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system

Bikram sah, Student Member, IEEE Gudey Venkata Eswara Satish Kumar, Member, IEEE

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering

Visakhapatnam, India Visakhapatnam, India

bikramsah51@gmail.com satishgudey13@gmail.com

Abstract This paper describes the application of MPPT to 1kW/m2 and ambient temperature of 250c. Equation (2) shows

solar PV system and presents a comparative study between the non linear characteristics of the diode (solar cell) which is

different mppt algorithms using different dc-dc converters. The generally made of silicon because of its wide temperature

MPPT algorithm is very effective electronic means to operate the limits and peak inverse voltage. Equation (5) and (6) shows

pv array at its MPP regardless of changing environmental

conditions. The working methodology of direct MPPT control is

the relationship between PV current and the temperature. A

illustrated in detail .This paper presents the comparative study of single diode model representation of a solar cell is shown in

two dc-dc converters in terms of output current and voltage Fig. 1.

ripple .similarly the efficiency of system with two different

algorithm is studied and presented under varying uniform and

non-uniform irradiation conditions. Matlab R2014a version used

for simulation studies. The effectiveness of the MPPT in

standalone PV system is represented through simulation results

in this work.

maximum power point tracking, perturb and observe, solar

photovoltaic, Fig. 1. Equivalent circuit of pv cell.

G

I. INTRODUCTION I ph = I scr + Ki *(T Tref ) * (1)

1000

Solar energy as a source of renewable energy assures a clean,

V pv + I pv * RS )

abundant and noise free environment. A PV cell is made up of I d = I S [exp( 1]; (2)

two junction p and n constructed on a paper thin layer of A *VT

semiconductor material [1]. Solar Cells or Photo Voltaic Cells KT

(PV) are devices or simply transducers which convert the VT = ; (3)

q

energy available from the sun directly into electrical energy

which is in the form of a DC i.e. electromagnetic radiation of Isc

Irs = ;

solar energy can be directly converted to electricity through exp( B 1)

photovoltaic effect. PV cell when placed in the sunlight, (4)

q *Voc

photons with energy greater than the band-gap energy of the B= ;

semiconductor develops electron-hole pairs proportional to the Nsknt

incident irradiation [1]-[2]. Solar cells can be connected in q*Ego ( 1 1 )

T 3 ( )

NKT Tref T ;

series and parallel depending upon the desired voltage or I S = I rs [ ] e (5)

current. Solar module and the such series connected solar Tr

module form a string and the combination of such string in NP

V + I pv * Rs

series and parallel gives a solar array [2]. Fig. 1 shows the Ns

series resistance Rs, which is an existing resistance opposing I pv = N p * I ph N p * I d (6)

Rsh

the flow of current. The parallel resistance Rsh is inversely

proportional to the leakage current w. r. t. the ground. Where, Iph= light generated current in pv module (A)

Equation (1) shows the relationship between the current K=Boltzmann constant=1.39*10^23J/K; q=electronic

generated from a solar cell and irradiance level [2]. The charge=1.6*10^-19C; A=ideality factor=1.5; Ego=band gap for

standard test condition (STC) is defined by an irradiance of silicon =1.2;Rs=series resistance; Rp=shunt resistance;

978-1-5090-2597-8/16/$31.00 2016

c IEEE 1690

G= irradiance (W/m2); Iscr= short circuit current; Ki= short is negative. The selection of dc-dc converter is based upon

circuit current temperature coefficient at Iscr T= module voltage and current ripple, cost, transient response, switching

operating temperature; Tr=reference temperature; Irs=module losses and efficiency. The introduction and the design aspects

reverse saturation current; Is= module saturation current; Ipv= of these converters are mentioned below.

module output current.

A. Buck-Boost converter

II.SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig. 2 shows the system block diagram of a standalone PV

system with a constant resistive load.

across the inductor (L) [3]. The inductor accumulates energy

during this time. At the same time, the capacitor gives away its

Fig. 2. System block diagram energy to the resistive load Ro. When the switch is off, the

A PV module is constructed using the equivalent solar cell voltage across the inductor gets applied across the capacitor

shown in Fig. 1 and its corresponding equations using and the load, and there is an energy transfer from the inductor

embedded Matlab function. The solar irradiation and L to the load Ro and the capacitor C. The output to input

temperature are two different environmental parameters as voltage transfer ratio for a Buck-boost converter is given by

inputs to solar module, which are never constant. The output of VO D

= (7)

solar module i.e. Voltage and current is fed to MPPT Vin 1 D

algorithm. Because of the variation in environmental condition

where D = duty cycle. The parameters L and C for buck-boost

the IV and PV characteristics of solar cell/module is highly

non-linear. The pertinent graphs of IV and PV of solar module converter are calculated using (8) and (9)

are obtained for different irradiation at constant ambient V D

L S (8)

temperature. MPPT (maximum power point tracking) is the FS I L1

electronic means or device which includes MPPT algorithm VO D

and switch mode dc-dc converter. The MPPT algorithm is the C (9)

brain of MPPT. A comparative study of two different MPPT FS VO R

algorithm and two different converters has been done. Both the Where VS = input voltage from PV module, I L1 =average

algorithms are compared on the basis of ease of

implementation, complexity, convergence speed. Perturb and VO

inductor current and =output ripple voltage.

observe and incremental conductance are the two most popular VO

algorithms and are compared here with different converters

buck-boost and CUK converter. The size of perturbation in B. CUK Converter

MPPT algorithm may be taken small for which steady state

error will be low while the convergence speed of the system

increases [3]. The same results get contrary when the step size

taken is large one. Moreover the perturbation size will be fixed

or variable one. In fixed step size method, the size of step is

constant despite the operating point being far or close to MPP

point while in variable step method, the size of perturbation

increases as the operating point is far and wide away from the

MPP point and it reduces as it approaches the MPP point. This

is quite good for reducing the steady state error and increasing Fig. 4. Cuk Converter

the convergence speed and making the system more efficient

[3]-[4]. The cuk converter has an additional one inductor and one

capacitor compared to a buck-boost converter. When the

III. DC-DC CONVERTERS switch is in Off state, the capacitor C1 is being charged by the

This paper has considered the comparative study of buck- input DC source Vin through the inductor L1. During this time,

boost and CUK converter. Both the converters can step up or the capacitor C1 transfers the energy to the output capacitor C2

step down the output voltage depending upon the switching through the inductance L2. C1 gets connected to the source and

and are inverted in nature i.e. the plarity of voltage and current the load by the turn off of transistor and the diode and it

2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON) Proceedings of the International Conference 1691

transfers the energy stored in it. [3]. The DC input voltage and

the output voltage source through C1 are converted to current

sources by the inductors L1 and L2 respectively. The parasitic

resistance limits the current in case if the capacitor gets

connected to the voltage source and subsequently energy loss

[4]. The inductor and capacitor ratings for Cuk converter is

given in Table I:

Table : I

Parameters/components Ratings

Fig. 5 (a) output current and (b) voltage ripple in dc-dc converters.

Switching frequency 50 KHZ

Fig. 5 gives the clear picture that there is low current ripple and

Duty cycle 0.53 consequently low voltage ripple in cuk converter compared to

Output voltage 35 V

the buck-boost converter and hence it is a better for a PV

system.

Output current 4.7 A IV.DIRECT MPPT CONTROL

Resistive load 7.5 ohm The direct MPPT technique [5] limits the use of two control

loop strategies compared to a conventional Proportional plus

Buck-boost

Integral controller based MPPT system. The dc-dc converter

L, C 53H; 4.5F acts as an intermix between the resistive load and the PV

Cuk module and therefore works as an impedance matching circuit.

L1,L2 1.5 H, 1.5 H That is, direct MPPT is based on the maximum power transfer

C1,C2 22 F, 0.47 F technique. When duty cycle is varied [6], the load impedance

changes as seen from the source and regains the same value at

VS D the maximum power with the supply and thereby it transfers

L1 (10) the maximum power.

FS I L1

VO D

C1 (11)

FS Vc1 R

VS D

L2 (12)

FS I L 2

1 D

C2 (13)

2 VO

FS ( )8 L2

VO

The simulation for buck-boost converter and cuk converter is Fig. 6 Illustration of Direct MPPT Algorithm

performed y using the parameters taken from Table I and 1 D 2

difference between the two converters are observed with Rin = RO [ ] (14)

respect to the voltage and current ripple. D

Rin = Vin I in (15)

2

Vo

Ro = (16)

Po

From Fig. 6, point B is the MPP point at which the IV curve of

module and the load line intersects each other and RO = Rin

.Since module current is directly proportional to irradiance

incident upon it. As soon as irradiance decreases module

current decreases and finally Rin increases and becomes

infinity at point C at the same time the value of D becomes

(a) zero from relation [5]. At point A, module current is maximum

due to full irradiance and Rin becomes zero whereas duty

cycle becomes unity, thus we can say that buck-boost family

dc-dc converters can operate over the entire IV curve of solar

1692 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON) Proceedings of the International Conference

module. Also as irradiance decreases the value of duty cycle dI I

decreases. = ( ) at MPP (20)

dV V

dI I

A. PERTURB AND OBSERVE MPPT ALGORITHM > ( ) to the left of MPP (21)

dV V

It is the most popular and widely accepted MPPT algorithm.

dI I

In perturb and observe, a perturbation in voltage results when < ( ) to the right of MPP (22)

the load point is far away from the MPP point due to changing dV V

environmental conditions. This perturbation results in changes

of the power in the solar module. The perturbation extends

itself in the same orientation as long as the power increases.

When the maximum power is reached, at the next instance of

time, the power decreases progressively and the direction is

reversed. The algorithm oscillates at the steady state around

the maximum point. To keep the variation in power small, the

size of the perturbation is kept made small. In this technique

the operating point oscillates about the MPP point but does not

coincides to MPP point and this problem is more pronounced

under non uniform conditions [7]. The basic principle of

operation is that at MPP, the gradient of P-V curve vanishes.

From the gradient, it is possible to obtain a corresponding

location of this load point. The change in power with respect

to the change in voltage is defined as the gradient. The

relations are given as below.

dP

= 0 at MPP (17)

dV

dP

> 0 at the left of MPP (18) Fig 7: Flowchart of incremental conductance algorithm

dV

dP V. SIMULATION RESULTS:

< 0 at the right of MPP (19)

dV The IV and PV curve for solar module of given specification is

given below. The temperature being constant equal to 25oc

B. INCREMENTAL CONDUTANCE MPPT ALGORITHM: ambient temperature, the irradiance is varied from 1000Wm2 to

The incremental conductance overcomes the aforementioned 200W/m2. The BP SX150 model PV module is taken in this

short comes of PO algorithm. PV module voltage and current work [9]-[13].

are first recorded by the algorithm. As shown in Fig. 7, the The corresponding IV and PV curve for varying irradiance and

gradient values dI and dV are calculated using the previous temperature are depicted in Fig. 8 to Fig. 10 respectively.

values of current and voltage. The operating point is said to be

on the left hand side if (21) is satisfied and it is shifted to the

other side y increasing the module voltage. [8]. In the same Pmax Vmp Imp Isc VOC

way, it is assumed that the operating point is on the right hand

side if (22) is satisfied and it can be moved to the other side by 150W 34.5V 4.35 A 3.75 A 43.5 V

decreasing the module voltage. This voltage changes is held

until the operating point attains the MPP and satisfies (20).

One cycle of operation is said to be completed when the

algorithm stores the final values of the variables which are

then used in the subsequent cycles of operation as current

values. Atmospheric conditions are also important conditions

to be met by the algorithm. No operation is performed by the

algorithm if the MPPT continues to operate at the MPP

condition i.e. dV = 0 with no change in the irradiation

condition i.e. dI = 0. When the irradiation is increased i.e. dI

> 0, it increases the MPP voltage [8]. At the same instant, the

algorithm tries to increase the operating voltage to track the

MPP point. In a similar way, the algorithm lowers the MPP Fig. 8. IV curve for different irradiance at 25oc

voltage if the irradiation is decreased i.e. dI < 0). The

algorithm decreases the operating voltage at this instant.

2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON) Proceedings of the International Conference 1693

Fig 12: graph for output current, voltage and power without MPPT.

Fig. 9. PV curve for different irradiance at 25oc

The variation of input resistance with varying irradiance is

shown here.

cycle with varying input resistance of dc-dc converter under

different irradiance is plotted below.

PV power than the temperature. The Simulation results of PV

module with Incremental Conductance with CUK converter are Fig 14. Characteristic between irradiance versus duty cycle

described. The data observed from pv system with and without The initial duty-cycle is taken as 0.465 and the fixed size

MPPT is tabulated in Table II. perturbation of 0.002 is given.

Table II

Irradiance Vmp Vmp with Module Module Type Iout Ppv Pout D Vout

2

without MPPT power power (A) (W) (W)

(KW/m ) MPPT without without

(V) PO with 4.66 150 138.8 92.6 0.43 28.19

MPPT MPPT

(V) buck-boost

(W) (W) Inc. Cond. 4.86 150 143.2 95.6 0.45 29.32

With buck-

1 35.45 35.45 150 150 boost

0.8 22.77 35.42 86.44 115.23 PO with cuk 4.76 150 140.4 94.0 0.42 28.61

Inc cond with 4.98 150 147.6 98.4 0.45 29.32

0.6 17.1 35.0 48.42 86.65 Cuk

0.4 11.1 34.23 21.66 56.78

0.2 5.415 33.14 4.887 26.67

1694 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON) Proceedings of the International Conference

regulated than PO algorithm. From the above graph the

performance of PV system with MPPT is highly affected with

the varying irradiance level. It is clear that the realization of

incremental conductance MPPT algorithm is better even for

the non uniform irradiance level while in case of perturb and

observe, the PV power is more varying and unsteady. It

decreases the efficiency of the system when the operating

point is far away from the MPP point. The incremental

Fig 15. Comparison of PV power with and without MPPT

conductance methodology with CUK converter exactly

matches the operating point with MPP point and PV system

The simulation time for the Comparative study of Module power is highly optimized.

Power at varying Irradiance for different MPPT algorithm is

taken as 0.5 s. The varying irradiance means irradiance has VII. REFERENCES

[1] Bidyadhar Subudhi and Raseswari Pradhan, A Comparative Study on

been changed from 0.6KW/m2 for 1s to 1KW/m2 for 2.5 s and Maximum Power PointTracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Power

finally to 0.8 KW/m2 for 1.5s. The behavior of PO algorithm Systems, IEEE Trans. on sustainable energy, vol. 4, no. 1, Jan. 2013.

under varying irradiance condition is erratic while it is smooth [2] Supreeth K, K Shanmukha Sundar, D.Balamurugan, Performance

in Incremental Conductance algorithm as given in Fig, 16 and Evaluation & Simulation of Solar Power System , International

Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics,

Fig. 17. Instrumentation and Control Engg.,vol. 2, issue 7, july 2014.

[3] Tey Kok Soon and Saad Mekhilef, Senior Member, IEEE , A Fast-

Converging MPPT Technique for Photovoltaic System Under Fast-

Varying Solar Irradiation and Load Resistance, IEEE Trans. ON

Industrial Informatics, vol. 11, no. 1, Feb. 2015.

[4] Farhan A. Salem1,2, Modeling and Simulation issues on PhotoVoltaic

systems, for Mechatronics design of solar electric applications,

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME), vol. 2, Issue

8, Aug. 2014.

[5] Azadeh Safari and Saad Mekhilef, Simulation and Hardware

Implementation of Incremental Conductance MPPT With Direct Control

Method Using Cuk Converter, IEEE Trans. on Ind. electronics, vol. 58,

no. 4, April 2011.

Fig 16: Comparison of Module Power at 0.4KW/m2 Irradiance

[6] Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland, William P. Robbins,

PowerElectronics, Converters, Applications and Design, Third Edition

,New Delhi, Wiley India (P.) Ltd.

[7] Francisco Paz, and Martin Ordonez, Zero Oscillation and Irradiance

Slope Tracking for Photovoltaic MPPT, IEEE Trans. On Ind

electronics, vol. 61, no. 11, Nov. 2014.

[8] Hairul Nissah Zainudin and Saad Mekhilef, Comparison Study of

Maximum Power Point Tracker Techniques for PV Systems,

Proceedings of the 14th International Middle East Power Systems

Conference (MEPCON10), Cairo University, Egypt, Dec. 19-21, 2010.

[9] Kun Ding, XinGao Bian, HaiHao Liu, and Tao Peng, A MATLAB-

Simulink-Based PV Module Model and Its Application Under

Fig. 17 Comparison of Module Power at varying Irradiance Conditions of Non uniform Irradiance, IEEE Trans. on energy

conversion, vol. 27, no. 4, Dec. 2012.

VI .CONCLUSIONS [10] Ahteshamul Haque, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Scheme

It is observed that the MPPT is indispensible in PV system to for Solar Photovoltaic System , Energy Technology & Policy (2014),

vol. 1, pp. 115122 Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group,

optimize the PV power at any environmental conductance LLC ISSN: 2331-7000.

.With the implementation of MPPT, PV power at low [11] Kok Soon Tey and Saad Mekhilef, Modified Incremental Conductance

irradiance (0.4KW/m2) has been boosted 60 W and 58W Algorithm for Photovoltaic System Under Partial Shading Conditions

respectively in Inc. Cond. and PO algorithm from 11.2W and Load Variation, IEEE Trans on Ind. electronics, vol. 61, no. 10,

which we were getting from PV system without MPPT. Even Oct. 2014.

[12] http://www.pveducation.org/pvcdrom

though the time response of PO algorithm is faster than that of

[13]www.bpsolar.com

Inc. Cond. the power extracted by Inc. Cond. MPPT is more

2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON) Proceedings of the International Conference 1695

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