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The parts of speech consist of eight parts, they are noun, verb, pronoun, interjection,

adjective, adverb, preposition and conjunction. And in this paper, I would like to explain one
by one related to eight parts of speech. Check it out !

A. NOUN
Noun is a word used as the name of anything, like a person, an animal, an object, a
place, a situation, a quality or an idea.

Kinds of noun :

Proper noun

Proper nouns are the names of individual people, places, titles, calendar times,
etc. Proper nouns are always written with a capital letter.

example : - Zainab listen to the radio

- Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia

Common noun

Nouns which are not written with a capital letter do not refer to the name of an individual
person or thing and are called common nouns.

example : - Take your book please !

- I see animal in the zoo

Material noun

A material noun is a word for a material, a substance, or an ingredient that other things are
made from.

example : - This ring made of gold

- The table is made of wood

Collective noun
A collective noun refers to a group of people, animals or objects as a group, family,
company, etc.
example : - The army made the ceremony
- Those are navy

B. VERB
Verb is the part of speech that expresses existence, action, or occurrence in most
languages. Verbs are a necessary component of all sentences. Verbs have two important
functions: Some verbs put static objects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the
objects in meaningful ways. Look at the examples below :

My grumpy old English teacher smiled at the plate of cold meatloaf


My grumpy old English teacher = static object; smiled = verb

The daredevil cockroach splashed into Sara's soup


The daredevil cockroach = static object; splashed = verb

Theo's overworked computer exploded in a spray of sparks


Theo's overworked computer = static object; exploded = verb

The curious toddler popped a grasshopper into her mouth


The curious toddler = static object; popped = verb

The important thing to remember is that every subject in a sentence must have a
verb. Otherwise, you will have written a fragment, a major writing error.

C. PRONOUN
Pronoun is the part of speech that substitutes for nouns or noun phrases and
designates persons or things asked for, previously specified, or understood from the context.

Kinds of pronoun :

Personal pronoun
A pronoun designating the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person spoken to (you), or
the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her, them).
example : I have a stamp album

Possessive pronoun
One of several pronouns designating possession and capable of substituting for noun
phrases.
example : The blue pen is mine

Demonstrative pronoun
A pronoun that points out an intended referent
example : That is a good idea

Relative pronoun
A pronoun that introduces a relative clause and has reference to an antecedent
example : I like the person who is diligent

Interrogative pronoun
Used for the item interrupted in an information statement
example : Whose is the pen ?

Indefinite pronoun
An indefinite pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun (or noun phrase) that is an
unknown or unnamed person, thing, or amount
example : Someone sent me a letter

D. INTERJECTION
Interjection is a part of speech that can stand alone to express emotion or a reaction.
Although an interjection can form a complete sentence (that is, expressing a thought without
need of a subject and verb), one can often also be inserted within a sentence, usually
parenthetically or separated by commas from the rest of the sentence. In written Spanish
and English, an interjection frequently is used with exclamation marks. An interjection is
sometimes expressed as a single word or non-sentence phrase, followed by a punctuation
mark. The isolated usage of an interjection does not represent a complete sentence in
conventional English writing. Thus, in formal writing, the interjection will be incorporated into
a larger sentence clause. It also can be a reply to a question or statement.
Example : - Ah! I've won!
- Dear me! That's a surprise!
- Hello! My car's gone!
- Hey! look at that!
- Hey! What a good idea!
- Oh! You're here!
- Oh, please say 'yes'!
- Ouch! That hurts!
- Hurray! I win the game!
- Oh! I've got a toothache
- Hey! What a beautiful view!
E. ADJECTIVE
Adjective is the part of speech that modifies a noun or other substantive by limiting,
qualifying, or specifying and distinguished in English morphologically by one of several
suffixes, such as -able, -ous, -er, and -est, or syntactically by position directly preceding a
noun or nominal phrase. Adjectives are descriptive words. An adjective is a word which
qualifies a noun, that is, shows or points out some distinguishing mark or feature of the
noun.

List of Descriptive Adjectives


Descriptive adjectives can be divided into different categories such as colors, sizes,
sound, taste, touch, shapes, qualities, time, personality and ages. The following lists provide
a few examples of descriptive adjectives in each of their categories :
Colors
examples : black, blue, white, green, red
Sizes
examples : big, small, large, thin, thick
Shapes
examples : triangular, round, square, circular
Qualities
examples : good, bad, mediocre
Personality Traits
examples : happy, sad, angry, depressed
Time related
examples : Yearly , monthly, annually
Age related
examples : new, young, old, brand-new, second-hand
Sound related
examples : loud, noisy, quiet, silent
Touch related
examples : slippery, sticky
Taste related
examples : juicy, sweet

F. ADVERB
The part of speech that modifies a verb, adjective, or other
adverb, clause, sentence or any other word or phrase, except that it does not include
the adjectivesand determiners that directly modify nouns. Adverbs are traditionally regarded
as one of theparts of speech, although the wide variety of the functions performed by words
classed as adverbs means that it is hard to treat them as a single uniform category.
Kinds of adverb :

Adverb of time
Adverb of time are words that describe a day
example : Im studying English now

Adverb of place
Adverbs of place tell us where something happen
example : She studies English here

Adverb of manner
Adverbs of manner are the largest group of adverbs. Most adverbs of manner are closely
related to corresponding adjectives. Although some words can be used as either adjectives
or adverbs, in most cases, adverbs of manner are formed by adding ly to the corresponding
adjectives.
example : They worked hard
Adverb of degree
Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an adjective or another
adverb.

example : I quite understand

Adverb of frequency

Adverbs of frequency tell hosw often something occurs or is done.


example : He eats twice every day

Adverb of affirmation
Adverbs of affirmation are those adverbs that are used to indicate that a statement is true or
that in some other way to affirm it.
example : Of course she can speak English

Adverb of interrogative
An interrogative adverb is used to ask for new information or facts.
example : How did he go ?

Adverb of relative pronoun


An adverb (where, when, or why) that introduces a relative clause, also known as a relative
adverb clause.
example : I asked him how he went
G. PREPOSITION
A word employed to connect a noun or a pronoun, in anadjectival or adverbial sense,
with some other word; a particle used with anoun or pronoun (English always in the objectiv
e case) to make aphrase limiting some other word; so called because usually placed beforet
he word with which it is phrased; as, a bridge of iron; he comes fromtown; it is good for food;
he escaped by running.
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in asentence. The
word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object
to the rest of the sentence as in the following
Examples of preposition in : - The children are playing in the garden
- We swan in the river yesterday

Examples of preposition on : - I put the book on the table last night


- He puts the small cat on the floor

Examples of preposition at : - He waits for them at the bus station


- I meet the pretty girl at the bus stop

H. CONJUNCTION
In grammar, a conjunction is a part of speech that connects two
words, sentences, phrases or clauses together. A discourse connective is a conjunction
joining sentences. This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what
constitutes a "conjunction" must be defined for each language. In general, a conjunction is
an invariable grammatical particle, and it may or may not stand between the items it
conjoins.

Examples of conjunction and : - Rini and Budi are students


- Rita buys apple and orange

Examples of conjunction or : - You may take this cat or that cat


- Which one do you like, this apple or that apple ?
Examples of conjunction but : - Karyo is lazy but Kardi is diligent
- She is beautiful but stupid

Examples of conjunction while : - Heni wants to be a doctor while


her brother wants to be a teacher
- His father is reading a magazine while his mother is cooking
Examples of conjunction whereas : - Titin is quiet whereas her older
sister is talkative
- We want to go swimming whereas they want to go fishing

Examples of conjunction because : - She doesnt go to school because


she is sick now
- We cant go home because it is
raining very hard now

Examples of conjunction since : - They cancel the meeting since the


headmaster is sick
- He didnt come here to help us since he was very busy

Examples of conjunction if : - She will be angry if you dont


come there now
- We will not go to the meeting if rain tonight

Examples of conjunction when : - I know you when you came here


- I met him when you called me
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