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Original Title: A Semi-empirical Model for a 90Sr Beta-particle Tr (1)

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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253211069

particle transmission thickness gauge for

aluminum alloys

Article in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with

Materials and Atoms January 2004

DOI: 10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01582-9

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Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 213 (2004) 357363

www.elsevier.com/locate/nimb

transmission thickness gauge for aluminum alloys

R.P. Gardner *, W.A. Metwally, A. Shehata

Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University,

Raleigh, NC 27695-7909, USA

Abstract

A semi-empirical model is derived and tested for a 90 Sr beta-particle transmission thickness gauge for aluminum

alloys. Monte Carlo simulation is also used to verify the forward scatter part of the model. The model accurately

accounts for thickness as well as forward scatter, gamma-ray background, and the measurement interference of sample

density and composition. The model parameters are obtained and the model is benchmarked with industrial experi-

mental data from a 90 Sr(90 Y) gauge.

2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Beta-particle transmission gauges have long The semi-empirical model proposed and tested

been used and are industrially very important [2,3] here is based on the use of fundamental macro-

for measuring and controlling the thickness of scopic cross-sections for the basic interactions of

rolled products such as paper, plastic, and metal. beta-particles, combined with the assumption that

Beta-particle sources of industrial importance in the transmission of beta-particles is exponential up

this application include 90 Sr(90 Y), 204 T1, 85 Kr and to some characteristic maximum range.

147

Pm. While several exponential and linearized The fundamental macroscopic cross-sections

models have been proposed and used for calibra- for two basic interactions are used. They are: (1)

tion purposes, the authors are not aware of any scattering and (2) attenuation. The form of the

models that explicitly account for composition and scattering interaction XS is taken as

the forward scatter inherent to beta-particle Xn

i1

number and atomic mass of element i in the sam-

ple, respectively. The form of the attenuation in-

teraction XA is taken as

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-919-515-3378; fax: +1-919- X

n

515-5115. XA wi Zi =Ai : 2

E-mail address: gardner@ncsu.edu (R.P. Gardner). i1

0168-583X/$ - see front matter 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01582-9

358 R.P. Gardner et al. / Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 213 (2004) 357363

The XS parameter accounts primarily for large where kA and kS are constants for a given beta-

angle scatter while the XA parameter accounts particle transmission gauge. The model then be-

primarily for small energy losses along a beta- comes

particle path that does not result in signicant

changes of direction. Rt R0 expkA XA qt kS XS qt B: 5

2.1. Thin-beam or good geometry Note that no energy dependence is given in this

model. It is reasoned that one eective energy can

For a beta-particle transmission gauge with be considered and, therefore, energy dependence in

thin-beam geometry, the basic gauge response Rt the model can be omitted. This could be modied

is taken as if found necessary to include two or more eective

Rt R0 expl=qqt B; 3 energies by using the sum of multiples of the pre-

3 sent model. However, the present model already

where q is sample density in g/cm , t is the sample

contains six unknown parameters (R0, kA , XA , kS ,

thickness in cm, l is the semi-empirical sample

XS and B) that must be obtained from experi-

attenuation coecient in cm1 and B is the back-

mental data and this must be increased to account

ground response. This model is modied to include

for the two beta-particle spectra of the 90 Sr(90 Y)

sample composition explicitly by substituting for

sources.

l=q:

When the two beta-particle spectra present in a

l=q kA XA kS XS ; 4 90

Sr(90 Y) source are considered, one must use the

1000

Experiment

Transmission Model

900

T A S

A

700 +18.0Exp(0.0414XAt)

600

RESPONSE (CDS)

500

400

300

200

100

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

2

SAMPLE DENSITY X THICKNESS (g/cm )

R.P. Gardner et al. / Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 213 (2004) 357363 359

sum of two transmission terms. The model then where kc and lc are parameters associated with the

becomes gamma-ray response. The linear attenuation co-

ecient lc for pure aluminum is 0.0414 cm1 . Now

Rt R0expk1A XA qt k1S XS qt

the model has two additional parameters for a

expk2A XA qt k2S XS qt B; 6 total of 10. If we assume that lc is constant and

where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the rst and equal to the value for pure aluminum, and that XA

second beta-particle spectra, respectively. This and XS are known for a given known sample, we

model contains two additional parameters for a still have seven parameters in the model that must

total of eight. be determined by the least-squares analysis of data

In the case of the 90 Sr (90 Y) source, there is a from standard known samples.

small amount of gamma radiation (a 2.1862-MeV

gamma-ray) associated with the source, so an ex- 2.2. Broad-beam or poor geometry

ponential attenuation term must be added for it as

well. Now the model becomes In the case of broad-beam geometry, one also

has an added forward scatter component. The

form of this component is taken as

Rt R0expk1A XA qt k1S XS qt

a

expk2A XA qt k2S XS qt F t CS XS qt R0 expcA XA qt cS XS qt:

kc explc XA qt B; 7 8

250

150

RESIDUALS (CDS)

100

50

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

2

SAMPLE DENSITY X THICKNESS (g/cm )

360 R.P. Gardner et al. / Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 213 (2004) 357363

With this modication the nal total model for the 3. Determination of model parameters

broad-beam 90 Sr beta-particle transmission gauge

becomes The model parameters were determined using

the code CURMOD developed at CEAR, which is

Rt R0expk1A XA qt k1S XS qt a code that is capable of determining nonlinear

expk2A XA qt k2S XS qt parameters by a nonlinear (Marquardt) search

while simultaneously determining the linear pa-

CS XS qta R0 expcA XA qt cS XS qt rameters by a linear method. This code is a mod-

kc explc XA qt kN : 9 ication and extension of the code CURFIT

described in the text by Bevington [1] which was

So the nal model contains 11 parameters that based on the algorithm suggested by Marquardt

must be determined from a least-squares t to [4] for optimal nonlinear searching by optimum

experimental data seven nonlinear and four lin- combined use of gradient and linearized methods.

ear. One of the nonlinear parameters might be Other codes familiar to the authors that search

taken as zero and omitted the coecient CS for on multiple model parameters when some of the

the scatter attenuation in the forward scatter re- parameters are nonlinear, must do so by using the

sponse. One might also make the parameter a nonlinear search method for all parameters. For

unity or some other xed integer. If these two example, the sample problem in Bevington [1] does

things are done (cS 0 and a 1), the number of this. This approach has the disadvantage that each

parameters is reduced to nine, six nonlinear and new nonlinear parameter that is introduced to a

three linear. model increases the degree of diculty by almost

an order of magnitude.

4. Model t results

beta gauge was obtained from Alcoa for a range of

thicknesses from 0 to 130 mils and for seven alu-

minum alloys including alloy numbers 1100, 1145,

1199, 2024, 2036, 7146 and 7178. These data were

rst used with the model of Eq. (7) without the

forward scatter portion. It was clear that the t

was very poor in this case. Examination of the t

residuals showed a large smooth swing from pos-

itive to negative and back to positive. The resid-

uals clearly showed a structure that was not due to

the uniform random uctuation that one would

expect from just Poisson counting rate uctua-

tions. Unfortunately, one cannot get an accurate

description of the missing feature from residuals

obtained in this manner.

A dierent approach was used to obtain a more

accurate description of the missing feature(s). That

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the Monte Carlo simulation approach involved using a simplied transmission

process. model utilizing the attenuation coecients re-

R.P. Gardner et al. / Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 213 (2004) 357363 361

ported for 90 Sr in standard texts (like [3]) and a tration distance into the aluminum alloy sheet

trial-and-error stripping method. (The model used before a large angle scatter was chosen from the

is Eq. (7) with R0 491:0, k1A 18:0, k1S 1:32, pertinent exponential distribution with the ap-

k2A 3:85, k2S 0:283, kc 18:0, lc 0:0414 and propriate linear attenuation coecient, the large

B 0.) With this approach the model t shown in angle scatter was chosen from an isotropic distri-

Fig. 1 with the residuals shown in Fig. 2 were bution, the scatter energy loss was calculated from

obtained. It then occurred to the authors that the the appropriate energy balance equation, and at-

missing feature was probably caused by forward tenuation to and from the large angle scatter to-

scatter. ward the detector within the aluminum sheet was

calculated from the appropriate simplied power

4.2. Monte Carlo simulation of forward scatter law range equation. A schematic diagram of this

process is shown in Fig. 3.

To further substantiate this idea, a simple The results of this Monte Carlo simulation are

Monte Carlo simulation of the forward scatter was shown compared to the values obtained experi-

attempted. In this simulation the beta-particle mentally by the previously described approach in

emission angle was assumed to be isotropic from Fig. 4. The Monte Carlo results were normalized,

0 to 90, the beta-particle energy was chosen from but the shape of the predicted forward scatter

the pertinent distribution by rejection, the pene- for both approaches matches well, verifying that

250

Residuals

Monte Carlo Simulation

200

150

RESIDUALS (CDS)

100

50

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

2

SAMPLE DENSITY X THICKNESS (g/cm )

Fig. 4. Residuals of experimental data compared to Monte Carlo simulation of forward scattering.

362 R.P. Gardner et al. / Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 213 (2004) 357363

b 0

R

model. A t of the residuals data was made with Rqt ; 10

b

R 1 Rb 0

the model of Eq. (8) and is shown in Fig. 5. The

parameters for Eq. (8) were found to be CS R0

408:0, a 0:5853, cA 3:09 and cS 0:409. where the hats refer to raw data.

The t results are compared with the experi-

4.3. Final model t mental data in Fig. 6 and indicate a very good t.

The dierences shown in Fig. 6 do exhibit a slight

With this verication of forward scatter, the shape other than uniform randomness. This indi-

model of Eq. (9) was used on the experimental cates that either the model is not perfect or the

data to obtain a general model. The least-squares model parameters obtained are not optimal.

model results gave values for the parameters

of R0 491:4, k1A 17:0, k1S 1:22, k2A

4:22, k2S 0:302, CS R0 408:88, a 0:636, 5. Discussion of results and conclusions

cA 3:04, cS 0:400, and kc 17:4. There was no

background kN since the method that was used to The model t results indicate that the model is

report the data automatically eliminated it. The quite good and that it should provide a very gen-

data were reported as eral model for the 90 Sr transmission beta-particle

250

Experiment

Model

A

RS=A4(XSt) 3 Exp(A1XAtA2XSt)

200

A1=3.0944576, A2=0.4092344

A =0.5853393, A =408.0195316

3 4

ChiSquare=0.116

150

RESIDUALS (CDS)

100

50

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

2

SAMPLE DENSITY X THICKNESS (g/cm )

R.P. Gardner et al. / Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 213 (2004) 357363 363

1000

Experiment

Model

Differences X 10

800 RC=491.4Exp(17.0XAt1.22XSt)

+491.4Exp(4.22XAt0.302XSt)

+408.88(X t)0.636Exp(3.04X t0.400X t)

S A S

+17.4Exp(0.0414XAt)

600

RESPONSE (CDS)

400

200

200

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

2

SAMPLE DENSITY X THICKNESS (g/cm )

ment interferences of density and composition

variation in a wide range of aluminum alloys. [1] P.R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the

Physical Sciences, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New

York, 1969.

[2] J.F. Cameron, C.G. Clayton, Radioisotope Instruments,

Pergamon Press, New York, 1971.

Acknowledgements

[3] R.P. Gardner, R.L. Ely Jr, Radioisotope Measurement

Applications in Engineering, Reinhold Publishing Corpora-

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support tion, New York, 1967.

of Dr. C.L. Dobbs and J. Szalanski of Alcoa. [4] D.W. Marquardt, J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11 (2) (1963) 431.

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