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Latin American Neostructuralism

I The Contradictions ot Post-Neoliberal Development

I
t
l
Fernando Ignacio Leiva
1

University of Minnesota Press


MinMeapolis
LondoM
J i
I

For Karen, Camila, and Elisa

Portioos of chapters 6 and 9 draw from "Neoliberal and Neostructuralist Perspectives on Labor
Flexibility, Poverry. and lnequality: A Critical Appraisal:' New political Economy 11,00. 3 (Sep-
tember 2006): 337-59. Portions of chapters 8 and 9 draw from "From Pinochet's State Terror-
Demoeraey in Chile: The Legae)' of September 11, 1973,

II
ism to lhe Politics of Participation:' in
ed. Silvia Nagy-Zekmy and Fernando Leiva (Brighlon and Portland: Sussex Academic Press,

2005), 73-87.

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20 . CONCEPTUAllNNOVATlON

Given the continent's experience of the 1980s-a "lost decade" in economic


terms and the prevalence ofbrutal military regimes-such a formulation in-
1 2
herently possessed tremendous powers of attraction.
Nonetheless, despite this more holistic shift, welcomed byscholars, intel-
Methodological Retreats
lectuals, and voters, each one of the key concepts differentiating it from neo-
liberalism also represents a significant conceptual retreat from the economic
thinking of the 1950s and 1960s. The result has been that power and power
relations are excised from economics, politics, and culture precisely at the
historical moment when a focus on power relations seems to be most needed No, it is not like that ai all. What has happened is that ECLAC still Iives under
in political economy. lhe stigma of lhe stance taken during the 1950s and 19605, which was a very
strong epoch for the institulion. Therefore, people remain stuck with that image
without really knowing the work that has been done in lhe last ten years.

-José Antonio Ocampo, ECLAC Executive Secretary

Despite its initial discursive potency and recent political triumphs, Latin
American neostructuralism carries within itself profound contradictions.
To an important extent, these stem from the methodological and intellec-
tual shifts enacted during the 1980s that gave rise to Latin American neo-
structructuralism and the "new ECLAC" (Econornic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean). Though many have seen these changes as a
necessary adaptation to new conditions created by the demise of the im-
port substitution industrialization (Iôl) regime of accumulation, changes
in the world economy and the growing influence of U.S.-based economic
theories-such as new endogenous growth theory, neo-Schumpeterian evo-
lutionary models,' and new institutionalist economics (Hounie, Pittaluga et
al. 1999; Kuntz Ficker 2005; Love 200S)-they can also be interpreted in
an altogether different light: as encompassing a profound intellectual and
methodological retreat from the best traditions of Latin American critica!
thinking inasmuch as they excise power relations from economic discourse
and theorization. Thus, in the passage from structura!ism to neostructural-
ism, in the transition from Raúl Prebisch's and Celso Furtado's "old" CEPAL
(Comisión Económica para América Latina) to Fernando Fajnzylber's, Gert
Rosenthal's, and José Antonio Ocampo's "new" CEPAL, neostructuralism
has implemented far-reaching changes in its methodological approach and
framework. Although such modifications have allowed neostructuralism
to regain policy relevance, they have also exacted a high price: realígning
ECLAC solidly behind the status quo and dulling its capacity to probe the

21
METHOOOlOGICAl RETREATS . 23
22 . METHOOOlOGICAl RETREATS

"deep structure" of twenty-first-century Latin American capitalismo In what (the distribution of "technícal progress"). Thus, neostructuralists' self-image
follows, I reverse the tapestry of its ímposing rhetorical and conceptual in- is one of successful and successive adaptation to new circumstances while
novations to reveal the major strands of such intelIectnal retreat. preserving an unbroken line línkíng the present with the original structural-
ist concerns of Prebisch (Bielschowsky 1998; Di Filippo 1998; CEPAL 2000).
In fact, ECLAC economists have gone to great pains to stress that neostruc-
Adaptation, Renewal, or Intellectual Retreat? turalism should be conceived as "a continuation of the basic posture of struc-
Headquartered in Santiago, ECLAC economists and planners witnessed turalism, with some adjustments derived frorn new realities both internal as
firsthand neoliberalisrns ascent to hegemonic status. Bent on refounding welI as international" (Treviiio 2000). Is there a basis for such a claim beyond
Latin American capitalism, neoliberalisms victory in the region was inex- the vigorous declaration to that effect? Has passage from structuralism to
tricably Iinked to the violent 1973 military coup in Chile. The brutal over- neostructuralism and adaptation to the "new historical circumstances" en-
throw of President Allende became a turning point for the entire continent. abled leaps forward in ECLAC's analytical sharpness? Or rather, as I argue in
The intellectualleadership, which since the late 1940s ECLAC exercised over this chapter, has it meant an important methodologically retreat that severely
generations of Latin American policy planners, economists, and íntellectu- weakens Latin American neostructuralisms capacity for understanding the
als, violently ended due to the alliance between neoliberal economists and nature of Latin American capitalism at the present historical juncture?
military regimes that seized power in the mid -1970s. The coupling of market Indeed change in economic ideas, doctrines, and paradigms constitutes
forces and state terrorism in the Southern Cone and Andean region of the part and parce1 of the history of ideas and of societal deveiopment itself. What
Arnericas resolved the prolongned crisis of the ISI regime of accumulation becomes important to determine however is not that economic ideas change
and consolidated both a "neoclassical counterrevolution" in the realm of but rather the nature of such shifts and their resulting historical and political
economic ideas as well as in class relations. consequences. Intellectual changes enacted by Latin Arnerican neostructur-
After more than a decade of confusion and disarray, ECLAC economists alism, its rupture with its structuralist past, and its critique of neoliberalism
led by Fajnzylber began formulating in the mid-1980s the outlines of what have to be analyzed in the historical context of the ongoing restructuring of
would become a response capable of challenging the hegemony of neoliberal Latin Arnerican capitalism itself. Within such a framework, Latin American
ideas. Such a rejoinder (i.e., Latin American neostructuralism) combined neostructuralisrn's conceptual shifts and rupture with its structuralist past
a critique of neoliberalism's price and market reductionism with a farewell represent an important intellectual and political retreat that enfeebles rather
to core tenets of the structuralist approach established during the 1950s by than updates it.
ECLAC's inteUectual founders, Prebisch, and other structuralist pioneers like Steeped in the langnage of pragmatism, upholding a dehistoricized "tech-
Furtado and Aníbal Pinto. Different authors have welcomed Latin American nical progress" and ce.lebrating an international competitiveness sanitized
neostructuralisms conceptual innovations, celebrating them as evidence of frorn actually existing power relations, the methodological retreat of Latin
ECLAC's capacity for adaptation: ''Neostructuralism should not be inter- American neostructuralism is evident in three crucial aspects of the "new
preted as caving in to neoliberalism nor as an indication that structuralism ECLAC's" economic thinking: (1) replacement of the concept of economic
was wrong but rather as an attempt to come to terms with a new reality. In surplus with that of international competitíveness, (2) throwing out a sys-
this sense structuralism is showing an ability to adapt to changing historical temic approach along with the core-períphery model, and (3) the incorpora-
circumstances rather than remain [rozen in the past" (Gwynne and Kay 2003, tion of polítícs and institutions in a manner that delinks them from accumu-
27; my emphasis). Other authors, mostly current or former staff members of lation and struggles over the distribution of economic surplus. Each one of
ECLAC, on occasion of the fiftieth anníversary of ECLAC's founding also as- these renunciations was essential for the construction of neostructuralisrns
serted that the transition from structuralism to neostructuralism rnaintained core concept of "systemic competitiveness" and its strategy of "changing pro-
continuity both in the basic "historical-structural" methodological approach ductíve structures with social equity" with which it has successfully contest-
originally laid down by Prebisch and in the basic economic concerns of the past ed neoliberal ideas.
METHOOOLOGICAl RETREATS . 2S
24 . METHODOlOGICAl RETREATS

provide employment with rising productivity and incomes, for the new mem-
Replacing Economic Surplus with the Quest for"lnternational (ompetitiveness"
bers of the labor force as well as for those sectors of it that have been relegated
Toward the end of his long and productive lífe, Raúl Prebisch under- to the bottom of the social structure with inferior productivity. The social use
scored that of the economiç surplus is a must" (Prebisch, 1985, 67; my translation).
ln contrast to such an analysis, Latin American neostructuralism holds
the root cause of the incapacity of neoclassical thinking to interpret attaining of international competitiveness as the ultimate goal of both eco-
peripheral capitalism lies above ali in its failure to take into consid- nomics and politics. ln so doing, Latin American neostructuralists erase
eration the economic surplus, which is the hub of this systems basic economic surplus as an important analytical category. Consequently, they
characteristics. It disregards the structural heterogeneity wh.ich pos- ignore power relations embedded not only in the economy but also in the
sibilitates the existence of a surplus; it bypasses the structure and dy- production and distribution of "ínternational competitiveness" itself. ln fact,
namics of power which explain how the surplus is appropriated and by renouncing to this theoretical heritage that emphasized the centrality of
shared out; it shuts its eyes to the monetary mechanism of produc- economic surplus, Latin American neostructuralists excises the analysis of
tion wh.ich allows the surplus to be retained by the upper strata, and power relations from three critical dimensions of society in which power re-
it underestimates the waste involved in the ways in which the surplus lations are deeply embedded: (1) the international economy; (2) labor-capital
is currently used. (Prebisch 1981b, 153) relations in production and technical change processes; and (3) in the articu-
lation between production and social reproduction. The result is a utopían
Paradoxically, Presbisch's well-aimed criticism of neoclassical economics, a view of Latin American economies.
body of thought he was never afraid to challenge, can also today be leveled
against Latin American neostructuralism. Along with Celso Furtado, Raúl
lhe Role of Economic Surplus in Structuralist Analysis
Prebisch located the question of the production, appropriation, and distribu-
tion of economic surplus as the key element in their framework for explain- Many observers were surprised by Raul Prebischs explicit embrace of the
ing Latin Américas underdevelopment. In his book, Capitalismo periférico: concept of surplus as central to his critical analysis of peripheral capitalism
Crisis y Transformación, published more than three decades after The Eco- (Di Filippo 1984; Hodara 1977, 1998). Some incorrectly attribute Prebisch's
nomic Development of Latin America 1949 and fully aware of the unfolding shíft as a sign of his adoption of elements of dependency theory and a dis-
"neoclassical counter-revolution," Prebisch reaffums the necessity of struc- tancing from structuralist thought and the economic th.inking of ECLAC.
turally transforming Latin American capitalism because, "at its core, periph- After all, structuralisrns analytical emphasis lay on the differential capture of
eral capitalism is based on inequality. And inequality has its origins, as we "technical progress" between core and periphery countries due to declining
have said, in the capturing of economic surplus mainly by those who con- terms of trade and the different income demand elastisticities existing be-
centrate in their hands the majority of the means of production. Econornic tween them. My contention that neostructuralism represents an intellectual
surplus plays a primary role in my interpretations. It is essentially a structural retreat because it abandons the concept of economic surplus would then be
phenomenon. It is also a dynamic one" (Prebisch 1981b, 15; my translation). baseless or, at best, conflate Prebisch's own thinking in the latter stages ofhis
In contrast, Latin American neostructuralism has abandoned any approach life, with structuralisrn, and with th~ original economic thinking of ECLAC.
that even vaguely locates the production, appropriation, and distribution of Despite the fact that ECLAC neve r mentioned economic surplus in its
major official publications, enough evidence exists to make a strong case
economic surplus as a central concern.
For Prebisch, increasing the efficiency in the social use of the surplus was that, despite never officially endorsed by ECLAC, the concept of economic
central (Welters 2004). lu th.is regard he states, "The solution to the problem surplus became an integral part of the intellectual apparatus used by ECLAC
consists above ali in ensuring that the surplus perform its dynamic role with staff to analyze the obstacles to Latin American underdevelopment. Either
the greatest efficacy possible; that is, that it raises the pace of accumulation and because there was no other concept at the time or because it acknowledged
26 . METHODOLOGICAL RETREATS METHOOOlOGICAL RETREATS . 27

it as a useful tool, the concept of economic surplus plays an important expli- and who contributed to the early development ofECLAC'sinterdisciplinary
cative and formative element in the in the training manuaIs of ECLAC and approach to development, also relies on this concept. In one of the key texts
the Instituto Latinoamericano de Planificación Económica y Social (ILPES, used in the CEPALlILPES training program, he defines economic develop-
Latin American Institute for Economie and Social Planning), through ment in tenns of use of the surplus. Medina defines economic development
which thousands of economists and government planners were exposed as "a continuous process whose essential mechanism consists in repeated ap-
to ECLAC's thinking and structuralist conceptions in Santiago and Brazil plication of the surplus through new investment, that leads likewise, in the
(ILPES 1962). Between 1956 and 1989, 2,388 professional from Brazíl alone incessant expansion of the productive unit under consideratíon" (Medina
had gone through such programs (Santiago 1990). Echeverría 1967,12; my translation).
Aníbal Pinto, José Echeverría Medina, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Celso Furta- Osvaldo Sunkel, another key contributor to the structuralist paradigm
do, ali of whom played an important role in shaping the structuralist para- and one of the first directors of the CEPALllLPES training program, also
digm and in developing the first training texts, designing the curriculum, cites Paul Baran's The Political Economy of Growth, published in 1956, and ap-
and heading ILPES at different times, used the concept of economic surplus plies the concept of economic surplus to the analysis of Latin American un-
as a key explicative tool.' Aníbal Pinto, best known for developing the con- derdevelopment. ln another core text ofthe CEPALlILPES curriculum, Sun-
eept of "structural heterogeneity" as part of the structuralist's analytical tool- kel poses a critical question: What factors explain why the economic surplus
set, uses it in his early intellectua! production.' Writing in 1961, Pinto asks a generated by the export sector were not destined in greater amounts to ben-
key question: Why is it that in Latin American countries, we are onIy able to efit other geographical areas of the country, other social groups, and other
copy the form but not the dynamism and structure of capitalism, as in lhe economic activities (SunkelI967)? Like Pinto, Furtado, and others, Sunkel's
central countries? (Pinto 1961, 34). After a detailed analysis of economic, po- answer revolves around the issue of the economic surplus. According to him,
litical, and cultural factors and acknowledging the work ofPaul Baran, Pinto economic and polítical factors gave Latin American societies a dual charac-
answers this question by using the case of Chile, which he knew well: ter, "which ensured, on the one hand, full participation in the international
economy, and on the other, aliowed the maximum extraction of surplus from
Only partial research has been carried out on the volume of resources interna! productive activities" (Sunke11967, 46; my translation).
extracted from Latin American economies by foreign investors, but it When Prebisch was finally free from "executive responsíbílitíes" at ECLAC
would be very hard to arrive at an adequate measure of this bleed- and UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), he
ing. As an exarnple, one can point to the case of Chile, which still in entered what he called the "fifth stage" of his career and was able "for the
the decade of the 1920s for each dollar of copper exported, the return first time in many years, to review and systematically develop [his] thínk-
to Chile under the item of internal costs and taxes was less than 25 ing" (Prebisch 1996, 771-72; my translation). Part of that revision was to once
cents. On top of this direct and heavy extraction, one should add that again pose and seek a coberent answer to the question of why the develop-
derived from trade and financial control by foreign individuaIs and ment process was accompanied by rising income and wealth inequality. As he
firms. Undoubtedly, through sue h mechanisms, a great percentage himself acknowledges, that search led him "to review with a critica! spirit my
of the "surplus" that could have been theoreticaliy used to accelerate earlier ideas. There were valid elements in thern, but they were far from consti-
the growth of dependent economies leaked out, in fact, strengthen- tuting a comprehensive theoretical system. I conduded that it was necessary to
ing the position of the industrialized countries. (Pinto 1961, 39; my develop a framework that looked beyond just economics" (Prebisch 1996, 782;
translation) my translation). Such a quest led him to identify the analytical centrality of the
economic surplus. His efforts did not represent, however, a great innovation
José Medina Echevería, a sociologist who was director ofILPES, a key produc- or a paradigmatic break; rather it merely revalued a conceptual category that,
er of these texts that were to be part of the CEPALlILPES Training Program, as we have seen, had been already incorporated and extensively used by his
28 . MHHOOOlOGICAl RETREATS METHOOOlOGICAl RETREATS . 29

dosest collaborators. As Nora Lustig points out, "although no version of the of structural underemployment. This conception also holds that these two
term exploitation appears explicitly in any of the structuralist literature, the structural conditions give rise, together, to a third tendency: deterioration in
notions of surplus generation and appropriation do emerge-along with the the terms of trade" (Hounie et al, 1999, 10).
identification of the losers in this process: the periphery versus the center, In discarding lhe "center-periphery" model,' Latin American neostruc-
workers versus capitalists, campesinos versus the urban sector, and finally, turalists have thrown out the baby with the bathwater; the "center-periphery"
the very poor versus the rest of society" (Lustig 1991, 28). has been replaced by a short-term perspective that examines only the ma c-
Yet, the notion of the production, appropriation, and distribution of sur- roeconomic role of the "external sector" but no longer places Latin Americas
plus has completely vanished from neostructuralist literature at a time when trade, investment, and other externallinks within the framework and struc-
transformations in the world and Latin American economies make it ana- tural dynamics of the capitalist world economy (Osorio 2002).
Iytically more necessary than ever. ln the same way that the crisis of the ISI regime of accumulation led to
abandoning the concept of economic surplus, changes in the international
division oflabor during the 1960s and 1970s set off a sequence of events that
Jettisoning a Systemic Approach and the Core-Periphery Model led to rebuffing structuralísms systemic approach and disowning the notion
The originality of the structuralist paradigm lay in conceiving that "the pro- that the particularities of Latin American underdevelopment were anchored
eess of development and underdevelopment is a single process: that the center on the regions unique peripheral status, its historically based structural het-
and periphery are closely interrelated, forming part of one world economy" erogeneity, and declining terms of trade. Armando Di Filippo, a long time
(Kay 1989, 26). By locating the problerns of development within the context ECLAC staff member, in an artide titled "The Center-Periphery Framework
of single world economy, Latin American development thinkers of the struc- 'Ioday,' published in the Spanish-only special 1998 issue of CEPAL Review
turalist and dependency schools were able to analyze trade, investment, and to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of ECLAC, asserts that the grow-
technology patterns with a systemic perspective. Challenging mainstream ing role of intrasector, intraindustrial, and intrafirm trade of goods and the
approaches of the time, they conceived "development" as a holistic process expansion of trade in services in international trade rendered the old geo-
characterized by profound inequalities rooted in the development of capital- graphical notions of center-periphery mode! obsolete (Di Filippo 1998). New
ism itself on a world scale. One outcome of such a framework was the cen- mechanisms for the international distribution of increases in productivity
ter-periphery model, which explained Latin American underdevelopment had emerged. ECLAC's historic preoccupation with understanding the way
on the basis of an international division oflabor that reserved manufactured increases in productivity derived from technical changes were distributed
goods and capture of technological progress by the center, while the majority needed to be thoroughly reconceptualized. Consequently, Di Filippo argued,
ofThird World countries specialized in the production of raw materiais. De- "the issue of the terms of trade between manufaetured for primary prod-
spite its often cited shortcomings-a focus on circulation, not production (or ucts has become a topie of deereasing economic importance" (Di Filippo
rather on the ali the circuits encompassing the accumulation
this mode of frarning the problems of Latin American development as part
of capital)-
I 1998, 117; my translation). The old view that conceived a systemic pattern of
unequal exchange between center and the periphery of the world capitalist
of single world economy and capitalist system gave rise to a rich and diverse economy had to be discarded, because in the new global economic con-
intellectnal tradition that shaped both the official pronouncements of ECLAC, text, "foreígn direct investment transfers to the periphery high productiv-
the thinking of its staff, and the formation of generations of economists and I ity technology" that, combined with peripheral real wages lower than those
from the center, "generate profits from productivity gains in the periphery
government planners during the 1950-75 years. It generalized the use of what
:1 that are transnationally appropriated to be either invested in the peripheries
Prebisch and others called "peripheral capitalism" to underscore the historical
specificity of Latin American econornic underdevelopment. It could be said,
then, that "accordíng to the original ECLAC eonception specialization is the
f themselves or remitted in the form of profits or repatriated as equity to the
head offiees in the central countries" (Di Filippo 1998, 117; my translation).
underlying reason for externa! imbalanee, while heterogeneity lies at the root 1 Within this new context, Latin American neostructuralism "assumes that for
._~_ ...
30 . METHODOLOGICAl RETREATS METHODOlOGICAl RETREATS . 31

products of equivalent quality, there will be sufficient increases in labor pro- capital and the multinational corporation who, like a Rostowian patrón, dis-
ductivity so as to be able to compete via a reduction in international prices pense technological progress throughout the globe: "Technical progress is
and, at the same time, wil! alIow for increasing the real wages of the labor transferred from the centers towards the peripheries through two essential
force in the períphery that contributes to produce them" (Di Filippo 1998, mechanisms. On the one hand, the export of computer and telecommunica-
118;my translation). tions equipment through which the advances of informational technology is
These two questionable assumptions-that foreign direct investment realized; on the other hand, direct investment in the production of goods and
(FDI) acts as a diffuser of technical progress and that the sustained increase services in which the installation of subsidiaries by transnational corporations
in the productivity of labor engaged in the production of international com- implies the transplant of technological processes, frequently endowed with
modities will simultaneously lead to lower international prices and rising productivity comparable to that of the centers themselves" (Di Filippo 1998,
wages-are at the heart of the jettisoning of the historico-structural analyti- 123; my translation).
cal approach. ECLAC's neostructuralists retain the labels of "center" and Based on this biased reading of the transformations and forces driving
"períphery" but now only as empty shells, as vestiges of an intellectual past economic globalization, Latin American neostructuralism buries the core
best forgotten. contents of structuralist thought. Toward the mid-1990s, Peter Evans asked,
Such a shift is defended on the basis of two assumptions. First, the new "Are positions in the International Division of Labor structurally determined
mechanisms for the distribution of labor productivity increments in the or is there room for agency? Put more simply, can countries delíberately
reshaped world economy, "will Iead to the convergence in the living stan- change the position they fill in the international division of labor?" (Evans
dards between developed and developing countries"(Di Filippo 1998, 118; 1995,8). By jettisoning the center-periphery mode!, neostructuralists seemed
my translation). Consequently, the nature of the main conflict facing coun- to lean toward defending the role of agency and the notion that, through an
tries has been drastically redrawn and is no longer pitting the center against act of political will, such positions could be transformed if "developmental-
the periphery over the appropriation of technical progress or the surplus. A ist" replaced "predatory" states.' The difference between structuralist and
new international distribution of the increments of labor productivity has neostructuralists defense of agency is sígníficant, In the structuralist imagi-
emerged in whích, thanks to its high mobility, transnational productive capi- nary, the collective will of the nation represented by the national-deve!op-
tal bec~mes the bearer of high technology and innovation, basically favoring mentalist state took the form of the state's involvement in steering the pro-
"knowledge workers." Thus the "center-periphery" mode! ceases to be analyt- cess of capital accumulation. In the neostructuralist imaginary, the defense
ically relevant. For peripheral countries, the key to development has become of agency involves two important differences. First, transnational capital and
how to capture the benefits of globalization: "It is no longer, therefore, na- transnational corporations have been annointed as the crucial actors in the
tional frontiers between centers and peripheries that delimit the distribution diffusion of technological progress and development itse\f. Second, political
from the increments in productivity, but it is the frontiers of the knowledge agency ~as been redefined essentially as an act of "rornancíng capital;' that
acquitted between non -skilled and skilled workers. The forces that drive this ís, into displaying leadership and levels of coordination that ensure that all
new world context are those of technological and productive globalization subsystems, social energies, and sectors will be harnessed to serve foreign
based on the quest of competitive advantages on the part of transnational investors' demands. Polítical agency is no longer conceived an exercise of
corporations" (Di Filippo 1998, 118;my translation). P?litical will over the use of social surplus, which under the 1S1-regime of
By erroneously equating the distribution of technical progress with the .accumulation took the form of state-Ied industrialization, public enterprises,
reorganization of production, ECLAC analysts such as Di Filippo see a rosy , and protected markets.
picture. Technical progress is no longer captured by the center in detriment i ..In abandoning a systemic approach, Latin American neostructuralists
of the periphery. On the contrary, now the "center" becomes the main source' ~scarded notions about the specificity of peripheral capitalism and moved
and distributor of technical progress worldwide. As the "center" no longer ~:oW~d accepting an enlightened version of modernization theory. Hence, the
refers to a geographic region, the new bearers of progress are transnational econd act of intellectual retreat was consummated when Latin American
I
METHODOlOGICAl RETREATS . 33
12 . METHODOlOGICAl RETREATS !
neostructuralism also disposed the "hístoríco-structural" approach that I time of increasing contagion and vuinerability produced by the integration
framed the problems of Latin American development within the context of of markets, neostructuralists can claim to be on the leading edge of what
I'
the development of the capitalist system on a world scale. the World Bank and lhe lnternational Monetary Fund (IMF) have belatedly
discovered, namely that "good macroeconomic policy is not enough; good
~ institutions are critical for macroeconomic stability in todays world of global
I
A Oomesticated Notion or Politics financial integration" (Burki and Perry 1998,5).
Neostructuralisms advantage over neoliberalism is that it reincorporates This mode of incorporating politics and institutions (increasingly influ-

i
polítics, institutions, and culture into development discourse and the for- enced both by new institutionalist economics and the Third Way) explains
mulation of economic policy. Understanding that ali economic activities are the conundrum presented by Latin American neostructuralism, namely how
embedded within a broader set of social, political, and cultural relations ! one of its defining characteristics, that is, its attention to politics and institu-
enables neostructuralists to politically challenge neoliberals as to who is I tions, coexists and is covalent with the marginalization of power from eco-
better equipped to manage globalizing processes. As Hoff and Stiglitz have
stated, these efforts form part of a welcomed restorative thrust, for "in leav-
I nomic analysis.
The old "ECLAC" ofPrebisch and Furtado, criticized justly so for lacking
íng out institutions, history, and distributional considerations, neoclassi- a coherent analysis of the capitalist state, for underestimating the role of class
cal economics leaves out the heart of development economics" (Hoff and
t struggle in shaping economic development, or for not paying enough atten-

Stiglitz 2000, 390). I tion to the production


derstanding
of surplus, at least had a much more grounded
of the role that power played in socioeconomic development
un-
Such restoration, however, is misleading as an important act of legerde-
main is carried out: politics and institutions are given a central role but are no
! and preserved a clear analytical link between institutional change and
longer analytically linked to the process of the accumulation of capital and /:i, socioeconomic power relations. Under the influence of new institutional
;'A economics and the Third Way, Latin American neostructuralism restricts
struggles over the appropriation ar distribution of economic surplus. On the
contrary, politics has been safely penned within the parameters prescribed I the role of institutions and politics to (1) allocating costs and risk in mar-
kets; (2) facilitating processes of technological innovation and productivity
by the United States' new institutionalist
failure, reduction of transaction
economics:
costs, coordination,
overcoming market
and risk management I increases; (3) ensuring governability, governance, and legitimacy by promot-
ing nonmarket and voluntary forms of coordination; and (4) shaping behav-
in the context of globally integrated markets. Politics and institutions are
given a role insofar as they become subordinate and complementary to the iors and subjectivity by operating at the symbolic and socioemotionallevels.
dictates of lhe market, facilitate a dynamic entry into global markets, and en- Though this approach allows neostucturalists to successfully dispute leader-
sure governability of globalization processes within the existing status quo. ship posts in national and transnational state apparatuses, it also deeply em-
Paraphrasing Hoff and Stiglitz, neostructuralists transplant politics and insti- beds un~olvable contradictions within neostructuralism's polítical economy,
tutions back into the body of economics but in a manner such that this new discourse, and historical action.
post-neoliberal heart ís prevented from pumping question of class, power, In abandoning ISI policies and the ISI regime of accumuJation (clearly
in crisis from the mid-1960s onward), Latin American neostructuralists also
and structural change."
This particularly sanitized modality of conceiving the role of polítics and abandoned the theoretical and methodological approach that in the 1950s
institutions partially explains the contradictory nature of neostructuralism, had won structuralists international acclaim. In the process, they intellectu-
an ambivalence that both enhances and li.mits its historical role. By incorporat- ally severed links with those traditions within political economy that have
íng politics and institutions, it is able to displace neoliberal economists from long examined the predominant role that power plays in economics.' Sígnífi-
their post of state managers, arguing that, unlike them, they do not ignore cant aspects of economic relationships-the orgartization ofwork, international
the institutional context in which markets operate and "by which the costs of trade and financial relations. the operation of markets, and distribution between
market transactions are determined" (Cameron 2004, 98). Additionally, at a wages and profits-"involve power, coercion, hierarchy, subordination and
MElHODOlOGICAl RHRlATS . 35
34 . MElHODOlOGICAl RETRlATS

authority" (Bowles et alo 2005, 54). As Latin American econornies experi- conflicts arising from globalization, and above all, harnessing social energies

enced far-reaching process of restructuring, ECLAC emptied out its ana- and societal systems to the quest for international competitiveness.
Third, the logic of distribution was seen as detachable from the logic of
lytical arsenal. By sacrificing the centrality of economic surplus and power
export-oriented (EO) accumulation. Greater equity would not be the re-
relations during the transition from structuralism to neostructuralism,
snlt of social reforms but would flow from increased exports and economic
ECLAC gouged out the vision, enabling it to see beyond the immediate
growth. The main obstacles to greater economic justice were not the concen-
and the short-term. The crisis of ISI and transformations in the world
tration of urban and rural productive assets Íl1 a few hands or the concentra-
economy brought about by globalizing capital, as vast as they might
tion of income and conspicuous luxury consumption of Latin America's
seem, do not provide a convincing and logical explanation for such meth-
richest decile concentrating more than 40 percent of national income. The
odological retreats.
obstacles to development were now those barriers preventing dynamic
entry into global markets.
Reversing Key Structuralist Tenets
Spurred on by these interconnected methodological shifts-discarding the Trajectory of an Intellectual Retreat
centrality of lhe economic surplus, abandonment of a systemic approach
A methodological retreat of the scope already described was bound to have
represented by the. center-periphery paradígm, marginalizing power reJa-
powerful aftershocks. Indeed, it turned ECLAC's development strategy up-
tions by delinking of politics and institutions from accumulation and distri-
side down and realigned the institution politically and intellectually behind
bution-the gateway opened to reverse the founding proposition of structur- the expansive logic of transnational capital. The reversal of structuralist
alíst thinking and Latin American polítical economy (see Petras and Leiva notions repositioned ECLAC from being an entity oriented by the trans-
1994,64-73). formative and reformative zeal of structuralism seeking to overcome Latin
Pirst, instead ofbeing the root and propagating mechanism for econornic American underdevelapment through state-led industrialization to being an
underdevelopment, the internationalization of productive and commercial institution promoting status-quo friendly policies that placed private trans-
structures was now welcome and seen as the main route to achieve produc- national capital as the main agent of econornic and social development.
tive modernization. Previously conceived as mechanisms for deepening un- Neostructuralism's retreat has been a two- faced process consisting both of
derdevelopment, foreign capital and transnational corporations now became conceptual renewal and compression. It is observable before 1990, during the
the key levers for productive modernization and technical change. Achiev- passage from structuralism to neostructuralism, but it has continued after
ing systemic competitiveness and a "dynamic" entry into global markets now neostructuralism's officiallaunching. The renewal and gutting of structural-
depended on enticing private transnational and domestic capital to fulfill its isrns transformative ambition and its conversion into a status-quo enhancing
neo-Schumpeterian role attributed by Fajnzylber and the "new ECLAC:' paradigm can be seen as unfolding in three distinct stages: (1) Passage from
Second, private capitalists, private firms, and markets (not the state or its Stnucturalism to Neostructuralism (1983-89); (2) "Early" Neostructuralism
role in socializing economic surplus to ensure its social efficiency as Prebisch's (1990-98); and (3) "Middle 'Neostructuralism''' (1999-2007).
analysis of peripheral capitalism argued) were transformed into the key ,
agents of economic development. The state and public policy were no longer sage'frqm Structuralism to Neostructuralism: Mea Culpo (7983-89)
conceived as organizing societal capabilities to ensure that collective interests '.. :.\\ /,'/

about the use of society's economic surplus were fulfilled. The "new ECLAC" , ~gh9Jlt the 1970s and early 1980s, prior to the publication of neostruc-
reconceptualized the role of public policy and the state as that of safeguard- rns founding document, ECLAC was unable to articulate a coherent
ing macroeconomic balances, ensuring greater coordination among private sàl capable of challenging the neoliberal policies supported by the
producers and better articulation of private and public initiatives, managing. Bank and the IMF, which partly thanks to the repressive power of
METHODOLOGICAL RETREATS . 37
36 . METHOOOLOGICAl RHREATS

Latin America's military, imposed comprehensive programs of structural re- for supparting the ISl strategy. Different authors (Ffrench-Davis 1986; Rosales

forms. As the then Secretary General of ECLAC, Gert Rosenthal, recalls that 1988; Bitar 1988; Lustig 1988; Sunkel and Zuleta 1990; Bertholomeiu et aI. 2005)

"the institution was frankly on the defensive, both in terrns of the collective have catalogued the errors of the past that would have to be exorcised in order
imaginary as well as in the academic world" (Rosenthal 2000, 74; my transla- to lay the foundations for neostructuralism. These included the foliowing:

tion). Caught between the onslaught of neoliberal orthodoxy and structur-


alism's policy proposals supportive of the failing ISI -rnodel, the leadership of L Weak hanclling of short-term macroeconomic policies

ECLAC confronted a daunting question: What development paradigm could 2. Faulty understanding and attention to monetary and financial

be offered to the region? Facing increasing pressure to provide an answer, aspects of development
ECLAC found itself intellectually disoriented and theoretically disarmed 3. Excessive trust on the value of state intervention and distrust of the
for responding to the new challenges and historical conditions. Again, Gert market
Rosenthal describes the intellectual climate amid the staff he directed during 4. Complacent attitude toward inflation and fiscal deficits

this period: "Some staff members leaned toward defending the cepalino rnes- S. Utilization of price setting of key commodities as a distributive

sage of yore, while others were finding certain merits to the theoretical winds mechanism
that were starting to blow, specially in the Southern Cone" (Rosenthal 2000, 6. Omission of external constraint considerations

74).Buffeted by these crosswinds, ECLAC found itself lacking a theoretical 7. Attention to only demand-side and ignoring of supply side consid-

compass for a goód part of the 1980s. According to Rosenthal, "For many erations in the design of income distribution policies

years, there was no synthesis of the internal debate into a renovated and co- 8. Underestimating the role of expectations in the evolution of mac-

herent message, but rather different proposals that offered ambiguous and roeconomíc aggregates
even contradictory signals regarding the institutional stance" (2000,75). 9. Allowing a political management of state enterprises

It was not until under the intellectual leadership of Fernando Fajnzyl- 10. Export-pessimism
ber, when ECLAC published "Changing Production Patterns with Social Eq-
uity" (1990), that the defensiveness, perplexity, and internal disarray could .In sum, this comprehensive catalogue of publicly acknawledged policy mis-
be overcome. The new ECLAC proposal Changing Production Patterns with takes can be interpreted in many different manners. Either ECLAC econo-

Social Equity (CPPSE) was produced under constraints and designed spe- mists finally saw the light and learned a lesson about the importance of sound
macroeconomic management, or, alternatively, they theoretically surrendered
cifically to overcome a defensive posture. Former ECLAC secretary General
Gert Rosenthal identified the main components of this context as (1) the to the main criticisms leveled against them by neoclassical and neoliberal
economists. Independent of the interpretation, this mea culpa in the realm
resurgence of orthodox economics; (2) the "incipient phenomenon" of the
of economic policy making was coupled to their recognition that efforts to
internationalization of the economy: (3) the response to the deep econom-
bring about social transformation ended in what one ECLAC economist
ic crisis faced by the region after 1982; (4) the predominance of short-term
called the "Greek Tragedy of social change" (Rosales 1991, 5). The setting was
economic policy as opposed to medium and long-term proposals "given the
. then established for the contradictory double movement that, combining
conjunctural obsession of the moment was simply to survice" (Rosenthal
~onceptual innovation and retreat, was to lead to the formulation of Latin
2000, 77; my translation): and lastly (5) the mounting evidence that the
Ametican neostructuralism.
import-substitution strategy reached its lirnits and was exhausted! :
When ECLAC finally was able to articulate the propasal contained 111
l1
CPPSE, ECLAC ecanamists had undergone an intellectual transfarmatio . Latin American Neostructuralism (7990-98)
First, to their dismay, they realized that the banner of structural transforma~
ing "earlv" neostructuralisrn, ECLAC deployed the CPPSE framework and
tion had been wrested from their hands by their former neoliberal monetar-
ded it so that ali realms of economic and public policy would become
ists adversaries. Second, they otfered what 1 have called a "public mea culpa"
38 . METHODOlOGICAl RETREATS METHODOlOGICAl RETREATS . 39

conceptually subordinated to the logic of achieving "systernic cornpetitive- its functions if the fiscal covenant is not operative. There is a tremen-
ness," The initial CPPSE approach was expanded to include the environment dous need, then, to reconstruct and renew the fiscal covenant. This is
(1991), educational policy (1992), public and social policy(1993), international undoubtedly an enormous task politically and technically; but, as this
trade and economic policy (1994), economic policymaking (1996), and fiscal analysis attempts to show, the elements required 10 undertake it are
policy (1998) through a series of institutional books prepared for the sessions at hand, and it is therefore not only necessary but possible. (ECLAC
of the Commission. Through these publications, the new neostructuralist 1998,11)
paradigm sought to both critique and demonstrate its superiority over the
neoliberal approach. Achíeving these twin goals depended on convincingly The key phrases for this new fiscal covenant are (1) consolidation of the ex-
arguing that Latin American neostructuralism paid attention to market so- isting reforrns, (2) promotion of a stable macroeconomic environment; and
cial, politica!, and institutional

macro levels of intervention.


variables and, by so doing, conceived policy
design as a much more integrated process, encompassing micro, meso, and

The "early" period is thus marked by a sort of blind confidence on the


I
r
(3) commitment

and strengthening
of the government to using resources efficiently. Having set
these objectives, the fiscal covenant must also ensure transparency,
of democratic institutions.
uisite íf the region is to make further progress toward its goal of changing
equity,
Such a covenant "is a prereq-

benefits that Latin American countries will reap from the high road to glo- production patterns wíth social equity" (ECLAC 1998, 11).
balization. Such optimism wanes as a result of the Asian financial crisis, a

II
period of financial ínstability and contagion that coincided with the replace-
Míddle Latín Amerícan Neo5tructuralísm (1999-2007)
ment of Gert Rosenthal with the former Finance Minister of Colombia,
José Antonio Ocampo, as the new Executive Secretary of ECLAC. With the The Asian financial crisis and similar experiences of financial contagion pro-
publication, The Fiscal Covenant: Strength, Weaknesses, Challenges (ECLAC duced a shift ín neostructuralist discourse. The Asian financial crisis punc-
1998), Latin American neostructuralisrn shífts its attention more and more tured neostructuralisrns initial optimism about the "high road" along with
to questions of macroeconomic policy management. The definitive praof of t dramatically ilIustrating that countries already on it, showing "sound macro-
capacity to exercise leadership over society begins now to be measured not economic fundamentals," could be seriously affected by the underestimated
just by displaying a balanced budget achieved in many countries during the
1980s through drastic cutbacks in social services, but also through exercising
.j ugly underside
attention
of globalization.
to the vulnerability
ECLAC economists
of countries
began to pay growing
caused by international capital
political leadership over the diiferent actors so as to be able to construct a flows, propelling them into debates about the necessity of creating a new
consensus around the "fiscal covenant" global financial architecture and global institutions to produce "global public
A compromise among different social actors as to how State resources are goods" for addressing the nega tive aspects of globalization. Whereas Chang-
to be used becomes essential for ECLAC because, as it explains in its 1998 ing Production Patterns offered new vistas and possibilities, the message of
pubJication, ECLAC's central document for this new period, Productive Development il1

Open Economies (ECLAC 2004), bas the stale tone ofWashington-based de-
the success of the profound transformation of the economy that velopment institutions of old in the midst of the unraveling of the Wash-
ís now taking place ... will falter if the State is not in a posítíon to ington Consensus. The message becomes "Keep to the same course despite
make its essential contribution. Privatization of public utilities, for failures and high costs; design palliative measures to address dífficultíes" As
example, must be accompanied by effective regulation, accumulated the approach promoted by Productive Development states, "ECLAC contends
human capital and quality infrastructure are essential to economic ~Ji;\tthe region must build upon the progress it has already made, but it also
grawth; and equity in the distribution of the fruits of development has to dose existing gaps and address unresolved issues. The inroads made
is necessary to the political and social stability required for stable in these areas may play a vital role in consolidating the regions fuller inte-
growtb. But tbe State cannot systematicalJy and efficiently carry out gration into the worId economy and in ensuring that the social, economic
40 METHODOlOGICAl RETREATS METHODOLOGICAl RETREATS 41

and polítical costs of the economic reform process have not been incurred in Despite sophisticated analyses, ample availability of data, and increased
vain" (ECLAC 2004,13). emphasis on the quality of governance, ECLAC's Productive Development
To successfully confront these problems, ECLAC proposes more of the in Open Economies reaffirms neostructuralisms commitment to the existing
same: development strategy:

In order to accomplish this, the "more market and less State" ap- In seeking to highlight the link between the external constraint and
proach that guided the economic reforrn process must give way to the production structure, the former is defined as a balanced trade
an emphasis on properly functioning markets and quality in gov- account or a sustainable trade deficit .... Within this framework,
ernance. This new approach, which entails the use of active public as the econorny's rei ative productivity rises, it will become more
policies capable of overcoming both market and government failures, competitive, and its export capacity will therefore increase. lhis wil!
can prove to be more market-friendly than the line of reasoning that permit it to finance a larger volume of imports, thus generating a
was the driving force behind the initial reforms. These active public virtuous circle of growth that will, in its turn, spur future productiv-
policies must be backed by the politicallegitimacy afforded by demo- ity gains. ln the opposite case-Le., if the economy's reI ative competi-
cratic institutions and must be founded upon public Iransparency as tiveness declines- then the smaller volume of exports will create a
well as efficienl, effeclive govemment programmes subject to strict need for a higher volume of capital inflows to finance the economy's
oversíght and evaluation. (ECLAC 2004, 13-14) larger trade imbalance. The region's past experience demonstrates
that when external financing requirements are on the rise, the situa-
Thus, after 1998 instead of rethinking their assumptions, neostructuralists tion becomes untenable and nsually ends up triggering recessionary
retreaded their discourse away from "changing productive structures with adjustments. 1his analysis underscores the importance, within the
social equiry" toward an emphasis on "managíng globalization" through bet- context of open economies, of achieving productivity gains, since
ter public policies. After 1998, evidence about the shortcomings of neoliberal this is what ultimately drives export growth. If domestic productivity
policies mounted with unparalleled speed. Pushed by these events, main- is determined by aggregate demand and the production structures
stream economists and international financial institutions like the World ability to absorb, generate and diffuse knowledge and innovations,
Bank and the IMF abandoned their dogmatic neoliberal approach of the then production policies should be designed to fortify these factors.
1980s and increasingly accepted the importance of equity and of institutions (ECLAC 2004, 162)

I
and politics in economic policy making.
By 2002, with the publication of Globalization and Development, ECLAC The four type of policies encouraged within such a framework by Productive
realized it could no longer remain blind to the asymmetries and mounting Developrnent in Open Economies are (1) policies to better position the region
number of "losers" generated by globalizing processes. Even though, during within the international economy; (2) technological development and inno-
the 1990s, Latin America and the Caribbean could show stellar figures in vation policies; (3) policies for enterprise development and job creation in
terms of FDI and export growth, ECLAC's commitment to modernization the formal sectors, and (4) policies that strengthen productive structure by
via internationalization failed to deliver the promised outcomes. Neoliberal fostering and consolidating strategic sectors. These policies contribute to fur-
meltdown in Argentina and rising popular discontent reaffinned neostruc- ther intensify the three intellectual retreats previously discussed and further
turalisrns critique of neoliberalism but did not lead toward questioning the subordinates public policies to the requirements oftransnational capital and
failed assumptions embraced by the new ECLAC. On the contrary, during the local conglomerates that dominate most Latin American economies.
this period, lhe intellectual retreat that began in the late 1980s was further
consolidated.