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UD load w kN/m

Fc

Ft

wL/2

x

Gallileos Method

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The magnitude of the load dictates the amount the beam deflects and hence the resulting

CURVATURE of the beam. As the load increases, so does the curvature of the beam.

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Now consider the end elevation or any cross-section through the beam. We have

already determined that the top will be in compression and the bottom in tension.

Side elevation

=L/L

Remember, position (iii) is the NEUTRAL AXIS, NA, where the strain

is always equal to ZERO.

area above the NA and the bottom of the beam is the cross-

sectional area below the NA.

curvature of the beam and also the strain in the beam.

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If the material is an elastic - brittle material then the beam will crack in tension

at its extreme bottom surface once maximum strain has been reached (and

begin to buckle at its extreme top surface where it is in compression).

(Remember Hooke's Law for an elastic material.)

From the strain distribution over the depth of the beam (previously) and the

relationship between stress and strain we can plot the stress distribution over

the depth of the beam.

max max

max

Strain Stress

Cross section

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If we know the distribution of stress over the section, then we know the value of the

compressive and tensile forces within the beam due to the applied load and where these

forces act (location of the centroid of a triangle).

Why do we want to know the value of the compressive and tensile forces and where they

act?

If we know the value of Fc and Ft and where they act, then we know the value of the

internal couple (MOMENT) these forces produce and this is equivalent to the maximum

moment that the beam section can resist and hence the maximum load that the beam can

support.

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8

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FC

FT

b

(REMEMBER: the distribution of compressive / tensile stresses on the top / bottom section of the

beam, respectively, is analogous to a non-uniformly distributed load. We can, therefore, represent

these non-udl's by a single concentrated force (Fc and Ft) acting at the centroid of the stress

distributions.) By inspection, the distribution of stress is triangular and the centroid of a triangle is

1/3 of the distance from its base. Since the height of the triangular stress distributions is h/2, we

can immediately see that the equivalent concentrated load acts at a distance h/6 from the top face

of the section (compressive force) and a distance h/6 from the bottom face of the section (tensile

force). The lever arm (the distance between the compressive and tensile force) is therefore,

h-h/6-h/6=2h/3

max max

FC

h 2h/3

h/6 FT

b

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max max

FC

FC

h 2h/3

h/6

FT FT

b

depth (height) of the beam

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complicated elastic - plastic material.

Consider the stress - strain relationship

for an elastic - plastic material. -max -max/2

max/2 max

max max

max/2

-max/2

h/4

b

h/4

The distribution of stress over the depth of the section is now slightly more

complicated.

To simplify the situation we can use the Principle of Superposition and break the

stress distribution down in to two more manageable distributions, generating two

forces in compression and two equal and opposite forces in tension

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max max

FC1 h/8

max h/12

FC2

h/4 3h/4

FT2

FT1

By inspection the value of FC1 = bh/4 x max,

Where bh/4 is the area over which the uniform stress acts and max, is the

average stress. The centroid is at the centre of the area of the uniformly

stressed part of the section, which is h/8 from the top surface.

The lever arm is therefore:

max

FC1 h/8

max h/12

FC2

h/4 3h/4 h/3

FT2

FT1

b) Elastic stress distribution

By inspection, FC2 = the area on which the stress acts (bh/4) multiplied by the average

stress max /2. Therefore FC2 = bh max /8

The centroid of a triangle is 1/3 of the height from the base = h/4 x h/3 = h/12

The lever arm is:

h - h/4 - h/4 - h/12 h/12 = h/3

M2 = bhmax/8 h/3 = bh2max /24

For the elastic - plastic beam the moment of resistance is equal to the sum of the two

moments, MI and M2:

M= 3bh2max/16 +bh2max /24 = 11bh2max /48

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material where the maximum strain of the

material is very large. As the maximum strain

increases, the area of the section subjected to

a triangular stress distribution reduces until, at -max -e

very large strains, the triangular part is ignored

and it can be assumed that there is uniform e max

compressive and tensile stress over the top

and bottom half of the

beam, respectively.

max max

e

h

-e

b -max

The PLASTIC MOMENT OF RESISTANCE is obtained as before:

max max

FC

h h/2

FT

b -max

14

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