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Direct Torque Control of Three Phase Induction Motor Using Fuzzy Logic

Mr. Rajendra S. Soni1, Prof. S. S. Dhamal2

1

Student, M. E. Electrical (Control Systems), K. K. Wagh College of Engg.& Research, Nasik

2

Asso. Professor, Department of Electrical Engg.,K. K. Wagh College of Engg.& Research, Nasik

Induction motor drives using field oriented (CVH) strategy, so called because it adjusts the stator

voltage magnitude proportionally to the operating

control (FOC) for torque and flux control have

frequency to keep the IM stator flux approximately

been used in high performance industrial

constant. This is a simple control technique, but it has

applications instead of dc motors for many

a limited and non-accurate speed range, particularly

years. In FOC, torque and flux of an induction

at low speeds, and has a poor torque response.

motor can be controlled independently by The introduction of the vector control

decoupling the stator current into its technique partially solves the IM control problem. In

orthogonal components. The FOC method has the 70s, F. Blaschke developed the IM Field

achieved a quick torque response. But in order Oriented Control (FOC). In this scheme, torque and

to achieve expected performance from FOC, flux of an induction motor are controlled

exact identification of parameters is required. independently by decoupling the stator current into

its orthogonal components. The FOC method has

A new torque and flux control scheme called

achieved a quick torque response. In FOC, exact

the direct torque control (DTC) has been

identification of parameters is required.

introduced for induction motors. In DTC the

In the 80s, new IM torque control

torque and flux of an induction motor can be

techniques was developed. Takahasi& Noguchi

controlled directly by applying a suitable presented the Direct Torque Control (DTC). It is

voltage vector to the stator of an induction most convenient for low and medium power

motor. However, convectional DTC result in applications. In the DTC scheme, the inverter bridge

large torque and flux ripples. In this paper, a switch connections are directly selected using

controller based on fuzzy logic is designed to aqualitative behavior rule set in order to control

improve the performance of DTC and reduce the stator flux and the torque. The DTC scheme

the torque and flux ripple. produces a fast torque response while keeping

Keywords the IM stator flux and torque decoupled. With

Induction Motor Drives, FOC, DTC, Fuzzy Logic, this scheme the torque and flux presents a high

Orthogonal Components, Torque and Flux ripples. ripple.

1. Introduction The main advantages of DTC are

The Induction Motor (IM), developed in absence of coordinate transformation and current

the last century, is extensively used in AC converters. regulator; absence of separate voltage

However, the IM control system is much more

modulation block, common disadvantages of

complex and expensive. The most common scalar

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 6 Number 3- Dec 2013

conventional DTC are high torque ripple and and currents. The stator flux is an integral of the

the torque. In this paper all three methods for

torque and flux control of induction motor i.e.

FOC, DTC and DTC using fuzzy logic are

explained.

2. Conventional Direct Torque

Control

The DTC scheme is very simple in function;

in its basic configuration it consists of hysteresis

controllers, torque and flux estimator and a switching

table. The basic concept of DTC is to control directly Figure 01: Basic direct torque control scheme

both the stator flux linkage (or rotor flux linkage, or

The developed torque is obtained by the

magnetizing flux linkage) and electromagnetic torque

product of stator current and flux as shown below

of machine simultaneously by the selection of

optimum inverter switching modes. The use of a Tel = s . j s (02)

switching table for voltage vector selection provides

In DTC scheme the error between the

fast torque response, low inverter switching

estimated torque Teland the reference torque Tel*is

frequency and low harmonic losses without the

the input of a three level hysteresiscomparator

complex field orientation by restricting the flux and

defining the error torque state LTin modulus and sign,

torque errors within respective flux and torque

whereas the error between the estimated statorflux

hysteresis bands with the optimum selection being

magnitude sand the reference stator flux magnitude

made. The DTC controller consists of two hysteresis

s*is the input of a two level hysteresis comparator

comparator (flux and torque) to select the switching

defining the error flux state L. With this

voltage vector in order to maintain flux and torque

information, a voltage selector determines the stator

between upper and lower limit.The DTC scheme of

voltage that is required to increase or decrease the

induction motor drive is explained in detail.

variables (torque or flux) according to the demands.

2.1 The Basic Direct Torque Control (DTC)

The selection of the appropriate voltage vector is

Scheme

based on a switching table.

The Basic direct torque control scheme is

3. Direct Torque Control Of

shown below. For implementing the control

Induction Motor Using Fuzzy

loop, the actual stator flux (amplitude and

Logic

orientation) and electromagnetic torque are

Direct torque control (DTC) of induction

calculated by an estimator from the statorvoltages

motor directly controls theelectromagnetic torque and

stator flux linkage. It has many good features, such as

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 6 Number 3- Dec 2013

parameters and fast torque response. However, big

torque and flux linkage ripples is a main problem

associated with the conventional DTC method

because of the use of two-value hysteretic controllers

for the stator flux linkage. Therefore, the fuzzy logic

(FL) method based on the language rules, is

employed to solve this nonlinear issue.

3.1 Principle Of Fuzzy Direct Control Figure 3: Partition of the d, q Plane into 6 Angular

The fuzzy controller is designed to have

Sectors

three fuzzy state Variables and one control variable

Figure 4 is the membership function of flux

for achieving direct torque control of the induction

linkage error i.e. the difference between actual stator

machine, there are three variable input fuzzy logic

flux and reference flux.

controllers, the stator flux error, electromagnetic

torque error, and angle of flux stator respectively the

output it is the voltage space vector shown in Figure

2.

Figure 2: Fuzzy Logic Controller 3.3 Electromagnetic Torque Error

3.2 Flux Linkage Error The electromagnetic torque error Temis

The errors of flux linkage is related to related to desired torque value Tref and actual torque

reference value of stators flux sref and real value of value Temsubject to equation 04 as shown below,

stators flux s, they are subject to equation, = (04)

= (03) In domain 1, V2 and V6 will make torque

Voltage vector shall cause different increase rapidly, V1 and V5 will make torque

affection to stators flux in different flux position increase rapidly, V4 will make torque increase slowly

shown in Figure 3, given that stators flux locates in and V3, V0 and V7 will make torque increaseslowly.

domain 1, then V4 will make flux increase rapidly,

V3 will make flux decrease rapidly, V5 and V6 will

make flux increase slowly; and V1 and V2 will make

flux decrease slowly, we use the three following

linguistic terms: negative value, zero value and

positive value denoted respectively N, Z and P. Three

fuzzy sets are then defined by the delta and

trapezoidal membership functions as given by Figure Figure 5: Membership Function for

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 6 Number 3- Dec 2013

language variable, i, e. Positive Large (LP), Positive weighting factor i for ith rule can be written as:

Small (PS), Negative Small (NS), and Negative = min ( ), ( ), ( )

Large (NL), their membership functions distribution

- - - - - - - - - (06)

is shown as Figure 5.

By fuzzy reasoning, Mamdani's minimum procedure

3.4 Angle of Flux Linkage (S)

gives:

The angle of flux linkage s is an angle

( ) = min ( , ( )) - - - (07)

between stators flux s and a reference axis is

defined by equation: The membership function N of the output n is point

given by,

= arctan (05)

( ) = max = 180 ( , ( ))

In (05), (ds, qs) are the component of flux

- - - - - - - - - (08)

linkages in the plane (d, q) on the basis of voltage

In this case, the outputs are crisp; the

vector shown as Figure 03. The fuzzy variable s may

maximum criterion is used for defuzzification. By

be described by 12 language values (112), its

this method, the fuzzy of output which has the

membership functions distribution is shown Figure

maximum possibility distribution, is used as control

6.

output.

( ) = max = 7 ( ( ))

- - - - - - - - - (09)

Depending on the membership function

values of electromagnetic torque error Tem,

flux linkage error sand stator flux

position s, a suitable voltage vector will be

Figure 6: Membership Function for Flux Position

applied to the induction motor stator so that

3.5 The Control Variable

The control variable is the inverter switching errors in electromagnetic torque and stator

state (n). In a six step inverter, seven distinct flux will be minimized as per the following

switching states are possible. The switching states are rules tables.

crisp thus do not need a fuzzy membership

TABLE 01: Fuzzy Logic Rules

distribution. Each control rule can be described using

1

the state variables s, Temand s and the control

variable n (characterizing the inverter switching Tem PL PS Z NS N

state). The ith rule Ri can be written as: s L

Ri: If s is Ai, Tem is Bi and s is Ci then n is Ni P V6 V1 V0 V2 V2

These rules are established using Mamdani's

Z V6 V6 V0 V0 V3

procedure based on min-max decision. The

membership functions of variables A, B, C and N are

N V5 V5 V0 V4 V3

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 6 Number 3- Dec 2013

2

8

Tem PL PS Z NS NL

Tem PL PS Z NS NL

s

s

P V6 V6 V0 V1 V2

P V3 V3 V0 V4 V5

Z V5 V5 V0 V0 V2

Z V2 V2 V0 V0 V5

N V5 V4 V0 V3 V3

N V2 V1 V0 V6 V6

3 4

Tem PL PS Z NS NL Tem PL PS Z NS NL

s s

P V5 V6 V0 V1 V1 P V5 V5 V0 V6 V1

Z V5 V5 V0 V0 V2 Z V4 V4 V0 V0 V1

N V4 V4 V0 V3 V2 N V4 V3 V0 V0 V2

9

5

Tem PL PS Z NS NL

Tem PL PS Z NS NL

s

s

P V2 V3 V0 V4 V4

P V4 V5 V0 V6 V6

Z V2 V2 V0 V0 V5

Z V4 V4 V0 V0 V1

N V3 V3 V0 V2 V1 N V1 V1 V0 V6 V5

7

6

Tem PL PS Z NS NL

Tem PL PS Z NS NL

s

s

P V3 V4 V0 V5 V5

P V4 V4 V0 V5 V6

Z V3 V3 V0 V0 V6

Z V3 V3 V0 V6 V2

N V2 V2 V0 V1 V6

N V3 V2 V0 V1 V1

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 6 Number 3- Dec 2013

10

Initially 300N-cm this is achieved by the

Tem PL PS Z NS NL motor in about 15 seconds. Following this a

torque set point is set to 400N-cm at 25 seconds

s achieved at around 29 seconds. Followed by a

new set point of 1000N-cm at 70 seconds and

P V2 V2 V0 V3 V4

followed by a last set point at 600N-cm. From

Z V1 V1 V0 V0 V4 the graph it is seen clearly that these are

achieved in a few seconds of the set point time.

N V1 V6 V0 V5 V5

11

Tem PL PS Z NS NL

s

P V1 V2 V0 V3 V3

Z V1 V1 V0 V0 V4

N V6 V6 V0 V5 V4

12

5 CONCLUSION

Tem PL PS Z NS NL In this paper, a kind of fuzzy torque control

s system for induction motor based on fuzzy control

DTC, fuzzy logic control method is easily

Z V6 V6 V0 V0 V3

implemented, and the steady performances of ripples

N V6 V5 V0 V4 V4 of both torque and flux are considerably improved.

The main improvements are:

Reduction of torque and current ripples.

4 RESULTS

No flux droppings caused by sector changes

The results were obtained after performing the

circular trajectory.

test on a 2HP, 400V, 50Hz, Three Phase Induction

Fast torque response.

Motor. The actual torque was being estimated by the

Zero-steady-state torque and flux

controller from sensed values of voltages and

REFERENCES

currents. The desired torque was given as a reference

input to the controller and by comparing the actual [1] Fundamentals of Inverter Fed AC-

and desired value of the torque; the controller selects Motors, Technical Manual by BALDOR.

a particular voltage vector to apply at the stator of the [2] Direct Self Control (DSC) of Inverter-Fed

motor so that the desired torque is achieved. Induction Machine: A Basis for Speed

Control without Speed Measurement, IEEE

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 6 Number 3- Dec 2013

28, No. 3, May-June 1992. Fundamentals, AN887, Microchip

[3] Giuseppe Buja, Domenico Casadei and Technology Inc., 2003.

Giovanni Serra, Direct Torque Control of [12] M. G. Say, Alternating Current Machines.

Induction Motor Drives, Department of PITMAN INTERNATIONAL, Fourth

Electrical Engineering, University of Padova Edition.

and University of Bologna, Italy, 1997. [13] Jon Burroughs, Controlling 3-Phase AC

[4] Field Orientated Control of 3-Phase AC- Induction Motors Using the

Motors, Literature Number: BPRA073 PIC18F4431,AN900, Microchip

Texas Instruments, Europe, February 1998. Technology Inc, 2004.

[5] Direct Torque Control of Sensorless

Induction Motor Drives: A Sliding-Mode

Approach, IEEE Transactions on Industry

Applications, Vol. 40, No. 2 March/ April

2004.

[6] Sensorless Sliding Mode Direct Torque

Control (DTC) of Induction Motor, IEEE

ISIE 2005, June 20-23, 2005, Dubrovnik,

Croatia.

[7] Direct Torque Control of Induction Motors

using Fuzzy Logic with current limitation,

Marcel Ortega, Jose Restrepo, Julio Viola,

Mara I. Gimenez, Victor Guzman,

Venezuela, 2005 IEEE.

[8] Assessment of Direct Torque Control for

Induction Motor Drives, Bulletin of the

Polish Academy of Sciences, Technical

Sciences Vol. 54, No. 3, 2006 University of

Bologna, Italy.

[9] Simulink Model of Direct Torque Control

of Induction Machine, American Journal of

Applied Sciences 5 (8): 1083-1090, 2008

ISSN 1546-9239 2008 Science

Publications.

[10] Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor

Based on Fuzzy Logic, Guohan Lin,

Zhiwei Xu, Department of Electrical &

Information, Hunan Institute of Engineering,

Xiangtan, China.

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