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LEVEL 2

Short Circuit ABC-Learn It 1n an Hour,


Use It Anywhere, Memorize No fofmula
-
. -
_
. _ ..
_ -_-
"""
_
_
-_--
_
_
_ -. ------ . -:M O ON H; YUEN, SENIO R. MEMBER, IEEE

INFINITE BUS
Abstract-Short circuit ABC-leun it in iilllour, use it anywhere, he VIZ
memorize no formula. The MYA method for 110lving industrial fil{'JVJISC VSl./JVJV/Z
powel" system short circuits appropriately fits this dexription. Indeed, Z 0.01 OHMS
vJE ISC E2/z

:;olving short circuit problems with tile MYA me t hod is u easy u 0 13.8 KV VASC E2/z

1000 IKVJ2 I Z
learning the ABC's.. ICVASC

MVASC KV2/ Z

FAULT
INTRODUCTION
Y'JV

S
.HORT CIRCUIT studies are necessary for any power E
I SC SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN AMPERES
distribution system to determine switchgear rating for E LINE TO LINE VOLTAGE IN VOLTS

protective relaying, and to determine the voltage drop during V LINE TO NEUTRAL VOLTAGE IN VOLTS '
Z Llf!E TO NEUTRAL IMPl!DANCE IN OHMS
starting of large motors. One line diagrams are not complete .
r.NA SC SHORT CIRCUIT MVA
unless the short crcuit values ii.re solved at various sfrategic
Fig. I. One line diagram.
points. No ubstation equipment, motor control centers,
breaker panels, etc., can be purchased without knowledge of
of the complete short circuit information of the enfire power
distribution system.

}
SYSTEM
500
500 MVA
Knowing how .to calculate short circuit problems is a must
for. every electrical engineer. To learn it may be easy for some,

}
difficult for others. However, to db the problems, anywhere TRANSFORMER
llOMVA 50/0.1

in or out of the office where tl:ie references ari: not available x 0.1
13.BICV 13.BICV
_ _ may not . be an easy task because the conventional mcfthods of
solving short circuits involve too many formulas. To memorize
}
MOTOR
50 MVA 50/0.2 - 250
them at all times is impractical for the maj6ritY. x o.2

WHAT REALLY Is THE MVA METHOD? MVA 1- 2 MVA 1 MVA7 / MVA1 + MVA2

--:----=:-Basica!Jy, the. MVA method is a modification of the Ohmic 600 600/ !500 + l500 250

MVA1+J 250 + 250 500


method in which the impedance of a circuit is the rum of the I SC l500 x 1000 f'/:r x l:LS 2D900 AMI'S

impedances of the various components of the circuit. Since,


Fig. 2. Imcc diagram. Fig_ 3_ MYA diagram.
by definition, admittance is the reciprocal of impedance, it
follows that the reciprocai of the system admittance is the sum
-=.- of the reciprocals_f the admittances of the CO!llponents:-A!so, y admittance of a circuit
. impedance in ohms
-.=.::::_:by='definition-;-the:-adm1ttance of a circuit or component is the Zo11nu
ma.Ximum current or KVXa"t'unit voltage which woiild flow Zpu impedance in per unit
through the circuit or compoent to a short circuit or fault KV line to line voltage
when_supplie_d_fr()IIl-ource . of infJ!liLcapacity.'_-_ Refer to KV $art circuit KV A
.
_
_ __

Fig. 1. MV short circuit MVA


1 MV (13.8)2 /0.01=19 000 (for Fig. 1).
Y= (I)
Zohms Practically, the MVA method is used by separating the
circuit into components, calculating each component with its
----:=--- - - -'= K 000 X (I0!2 X }_'.". (2)
own infinite bus as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Fig. 2 is a typical
MV =(KV)2 X Y . (3) impedance diagram of a one line diagram. Fig. 3 is an MV A
diagram. The conversion fro a one line diagram to :in MV A
(4) diagram is simple arithmetic. .
Component I, the system, is normally given a short circuit
MVA rating. So, one merely writes down 500, which is its
Paper TOD-73-132, approved by the Petroleum and Chemical Industry
system short circuit MVA. Sometimes, if the system MV A is

e e
Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation
al the 1973 Pet roleum and Chemical Industry Conference, Howton, not available, but its voltage and impedance are given, the
Tex., S ptemb r 17-19. Manuscript released for publication October short circuit MVA can be calculated with the application of
31, 1973.
-
The allthor ll-with the Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, Calif. (3).
PAGE 4. 7 . 2
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE
LEVEL 2

Next, for c omponent 2, use (4). The


'.ransformer is equal to its own MV A
.,, . . per unit impedance.
.

method.)
short cir

(Use reactanc e
base
X

dmded
witli
.
.
the

cucmt

t MVA ?f
by its
MVA 1!500
A. CONVERT TO MVA'I

- -v
MVA
-

(!9)2

Next, for component 3, ag use (4). The short


.

J.17
'; 1.17 OHMS
its awn MVA
-MvA-contrib u"ffonoF-triemotoi-:is-: eqiial:tc
""

base -divided by Its own-per unit impedance:-(Use reactance 6


) 11'ilVA

X with the MVA method.)


3
,:>.( ==i= -/12KV
x 0..079

Now, Jet us examine the MV A diagram, Fig. . If a short


... ' 12 KV

lj) j
12 ICV

drcit is taken at point F, there will be a series flow of MVA1 -


0.2
and MVA2, and their combination will be in parallel with 15 'ilVA
f M II

MVA3 The question now is: how do you combine the Xd 0..2

MV A values in series and in parallel? The answer is again


{a) (b)
simple arithmetic Fig. 4. The ABC of the MVA. (a) One line diagram. (b) MVA diagram.
(MVA,)XCMVA2)
series MVA1,2 (5)
(MVA1) + (MVA1)
=

B. COMBINE THE MVA'S


I

parallel MVA I+ 2 = MVA I + MVA1 .. (6) 1. SERIES: MVA1.2 MVA1 x MVA2 I MVA1 + MVA7

2. PARALLEL: MVA1 MVA1 MVAz


. ,I
+ 2 +

From (5) and (6), it can easily be recognized that series MVA

2
.3. DELTATDWYE

combinations are exact1y as resistances computed in parallel.


Parallel MVA combinations are exactly as resistances computed !
in series. =::
The MVAse at point F of Fig. 2 then can be calculated as - Y 3 "J

S ID 1 x 021 (0 2 x DJ) (03 D1)


follows: .
+ + x
.
Y WYE 1

- 500 x 500 - D DELTA

MVA,,2 - - 250 (b)


500 + 500 (a)
Fig. 5. The ABC of the MYA. ( a ) Delta connection. (b) Wye con
MVAse = MVAT + MVA3 = 250 + 250 500. =
nection.

The tenn with the asterisk is the new MVA1 value which is
the result of combining MVA1 and MVA2 After the opera
tion, the new MVA1 which is 250 MV A, replaces the old 1.0

MV A1 and MYA2 This scheme of replacing old quantities


.I
with new quantities -relates-to computer data memory storage
system.
.I
At this point the short circuit MVA is solved. To find the.
current value, only the voltage value is required. For example, .7

if the voltage is 13.8 k\'.:, t_:_c_ntfsc is .;


\
.I

- MVA-X l-000. -500 X 1000 --- . - --


. 1 ]r20..900 A. ..
:;:/3 X KV 0 X 3
THE ABC OF THE MVA 1
l/A_:_2 ,l 4 5 I 71110 15 20 15 lQ <IQ Ml IQ IO 100

Up to now, the reader has spent about 15 min in slow read Fig. 6. Series combination ratio.

ing. He has found that there has been nothing new, and the
formulas are no more than good old Ohm's Law arithmetics.
Incoming line short circuit duty in MVA is nonnally given
Now, he can forget the formulas and start the ABC. by power companies. Therefore, use the value as given and no
conversion is rquired. However, if impedance or reactance at
A. Convert to MVA 's
the terminal is given, find its short circuit MYA by dividing its
Convert all one line components to short circuit MVA's. (KV)2 by its ohms.
Equipment_ such .as generators, motors, transformers, etc., are As conversion is being made, an MVA diagram is being
1orma1Jy given their own MVA and impedance or reactance developed. On line diagram 4{) is replaced with MVA
c.J;,,s. The short circuit MVA of each is equal to its MVA
diagram 4{b).
divided by its own per unit impedance r reactance. . :

:;or a feeder where voltage is given and its impedance or re B. Combine MVA 's
tctance is known, its short circuit MVA is eq{w to (KV)2 I) Series MVA's are combined as resistances in parallel.
iivided by its impedance or reactance in ohms. 2) Parallel MVA's are added arithmetically. Refer to Fig.
rMllC:. '+ I '1
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE
LEVEL 2

13.1 KY :!OMVA
300 MVA )(,i"0.1

13.8 KV

X 0.019 OHMll
- _ :::_:;...-
::. ===-===-= === _=- =--::
;_ :::.=-== ___:
:::== -:=:= - 1- -- - . - .
X 0.1>1 I OHMS X 0.011 OHMS

-.
-
-
20MVA :!OMVA
x. 0.1 X0.1

1MVA
XO.OV
.x.i- 0.
x.i 11.2 211
:_:::-:-_:_----::-_-. :::....:.:_;:--- _:.. :_,_3,___._____
ALL MOTORS
l50-200HP
TOTAL 1 MVA

"'.ll.215
Fig. 7. One line diagram.

C. REDUCE THE MVA DIAGRAM


4(b) for the-following:
1500X 1230
MVA1'2 = = 675 13.BKV
1500+1230
(this 1s the riew MVA-1) J4
I
I

675X 198 I

MVA1
I
3 = = 153 I

675+198 15

MVA1+4 = MVA1 +MVA4 = 153+75 = 228 4,1111CV

228 x 1000
12= =llOOOA.
11

f ../3Xl2
-For MVA-1:;-; add MVAi -and MVA;-m series. For MVA14, 12
add MVA I and MV in parallel. I12 is the short circuit
current at 12 kV. Fis. 8. MYA diagram.
_ _;3) Delta to.- wye conversions are rarely used in industrial
power distribution systems, but they are again simple arith- curve. Read the lwrizontal value 0.8, which is the result of
..:.._ITletic.- Re"rer to-Fi 5(a)and (b)..::-=- _--
-

-
B/A + B; then
--- 4)-ThLQulri;ioint that ru:e.di.JnorCattenti9n is thLJ:enes
combination if a slide rule is not available. The attempt here is T=A(B/A+B)
to be able to solve most short circuit problems with reasonable
=IOX 0.8 = 8.
-accuracy-without-the useof-a-slide"rule;----.:___ --- .

With the aid of the curve in Fig. 6, let us analyze the series It is also noted that when combining two quantities in series,
combination the result is always smaller than the smallest of the two. The.
example shows the result to be 8 when comb ining l 0 and

C. Reduce MVA Diagram


Let A:::; MVA1 ,B =MVA2; and T= total MVA, so that Reducing an MVA diagram takes the same reduction process
. - := A..X_ .B_A (B)_..:_- .. - . - required for the per unit impedance diagram, except tlut
-
-------,r---- ::i: A<.B-. - MV A quantities are used instead of per unit impecll.nccs or
A+B A+B'
-- .

reactances.
. , ' + B is platted as a constant on a log-log scale base from Fig. 7 is a typical distrlbution one line diagram including a
100 which is the ratio of B/A. (Refer to Fig. 6.) For delta connected feeder system. Reactanccs only are used for
example, let A = 10, B =40, and B/A =4. Read 4,at 11.ori practical purposes. Fig. 8 is an MYA diagram th.at mows all
zontal scale. From 4 project upward until it intersects the elements in the one line in MYA quantities. Fig. 9{a) shows
PAGE 4. 7 . 4
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE
LEVEL 2
--

200
.:. _
- :JOO -

-_-:_ f,
-_ _- -.-
-- 13.BKV
10000
-. .

-
,

; -. .
-
- , ..

181CV

.--_
.,:..-; 12

(a)

v
.
- ' 19'! B TN
-
-
- ;..._ ----=--- - _. - .
Fl
.

- , -- .
-- 1
s J.llG 10 3IMI
o; lOOOO
"
Y3 " "
-

s J.9tl 10
0.

v,
x
" " --
. --
, ..
" 20191
(a)
s
-
J.IMI .o
Ye" De
"
--,..- " 20;;' yp..._ i./)' r\) 6 .\,Q "t"Y" [")
.
S (Y.3- .. f XJY,)+ IY3l X 1.Yel !Y,l X IYel

l
(100001 x (191) + (100001 (1911 + (1Nl (191)

1
J.N 1oe

(b)

,,
.lBKV 4.18KV
j
(c)
Fig. 9. MVA reduction. (b)

=- ---- --
- : ..:.--;-

1e first step reduction sequence. Note that there are three


.U!tS:i6 be.C:i.lcwated, F1--;F2-; and F;:-=--
The7"fii-st ep rCfllctffin"cornbines the series -d pallel
>mponents so that the simplest diagram can be accomplished,
id that any fault can be solved in random fashion. Fig. 9(a)
ows..that..iterns-4-<uld-5-have been-combined to-make a new
items 6 and 7 have been combined to make a new 6; items
-10 have been combined to make a new 8. Fig. 9(b) con
rted a delta to a wye configuration. Fig. 9(c) is further
duced_to Fig. JO(a), indicating items 2 and 4 have been
mbi ii.;i friake- a-new1:-:- Figure 1 O(a) then ill the simplest
-
igram. th.at-would allow . the solving of any of the three
.tlts in- random".selection. Figs. IO(a)-{c) show the reduction (c)
.

-Ss.. solving.::faulta.:F1::;.Fn:Uid.F3.J-respectively.
.

Fig. IO. MVA reduction.



1
t
. WHY TIIE MYA METHOD?
are many reasons why. the MVA method is recom
.1 .:
. . t
!
:nded for industrial power short circuit calculations.
) It does not require a common MVA base as required by
: per unit method.
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE PAGE 4.7.5
LEVEL 2

SYSTEM
IC MlTHOO

k 10CXl KVt2
..;,,

KV
1000. ( 11.8) 2
sYSTEM .
1J.B KV llOllCOO
X 0.151 OOms 1. 11.:11..Jlli!!J

X Q 1] QHM;i

ll.SKV FEEDEll

5000 ICVA 2.
X O.OGli
10CXJ IX .U.) !KV) 2
X
KVAb
TRAHSl-OflMEll 1000. 0.0'5!5. 12.412
F
2.4 KV ISOOO
J.. O.OllJ OHMS
1000 IXP.U. IKV)2
x. w
KVAb
MOTOll - 1000 0. , (2.111)2
2500
2500 KVA
4. O..Je'! OHMS
x -o.1e

(a)
Fig. 11. One line diagram for comparison of methods.
PEA UNIT METHOD
(500000 KVA RASE)
x BASE KVA 111
2) It is not necessary to convert impedances from one P.U.
KVA S.C.
SYSTEM . 500000. 1
voltage to another as required by the Ohmic method. 500000
1. 1.000
3) The conversion formulas as used for both the Ohmic !OHMS) !BASE KVAI
X
P.U.
and the per unit methods are complex and not easy to . H>OO IKV1 2
1J..SKV FEEOEll ( 0.15111500000)
.
memorize. (13.1)2. 1000
2.
-
4) Both the Ohmic and the per unit methods usually end x IX P.U.I (BASE KVAI
P.U.
up with. small decimals resulting from converting impedances TRANSFORMER
KVA.T
ID.055l 15000100
.
from one voltage to another or from converting impedances J.
5000
5.500

to .the same common base. Therefore, one can make mistakes x IXl'.U) !BASE KVAI
.U.
KVAm
-in the decimals, with resulting wrong answers. MOTOR. .
ID. 181 150001
00
2SOO
5) The MVA method utilizes large whole numbers denoting 4.
32.000
--

MVA quantities. With a little practice, one can estimate the (b) '
mlt by looking at the combination. For example, 10 and 10
MVA METHOD
-ill .series become 5; 10 and 100 in series become 9.1; and 10
MVA1 500
and 10 000 in series give 10. A small number combined with
SYSTEM
too large a number, 100 times larger or more, will have no ef
fect on the small number.
!KV) 2 (13.BI 2
In order to further prove the preceding points, it is necessary MVAi -- --
0.151
X OHMS
--to gi ve the following comparison of methods that are utilized
1J..IXV FEEDER

12'!0
2. -

- in solving industrial power system short circuits. MVAT 5


MV"J -- --
XP.U. 0.05li
TRAHSFORMER
COMPARISON OF METHODS 91
-
A one line diagram, Fig. 11, is shown. Solve the three-phase MVAm 2.5
MVA4 -- --
- --fault at point F' with-and without motor contribution. MOTOR
XP.U. 0.15

.- ' s only_ a.Ie. considered-Tjhe tlu:ecases


. - -=_NgJe - that ri::Jfillce -
15.8
- .

being compared.. It is felt that using impedances would give (c)


the same result, but would complicate the calculations. It is
rig. 12. (a) Ohmic conversion. (b) Per unit conversion. (c) MVA
--also-widely recognized-and - ac_ ceptable-by -industries to use version.
reactances only in calculating industrial power system short
circuits, in that it would result in a higher short circuit value,
ti on of August, 1965. As noted, the three-phase fault has
perhaps by- 0- percent in most cases. Reference [I]
been solved to be 228 MVA at the 12-kV bus. Since the
_exemplifies the use of reactances rather than impedances.
positive sequence fault is equal to the negative sequence fault,
c-:-Figs. 12(a)-{c) tabulate the conversion calculations for the
therefore,
three methods. Figs. 13-15 show the three methods utilized
for comparison. Fig. 16 tabulates the results of the three MVAx1 = MVAn = 228.
-=-:.mettrod;-:-:. - . --

The zero sequence fault MVA, however, must be calculated,


CAN PHASE-GROUND FAULT BE SOLVED? and its MVA value then is combined with the positive and
The answer, of course, is yes. Solving phase-ground fault is negative MVA values. .
aseasy as solving three-phase fault. Refer to Fig. 4{a) again. During a fault on the 12-kV bus,
Refer to Figs. 4{a) and (b ) . This problem is taken from the only the transformer and the motor contribute to zero
California State Professional Engineer Registration Examina- sequence MVA's. The delta primary of the transformer blocks
PAGE 4.7.6
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE
LEVEL 2

x1 11.3*1OHMS 13.IKV . J.l'HAE FAULT Ml/A 221

x2Q.151 OHMS 13.IXV


THEREFORE:
Xl,2 0631 OHMS 13.aKV 1119 Ml/A X OT
SYSTEM _

MllA x 1MVAx 2m
1 x1.2 IO.IO'I) I0.0312.4KV ( ) ii
,.
,. ____
0.011 OHMS 2.4KV
12KV
Ml/A X 0Ml/A X OT+ MVAXOM
::1
XJ" 0.00!3 OHMS 2.4KV 191 + 150
CABLE
=
- ;=-- !!. -::::._::::.
._ ::::':
c
.
::::
...Xf
.
OHMS V ----.... -
- 150
2 - 2
-------'1-c-=-- --- - -- -
- - IKV) 2 12.41 72.1
llA.i<

xF a.on 15
.
1!50T.f-MOTOR ZERO SEOUENCE REACTANCE
x 4 O.:IM OHMS 2.4Kll
X F+M (0.0791 I0.36ill OHMS Fii;. 17. Zero 5equcnce fault power.
(Q.0791 i<LJ&a)
2.41(11

Mll :+M (KV) 2 (2.412 1111


MOTOR
x;- -
2 POSITIVE
OHMS OHMS lJ.l 12.4/13.I) SEQUENCE
2.4
>

POWER
OHMS .
l3.B (D 03) NEGATIVE
SEQUENCE
POWER

ZERO
SEQUENCE
POWER
PER UNIT METHOD
BASE Ml/A 500

SYSTEM X11.000
Ml/A 1,2 2" ill
x 0.39'5 MVA1,J 114 X 348/114 +348 !!f
2
. O X 16 i1!
MVAf J
1Fo258X 1000/ i/j 12
CABLE X3 5.500
Fig. 18. Phase-ground fault Qf MYA circuit.
X
F 1.8911 WITHOUT
Ml/AF, /8.11941 MOTOR
CONTRIBUTION
. TRANSF any zero sequence power flowing from the system and across iI
the transformer. Therefore, Fig. 17 shows the zero sequence ',I
F 2.4Kll
X F M
(15.-) (32.000)
power circuit I

+ (15.8911) +(32.0001 15.67
.._.____ OR [
MVAxo T=MVAx1 =MVAn = 198
WITH MOTOR
CONTRIBUTION
i
I

(the transformer zero sequence reactance is equal to its posi


Fig. 14. Reactancc diagram. tive and negative reactances)

15
MVAxoM=-=150MVA
Ml/A METHOD 0.1
500
(since the zero sequence reactance of the motor is about t of
its positive sequence reactance). The total zero sequence fault
power then is equal to the sum, which is
MVAx oT +MVAxoM=198 + 150=348.
The phase-ground fault power is obtained with-the use of
F ig. 18. Since these are three branches in parallel, the s.hnplest
approach is to take one branch out of the circuit and solve its
15.1 15.1 15.1
MVA value, then multiply. the value by 3, which gives the
final answer
MVA 1+4

MVA1,2=228/2=114
. :...:--
- 114 x 348 --86.
-- ---

------ -------
MVA
\ '3 - 114 + 348

- .::=--...._ :..AtrHCllS- :...O


. HMIC- -PER UNIT --Ml/A I

MVAFo =3 X 86 =258
-

METHOD METHOD
'

FAULT CONDIT METHOD j

FAULT 0 2.4KV BUS


,.. -yovr MOTOR CONTRl8UTION
72.8 Ml/A 72.1 MllA 72.1 MVA

IFO = VJX
258 x 1000
=12 400A.
!
;[

_T 2.4Kll BUS 118MVA -..... &8.2MVA
12 r
WITH MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
I The problem, as shown in Fig. 4(a), is also solved with the per
Fig. 16. Result of comparoon of methods. unit method as Appendix I. This gives further comparison of
PAGE 4.7.7
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE
LEVEL 2

SYSTEM SYMETRICAL SM'VA


-r1
:'7_: ..

-.-:-

F-ooHM
SHOAT CIRCUIT 500 MVA VII -------- tMI
SM'VA + MVA SC 1 -:
.: - ...

SMVA. STARTING llfVA


7.5 MVA TRANS MVA SC SHOAT CJRCUIT ti/VA
X O.OUJ V d INSTANTANEOUS VOLTA.CU DAOP
l!ll/13.IKV
v d
21121 + 71 21/92. 11.2211

-=- -IM
8'!1 +4a0
...., 221 MVA
13.8 KV V TlJ.; = 1-0.22ii 0.772
v Tl3.2 o.m 11
2
13 .2
- . - 221 1000 X 0.19 OHM O.!IOll OR l!0.51'
I --- 10800
Yla12
=

(71 MVAI F2 (SHAT CIRCU1n V TlJ..ll MOTOR TERMINAL


VOLTAGE 13..l KV
V T1:L2 MOTOR TERMINAL
IKVJ2 11212
'4&0 VOLTA.GE 112 KV
.J 4000 HP
---
.J INDUCTION MOTOR
J.S MVA
STARTING MVA 21 AT 13.8 KV

'1"'21..,. ----
X1 + x2 + x0 t JXt --
0.456 +
l.O
0.556 + 0.428 + 0.3
--0."91
2.0ll -
(19.3 MVA AT 13.2 KV)

Fig. 23. Motor starting voltage drop calculation.


_ 11pu.: 1,1 J 0."92 1_.n _
-
_
1, 1An x 7230
MVA and the

the amount of calculation involved between the
Fig. 19: Phase to ground fault with added fault react2Ilce Xr- per unit methods.
Phase-ground fault with an added fault neutral reactance
also can be calculated with the MVA method. Fig. 19 il

I
lustrates _the preceding problem with an added fault neutral

,.
'-------v_,
/
"'
'1
.r. -:
reactaiice ){1. Note that using both the MVA and the per unit
methods obtain the same result except that the MVA method

lo
c

O/'EAATORS shows much less calculation.


-0.500 + J 0.11811
ZERO 12 DOb -0.500 J 0.11511 Two-PHASE TO GROUND FAULT
3 1.0
Can two-phase to ground fault be solved with the MVA
POS. method? The answer is again, yes. Fig. 20 shows a two-phase
CONN[CTIONS BETWEEN to ground fault diagram and connections between sequence
SEQUENCE NETWORKS
networks. As indicated, 11 is the fault current between phases
NEG. C,B, and ground.
In order to develop an MVA equation for two-phase to
Fig. 20. Two lines ta ground fault.
ground fault calculations, the classical symmetrical component
equations are utilized as basis.
and sequence quantities are expressed by the following:
Relationships between phase

Va =Vo + V1 +V2 (7)
2
Vb=V0 +a V1 +aV2 (8)
2
Ve=V0 +aV1 +a V2 (9)

Ia =Io+11 +12 (IO)


2 (11)
lb=10 +a 11 +al
----- Fig.-.Z 1: l
le =10+al1+a212.
Two-phase-to ground.fault by per unit-method.
(12)

From the preceding equations, the following relationships

-,:- -

t-- are obtained:

- - y - Vo =i CVa+ vb+ Ve) . (13)

====- MVAX--
1
f
-MVA:e- ---
1
183.5 --1:!

-- .
VAFJMVAXa Jalt8
221
!._
V1 =i CVa+a Vb+al Ve)
V2=i CVa+al vb+aVe)
(14)
(15)

IF lo=j(Ia+Ib+le) (16)
Fig. 22. Two-phase to ground fault by MVA met. hod. (17)
11 =j- (Ia+alb+al le)
12=i (Ia+a2 h+ale)- (18)
PAGE 4 . 7 .8
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE
LEVEL 2

120 ----.----..
115 ----<'---;
110
1-
100 P....,.,,....------1

- -:::::;- -
- -- . . ___ ...:....-. . ""
::- . .
. . - aD

.23 ==re::: - . ..., -

o,. .

.,.., ,,o.,
..,
.::::=--T . .'-...:....

SHORT ClllCUIT MVA

1 2 l 4 5 I 7 I 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 11
10 20 30 40 50 IQ 70 aD
(a)
y
(SMVA, 1.114 1 :OLVE FOi'! X ft'ITH -C

y (SMVAJ

EQUATION fOR LINE -C-,


A suasTITUTE X INTO "A"
HW
-- X

y MX y 1.04
I.IV".
UM .___.____--"lx MVA,. y (SMVAJ MVA,.
--
y
-M- i-v.t.,.,. 0
1
SllVA
yjMVA,.) 1.04[MVA,. y(SMVAI ]
EQUATION FOR LINE "A". y UW MVA,,jMVA,.+ SMVA

Y2Y1

I1
. , 2 . ,
SMVA STARTING MVA
y -0 1.04 -0
MVA
MVA,. MVA,.
----- MVA,. SHORT CIRCUIT
x O
.
V1 YSTARTING VOLTAGE
. y 1.114
OR----
MVA,.X
1.GI 71
MV"..
71 + 21

- 0.801


80.51' Al'rf!OX.

(b)

II
Fig. 24. (a) Voltage drop by graphic solution. (b) Graphic solution proven by analytic geometry.

Connections between sequence networks can be found from


- .
From the preceding analysis, (22)-(25) can be derived for
13).::{18):=.;::_--:-_-:::: -- the application of both the per unit method

I
Ii= (22)
Ii .tt-I2=O
- Io+ (19) x (X2)(Xo )
----
1+
----(X:z)+(Xo )---
::-_-_:- ro _=Vi '.".. Vi_.--.--=-.-=__:-- (20)
---.---
___ ___

-'---'---
- - --
---

-JlquatiOfl& (l9Tanl-(20) e sa:tfie<l-if-the-sequence l

]
net- (23)
1orlcs are connected as follows:

!F-5-f,,__tf---- "
and the MYA method 1
-------
--
-
==- -
-- ---

ld by addition of (11) and (12) i


MYAiX.(MYA2 + MY.Ao) 1
_
I
Ib+Ic=2fo +(a2 +a)(I1 +I2). MVAx, (24)
..
-MYA1+(MYA2 + MY.Ao) I
ncE__a2 .:!: a _:::- l, thrfore,
I
__ _.;;-- --:-
_ .. ___
_

----Ib_:_f.c.:::./i'= 210 :. (Ii_-U2). __ (25)


nee
-
- --. - - - --- -- -
(23)
--

Fig. 21 shows the use of (22) and for solving the two
- ----- -

Io+ Ii + I 2= 0
ph.a.se to ground fault of the same problem, the per unit
Ii+I1=-Io . method. Fig. 22 indicates the utilization of (24) and (25) for
solving the two-pha:se to ground fault of the same problem,
erefore
the MVA method. It is obvious as shown, that the use of the
(21) MVA method is simpler.
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE PAGE 4 . 7 . 9
LEVEL 2

120 -1+-
115 --- --------------------- - - ---- - - ----- ---------

110 -1+-


l\OTDft STARTING VOLTA!;E OkOI'
BO
1. St o,,.r.tor 1'A1on ]H'\VA of short circuit scll and'""'"' it
10 lu Mirllne falh on 10Lt"L on the 'l -wolU!Je scale.

w 2. St Operator "I" on 21 surting -,..y,. on short circuit suilc.


Cl J. O perator "'C" so IU h.alrlirw t on ttw:
<(
Slng fa h lntrucalon
of Operator ''B" and 10't't "'luge.
60 i.. "- d 80.Sl Orat ions
0
wlt..gc on croulf19 point 1Ud by '"-"
and "t" .
> .

;rl!
5. If It Is d a
slr d to find t surtln9 voltag cn be obtained
with Inc.rosing bus voltagcs to I07X .and 109X. (corrnpondll't9
to 2}l and Sl hp uttln91 abov. no,....I trantfor.r volt.ag).

''C" so Its hairline hits on Intersection


40
A. SwlftCJ 0p.9:ntor
of Opcntor "111 and lOTX. voltCJC
'
kead 82.Sl on crot.tlng point IMdc by Ontors ,.._11 and ''C".

I. Swing 0SM"rtor ''C11 10 Its hlrllne hlh on lntmrHctlOf'I


of Opentor ''111 aM 109lo voltire-

'-d 85l. on c Ing point .. ci. by O pe on


nt ''A" nd ''C'".
20

.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SHORT CIRCUIT MVA,

Fig. 25. Slide rule model.

MVAMETHOD FOR INSTANTANEOUS VOLTAGE EsTATE Fig. 24(a) shows a graphic solution of the problem. Figure
Large motors are frequently connected to power systems 24(b) illustrates the validity of the graphic solution by analytic
-:-_.consisting of complicated-networks of lines and cables for geometry. Fig. 25 shows a slide rule made for the sole
. which a calculation of the voltage drop would be diffict. purpose of solving instantaneous voltage drop in starting large
Yet, it may be critical to know approximately what the motors. The instruction for the use of the slide rule as shown
__ voltag.at certain bus must be. . Titis is because the voltage is self-explanatory.
affects the motor torque in a square function; i.e., motor Fig. 26 is a compilation of standard industrial nominal
-:-torque -varies as the_square _of the voltage for a 10-percent voltages and motor terminal voltages. Note that the unique
=OltBge drop== --=-.-- :-

.---- -- - ---
relationship between the nominal and terminal voltages is
4 percent different. 1hls unique relationship aids the slide
torque er (E) 2 rule operation in solving instantaneous voltage drop during
----
-- _T= (0.9]2 =.81 or 81 prcent. motor starting.

The torque loss is 19 percent.


The voltage drop may be estimated with reasonable ac THE SPLE COMPUTER TIME SHARE PROGRAM
curacy, however, if the short circuit MVA is known at the Why is it necessary to develop a computer program for such
- . paint. of poer delivery .. - \V!len motor starting MVA is dra\vn an easy method?. The answer is simply economics. True, the
_from - a system, the voltage drop in per. unit of the initial MYA method enables the engineer to quickly calculate the
- voltage irapproximately equal to the motor starting MYA faults on a power system, but how about documentation?
_ dividd. by the su of thisMYA and the short circuitMYA After the engineer finishes his calculation, the result needs
MVA1 typing, proofreading, etc. From rr{;inua} calculation to print
Vpu = . (26) ing, the estimated cost for a problem as shown in Appendix II,
MYA3 +MVAse
having 12 components and three faults, is approximately S 100
g. 23 shows an example applying the MY A method in
including the engineer's pay. But the time share program
estimating the voltage at the 13.8-kY bus when a large motor solution from input to print-out costs approximately S24
is started. (S12 for engineering time and $12 for computer and terminal
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE PAGE 4.7.10
LEVEL 2

ATRANSFORMER SECOHoARY VOLTAGE


CONCLUSION
BMOTOR TERMINAL VOLTAGE

/lJ8 . U0/"60. 2400/2300. 41!!0/<4000. 12000/ 11600 The paper described a unique easy to learn and easy to
13800/ 1320022'00/22000 . 104%
remember method for solving industrial power distribution
.

WHEN ONE 2 112 TRANSFORMER TAP IS USED:


system short circuit problems. The examples given proved its
A/B 490/4'50 24a0/Zl0042ll0/ 4000 1Z300/ 1 1500
effectiveness in terms of speed, accuracy, and .economy over
-

1100/13200 23500/22000 107"'

2 - 2 112 TAPS ABOVE WILL GIVE A/B U2 other conventional Ohmic and per unit methods. The writer
has been using it for the past twenty years for many projects,
ig. 26: transformer
------ -- -- - - -- - -

Percent motor termiral voltaze..J:Clated to sec


ondary voltage. small and large, and found it most effective because it seldom
required one to memorize formulas as with other methods.
The MV A method also has been taught in various evening
line). As the- problem involves more components and more
schools and corporation sponsored 1eminars, including the
mlts, the cost differential increases noticeably.
University of California Extension, ITC College, Bechtel
Appendix II is a time share computer solution of Fig. 7.
Corporation, Pacific Gas and Electric Co., etc., in the San
'he program itself is a conversational type. The user of the
Francisco Bay area for the past seven years.
rogram can_input the data_by a.prepared tape or by tYPirig
1e data as the computer.is readytoreceive llie data.
I
The input data are separated into two sections. Section one
[1)
REFERENCES

Electrical Powu Distribution for Industrial Plants, IEEE Standard


j
to use lines 200 through 399 for MV A items as shown with 141, 1969, ch. IV.

1e use of the MVA method. For example, item I is 300
IV A, item 2 is 200 MVA, etc. Section two is to use lines
[2) IEEE Red Book,iEEE Standard 141, 1969, sect. IV.

APPENDIX I
{
l
00 through 999 for command sequence. For example, line
The following problem is taken from the California ate f

tt. "'--6 iI
00 data I, 4, 5 instructs the computer to combine items 4
P.E. Registration Examination of August, 1965. The problem
1d 5 in series; the first number, 1, is for a series operation.
t line 400 data, there is a 2, 8, and 9, which instructs the
will be solved with the per unit method.

J
.
mputer to combine items 8 and 9 in parallel; the first UTILITY 5Y'STH
-
11mber, 2, ifor a parallel operation. -A 3, 3, 4, 6 command
lStructs the computer to convert a delta to wye operation of G_Lr;
:......; --=-2
.... ---"'__3
6 "'_,_.,v
x i.&1 a""'
. '8- l
j r"\
l
..,,4,and6. ISOOHVA
Fo11ult
-
<J Q - .
--; to Appendix ll. The fault 1 result is 533.4 MVA, 15HVA .,..
ISHVA };
69/ I2KV I 2KV
hich is close to the manual solution result of 533 MVA. .-0 075 .d ... 0.200
.
ate the computer asked for a kilovolt input. The user A. Solve for )phu.e fult
x.do11 0.100

B. Solve for sinqle llna to ground fult


1tered the voltage. The computer then asked whether the A. )-PHASE FAULT

:er prefers an interrupting duty or a momentary duty compu A


ICV bau
I SDHVA

tiol.f_, As sho'!VJl,
__ fault 1 requires an interrupting calculation K Vbua
69 .11nd 12 respectively

2 2
td the. computer gave a series of output selections to meet xb ue69 . (KV) 1000. (69) 1000. Jl.8 Ohms
KVA 150000
b s
NSI Standard latest requiremet of multipliers. The com- x 2

(12) x 1000 Q,96 Ot.m.
bu 12
150000
1ter solution sequence is exactly as shown on Fig. IO(a) for
I 50000 1250 A
ult I, manual solution.--
For fault 2, line 410 data are replaced with new commands I50000 72)0 A
VTXT2
$.own::.Notk ihat...thtu;f;g_u
_ e_nJ,:ej..Qllows _the MVA diagram, 1.0 x ,ggg O.IOOp.u .
Xutlllty p.u. :bu

.g...-1 O(b-The:::ff-fault-2-is-261.9-MVA which was s.c.

anually solved to be 262 MV A, Fig. IO(b). The computer X trnsf. p.u.


tr ud p.u. ::
b 0.07511 l fg 0.750 p.u.

rtd
ain asked for a kilovolt input and a 4.16 was given. Xrted Ohms J.87 0.121 p.u .
x1 J .,,. p.u

JCT

. x
The-next-question -again was-for!fiteirupting duty o r bue

omentary duty. The answer was momentary so the com- xmotor di".
0.200 x 17gg. 2.00 p.u.

1ter gave two answers that are in accordance with [2] .


.u.
For fault 3, line 410 data are replaced with new commands ( x
x.
at f<:>.!_lmv_the seql!ence as shown on Fig. 10( c). The computer xut. + x11,,. + trnsf

0.100 +.0.121 o. 750


k-ed for a kilovolt input, and 0.48 was given. Because 0. 48

a. 971
r-is a-low-voltagesystei:n,. the -computer automatically
xb 0.200
inte _9!1t_fiv_ansvii:_r_J_o suit the user's choice. The multi
0.971 x 2 0.655
_
x

ers area:.IJ-lii"accordance with theIEEFRed Book #141, 9


f-
".tinn IV ...
I
fault Hss 1
.5 5 A
2
ag

the MV A method is mastered in about an hour's


lie, 1t will take no more than fifteen minutes to learn to use
computer program. Appendix III is a pre-made graph for 1r.ult J ph (ii 121tY 1fult p,u. x 1bH 12 J(V
ick estimate of instantaneous voltage in starting large motors. 1 . 525 x 7210.
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE PAGE 4 . 7.11
LEVEL 2

Jl[ADY
'TM'(
.11AOY
200 o.tiTA JOO, 200, 10000, 10000, 200, 10000
210 D.f.TA 200, 5. 10, 24, 15, 4

400 DATA I, 4, 5, I, 60 7, 2, 8, 9, 2, 8, 10, ), ) . . ._ .(,


----- - --- --- _,O DATA I. 11, 12, 2, !, 11, 1, J. 8, 1, 2, 4, 2,;. ), 1, 2, 6, 2, 1, 2

"""

IS THIS THC FIAST FAULT Tt I( .lll4? lYES, O-Nll,


z.ro nc.9 ?1
MID[ NII ""'
1 )00.0
2 200,0
J 10000.0
r 1.0 4 10000.0
5 200.0
6 10000.0
7 200.0
ft s .o
x o.655 x 10.0
9 n Jl'IOtor .
10 24.o
11 15 .0
-----'-- --- - 12 i..o

XO nt 1"1)T=-..:u:.': of XO nt 3xn -.otor 0 1 10000.D 200.D


a A AHO 15
196.1
""DES
4
SE"' ES 5
X 10000.0 200.0 196.1
0 tr D.750 2 SERI ES 6
XO tr !:ir:o=Unc J PAMLLEL 5 .o 10.0 15.0 B
7
9
Xmotor dO" t ..at.or dJl1 x 4 PAIV.LLEL 15 .o 24.0 ]9.0 ft 10
1motor dO.. c!=:: t :: b lent s DELTA 10000.0 196.1 196.1 J 4
1.000 IN[ J9".0 201%.1 20196.1
os l t l w S.qu11
Xmotor di" Pk.aa nca Subtran1ln1: x
.
o.1so :11__ 1 - . o.1i2e 6 SEklES 15.0 4.0 J.2 11 12
cu of the Hotar 9 l.];O -- 7 PAMLLEL )9.0 J.2 42.2 B 11
ft StklES J9".0 42.2 38.1 J B
9 5Elt1ES 200.0 20196.1 198.0 2 ..
10 PAMLLEL 198.0 JB.1 2J6.1 2 J
11 SERI ES 2)6.1 20196.1 2 6
12 PAMLLEL 300.0 2JJ.4
4 2

INPUT kV 713.B

ENTER I fU. IMTEftUPTINC DUTY, 2 ru Mi1HHTAAY DUTY ?1

IHTEIUWPTINC. DUTY
E 1.0 X/R MTlt 0-25 26 ..... 41-6<1 IVEk 60
Xlk ltJLTIPLIEk 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
HVA AT FAULT 5Jl.4 586.8 640.1 693 ...
I SYl'V1ETllltAL 22316.J 2"54 7.9 26779.6 29011.2

READY
,.,TAPE
READY
410 DATA 11 II, 12, 2, 81 ti, I, 1, 6, 1, 2. 4, 2, I. 2, 1, I. JI 2, 1. I

::l\UH

---- --
_. --==-===----- IS THIS THE FIRST f'AULT Tl B( kUN7 .TYES, O .....
_ ?O

--=---!. . 1 ..-:....!.2-=.1.a - r.
. -
_
__
INPUT Tiii L E
I H ""S \IHEkE PklHTIUT STAkTS
x2 -==-- -
__
.. :-:"7

xi
f...::...: -- xo + 3x" + jxrau1 t
?12.5
______.
__
-
Z:: HO
__


MYA
.. :
NfDE
: - . . _ 12 4.o

-='-==-....:..;..-'-:::.:...--
'.1 '2 - I0 0.655 0.655 + o.428
I

A a A AND B ""DES
I 0.575
-r:m- DELTA 10000.0 196.1 19".I
20196.I
J
\/YE . J96.D 20196.1
fault p.u. (+l.2+-1-- J"(0.575) 6 Sk1ES 15,0 i..o J.2 11 12
7 PAMLLL . ]9.0 J.2 42.2 8 11
1.n B SEklES J00.0 20196.1 295,6 '
1 hult I fault p.u. lb.es 12 KV
9 SEklES 200.0
295.6
20196.I
198 .0
198.0
49J.6
4
x 10 PAMLLEL
11 SEklES 49].6 )96.o
-1._n x nJo -12,4ilo A
12 PAAALLEL 219. 7 42.2
.

INl'll T KV 74.16

EHTU. I f'lll IHT(IUtUP'TINi: DUTY, 2 FIR 11t1HEHTAAY Dl!TY 72

-=----
--- --
.- .
""1HTMY DUTY
X/lt !ltATll 0-10 IVE 10
X/ft MULTIPLIER 1.5 1.6
,- :.:.. l'WA AT FAULT 392.8 419.0
1 SY"'1t'.TIUCAl 54520.2 5815<..9 e.
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE PAGE 4 . 7 . 1 2
LEVEL 2

APPEN D I X III
A READ Y -MADE GRAPH FO R Q U I C K ESTIMATE O F
INSTANTANEOUS VO LTAGE I N STARTING L A RG E MOTORS
'P11M
.
- -- I I I
r S T H I THE F I J\ r - rAULT Td B E f\U? l Y E S , o.;-H -
.
?O . -- - -
I NPUT rw1 . u H E NQS \IHCRE P l't l NTillIT STAATS . .. I
'? 1 2 , 6

. .. I
litt o E-- Hfl l"\VA .---:-.- -- :- .::: - - -- ...
:: .o -=-:

-1 2 .: _ -= _ ... . -;

- --- . : I
"
I

.. -
a ..
H
.... I
?i
_
I
,.
A A AHO HIDES
-- 20 1 96 . 1
6
7
SrA I ES
S E R I ES

- . - JDD . D
200 . 0 "2D 1 9 6 . I
295 . 6
19B.D
6
4
"'
"'
-C PARALLEL .. 295 . 6 1 96 , D 493.6 2 ... I
493 . 6 396.D 219.7 3
9 SER I ES ... - r--
ID PARALLEL 219. 7 39.D 258 . ) B "'
_ 1 5 ,D
c::i
U -.s..E R I E.5.. -- - - - 25B . 7
'2" PARALLEL - - . --- _ . 14,2 .. .
-=..- . 4 . D
1.2

@:IJ
11
12
0
.>
>
NPUT KV ? . 48

1ULT I P L I E R 1 .0 I .25 1 . 1.6 SHORT CUCUIT !WA


LIV HllLDED l/V MOTOR H I GH SPEED H I GH SPEED

I
CASE C I RCU I T STARTER W I TH FUSE reR FUSE FUR
BREAKER '1 R HOLDED FEEDER HllTIR STARTER
( 0 . 004

LIV FUSES C I RCU I T BREAKER ( D . OOu SEC SEC


U R FUSE . UR LESS) IR LESS)

VA AT FAULT 18.2 22. 7 25 .4


SYMMET R I CAL 2 1 864 . 8 2733 1 . 0 306 1 0 . 7

- -"
- -
-- - -- -
- ,- -

=-==-:.. - ==-=-=--

--
--
-- _
_
__
,

-::;:::::=-::;::- -::-::::':_ )..: :.. Moon H. Yuen (M' 54-SM'66) received the B .S .E.E. degree in 1 94 8 fro m Heald Engineering Col

:._:-:::i lege, San Francisco, Calif., and the B M C from the University of California Extension, Berkeley,
in 1 9 70.
Currently, he is the Head of the Electrical Group o f Scientific Development Facilities Engi
;ii:Pte::-:---neering, Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, Calif. Since 1 96 5, he has also been the O rganizer
Ii and Teacher of electrical engineering and design courses at for the University of California Ex '
="/!;.;.-=,:.:- -;.:: Jtm}

eri on and ..Bechtel Manpower Develo pment Programs , and is the author of 12 technical papers
=
.
4
,
.,, ;i;1
.. and various class texts on these subjects. In 1 9 7 3 , h e was granted a U.S. Patent in "Solid State
r.1! Control- Low Voltage Heating of M o tors."

. Mr. Yuen is a Registered Professional Engineer in the States of California, Louisiana, Michl-
gan, New York, South Carolina, Oregon , Hawaii ; Illiilo is, Florida , Te xas , Washingt o n , and Wash
mgton, D.C. He is a member o f the National Council of Engineering Examiners. He is also
registered in the Province of Alberta, Canada, and a member of the Instrument Society o f
America.