r {t
Moments of forces
115
116 cHAprrR s,/ BUTLDING oN A vERlcAL sirE
clgreater
the bernrs ii.r exactlr' the right positions, :rncl grotrl
han wood
ing thc shalts to enrbcd the beams. lhis looks sirnpit'
mbustible
on paper, lrt it irl'oh,es a lot of hean.. tlinrcnsionallv
rratures of prer:1se u,orli on the face of dre clll. u,hich is rlanger
txlxescent
otrs ancl expe'nsive.
eated by a
trame can
ilding site
ieces by a
DEVELOPING A SUPPOR.T SCHEME
le amollnt
,\ltcr tr ulng mant, r4rtiorrs, rre :rclr.rpt a tentativc dr:sigrr
iff. lor the pavilion tlrat is looselv basei'l on altcrnatir;e (b).
[:]ec:rtrse olt lhe rrnLrsual charcter o['the site, we pro
rluce preiirninan, dctli[* lor tirc birilding vcn, earlv in
tlre design process so thrt. \\'e can proceed rorfidentlr,
l.r,itlr tl'rc clesign (IigLrrr:s 5.4, 5.5).'I'he structrrai stcr:l
rf buildng
fkor Franre lhat r,r.c proposLr is clraun in Figrrrc 1.r,.
ratically in
A single long. stceply inclineil strirt alrglcs out fron')
r structure
thc clilT belou' and mc'cts the lrame of the builcling to
while pre support its outcr cncl. W'e proposc. lr ntake this stt"ut
f'ace. 'I'he
ltrtnr a squarc ster:l tube. 'i'hc attacllment of the cor
rge mobile
ners o1'the f}ame to the chlf is shorvn ir FigLrrc 5.7.
m corners and the intcrsectiorr rf the strut ancl the floor leams
rtions tirat in Fi.qtrre 5.8.'l'he ltrarning plan f'or tire floor ol the
.'lle two
parilion (FigLrrc 5.5a) shor,r,s r beam at cach lirce of
e tr.vo pins
the bLrilding antl tu,o interior l.rcams. 'l'he marinurn
his combi spacirrg of thesc fbrrr beains is cle[r:rmined bv the
exerted on
lniimtm sperr o the corrugatcrl stcel decking thev
I by differ srpport. r\ roured concrctc lill uill bc installed or.cr
iff and the tl're: dcckirrg to produce level floor sLrrlacc. '['he rool
construct, is {lramecl n,ith lightgatrge steel raflcrs rnd sheraiheci
n the walls
u,ith firr.ret,rrdant plru,oocl. liilich ser\ies Lo rccrrirt:
thc nails lbr attaching stanilingsearn coppelr roofir5.
'rges at the
Figure 5.3 Section drawings showing some ways of suppr:rting the pavil AII the u,cight o{tthe, ror>l is brotrght to tlir: f:loor stnrc
al diagonal ion on a vertical rock face. tirre ior: support throLrgh the vertical stecl rzrilliar.s,
upPort the
tl're posls betiveen the r,r,'irdot,s.
little more 'lb prour:ecl rvith clc'r,oloprnenl r{'thc design. u,e
,s that field
ttrst fir:st dct.erntine tl're ertema.l lirces tlut are lurl,
lt its mem rr,rrriring only rwo connections to be made on each Alternative (d) is the sme as (b) except that the essary to suppurt the builclirrg. 'l'he dead nd live locls
.e (c) is the
qt',, irlier the crane has lowered the structure dolvn diagonal struts below the floor are replaced by diagonal have alred). becn esfinrated" 'l'hr: total u'eght ol thc
n a vertical llr,' t'lifT. It increases maintenance costs, horneve tes above tire floor. Altemative (e) involves excavating l;rrilcling is aboLrt 7i liips t7l.000 1l).'l'his is nradr. up
rttom ends l,r.r'rrusc the additional members will need periodic two horizontal shafts into the face of the cliff, inserr o a tot1 roof rveigl.rt (live ancl dead loads) o 26 liips
truction by ing and are in a place that is difficult to reach. ing steel beams into the shafts, shimming and bracing ancl a total floor vveight of .r15 kips. 'l'hc floo n,eight is
r,r in l
118 CHAPTER 5 ,/ BUILDING ON A VERTICAL SiiE
ilffi
lal ll,,',r l,
t: :.r,tlt:ljrlll
:,. rlilitl
llli
ll
I'l lt,,lt I
l lprtt. ri
"
I I i5lr,. ',
..1,1 r ,
,l rt' lr,l I
i
DEVELOPING A SUPPORT SCHEME 1I9
t
Figure 5.6 A perspective view of the floor frame for the pavilion
^
ffi ',',
,
[, I rs excavated from the rock. Several holes are drilled from this pocket deeper into the rock. Steel
rrrl.rr n3 bars are inseted into the holes, then the holes are pumped full of grout. Next, the anchor
l.rlr' ,rr(l its buttonheaded bolts are held in place by a temporary wooden frame, and the pocket is
,,,rrtr.rl Afterthegrouthascured,ittransfersforcefromthebuttonheadsoftheboltstothereinforcing
l,.r'. ,rr(l lhence to the rock cliff. The hinge avoids forces caused by thermal expansion and contraction of
rlr, .ltr,l as it responds to changes in air temperature.
12CI cHAprER s ,/ BUtLDING oNi A vERricAL strE
much larger than the roof weght because the bLrild i .,,, ,,,
ing code mandates a live load estimate of 100 lb per li,, , rr,,,,
sqlrare foot. '[his addresses the fact that at times the
room may be tightly packed with people.
'I'his weight is centered about the centroid of the
floor plan. Because the floor plan is trianguiar, the cen lt,,r
troid is approxirnately onethird of the distance from tl'. , t, rrr
the rock wall to the tip of the building. In Figure 5.9a, I t rti, ,,
for the pulpose of determining equlibrium, we see .1,riltl,lr',,
this distributed load represented as a concenrrated .irrl ,,1 r
loacl at the centroid. An upward force is applied to the ,rl llr,,
edge of the floor by the founclations at the face of
the cliff. Because these two forces are not coilinear (do
not act along the same line of action), the stmcture I F Atrt ill
is not in equilibrium, and will romte downward into ,!1illvll il
the canyon unless we take steps to bring it into equilib
rium. In Figure 5.9b we have added the inclinecl stnlt I l.1.1,,,,
12R ,
14: o n'o'o)ta
Figure 5.8 The diagonal strut, made from a square steel tube,
Irr:o I V
+ /l
supports the outer end of the floor and roof. A seat cut from Rh
a structural steel tee is shopwelded to the strut to support
There are just two horizontal forces, Q and B,. \
the wideflange crosspiece that brings the loads from the floor These are opposite in direction and must be equal
frame. A plate welded to the strut and fieldbolted to the beam
prevents the beam from oveturning. Despite all the bolts and
to each other to be in equilibrium, but we clo not
know their magnitude. In the vertical direction, we
I
Qv
I
Rv
welds, this is considered to be a pinned or hinged joint becar;se have two gravity loads and two vertical components
it provides little resistance to twisting of the beam. of reactions. fubitrariiy assigning a positive sign to Figure 5.10 A freebody diagram of the pavilion floor.
f iE*rts': II
LEARNlNG FROM THE PLAYGROUND: MOMENTS OF FORCES I21
rlnulu,rrtl lbrces, we sllm the forces n the vertical hrrces are lrot concurrent, ther,' exert mofi]ents, ancl
tlllr'r lrtt: the clcr.icc rotrtcs ([]igtrrc' 5.11). A iltoiltent ol'J'orce. Referenae Line of
irsrrallv crllcd a t]toilrcilt, is a rncasrrrc cl[' the cairabil axia #1 aation o* P
)_]t;,
: o : 26kips * 45kips  Q,  R, itv cl a fbrce to cause rotation olt a body arouncl a
scler:ted axis ol rotrtion. \Alc quantilv a nxxrrtrnt, r\'f ,
'l'lrr is s far as we can progress toward evaluating as the pr:oduct of a lbrce, P. and the perpenclicul:rr
lk rrtlnurl lbrces on the building using two equations clistrnce, /. lrom the line ol action of ther lbr:cc to
ul ql,rlrl r'<rrilibrium. We need a third expression of static the axis of rotation aboirt u,hich nc: wish tr find the
Frlllllrrirrrrr to determine the direction, magnitude, and tTt()1)t('nl:
llrllt'; ul rrrrlication of these forces. This expression con
I ptlr', llrr'r'<trilibrium of moments of forces. M:P [5t]
'lhe perpendicular distance, d, which is also the
LIARNING FROM THE PLAYGROUND: shortest distance between the line ofaction ofa force Momenl of 7
and an axis, is commonly referred to as the lno'nxent aboul axis #1 is
MOMENTS OF FORCES
arw.ln Figure 5.12, force P creates the same moment unaffeoted by
 'lrlhL,rr rrpply equal brrt opposing forces to the push Pd with respect to the given axis, regardless of its loca yoartion of ? on
lr,u', ,,l ir rlayground merrygoround. Because these fion on its line of action. its line af acbion
{a) ?erapeclive
9 Stabilizing
rrm of the
vith a diago $
Referenae , I
axis #1 \
C7 a' fi1
ill
Moment r / so"Y
artn
+
Rh (b) lop View
i\n axis of' rotalion mar. le thoLight of as resem this sense as being rositive or ncgativcr; thr:rc is no interest. t,ecause the moment arm ol tlle lirr:c: u'itl, 4tt,'llr,.r
bling the cenlerlinc: o{' a r<rtaLing rxle or the: shaft of hardrnc'llast convention lbr cloing this. In this book r,r'cr rcspcct to each of them is zero.'l'his means that llrt' llro t,,.,..
a machine. \\/hen r,r'e represer)t a s)steni ol'forccs on a lr,i11 Lrsuai\, assign a positi\e sign to ckcll ise'moments lirrce exerts no rnonrcnt abrut anv ol these pourts, ,i 1,, ,l,rl,ll,
shcct o papcr cr computcr ciisplay, an axis of rr.rta anci a legative sign to counterckckrvise rnonrcnts. \\hal l,henorncnon that u'e iill pLrt to goocl use sl.rortlr,. ,,,1,1,,,,r
tiou is trsLallv perpcndictrlar to thc slrcct ol scree]r. is important is to Lrse the same conventjon throrrgl'xrtrt ,, ' l, l,,ll
and thirs shorls as a roint. \\'hcn lr,e say \.ie x: tak l clculation. '1'hc lorce P in FigLrre 5.1] is the same as i,,rr'rlr
ing moments "aboirt a point," r,r'e unc:lerstand thnt this it r,r'as in liigLrrc 5.13, but it exerts a clifllrent ru)ment EQUTLIBRIUM OF MOMENTS l,.r,r tlr,
lroint represents an axis cf rutation, n,hich is alctually r,r,itlr re'spcr:t to axis l than it cloers nith respect fo ris r.r: . t,,,rr, r ,
,lr
thr: linc ol'rctirxr of P, not to some point on the vector tiol'r is zero.
r '1'he strnr
r,,ll.l,,
itsell. r \4 ol its erte:rnal forces in the velticai clilet,ti,,,'
\ rlor'ncnf is h,r,avs erpressc'd in urrits ol fbrce
tirles c'listance, in this case lblt. Othcr con'rnlon unrts
"""
a\ r,P
is zero.
'i'her srrrri cll'its mornents of external forcer about arr
:,!il
, ,,i , ,,,,1
t {
,\ 11,,,,
fbr momerts are llin., kipin., kipti, and Nni. It \ ris ol t'otrtion is zr'trr.
r
tlrroughout a computation. (In cclnlentional trnits. li[ P : 75O Ib'\ moment about axis a and u l,.1,1,,
crtir:s arc olicrr talien u,ith the accepted practice of a negative moment about . ;r rrt,, ll
placirrg thc lbrcc tnit bcforc the clistance trnit, so thirt axis b Ir'; u
1,., rl,,
1bin., fr exarnplc, is oflerr cailecl in. lb).
t\ momr:nt has either a clocl,ise or counterclocli
\t  o
/J
tl,, I ,rr ll,
r,ise senser.uith rcspcr:t to a givclr axis. \Vi: rcprcsellt \" In c:ralrrating the e"qrrilibrirrm of anv structurt' .r r,1,.,, ,
', . Axis b part of a stnlcturcr in rvhich ther cxlernal forc,s lre rr,,', ,,, rl, t,
concrrrrcnt. u,(' mLrst enrplo1, all tlrree expressions.' l'1,,
rr)olrsl[s c,l lorcc, that u,e use irr eqrration l5 2 ] niav 1,,
.n"u, \ Figure 5.15 The moment
\ .c ervaluatecl aboLrt anv poinl or axis that rve lyish to ackit
of a force may be evalu
if\ l;Lrt ii'itlrin anv single cornprrtatiorr, al1 the rnon'rents li ,,
ated about any axis. With
a gir:cn bod,v n'rust be r:valrrated ;rbout the same l)r,rrr
"a \ respect to axes e, l, and
or axis. I{ ltrrns out, con\:cnicntlr', that for anv st'l ,,1
g, which lie on its line of
?  750 tb\ Figure 5.13 A moment arm
\ action, P has no momert fbrces ilr ecltrilibrirrln, if the sum ol'thc mornt:nts alrorr
\P=75otb
is always perpendicular to the \ arm, and therefore exerts ln\ onc" axis is zero, the srrr ol the lnrments abr.ut lrrrr
line of action of the force. \6 zero moment. olher xis is rlso zero.
EQUILIBRIUM OF MOMENTS 123
"
irrce with An,tlrer Lesson from the Playground: 100tb wtb
s that the llr. \r.csaw Analogy
' points, a ll ,lrrlrllrorrl, each of us learned intuitively abotrt
I I
rortiy. , ,r,rlrl,r rrrrrr o[ moments rvhile playing on a seesa\\ or
r, , r' r rol('r'. A larger child and a smaller one can see
,r,rr r'rlulrl torms bvplacingthe smalierchilcl larther
lr,' l',' rxis.'l'he larger child exerts a larger force at
r lr, rrtr'r rlistarrce from the axis, and the smaller chilcl
does nof ,, l,r, r, i :rrr cqual bLrt opposite moment by excrting a
e that act rl rll, r lir'r'rt a greater distance. In Figure 5.16, one
, lrl,l ,,rr tlrc seesaw weighs 100 lb and the other only
Before tacklirrg the problem of supporting the 150 lb. Again r,r,e assume that dou,nr,ard forces are T'his completes our finding of the reactions on tht' :i", ,1,,,
Rr+R2:l50lb
FINDING BEAM AND TRUSS REACTIONS
This is as far as the first and second conditions of
!r,:o
'Ihe most common use of moments of fiorce is to
evaluate the rea,ctiotts ol beams, trusses, and other
static equilibum rvill take us. Now we must turn to 150hlmh5Oh:O check
the third condition to complete the sohrtion: The sum
stnctural spanning deces. lieactiolrs are so namerd of the moments about any aris mst be zero. If rve
because they are fbrces that react to the loads placed Perhaps ,vor: have noticed that this example is thc
chose to take moments about an a,ris that does not lie
on the structure in such a \.vay as to maintain static seesaw example turned upside clown.
on the line of action of one of the reactions, r,ve u,ould
equilibrium. In Figure 5.17, a wooden beam is sr:lt Selecting the most advantageous axis aboul
have to solve two simultaneous equations for the two
jecred to a single load of I 50 lb ar a disrance of 4 which to evaluate moments is the key to efficienf
unknowns, R, and Rr. Instead rve select an axis that
ft from its right support. 'lhe beam is supported by solution of any protrlem involving two or morc
lies on the line of action of one of the unknonn reac
two vertical reactions near its ends; these are 12 fi unknwn forces. It is always possible to locate ar
tions, point 1, rvhich results in a mornent arm of zero
apart. What is the magnitude of each reaction, assum axis on the line of action of at least one unknown
for force R, ancl an equation with only one unknorvn,
ing for the sake of simplicity that the beam itselfi is force, thrrs eliminating that force from the initial conr
Rr. With respect to point 1, the 1501b load has a
rveightless? putation, as we did in the previous example.
moment arm oft B ft, and E, has a rnoment arm of
I
We have available three expressions that we can 12 ft. The 1501b load exerts a clockwise, positive
use to find these reactions. First, the sum of the
horizontal fbrces must be zero. 'l'here are no forces in
moment, and B, exerts a counterclochvise, negative
moment.'l'hus: FINDNG THE REACTIONS ON A BEAM
I
t.
the horizontal direction, so this condition is satisflecl
WITH A COMPLEX LOADING
automatically. Second, the sum of the vertical forces
must be zero. 'Ihis means that the downrvard force of Du,:o Beam loadings in real strucrlrres are often compkx. i
150 lb must be balanced by upu,ard forces that total (r50 hx8 ft)  R2(12 ft) : o Consider a bearn that supports a load of 2,000 lb thrr l.tl
is concentrated at the end ofan overhang, and a load ol
 _ l.2oohfl:tooh
^' 6,000 lb vyhose action is distributed over twothirtls
150 tb
I2 r, of the main span (Figrrre 5.18a).
The beam must also support its own unifonnli,
I Hang found the vairre of R, so directly, we may
distributed weight of t,eOO lb. What are the values of' I
Y find the value of B, with equal ease, either by taking
tt
the tr,r.,o reactions, R, and E,7
moments about point 2, or by substituting into the
: For the purpose of finding the reactions, u,e repla<'r'
erpression IF, 0,
each distributed load u,ith its resultant, a single forc,'
of eqLral raagnitrrde that is located at the center ol I
t
Rrl*, IM,:o the distributed load (Figure 5.18b). I
.
 (l5o h)(4 fr)
(l50 hx4 ft)
o
problem with tw< sirnple equations, each of whit lr
contains only one unknovvn quantity. We set rrr f tElilts ' lll
+
 ^'  tzft each equation by summing moments about an aris l.:r,lrrr1 , rl l,
I'rtt,ll,,
Figure 5.17 A beam with a single concentrated load. Ilr:5Oh that lies on the line of action of one of the reactions, "l
I

FINDII]G THE REACTIONS ON A BEAM WITH A COMPLEX LOADING I25
[ions on the llttts climinating one of the unknowns from the 12R,,  (8 ftXr6,000 h) (aft)(l.6{n b)
rtiltion:
in the verti t,rirrPr
r (.+ frx2,00o lb) : 0
on the corr
.l forces are
Lm,: o
R,,  3,867 ILr
The type of support that is provided at each
(6,(xn hX4 ft) + (r,600 hX8 ft) + (2,000IbXt6 ft) reacton of a truss, arch, or beam has an important
Clhecli: effect on the distribution of forces throughout
Bb1zft):o
the member (Fig. A).
n,,  i,733 h 14 o
A roller or rocker (1.1, 1.2) cannot transmt
L I'u,,  o
6,000 b+ 1,600 h l 2,000 tb  3,867 lb 5,713 h
:
: moment. lt can transmit on[y compressive force,
and it can do so only in a direction that is per
pendicular to the surface on which ii bears. The
rniple is the 0  0 ch:k
same effect can be achieved with a slide bearing
( )rrr riorli is Cot'rect. which depends on petroleum grease or slip
(,1.3),
lrxis about
o efficient pery Teflon plastic between two rnetal plates to
() t}r tnore avoici transmission of iateral forces.
o loc:rtr': an ;tl A link (2.'l), like a rolier or rockel cannot trans
t'urknor'r'n mit moment. lt can transmit either tensiie or
iriitial com compressive force atong its axis.
('.
:,: A pin or hinge (3..l) aiso cannot transmit
moment. but it can transmt a force in any
direction.
iEAM 'A thought that structural design consists basically r;r A fixed end {aJ) can transmit any direction and
in performing computatons is for a responsible character of force" as well as moment.
engineer not less ridiculous than would be an
,n complex. attitude of a tennis player who watches the When analyzing a simpty supported spanning
,000 lb that scoreboard instead of the bol, or af an airplane element such as a truss or beam, we usuatiy
nd a load of
:
r
t\4/othirds
unfoirnly
re ilt
6,00tb 1,600 1b 2,OOO tb pilot who {lies in the mountains on instruments
only, without looking out of the window."
Mcutr DERTouzos
show diagrammaticaily on the freebody diagram
a hinge support at one reaction and a roller
support at the other (Fig. B). This enables us
to assume with confidence that the reaction
il
ne values of
at the roller is vertical. Any lateral component
of the reactions must pass through the hinge.
, u,e replace
single force
e center of
tRa Rbl
Thrs, the problem is made statically determi
nate. A hingeandrotler support condition also
ip I'e , ,.r
rl L,1
1J_
A
Ht f lrl,,,,
Etlrel l'rr,
i
rr._l
>Kl i
^=ll)"2
oli:
2,Forae in
any Oireation
3.1. ?in or Hin6e
fr
L.,
4" Moment an forae 4.1.Fixe end
n any ireation
Fig. A

I
t I
Fig. B FIE I
FINDING THE REACTIONS ON A BEAM WITH A COMPLEX LOADING 127
:ffi
i, , I ,,. r cr tin that the conditions for which a beam made of steel, regardless of the predominant material through the connections (c). Except for cantilevers,
, ,r tr r.,., rs designed are those that it will actuatly of the structure of which they are a part. By keep structura[ elements with one or more fixed ends are
, { t ,'.r r n( e, rollers, slide bearings, hinges, and rockers ing an eye out as you pass under bridges and walk staticalty indeterminate, which makes them some
,,, , ,l t,n translated literalty nto support hardware in through very [arge enctosed spaces, you wil{ discover what more difficutt to anatyze than those with ends
l,r r, 1r,,. r ()nstruction and in the longerspanning ele a surprising variety of practical ways of creating that are free to rotate. But fixed ends usualty create
,, , rt',,rf large buildings (Fig. C). Because of the high these details.
, , ,, ,.lratons of forces that pass through very small
The famous concrete hinges in Maillart's arch bridges
r .r,, , f lheir materia[, these elements are invariabty
function mainty through the flexing action of highly
___l r il
compressed steel reinforcing bars (Fig. D). The crossing
_trlrl
,r
(b)
(")
I ri. C Fig. D Fig. E
.l28
cHAprER s / BUTLDTNG oN A vERTIcAL srrE
r1
lt
that can be faster than a numerical determination
when the loadings on a beam or truss are very complex.
'Ihe steps to a graphical determination of reactions for
hri
vm
,,tl////)
any loading are as follows:
Roller or Rooker: Hinge: Fixed End: l. Draw accurately to scale a freebody diagram ol'
1 Link 2 Linka 5 Links
the truss or beam.
E=
'%'%N [. = r__ I
%
2. Construct to another scale a load line that is mader
up of all the knor,n forces on the truss or beam.
3.Adopt any convenient pole; draw rays; and paral
n2 nb n:5 lel to the rays, draw a luniculr polygon, either a
Unsiabla Sfabla" Determinate Stable, Determinate
cable or an arch, over verticaX extension lines fronr
the forces on the member.
t _1 ._ _l
+AN\"
4. Draw the closing string of the funicular polygon.
5. Draw a ray parallel to the closing string through
a.4 n4 the pole of the force polygon. This ray divides thc
Slable, lneLermnale load line into the two reactions.
F9. F
In Figure 5.19, we have applied this method to thi.
beam that ne havejust considered in Figure 5.IB.
a much more efficient utilization of the material in support is both stabte and statically determinate. A Arbitrarily chosen pole location o is used to iener.
a beam, which results in a lower overall cost for a support condition that totals four or more links is ate the force polygon and funicular polygon. Becaust'
staticai ly indeterminate. space C extends from the 1,600lb load to the 2,000llr
load at the end of the overhang, and space D wraps
It is helpful in understanding various support condi Most beams, joists, rafters, and puriins in bui[dings around from the 2,000lb load to the right reaction,
tions to imagine that each is made up entireiy of span modest distances and are botted, nailed, or segment oc of the funicular polygon reaches all thc
iinks (Fig. F). A roller, rocker, slide bearing, or link welded to their supporting members with simple way to the right end of the funicular polygon, and seg,
is equivalnt to a single link. A pin is equivalent to
two links. A fixed end is equivalent to three tinks.
connections that, strictiy speaking, are neither
hinges nor rol[ers. Yet these common connections
ment od doubles back from the overhanging end to thc
right support. The closing string of the funicular poly" IilIIE
A stable support condition cannot be created with offer little restraint against rotation and act atmost go' oe, is drawn between the ends of the fLrnicular W* i+tll r
rocedure
mination
complex.
.:tions for
3,900 tb
agram of OA_
t is made
'beam.
rd paral
either a
nes from 5,700
olygon.
,l
through I
ides the
1
rd to the
i.r8.
o gener
Because
2,000lb Forae Tolyqon
) wraps 5cale1" : 3,OOO lb
eaction,
; all th'e Figure 5.19 A graphical determination of reactions on the beam shown in Figure 5.18.
lnd seg
rd to the
lar poly
I rrg*"t. iun.tonr.
.rnicular W,, wi[[ make only rudimentary use of trisonometric The vertical component of any inclined force is
parallel lrt tions in this book. The functions that we wi[[ use equal to the force multiplied by the sine of the angte
,egment
.rr. the sine, cosine, and t"ng"nt. These are defined between the force and the horizontal. The horizontal
,.'Ihese
l.r ,rrr) angte, 0, as follows, referring to the accom component is equal to the force multiplied by the
:cent of
,,rrrying figure: cosine of the same angte. lf this is difficutt for you to
:r. If we
\D pro ,ing: y,/r remember, then use onlythe cosine: Either component of
a force is equat to the force rnultiplled by the cosine *From Shaping Structures: Sfotics by Wactaw Zaiewski and
rlues as cosg: x/r
of the angle between the force and the component. Edward Alien (New York:John Wiley & Sons, lnc.). 1998.
,un g : y/x Reprinted with permission.
130 cHAprER s ./ BUTLDTNG oN A vERTcAL srrE
i.,,lrl
.,1
Dur:o rl'. ,,,,1 r
Figure 5.21 Resolving the inclined loads into their horizontal and vertical components. (4,500 h)(10 ft) + (7,794 h)(l ft)  (2,546 [,X4 ft)
+ Il,(15 ft) : o
FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF MOMENTS One is to flnd the lengths oF the inclined moment Rr, : 3, 159 lb rlrtr rtxt
OF FORCE: FINDING REACTIONS ON A arms of these loads with respect to a selected point.
lhe other is to resolve each inclined load into its
BEAM WITH INCLINED LOADS The remaining unknown quantity, B,, is foun<l
vertical and horizontal components, and then to sum
by summing forces in the horizontal direcrion. It is
F'igtrre 5.20 depicts a beam that supports rwo inclinecl the moments of the components of the loads. Either
5,248 lb, acting leftward on the beam. We may checli
Ioads. One load is applied to the top of the beam, and method rvill yield the same resLrlt. For this example,
the accuracv of our moment calculations by summing
the other to the bottom. 'Ihe beam is 12 in. deep. One lve choose to resolve the forces into components
forces in the vertical direction:
reaction is furnished by a roller, which can transmit because it makes the determination of the lengths of
force only in a vertical clirection. 'Ihe other reaction is the moment arms much easier.
thror:gh a hinge, rvhich can transrnit force at any angle. Figure 5.21 shows a freebody diagram in which Dr; :0: 3,159h+4,500l. +z,s46h3,887h = o ,,ll
'lb find the reactions, we must sLrm the moments the inclined loads have been resolved into their hori
of the inclinecl loacls. 'l'here are two ways of doing this: zontal and vertical components. 0= 0 check rl,,
APPLYING MOMENT ANALYSIS TO A PORTION OF A STRUCTURE 13I
I
r,
of them of
, thus, two
tep of the
force fbr
r,,, r,rl,r'r. r. \Ve discard the portion of the trllss to one
r,l, ,,1 tlrt' ctrt (rve could throu, out the portioll to the
rr,lrl ,l
(lrc cut line or the one to the left; it doesn't 100 k
I
lCIOk
rrr rrr.r ). 'l'hcn u,e construct a freebodv diagram of
an exPres Figwe 5.22 A steel bridge truss.
horizontal tl' r.nr;rirringportion of the tmss (Figure 5.23).
( ) I I r is cliagram, we show the forces in the crrt mem
1,, r'. .r,. rtctors of unknou,n magnitude but knolr,n lines
,,l .rr Ir,rr. \A/c assume a characte tensile or compressive,
l,,r ,.r'lr of'them. It is not important rvhether the
, .rrrr, tl t'hracters are correct or not.
l lrt'r't' rc three of these vectors of unknown value,
rrr,l .r solrrtion rvorrlcl appear tt first glance to reqtrire
I rlr rrrrrh,ed calculations. But the lines of action of
rir, ,l tlrc rectors, { and F, pass through joint 1,
,, rr. rvill sum moments about this point, ieaving as
rl,, ,,rrlv tull<nor,r'n in this expression F,,,, the force in
trr nrl)(,f ,1::
h)(4 ri)
Ir,:o
( r(x),(xX) lhx36 ft)  (100,000 h)(12 ft) + F,,(t6 ft) : 0
F,,,:*l50,OOOh
is found
tion. It is
nay check l, lt
\\('
lrad asstmecl initially that F,, plrshed to the
l'lrt' rnintrs sign ol the ansrver tells us that it pulls
t
too k
I
100
summing r , , t l rl ligltt instead. ru is a tension member rather than
Figurc 5.23 An imaginary cut through the bridge truss.
r, rrrrrrlcssion memler.
\\i' can use the same freebody diagram (Figure
;,887 h: o , ' i ) to fincl fbrce F, in mernber j. Tb do so in a single forces pass, thus eliminatirrg them from the computa
.tr'r, 11'1'rlust take moments about the point through tion. 'I'his point of intersection, 2, lies in the emptv
,r lrr, l tlrc lines of action of the other tu,o unknou,rl space to the right of the diagram. From the dimensions
132 cHAprER s ,/ BUILDING oN A vERTTcAL srrE
on Figure 5.22, we know that it lies at a distance of 24 Figure 5.24 Finding centroid
ft from the adjacent 100kip load, which makes it easy locations for the pavilion.
to set up the solution:
Irur:o
(100,000 hx48ft) (100,000 hx24 ft) +
4(16 ft) : o
F:l50,0OOh
'lhe minus sign tells us that lve assumed the
/
wrong direction for F,, as we dld for F,,,; member j is
compressed. *t\
Returning to the freebody diagram in Figure 5.26, The inclined force transmittecl to each of the tw,o
we evaluate moments about point 2, which eliminates foundations at the cliff wall is found in sirnilar fashion,
three variables from consideration:
:
Lm, :0  (7.15 ftx71 kips) (lB ft)y,
":ffi:0., 2
28.22 + 32.12 21.4 kips
It' Iru, : 0 :
ro.e5 (10.85 ftXTt kps) + 0B ft)e, downward vector of 71 kips at the centroid of the com
bined floor and roof loads. 'Ib determine rhe location
Q, : 42.8kips
of this vector, we constrllct a load ijne that is made rrp of
the floor and roofloads.'Ihen rve adopt any convenient
As a check of otrr work, we can sum forces in the poie and drar,v rays to compiete a force polygon (b).
rrr)> Y vertical direction: Parallei to these rays, we clraw the segmelrts of a funic
ular polygon, (c), on which the distance berween the
trvo loads, 2 k1 in., is plotted accurately to scale. \Ve
t : o:71
?
Iq kips42.8kips28.2kips  O
extend the lines of action of the first and last segments
:e structure
Q, check of the funicr"rlar polygon, op an or, until they intersect.
les at a dis '.[he resultant of the two forces passes through this
e fioor. Tb determine the remaining components of force
point of intersection on the funicular polygon. 'lhis is
at points I and 2, we can carry orrt more computa the centroid of the sum of the two loads. We scale the
Flgure 5.26 Findingthe forces in the pavilion
tions, or we can utilize the trigonometric functions of horizontal distance to determine that it is l0 in. to
ture the angle : the ieft of the centroid of the roof load.
,hole pal lhe
free body of the par.'ilion, diagram (d) of
iew as if it o, Q,  a2'8 kips
 Figure 5.27,has only three external forces acting rrpon
ight of the lrr r';rlt'Lrlate the trigonometric functions of , rve must
<n  un9 f.13
.12.I kios
it. We know the locations and directions of tr,o of these
l5 ft from Ill I IIrt' Iength of the h)?otenuse of this triangle, which forces, the 7lkip vertical load, which we have jrrst
iust deter 1,, tlrr' srrrare root of the sum of the squares of the legs, Because there are only two horizontal forces on found to be I 0 in. to the left of the centroid of the floor
a force Q the freebody diagram, component /h must be equal load, and the diagonal force along the a.xis of the
r. We will Hypoterruse.: ,{lz, tl2 : zo ancl opposite to Q in order to create equilibrium; its inclined strut. Extending the line of action of the floor
C horizon value is 32.1 kips, which is split between two points of and roof loads until it crosses the axis of the inclined
b will also 'l'lrc sine of d is l6120, which is 0.8. fhe cosine
attachment to the cliff, each carryring 16.05 kips. strut, ure find a point of concurrence throrrgh u,hich
its vertical t,. l.),1)0, which is 0.6. The tangenr is 16h2, rvhich is 'fhe axial force in the strut, Q, is found from its the third force, which acts through the pin connecrion
I I 1 We can convert d to degrees by finding the components by means of the Pythagorean theorem: to the right, must also pass. (lf the line of acton of
, is given rr( liur of 1.33, which is 53.06'. (Arctan is short for any of the three forces did not pass throlrgh the point
rn. 'Ihese tut t(ilt,qcnt, u,hich is the angle that has a given tangent, of concurrence of the other two, the moments in this
triangle. trr tlris case i.33.)  {s: ilI,  i3.5 liirs
system of forces would not be in equilibrium).
134 cHAprER s ./ BUTLDTNG oN A vERTtcAL slrE
rl,. , 1,,,,
Kips
I
J
. ?' t\ 
:!
Centroid Centroid of
\\of Root \ floo.
 '
i
cenlroid of 
I
10"
(a) Tlan
x (c) Funicular ?olygon It (b) Forae?oly}on
i
: v zt ipu :
r: Scale:1" 5aalezl" 4O Ki?s
l
1'
?in
Center line aonnection
of etrut ab:42.2Ki?e
aa:53.2Ki?a
71Kipo
! ,!. ,, ..
Figure 5.27 Craphical determination of the forces in the pavi{ion. ,,.1,.1
BUILDING THE OBSERVATION PAVILION 135
\ \', ' r rsc lJow's notation to label the spaces betrveen in 2in. increments, then from 2l in. to 36 in. in to the floor [rame near the two hinges '"vil] secure
tl,, .,, lir't'cs. Working clockwise around the point of 3in. increments. Accordingly, we round up the size to the frame to additional anchors in the clifT. All these
t rr r'(,nce, the 7l kip load is Dc. As w,e move fiom lll
' , r,( 21 in.'fhe trvo interior beams span about 20 ft, so they neu,ly added members are redutulan, which is to say
t" {,r tlrc [reebody diagram, the force pushes dovvn
' can be 12 in. deep.'Ihe short girder that brings the that they duplicate the roles of members already pro
,, rr,l l'lrrrs, \/e constrLlct a load line to the right (e) loads f?om the floor beams to the inclined stnrt,s at)? vided in the structure. Normally we do not provide
tlr.rt rs 7l kips long at the designated scale, with b ical, in that it carries a heavy load over a very short span redundant members in a structure, but redundancy
,rt tlrl lop and c at the bottom. Through point b, we and can't be sizecl by a simple approximation. Pending is desirable in circumstances where total structural
, ,,ri'.tf r r( [ lne ab parallel to AB, and through point c, calculations, we guess that it might be 18 in. cleep. failure s likely and/or would have dire consequences.
Ir., , ,/.'l'lle trvo lines b andca intersect atri. We scale '[he inclined strut can be sizecl approximately with Following terrorist attacks on certain kinds of govern
tl',,.,' lirrcs to lind the numerical values of:the three the aid of the column tables in the AISC Manu,al of ment buildings, it has become standard practice to
1,,r,,.,,: 5 3 kips forca, l,hich is the force in the inclined Steel Cot6tnlction.'l\ere is a table specifically given to design redundancv into the frames of such buildings
rrrrr, :rrrrl 12.6 kips tor ab, rvhich is the total force square tube columns. By readng the ftee length of the so that if any single column is destroyed by a bomb or
tr.r,.rrritlc.cl to the trvo foundations in the rock rvall column, 10 ft, clor,vn the left side, then finding in this vehicle, the ftame will still stand.
,,1 t lrr, gorge. Botl.r valrres are u,ithin 1 percent ol those row a capacitv in hps that equals or exceeds tlre load on
rlr,rr \\'(' r,r,ould find numerically. 'lhe angle ol ab is the strut in our structure, rvhich is 63 kips, rve arrive at a
rlr , rr ly tlctermnecl by its passing through the pin and steel tube size of 6 in. square. Although this is a safe size
?e
.
BUILDING THE OBSERVATION PAVILION
tlr, ,oirrt of concrtrrence. for this member, given its crucial importance in the sup
port of the palion, we might w{sh to increase the size to Construction of the pavilion is complicated by its being
\I/ING THE STRUT AND BEAMS 8 in. for additional security against buckling. on a vertical site rather than a horizontal one. With
out proper safety precautions, any mistake on the part
\ltlr,,rr.lr rve have not yet learned to assign sizes Redundancy of the builders could result in the free fall to the bot
rrr l*.unS, \/e can give approximate sizes based on a 'lhestability of this strlrcture depends primarily tom of the canyon of a dropped tool, a rnishandled
r,rl, ,,l thumb: A simply srrpported steel floor beam on just three of its elements: the diagonal tube and component, an incautious rvorker, or the entire struc
1,,'r rlrl lrave a depth of aborrt ll20 of the span. For the rlvo hinges tl.rat are attached to the chff. If any ture. A safety net will be deployed a short distance
, ,,,,,1 lrL.am, tl.re proportion can be 1124.'I'he clif of these shoLrld t'ail, the result rn",ould be a catastrophe below the strlrcture to catch any worker who might
l, rr'n((, is dLre to the fact that floor beams generalli, that wolld possibly restrlt in the loss of human lives fall. This will be supported by cables attaclred to
, u\ lrcuvier loac]s and that deflection (sagging) mrrst as weil as the structure. In talks with the owner of the temporarv orrtripgers on the floor flame. Additionally,
lrr nrr)r'(' closely controlled in floor beams than roof palion. lve have decided that such a faihrre cannot every worker will be required to wear a safetv harness.
l' .un\ Applying these proportions to the cliff strLlc be tolerated. We must provide for the stability oF the This rvill be tied to an elasric line that is anchored on the
tru, rs lrickv, because the tvr,o major floor beams, the structure in sLrch a u,av that if any main component rock rvall above the srructure. In accordance with de
,ur", :rt the ortside edges, carry healy roof loads that o[ it should [ail, there r,vill be another element to take tailed prosions of the U.S. Occupational Sat'ety and
rr, l,rorrght to them by the windorv mullions, r,l,hich over its supporting role. Health Act (OSHA), each steel floor beam will be
, rll., lirr an increase in their depth. At the sanre time, After much discussion, we design a simple, eco equipped with a waisthigh horizontal cable mounted on
rl,, ,, lrcanls overhang at the outer end, which allrws nomical backLrp structure. 'lwo stainless steel rods temporary vertical brackets. This serves both as a hand
tlr, ,lr'rth to decrease.somewhat. But the overhang is will tie connections on the two sides o[ the floor of rail for workers and a line to which each worker can con
r rtlr,'r long. which reqLrires greater depth. In C'hap the palion to special foundation plates high on the nect his or her safety harness with a simple clip.
r, r,. I(r irnd 17 rve r,,i11 learn how to assign a clefinite cliff.'l'hese rods will be tightened at the conclusion of As mrrch assembly of the pavilion as possible rvill
,r.,, lo these beams despite all these complications. construction until they are barelv tart. If the diago take place on the plateau above so that the crane
l,,r n{)\\'. taking all these factors into account, rve w,ill nal steel tube should buckle or othem,ise fail, these can handle it in several largc pieces. Figrrre 5.28
rr,' llrt' major beams an approximate depth on l/20 rods will assume its load and rransmit it to the spe diagrams a tentative procedure for erecting the
,'l rlrt'ir or,erall length of 32 tt, rvhich is about l9 in. cial foundations r,r,ith only a slight srrbsidence of the building. In part (a), the process begins u,ith rvork
',t.rrrrl:rr.rl sizes ol steel beams go ftom 8 in. to lB in. structure. In a sirrilar way, short steel rods attached ers being lowered tom above on cables to instali
f,] J
qc
o
o'
L,
6 r^)
:t
l
gq ,1

o E
p
='
=
o @
o C
r
fr:
(]
o Z
:
o
O
5 Z
o
o
N
m
N
O :r
=

;
m
BUTLDTNG THE oBSERVATION pAVtloN 137
T:IIJ
ffi
,ii,'l .i
: !'l I
\, \ rI
rrl\l
\,'\{
.J] !;t
1i3r.
l
t,'
I
,J
\,'
II
I
Figure 5.29 At Fo Stanwix National Monument in Rome, New York, the Marinus Willett Collections Management and Education Facilrty was c{esigned by the team of architects
threc lbLrndrtions into the rock, one fbr tlre base ou 1le lrame for u'orker protection. 'lho tcrnporaw mersh is installeci over the deck. 'I'hen t.hc crrric lorr,
o{' thc inclirrecl strut and tu,o for the inside cnd ol' cables rnchorecl to thc' top o1'tlrc clil'l'u,ill support ers concrete irr l:rrge Luckcts. \\brkcrs distribute thr.
the flor.r platlbrni. 'l'hc:sc are cletailecl in FigLrrc 5.7. the outer e'nrl oitthe floor I'ramc until the inclined concretcr over the florr dccking and trou,el i[ iltr,
\Vir'kcl access mav be irrrprovcd bv ternrporary la{ strut L:u1 be lolr,erecl, connecterl to its lbrrndation, a srnooth floor slab. '1'his cove:rs the cr.rrrrrgatiorrs
clcrs, cx: bv excrvating thcr acccss tunnels frorn tl'rcr ancl bolted secrrelv in placc, as shou,n in part ic). A ancl provicles a leverl, sali, conr,cnicnt platforrn i'or
platc:au above earlv in thc process. Part (b) shou,s safetv net is srrspendcd lronr thc Iranie belbre ll,orli the u,ork that f:ollou's. 'l'his inclLrdes installation ol'
the entire floor lrarrc trcing lou,erecl as a ut'rit note ers res Lr rnc thcir l abors (d ) . i\ corru ga teri steel clec k is the lvall palrcls (c) and lou,ering of the conipletell
thc tcrnporarv llanclrails tlrat havt been installcd attachetl to the beams, and u,clclcd u'irc reinfhrtirrll asseinblecl roof (l).
Exercises 6. lind t.he reactions atr anci b rn tlre uclckrcl stccl fl'ame in frigrrre 5.35. lqnor.t'
t ht' u t'glrt ,,1'tltt' ll'rrrn,'.
For each of the following exercises, decide whether a graphical or a numerical
approach s more direct, and foilow that approach to a solution.
7. 'I'he l2ft cantili:r.cr lleram in f]igLrre 5..16 is embr'clclccl in a x:r:tangular blocl,
of concretc that is 6 t u,cle arrcl n,eiglrs .i0,000 1b. At uaL load, 1,f", u,ili tl,,
1. Figure 5.30 shows four additional ways of supporting the pavilion on the cliff. block bcgin to tip over?
In scheme (a), an internal tension rod is substituted for the inclined strut. Scheme
(b) depicts three different inclinations for the inclined strut. Schemes (c) and (d)
r,l,ould place the structure in a different part of the gorge where support is avaiiable Key Terms and Concepts
for a vertical column. Find the forces in the column, strut, or tension rod for each
ol these alLernative designs.
2. Find the reactions for each of the beams in Figure 5.31. The selfweight of the
intLrrnescent coating >M=0
beam is inciuc{ed in the dstributed load in each case. muliiorr reaction
3. Find the forces in members a, b, and c of the theater r<of truss in Figure 5.32" centroicl sine (sin)
4. 'lhe freebody diagram in Fig. 5.33 is a cross section that represents the forces moment ol fbrci: cosine (cos)
that act on a garden toolshed. The downward vector of 2,25A lb represents the moll.lent tangent (tan)
weight of the shec{. "Ihe horizontal vector of 1,600 lb represents the resrrltant of
the estimated maximum force of the wind. How much dorvnward force is required r\,r = Pd l51] method of sections
at point a to keep the shed from overturning? What are the components of the reac morncnt arm, l redundancy
tion at the other corner of the shed?
5. Figure 5.34 shows a design for a cantilevered roof for a stadium grandstand.
The sum of the live and deacl loads for one bay of the roof is 2l kips. Find rhe
rnagnitudes of the reactions R,, and Rr.
BUILD}NG I'HE OBSERVATION PAViLION 139
C ran(' 10\1,
;t ribute thc:
u el it into
'rrrrrga tions
l:rtfbnn lor
trllation oll
t'ortplctelv
.35. Ignore
qrrlar block
7, will the
1o',1o" 10'1o"
1 Centroid 1 Centroid
l
of load l
of load
7t tre Hinge 71K'/ej Hinge
1
1 150
a
3,0"
Column
\ '{
4b"
(b) {)
Figure 5.30 Additional ways of supporting the pavilion.
140 cHAprLR 5 ./ Bt.JTLDTNG oN A vERTicAL srrE
1,..
500 tb 500 tb 500 tb
l_ I 
ibft [t1,* 12',
F
Irtrirt' 1 r'*rr'* 11',
'+ t,l ll
24 lt I
*rf l*, f*,
Figure 5.32 A roof truss for a theater.
,o kN
1,".
63 fr
f*, arf
(b)
400 tb 400,b
1,200 tb
luuJu,,
,*l 1ffiOlb
Era>
ffitb
1B fr
f., *,1 "n
(") I
400
II
tb
(d)
Figure 5.31
f*,
24 ft,
f *,
Fgure
il
*+t*+t
5.33 Freebody diagram of a garden toolshed
(cJ
i tglr ',
BUILDING THE OBSERVATION PAVILION I41
to prominence in bridge construction was Emily or engineering was likely to be subjected to some
'.=:= Warren Roebling (.i8441903), who assumed greater amount of hazing and, in many cases, outright
and greater responsibility for the construction of hostility by teachers and/or male students. Today,
the Brooklyn Bridge after her husband, Washington such inexcusably discriminatory behavior has largeiy
stand.
Roebling {18371926), the engineer for the project, disappeared and there is no reason why women
was permanentty disabled by caisson disease. lt is should not do as wetl as men in the building design
diffrcult to know with certainty how much influence professions.
tr,,rrrc 5.36