in the Framework. 1:187-228
Pfenninger A (1999) Manufacture and Use of Zeolites for Adsorptions Processes. 2: 163-198

Roth WJ seevartuli JC (1998) 1:97- 119

Schiith F see Schunk SA (1998) 1:229 - 263


Schunk SA, Schiith F (1998) Synthesis of Zeolite-Like Inorganic Compounds. 1 :229-263
Szostak R (1998) Synthesis of Molecular Sieve Phosphates. 1 : 157- 185
216 Author Index Volumes 1 and 2

Terasaki 0 (1999) Electron Microscopy Studies in Molecular Sieve Science. 2: 71 - 112


Thompsen RW (1998) Recent Advances in the Understanding of Zeolite Synthesis. 1 :1- 33

Vansant EF see Cool P (1998) 1:265 -288


Vartuli JC, Roth WJ, Beck JS, McCullen SB, Kresge CT (1998) The Synthesis and Properties
of M41S and Related Mesoporous Materials. 1:97- 119

Werthmann U see Gies H (1998) 1:35-64


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