9 views

Uploaded by raveneyesdead

Pseudoalgebras and non-canonical isomorphisms

- Wilson - Normal Systems and Solvability Methods
- International Future of Mathematics Conference
- Meir Music an Tov
- 303719023 x Topology
- 10.1016@j.aim.2017.10.023
- Majorana Stripe Order on the Surface of a Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator
- Evaluation of different WRF microphysics schemes: severe rainfall over Egypt case study
- Pulsar Science with the SKA
- Truncated quantum Drinfeld Hecke algebras and Hochschild cohomology
- A control analysis perspective on Katz centrality
- New nonperturbative scales and glueballs in confining supersymmetric gauge theories
- A reflection principle for minimal surfaces in smooth three manifolds
- Timing Aware Dummy Metal Fill Methodology
- Galileo ionosphere profile coincident with repeat plume detection location at Europa
- Isomorphism problems for Hopf-Galois structures on separable field extensions
- Continuity of Hausdorff Dimension Across Generic Dynamical Lagrange and Markov Spectra II
- Automatic Differentiation for Tensor Algebras
- Dark matter self-interactions from the internal dynamics of dwarf spheroidals
- A Critique on "Asynchronous Logic Implementation Based on Factorized DIMS"
- Thermal transitions, pseudogap behavior and BCS-BEC crossover in Fermi-Fermi mixtures

You are on page 1of 8

arXiv:1711.02051v1 [math.CT] 6 Nov 2017

doalgebras is a T -pseudomorphism if and only if there is a suitable (possibly non-

canonical) invertible T -transformation. This result encompasses several results on non-

canonical isomorphisms, including Lacks result on normal monoidal functors between

braided monoidal categories, since it is applicable in any 2-category of pseudoalgebras,

such as the 2-categories of monoidal categories, cocomplete categories, pseudofunctors

and so on.

Introduction

Two-dimensional monad theory [11, 6] gives a unifying approach to study several aspects

of two-dimensional universal algebra [4, 1, 8]. This fact is illustrated by the various

examples of 2-categories of (lax-/pseudo)algebras in the literature. For this reason, results

in 2-dimensional monad theory usually gives light to a wide range of situations, having

many applications, e.g. [13, 3, 10].

Herein, the problem of non-canonical isomorphisms consists of investigating whether,

in a given situation, the existence of an invertible non-canonical transformation implies

that a previously given canonical one is invertible as well. In order to give a glimpse of

our scope, we give some examples.

The first precise example is related to the study of preservation of colimits. Given any

functor F : A B, assuming the existence of S-colimits, there is an induced canonical

natural transformation colimB F D F (colimA D) in D, in which

colimB : Cat [S, B] B, colimA : Cat [S, A] A

are the functors that give the S-colimits. We say that F preserves S-colimits whenever

this canonical transformation is invertible. In this context, the problem of non-canonical

isomorphisms, studied by Caccamo and Winksel [2], is to investigate under which con-

ditions the existence of a natural isomorphism colimB F D = F (colimA D) implies that F

preserves S-colimits. For instance, in the case of finite coproducts, [2] proves that a functor

F preserves them if and only if there is a (possibly non-canonical) natural isomorphism

as above and F preserves initial objects.

This work was supported by the Centre for Mathematics of the University of Coimbra

UID/MAT/00324/2013, funded by the Portuguese Government through FCT/MCTES and co-funded

by the European Regional Development Fund through the Partnership Agreement PT2020.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 18D05, 18C15, 18C20, 18D10.

Key words and phrases: pseudomonads, lax morphisms, normal monoidal functors, non-canonical

isomorphisms, pseudoalgebras.

c Fernando Lucatelli Nunes, . Permission to copy for private use granted.

1

2 FERNANDO LUCATELLI NUNES

1. Characterization of distributive categories: a category D with finite coproducts

and products is distributive if, given any object x, the functor x : D D

preserves coproducts. In this case, [7] proves that the existence of an invertible

natural transformation (x,y,z) : (x y) (x z) x (y z) implies that D is

distributive.

2. Characterization of semi-additive categories: a category B with finite products and

coproducts is semi-additive if (1) it is pointed and (2) the canonical natural trans-

formation : induced by the identities and zero morphisms

is invertible. In [7], it is shown that the existence of any natural isomorphism

implies that A is semi-additive.

3. Braided monoidal categories: Lack proved that, in the presence of a suitably defined

invertible non-canonical isomorphism, a normal monoidal functor is actually a strong

monoidal functor. This result encompasses the common part of both situations

above.

The aim of this note is to frame the problem of non-canonical isomorphisms in the

context of 2-dimensional monad theory: we show that, given a pseudomonad T , a lax

T -morphism f is a T -pseudomorphism if and only if there is a suitable (possibly non-

canonical) invertible T -transformation as defined in 2.1. This result encompasses the

four situations above, generalizing Lacks result on braided monoidal categories and being

applicable to study analogues in several other instances, including monoidal categories,

pseudofunctors, cocomplete categories, categories with certain types of colimites and any

other example of 2-category of pseudoalgebras and lax morphisms.

In Section 1 we fix terminology, giving basic definitions and known results on 2-

dimensional monad theory. Section 2 gives the main result of this note. Finally, Section

3 gives brief comments on particular cases, showing how all the situations above are en-

compassed by our main theorem and how the situation is simplified for Kock-Zoberlein

pseudomonads.

1. Basics

In order to fix notation, we give basic definitions in this section. We also give some results

assumed in Section 2. Our setting is the tricategory 2-CAT of 2-categories, pseudofunctors,

pseudonatural transformations and modifications. We follow the notation and definitions

of [9]. In particular, as briefly recalled below, the definition of pseudomonads and lax

algebras can be found in Section 4 of [9].

1.1. Definition. [Pseudomonad] A pseudomonad T on a 2-category B consists of a sex-

tuple (T , m, , , , ), in which T : B B is a pseudofunctor, m : T 2 T , : IdB

T are pseudonatural transformations and : IdT = (m)(T ), : (m)(T ) = IdT ,

: m (T m) = m (mT ) are invertible modifications satisfying coherence equations [9].

PSEUDOALGEBRAS AND NON-CANONICAL ISOMORPHISMS 3

define the 2-category Lax-T -Alg as follows:

Objects: lax T -algebras are defined by z = (Z, algz , z, z0 ) in which algz : T Z Z

is a morphism of B and z : algz T (algz ) algz mZ , z0 : IdZ algz Z are 2-cells of

B satisfying coherence axioms [9].

Recall that a lax T -algebra (Z, algz , z, z0 ) is a T -pseudoalgebra if z, z0 are invertible.

Morphisms: lax T -morphisms f : y z between lax T -algebras y = (Y, algy , y, y0 ),

z = (Z, algz , z, z0 ) are pairs f = (f, f ) in which f : Y Z is a morphism in B

and f : algz T (f ) f algy is a 2-cell of B satisfying coherence axioms [9].

Recall that a lax T -morphism f = (f, f ) is a T -pseudomorphism if f is an

invertible 2-cell.

2-cells: a T -transformation m : f h between lax T -morphisms f = (f, f ),

h = (h, h ) is a 2-cell m : f h in B subject to one natural equation [9].

The compositions are defined in the obvious way and these definitions make Lax-T -Alg

a 2-category. The full sub-2-category of the T -pseudoalgebras of Lax-T -Alg is denoted

by Ps-T -Alg . Also, we consider the locally full sub-2-category Ps-T -Alg consisting of

T -pseudoalgebras and T -pseudomorphisms. Finally, the inclusion is denoted by b :

Ps-T -Alg Lax-T -Alg .

On one hand, if T = (T , m, , , , ) is a pseudomonad on B, then T induces the

Eilenberg-Moore biadjunction (LT U T , , T , sT , tT ), in which LT , U T are defined by

(Z, algz , z, z0 ) 7 Z Z 7 T (Z), mZ , Z , 1

Z

1

(f, f ) 7 f f 7 T (f ), mf

m 7 m m 7 T (m)

On the other hand, this biadjunction induces a pseudocomonad on Ps-T -Alg, called the

Eilenberg-Moore pseudocomonad and denoted herein by T (see Remark 5.3 and Lemma

5.4 of [8]). The underlying pseudofunctor of this pseudocomonad can be extended to

Lax-T -Alg by composing the forgetful 2-functor Lax-T -Alg B with L b T . By abuse

of language, we denote this extension (and its restriction to Ps-T -Alg ) by T as well.

This extension is actually the underlying pseudofunctor of what can be called a colax

comonad that extends the pseudomonad T . It should be observed that T (z) is the free

T -pseudoalgebra on the underlying object of the lax T -algebra z.

Given a T -pseudoalgebra (Z, algz , z, z0 ), Tz is the T -pseudomorphism defined by:

Tz := (algz , z) : T z z,

1

while, given a T -pseudomorphism f = (f, f ), Tf := f .

4 FERNANDO LUCATELLI NUNES

We can extend this counit to all the lax T -algebras as long as we allow it to be only a

colax natural transformation (instead of a pseudonatural one). In our scope, however, we

just need to observe that, by the coherence axioms, we can actually get a pseudonatural

transformation T : T IdLax-T -Alg in which T is the extension to Lax-T -Alg.

2. Non-canonical isomorphisms

In this section, we prove our main result. We start with:

2.1. Definition.

[f-isomorphism] Let T be a pseudomonad on a 2-category B. Assume

that f = (f, f ) : y z is a lax T -morphism. If it exists, an invertible T -transformation

T (f)

Ty / Tz

T T

y ==== z

y f

/ z

is called an f-isomorphism.

Roughly, these f-isomorphisms play the role of the non-canonical isomorphisms in the

examples given in the introduction, except from the fact that, if the canonical transfor-

mation is invertible, then it is an f-isomorphism as well. That is to say, the first basic

result about f-isomorphisms is the following: for each T -pseudomorphism f = (f, f )

between lax T -algebras y and z,

f = (Tf )1 : Tz T (f) = f Ty

is an f-isomorphism. Theorem 2.2 gives the reciprocal to this fact for lax T -morphisms

between T -pseudoalgebras.

2.2. Theorem. [Non-canonical isomorphisms] Let T be a pseudomonad on a 2-category

B. A lax T -morphism f : y z between T -pseudoalgebras is a T -pseudomorphism if

and only if there is an f-isomorphism.

Proof. It remains only to prove that a lax T -morphism f is a T -pseudomorphism pro-

vided that there is an f-isomorphism. We assume that the structures of the pseudomonad

T , the lax T -morphism f and the T -pseudoalgebras y and z are given as in Definition

1.2.

Assume that : Tz T (f) = fTy is an invertible T -transformation. By the definition

of T -transformation, we conclude that

T OZ algz /Z T; Zc algz / ZO

< a

hf i

T (algz ) y algz f T (algz ) T (f

) f

==

===

T 2O Z mZ /TZ

b

== =Y = T 2 Zc ====

\

T ()

T; Y algy / YO

T 2 (f ) m1 T (f

) algy T 2 (f ) T (algy ) y algy

f

==

==

T 2Y mY /T Y T 2Y mY / TY

PSEUDOALGEBRAS AND NON-CANONICAL ISOMORPHISMS 5

holds in B, in which T[ () : t1

(f )(algy )

T ()t(alg )(T (f )) . Since we know that all the 2-cells

z

above but f are invertible, after composing with the appropriate inverses in both sides

of the equation, we conclude that the horizontal composition f idT (alg ) is invertible as

y

well.

\

Therefore, defining T y0 := t1 T y0 tZ , we conclude that the left hand of

(algy )(Y )

the equality

TY

T (Y )

\ 1 \

( ) T 2 Y T (y 0 )

T y

0

===== ===

T (algy )

T Y TY

algy T (f ) algy T (f )

# "

| }

Y hf i TZ = Y hf i TZ

=

=

f

f

" { algz ! | algz

Z Z

is a (vertical) composition of invertible 2-cells and, hence, itself invertible.

2.3.

Remark. By doctrinal adjunction [4], we conclude that a lax T -morphism f =

(f, f ) between T -pseudoalgebras has a right adjoint in Lax-T -Alg if and only if f has

a right adjoint in the base 2-category B and there is an f-isomorphism.

3. Examples

In this section, we state some examples. Instead of giving a definitive answer to every

particular case, Theorem 2.2 gives a general procedure for studying non-canonical isomor-

phisms. Namely, in each non-canonical isomorphism problem, we can firstly show how

this problem can be framed in our context and, then, show that such non-canonical iso-

morphism actually defines a suitable f-isomorphism. For example, as it is shown below,

the result on braided monoidal categories of [7] is a particular instance of Theorem 2.2.

Firstly, we establish the direct corollary of Theorem 2.2 on monoidal categories. We

denote by F the free 2-monad on Cat. The underlying 2-functor of this 2-monad is

a

given by F (A) = An , while each component of the multiplication is induced by the

n=0

identities At At for each t. The 2-category Ps-F -Alg is known to be the 2-category of

monoidal categories, monoidal functors and monoidal transformations [1, 9]. Recall that

F -pseudomorphisms are called strong monoidal functors.

6 FERNANDO LUCATELLI NUNES

3.1. Remark. We adopt the biased definition of monoidal category. Given a monoidal

category M = (M0 , M , IM ), the monoidal product F M : (F M)0 (FM)0 (F M)! 0 of

a

the strict monoidal category FM is defined firstly by taking the isomorphism Mk0

! k=0

a a

Mj 0 = Mk+j and composing with the morphism induced by the inclusions of

0

j=0 k,jN

a

a

the coproduct M0k+t Mn0 for each t. In other words, an object of (F M)0 (F M)0

k=0 n=0

is an ordered pair of words of objects in M0 , while the tensor product is just the word

obtained by juxtaposition. The empty word is the identity of the monoidal structure of

FM.

It should be noted that the component F M

: F M M is a strong monoidal functor.

We consider that its underlying functor gives the monoidal product of the objects in the

word respecting the order, that is to say, it is defined inductively by

algM () := IM ;

algM (x1 ) := x1 ;

algM (x1 , . . . , xn+1 ) := algM (x1 , . . . , xn ) M algM (xn+1 )

in which () denotes the object of M00 , which is the identity object of FM,

and

(x1 , . . . , xn )

denotes an object of M0 . Finally, for each monoidal functor f = (f, f ), F (f) is the

n

3.2. Corollary. [Monoidal Categories] Let f = (f, f ) : M N be a monoidal functor.

There is an invertible monoidal transformation : F F (f) = f F if and only if f is

N M

a strong monoidal functor or, in other words, f is invertible.

Given a braided monoidal category M = (M0 , M , IM , M ), we have an induced strong

monoidal functor between the product M M M whose underlying functor is M and

the structure maps are induced by the isomorphisms w x y z w y x z and

IM IM IM induced respectively by the braiding M and the action of the identity. In

Theorem 3.3, we denote this strong monoidal

functor just by M .

Recall that a monoidal functor f = (f, f ) is called normal if the component of f

on the empty word, denoted below by f () , is invertible.

3.3. Corollary. [7] Let M, N be braided monoidal categories, and f = (f, f ) : M N

a normal monoidal functor. If we have a invertible monoidal transformation

ff

MM / NN

M N

====

M f

/ N

PSEUDOALGEBRAS AND NON-CANONICAL ISOMORPHISMS 7

N

F(f) =

F

f M as in Corollary 3.2 inductively as follows:

() := f ()

(x1 ) := idf (x1 )

(x1 ,...,xn ,xn+1 ) := (f (x1 )N N f (xn ),xn+1 ) (x1 ,...,xn ) M idf (xn+1 ) .

As noted therein, Corollary 3.3 encompasses all the common parts of the examples pre-

sented in [7], mentioned in the introduction. This includes the non-canonical isomorphism

problem of preservation of coproducts, but it is not applicable to the case of preservation

of more general conical colimits studied by Caccamo-Winskel [2].

3.4. Kock-Zoberlein pseudomonads. There are situations even more simplified by

Theorem 2.2. For instance, the situation of preservations of colimits can be studied as a

very particular instance of:

3.5. Corollary. Assume that T is a pseudomonad

on B such that Ps-T -Alg B is

locally fully faithful. Assume that f = (f, f ) : y z is a lax T -morphism between the

T -pseudoalgebras y = (Y, algy , y, y0 ) and z = (Z, algz , z, z0 ). There is an invertible 2-cell

T (f )

TY / TZ

algy algz

====

Y f

/ Z

Proof. By hypothesis, every such a 2-cell gives an invertible T -transformation Tz

T (f) = f Ty . Therefore the result follows from Theorem 2.2.

Cocompletion pseudomonads [13] and, more generally, Kock-Zoberlein pseudomon-

ads [5, 12] satisfy, in particular, the hypothesis of the result above. This shows how

Theorem 2.2 gives simple results for the examples of Kock-Zoberlein pseudomonads, en-

compassing in particular the cases of preservation of weighted colimits.

References

[1] R. Blackwell, G. M. Kelly, and A. J. Power. Two-dimensional monad theory. In: J.

Pure Appl. Algebra 59.1 (1989), pp. 141. issn: 0022-4049. doi: 10.1016/0022-4049(89)90160-6.

url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4049(89)90160-6.

8 FERNANDO LUCATELLI NUNES

[2] Mario Caccamo and Glynn Winskel. Limit preservation from naturality. In: Pro-

ceedings of the 10th Conference on Category Theory in Computer Science (CTCS

2004). Vol. 122. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. Elsevier Sci. B. V., Amster-

dam, 2005, pp. 322. url: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.entcs.2004.06.048.

[3] Richard Garner. The Isbell monad. In: Adv. Math. 274 (2015), pp. 516537. issn:

0001-8708. url: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aim.2015.01.015.

[4] G. M. Kelly. Doctrinal adjunction. In: Category Seminar (Proc. Sem., Sydney,

1972/1973). Springer, Berlin, 1974, 257280. Lecture Notes in Math., Vol. 420.

[5] Anders Kock. Monads for which structures are adjoint to units. In: J. Pure Appl.

Algebra 104.1 (1995), pp. 4159. issn: 0022-4049. doi: 10.1016/0022-4049(94)00111-U.

url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4049(94)00111-U.

[6] Stephen Lack. A coherent approach to pseudomonads. In: Adv. Math. 152.2

(2000), pp. 179202. issn: 0001-8708. doi: 10.1006/aima.1999.1881. url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1

[7] Stephen Lack. Non-canonical isomorphisms. In: J. Pure Appl. Algebra 216.3 (2012),

pp. 593597. issn: 0022-4049. url: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpaa.2011.07.012.

[8] Fernando Lucatelli Nunes. On biadjoint triangles. In: Theory Appl. Categ. 31

(2016), Paper No. 9, 217256. issn: 1201-561X.

[9] Fernando Lucatelli Nunes. On lifting of biadjoints and lax algebras. In: ArXiv e-

prints (July 2016). To appear in Categories and General Algebraic Structures with

Applications. eprint: 1607.03087 (math.CT).

[10] Fernando Lucatelli Nunes. Pseudo-Kan Extensions and Descent Theory. In: ArXiv

e-prints (June 2016). eprint: 1606.04999 (math.CT).

[11] F. Marmolejo. Distributive laws for pseudomonads. In: Theory Appl. Categ. 5

(1999), No. 5, 91147. issn: 1201-561X.

[12] F. Marmolejo. Doctrines whose structure forms a fully faithful adjoint string. In:

Theory Appl. Categ. 3 (1997), No. 2, 2444. issn: 1201-561X.

[13] A. John Power, Gian Luca Cattani, and Glynn Winskel. A representation result for

free cocompletions. In: J. Pure Appl. Algebra 151.3 (2000), pp. 273286. issn: 0022-

4049. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4049(99)00063-8. url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4049(99)

Email: lucatellinunes@student.uc.pt

- Majorana Stripe Order on the Surface of a Three-Dimensional Topological InsulatorUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Evaluation of different WRF microphysics schemes: severe rainfall over Egypt case studyUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Pulsar Science with the SKAUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Truncated quantum Drinfeld Hecke algebras and Hochschild cohomologyUploaded byraveneyesdead
- A control analysis perspective on Katz centralityUploaded byraveneyesdead
- New nonperturbative scales and glueballs in confining supersymmetric gauge theoriesUploaded byraveneyesdead
- A reflection principle for minimal surfaces in smooth three manifoldsUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Timing Aware Dummy Metal Fill MethodologyUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Galileo ionosphere profile coincident with repeat plume detection location at EuropaUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Isomorphism problems for Hopf-Galois structures on separable field extensionsUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Continuity of Hausdorff Dimension Across Generic Dynamical Lagrange and Markov Spectra IIUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Automatic Differentiation for Tensor AlgebrasUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Dark matter self-interactions from the internal dynamics of dwarf spheroidalsUploaded byraveneyesdead
- A Critique on "Asynchronous Logic Implementation Based on Factorized DIMS"Uploaded byraveneyesdead
- Thermal transitions, pseudogap behavior and BCS-BEC crossover in Fermi-Fermi mixturesUploaded byraveneyesdead
- A Unified Game-Theoretic Approach to Multiagent Reinforcement LearningUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Legendre Analysis of Differential Distributions in Hadronic ReactionsUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Adaptive coordination of working-memory and reinforcement learning in non-human primates performing a trial-and-error problem solving taskUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Computing by nowhere increasing complexityUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Self-resonance after inflation: oscillons, transients and radiation dominationUploaded byraveneyesdead
- High Energy Resummation of Jet ObservablesUploaded byraveneyesdead
- 1701.00010Uploaded bymez00
- Rational Inference: The Lowest BoundsUploaded byraveneyesdead
- journal.pone.0010605.pdfUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Recurrence Analysis as a tool to study chaotic dynamics of extreme mass ratio inspiral in signal with noiseUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Signatures of Nitrogen Chemistry in Hot Jupiter AtmospheresUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Quenching preheating by light fieldsUploaded byraveneyesdead
- Perturbative Renormalization of Wilson line operatorsUploaded byraveneyesdead
- From condensed matter to QCD: a journey through gauge theories on board of a variational toolUploaded byraveneyesdead

- JAVA - variables.pdfUploaded bysullivan583
- Graph Homomorphism InequalitiesUploaded byAnonymous od5jr8
- Groups -QuestionsUploaded byMihai Catana
- A unified approach to the construction of categories of gamesUploaded bysfwc
- homotopyUploaded byfalcon_vam
- Root Data for Reductive GroupsUploaded bybhaumiksaurav
- Sequence and SeriesUploaded byReena Singla
- Arithmetic & Geometric Sequence Reminder – IB Mathematics Diploma ProgrammeUploaded byМаксим Бекетов
- Topology General & Algebraic (2009) - (Malestrom).pdfUploaded byratchagar a
- Basic AlgebraUploaded bySahil Goel
- 120486729 Shaum Group TheoryUploaded byJuliano Deividy B. Santos
- Elementary Algebra - Worksheet Operations on IntegersUploaded byVincent Casem
- Lecture 20 - Associated Fibre Bundles (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)Uploaded bySimon Rea
- Mathematics SyllabusUploaded byHiya Potter
- 67014760 Logical ReasoningUploaded byBlaga MIhai Raul
- blaga_geometryUploaded byPaul Blaga
- Concepts On Po-Ternary SemiringsUploaded byIOSRjournal
- 463Uploaded byAliBaranIşık
- hw04.2Uploaded byVaruni Mehrotra
- ReaderUploaded bydassujoy81
- NORMED VECTOR SPACESUploaded byhyd arnes
- Willmore SurfacesUploaded bypinkall
- FULLY RIGHT PURE GROUP RINGS edited 31 july.pdfUploaded byJombaca Berubah
- Dummit SolutionsUploaded byEly Manosalva Peñaloza
- Frankel_T_The Geometry of Physics.pdfUploaded byঅনন্ত নির্বাণ
- algebraUploaded byAlexander Martin
- Symplectic ManifoldUploaded byRahul Saha
- Calculus AssignmentUploaded byPranshuBhatnagar
- eseven.pdfUploaded byAnnisa Zakiya
- Grupos Soficos. Szoke Nora GabriellaUploaded byMagdalena Hernandez