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Title: Rocks

Desired Establishing Goals


outcomes Emphasize the big ideas.
o The rocks that are around us everywhere have a history. They have all gone
through formation processes that control the properties of the materials in them,
and how rare or common they are. Different processes happen in different
environments and form different rocks. Once a person can connect common
rock types to rock formation processes, they will then be able to interpret the
geologic history of locations based on the type of rocks and order they are found
in.

Emphasize the specific understandings about the big ideas that are desired.
o Any of the three main types of rocks can turn into one another (igneous,
sedimentary, and metamorphic) if they go through the correct formation
processes.
o Igneous rocks form from the melting and cooling of other rocks
Intrusive igneous rocks form in molten environments inside the Earth
where magma has time to cool slowly.
Rocks that form in these environments often have coarse
textures (large visible crystals) because they cooled slowly.
Students will be able to identify common intrusive igneous rocks
and describe the environmental conditions they most likely
formed under (ex: granite).
Extrusive igneous rocks form in molten environments where lava exits
the earth and cools quickly as a result of hitting the air or water.
Rocks that form in these environments often have fine or glassy
textures (very small crystals) because they cooled quickly and
their crystals did not have time to connect.
These types of rocks may often have a vesicular texture (holes
formed from air pockets) as a result of lava cooling very quickly
around air pockets.
Students will be able to identify common extrusive igneous
rocks and describe the environmental conditions they most
likely formed under (ex: basalt, pumice, and obsidian).
Mafic igneous rocks form in environments with magmas/lava that
contain more metallic dense elements and less silica. They tend to form
from less viscous magmas/lavas as a result of the low silica content.
Felsic igneous rocks form in environments with magmas/lavas that
contain more silica and less metallic elements. They tend to form from
more viscous magmas/lavas because of the high silica content.
Bowens reaction series charts can help you connect the mineral
content to specific environmental factors that would have been present
to form rocks that contain those minerals.

o Sedimentary rocks: First it is important to know that sediments are pieces of


rock or other materials that have been weathered and eroded over time.
Sedimentary rocks form from those sediments being buried, compacted, and
cemented over time.
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks form in environments where pieces of other
rocks (called clasts) are buried, compacted, and cemented. The size
and shape of the clasts indicate clues to the environmental factors
present during the formation of the sedimentary rock.
Non- Clastic sedimentary rocks form from other materials (not clasts)
going through the sedimentary processes described above.
One type of non-clastic sedimentary rock can form from the
burial, compaction, and cementation of sediments of once living
materials such as ancient plants (which often forms coal), and
sea organisms (which often forms limestone).
Another type can form from the precipitation of minerals from
water such as in gypsum caves or water with high salt content
or high water evaporation rates.

o Metamorphic rocks form from rocks being put under high heat and/ or
pressure to the point where the rocks deform but they do not fully melt. All
metamorphic rocks have a parent rock that it formed from.
Foliated metamorphic rocks contain minerals that will line up and are
often put under pressure from two directions (such as what happens in
larger regional mountain building conditions) resulting in minerals lining
up in the same directions (Slate, Gneiss, and Schist are common
examples of these).
Non-foliated metamorphic rocks may contain minerals that dont line up
easily as a result of their properties. Non-foliated metamorphic rocks
may result from contact with magma where the magma deforms the
materials but does not melt it.

Meanings Essential Questions:


1. What type of environmental conditions could a rock go under in order to form into an
each category of rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic)?

2. What properties and characteristics are used to identify and classify each category of
rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic)?

3. How are the properties and characteristics of each category of rock (igneous,
sedimentary, or metamorphic) impacted by the conditions of the environment it formed
in?

4. What can we infer about the geologic past of different areas in Virginia based on the
rocks we find? ***This will connect us to our next unit on understanding geologic
history***

Understandings:
Students will understand how to:

describe the types of conditions that would form each category of rock (igneous,
sedimentary, or metamorphic).
interpret the formation conditions of different rocks based on their characteristics and
properties.

Igneous Rocks
describe the differences between cooling environments of intrusive and extrusive igneous
rocks.
describe the difference between element and mineral content of mafic and felsic rocks.
use Bowens reaction series charts to connect the mineral content of an igneous rock to
environmental formation factors.

Sedimentary Rocks
explain the difference between the materials found in and environments that form clastic
and non-clastic sedimentary rocks.
interpret what types of changes in environment could result in changes in types of clastic
sedimentary rocks that form in a location.

Metamorphic Rocks
explain what different metamorphic conditions result in the formation of foliated
metamorphic rocks and non-foliated metamorphic rocks.
be able to recognize key minerals that form under metamorphic conditions.
Expected Prior - Based on previous lessons in this class, students will be able to explain what
Student criteria a substance would have to follow to be classified as a mineral. They will
Knowledge also have experience identifying common minerals found in the earths crust.

- Students will have experienced interpreting the rock cycle in the previous
courses.

Standards ES.5 The students will investigate and understand the rock formation cycle as it
relates to the origin and transformation of rock types and how to identify common
rock types based on mineral composition and textures:
a) Igneous rocks;
b) Sedimentary rocks; and
c) Metamorphic rocks

Possible - Students often think that all rocks are the same or are very similar and dont
misconceptions realize how they connect to different formation processes.

- Students often dont understand the connection that rocks have with
understanding the vast history of the planet.

- Students can often think that rocks and minerals are the same.

Lesson 1: Igneous Rocks

Performance Students will be able to demonstrate:


Tasks - Students will be able to explain how the guided inquiry activities they complete
model how cooling rate of magma/lava impact igneous rock formation on their
activity sheets.

- Students will be able to explain how the guided inquiry activities they complete
model how mineral content impact igneous rock formation on their activity sheets.

- Students will be able to explain how Bowens reaction series connects to mineral
formation in igneous rocks on their activity sheets.

- Students will be able to identify key features of and classify different igneous rocks
on their activity sheets.
o Classification subcategories: intrusive, extrusive, mafic, and felsic

- Students will demonstrate that they can indentify the formation environment of a mystery
igneous rock commonly found in Virginia through a journal activity.

- Students will demonstrate their understanding of igneous rock formation by scoring


a 100% on the igneous rock Google Form rock check.

Daily Agenda First 90 minute block


for board *** Note you need to take about 20 minutes of a previous class to set up station 1
and be ready for this days lesson***

1) Where do those rocks form? whiteboard activity and Rock Cycle Card Match
2) Class model on how igneous rocks cool
3) Explore the factors control igneous rock formation Station 1 and Station 2
4) Set up for sedimentary rock labs

*** Students will continue the third station activity the next day.
Materials Engage
needed - One whiteboard per student
- One whiteboard marker per student
- One cloth eraser per student
- Post its of at least 3 different colors (each student will get one post it)

Explore Station 1
- Samples of salt crystals cooled at different rate from previous lab set up
- Hand lenses to look at crystals

Explore Station 2
- Marshmallow fluff for each group
- Chocolate syrup for each group
- Goggles for students

Explore Station3
- Rock sample kits with all rocks listed in labs
Engage 1) (20 min) Where do these rocks form? Each student will have whiteboard supplies.
They will be asked to split their whiteboard in half and write observations on one
half and inferences on the other.
a. Students will be shown a rock by itself and be asked to write down
observations about the rock and under inferences based on what theyve
seen where they think the type of location they might have formed. The
teachers should walk around the room and monitor the student responses.
The teachers can guide them with prompts such as Think about what type
of locations you may have seen many of these types of rocks. The teacher
may have the student verbally describe some scenarios if they look like they
are struggling.
b. Then I will show them a zoomed out picture of the rock with more clues to
the environment and the students can adjust their responses once they have
more information/ data.
c. Have them do this for examples of each type of rock
d. Have students tidy up their whiteboard supplies in front of them, and go
back to the slides related to igneous rocks.
e. Ask the students to think about the types of environments those rocks
formed under and have some students remind the class where they seem to
form. Also discuss some difference between the igneous rocks they are
shown.
f. Share with the class that the main goal for the lesson will be for them to
explore and understand what formation conditions impact the
characteristics of igneous rocks.
2) (15min) Class model of how Igneous rocks cool
a. Each student will be provided a specific color post it. Possibly do this as
students are responding to the questions in the previous activity.
b. Explain to the students that each different color post-it represents a different
crystal cooling and forming in magma or lava.
c. Have all the students stand up holding their post it.
d. Let the students know that they will be part of a model of how crystals in
magma cool into igneous rocks in different scenarios
e. Tell the students that when they hear start they are to find others holding
the same color post it as them. When they hear stop they must stop in
their spot.
i. First give them a very short cooling time (2-3 seconds)
ii. Second give them a much longer cooling time (10) seconds.
f. Have students sit back down. Have each student respond to the following
questions on their whiteboard. When students hold up their answers I will
ask if anyone wants to share their answers for the class. I will also share
those statements with the class.
i. How did the model you just demonstrated connect to the formation
of igneous rocks?
ii. Describe the difference between the crystals in the room each time
you stopped moving.
iii. What would be the difference in the cooling environment for igneous
rocks cooling inside the Earth vs rock cooling outside the Earth?
iv. Think about the two times you stopped moving during the model.
Which of the two times you stopped best modeled igneous rock
cooling inside the earth and why?
v. Which of the two times you stopped best modeled igneous rock
cooling inside the earth and why?

Explore Students will be assigned groups of 3-4 and they will be tasked with completing the
following activities. Students will complete three different station activities. Half
the class will observe station 1 while the other half will participate in station 2. They
will then switch. They will have 15-20 minutes at each station. Then all the students
will complete station 3 at the same time in their groups.

(about 15 minutes set up a couple of days before and about 15 minutes of


observation on day of) Station 1: Crystal Cooling Activity

1) Students will have set up the experiment a couple of days before following the
instructions provided to them. They will cool a salt solution at three different rates
in three different test tubes.
a. One test tube will be in a beaker filled with ice (ice bath)
b. One test tube will be in an empty beaker (room temperature)
c. One test tube will be in a beaker packed with cotton and surrounded by hand
warmer packets.
2) Students will make observations and reflect how cooling temperature can impact
crystal size in cooling environments in the handouts provided to them.

(15 min) Station 2: Marshmallow fluff silica model

1) Students will model and reflect on the impact of silica content on molten material
and rocks by following instructions given to them at their station.
2) Students will also use a Bowens reaction series to reflect on the environments that
rocks with different amounts of silica would form under.

*** Students would complete everything up to Station 2 and then they would clean
up and complete the quick check for the day . They will then do the day before prep
for the sedimentary rock labs the next day. ****

(20 min) Station 3: Observing and Interpreting the characteristics of igneous

1) Students will look at a set of igneous rocks and will fill in a graphic with their
observations about each igneous rock
2) Students will then interpret details about the differences in conditions of the
environments the rocks formed in.

Explain Students will compare their reflection answers with one another and we will discuss
the answers as a class.

Students will also complete quick checks on Google Forms to demonstrate their
individual understanding of the concepts. They will be expected to take the quick
checks until they score a 100%. The google form will show them which ones they
got incorrect, but it will not tell them the correct answers.

Elaborate Students will complete a science journal reflection that will have them interpret the
formation environment of a mystery igneous rock.

Evaluate Formative Assessments:


1) Through using whiteboard response I am able to see responses from all students
and have conversations with more students about their responses as compared to
asking a question and calling on one student to respond.
2) I will monitor and take notes on student responses during whiteboard responses. I
will also note students prior knowledge/ how familiar students seemed to be with
where the different rocks formed during the first engage activity.
3) During the explore activity, I will take notes on discussions I have with students and
on the discussions I hear the students have with one another.
a. I will pay attention to the connections they make related to intrusive vs.
extrusive rocks and mafic vs. felsic rock formation.
4) I will keep data collected through Google form quick checks on igneous rocks.

Performance Students will be able to demonstrate:


Tasks
- Students will be able to explain how the guided inquiry activities they complete
model how different types of clastic rocks and non-clastic rocks form on their
activity sheets.

- Students will research and explain the difference in formation between many
different types of clastic rocks and between different types of non-clastic rocks on
their activity sheets.
o Students will be able to then infer the general differences between how
clastic and non-clastic rocks form.

- Students will be able to identify key features of and classify different sedimentary
rocks on their activity sheets.
o Classification subcategories: Clastic and Non-Clastic

- Students will demonstrate that they can indentify the formation environment of mystery
sedimentary rocks commonly found in their county through a journal activity.

- Students will demonstrate their understanding of sedimentary rock formation by


scoring a 100% on the sedimentary rock Google Form rock check.

Daily Agenda 1) Complete station 3: Igneous rock identification from previous day and discuss key
for board parts of igneous rock lab as class
2) Complete igneous rock quick check
3) What can you tell me about these sedimentary rocks? Whiteboard activity
4) Clastic Rock Sedimentation Setting tube activity
5) Non Clastic Coal formation model observation
Materials Engage
needed - One whiteboard per student
- One whiteboard marker per student
- One cloth eraser per student

Explore Station 1
- Sedimentation settling tubes

Explore Station 2 (set up a day or two before in class)


- Pipe cleaners
- Borax
- Mason Jars
- Boiling water
- Goggles

Explore Station3 (set up a day or two before)


- Three pieces of bread per group
- Paper towel
- 1 small bag of gummy animals per group

Rock sample kits with all rocks listed in labs


Engage Show students pictures of different layers of sedimentary rocks from around the
world and ask the students to make observations and inferences about how they
formed on whiteboards.

Explore Students will complete three exploration tasks related to formation and
identification of different sedimentary rocks.
- modeling and reflecting on stratification and formation of clastic rocks
- modeling and reflecting on the formation of different non-clastic rocks.
- Identifying different types of sedimentary rocks

Explain While going through the main activities students will answer the reflection
questions in their groups after discussing their thoughts. We will then discuss the
answers as a class.

Elaborate Students will complete a sedimentary rock reflection where they will observe to
different types of sedimentary rocks commonly found in our county. They will then
compare and contrast how the different types of environments they most likely
formed in.
Evaluate Formative
- Evaluation of the observations and inferences made on the whiteboards related to
the engage section
- I will take notes on discussions I have with students and on the discussions I hear
the students have.
- I will pay attention to the connections they make related to clastic vs non clastic
rocks and their formation environments.
- I will review and give feedback on student responses on activity sheets
- Warm ups and Google form data on sedimentary rocks

Summative
- Authentic assessment: Rock Comic connected to rubric
- Students will complete an open-ended test on rocks and the rock cycle.

Performance Students will be able to demonstrate:


Tasks - Students will explain how the guided inquiry activities and demonstrations they complete,
model how different types of foliated and non-foliated rocks form on their activity sheets.

- Students will explain how the guided inquiry activities and demonstrations they complete,
model the difference between regional and contact metamorphism.

- Students will demonstrate that they can indentify the environment of mystery
metamorphic rock found in Virginia through a journal activity.

- Students will demonstrate understanding of what types of environmental controls form


different types of metamorphic rocks by completing warm ups and exits.
Daily Agenda 1) As students walk in, look at the rocks on desk
for board 2) Complete station 3: Sedimentary rock formation research and identification from
previous day and discuss key parts of igneous rock lab as class
3) Sedimentary rock quick check

4) What do we notice about these rocks? Introduction to metamorphic rocks


5) Foliated and non foliated minerals in metamorphic rocks string model
6) Contact and regional metamorphic models
7) Metamorphic rock identification lab (to be completed next day)

Materials Engage
needed - One whiteboard per student
- One whiteboard marker per student
- One cloth eraser per student

Explore Station 1
- Bag of multiple pieces of string per group
- Four pieces of plastic per group

Explore Station 2 (these supplies are only for the teacher)


- The teacher has a couple of marshmallows
- A Bunsen Burner
- Goggles for everyone while flame is on
Explore Station 3
- Rock sample kits with all rocks listed in labs

Engage When students walk in I will have two giant examples of metamorphic rocks on my
desk. I will mention that this layering is different from the layering we saw in the
previous lessons on sedimentary rocks. I will have the student write on whiteboards
observations they have about how they are different (I will project a picture of the
sedimentary examples we saw the previous day)

Each pair of students will have multiple pieces of string on their desk and I will say
that we are going to now use these pieces of string to figure out how the minerals in
these rocks may have gotten to look like this.
Explore - Students will complete three exploration tasks related to formation and
identification of different metamorphic rocks.
- Use string to model foliation a non foliation
- Use marshmallows and heat to model contact metamorphism
- Practice classifying different metamorphic rocks
Explain While going through the main activities students will answer the reflection
questions in their groups after discussing their thoughts. We will then discuss the
answers as a class.
Elaborate Students will complete a science journal reflection on a mystery rock found in the
Appalachian mountains. They will be asked interpret what they can infer about the
formation of that location based on their observations of the rock.
Evaluate Formative
- Evaluation of the observations and inferences made on the whiteboards related to
the engage section.
- I will take notes on discussions I have with students and on the discussions I hear
the students have.
- I will pay attention to the connections they make related to foliated and non-
foliated rocks + contact vs. regional metamorphism
- I will review and give feedback on student responses on activity sheets
- Warm ups and exit slips on metamorphic rocks

Summative
- Authentic assessment: Rock Comic connected to rubric
Students will complete an open-ended test on rocks and the rock cycle.