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COMPTIA A+ STUDY NOTES

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1 The Computer: An Overview
Computer Definition:
1613: Short-term Memory/RAM
A person who makes calculations or Can only hold so much information at
computations. one time
1869: Necessary to work on a current project
A device or machine for performing Only "runs" while we are awake/aware
facilitating calculations.
1946: Long-term Memory/Storage
An electronic device (or system of Holds for more information than our
devices) which is used to store, short-term
manipulate, and communicate Allows us to store information for later
information, perform complex use
calculations, or control or regulate other Information remains there (always?)
devices or machines, and is capable of
receiving information (data) and of Stomach/G.I. Tract/Power Supply
processing it in accordance with variable Provide us with fuel
procedural instructions (programs or "Feeds" all internal processes
software) Without it, we will eventually die

Person = Electronic device Senses (sight, sound, smell, taste,


touch)/Input Devices
Skin and Bones/Chassis How you received information from the
Provides a framework in which outside world
everything else fits Different senses for different types of
Protects the inside from the elements of information
the outside Gives our brain information to process
allows internal functions to operate
optimally Speech & Movement/Output Devices
Lets us to communicate with the world
Spinal Cord/Motherboard and people around us
What everything plugs into Allows us to convert thoughts into
Allows the brain to speak with the actions
different body parts Permits others to process and common
Allows different body parts to speak with on our ideas
the brain
Nature versus Nurture/Software
Brain/CPU Provides us with context
Process is all incoming and outgoing Provides language to voice, meaning to
information gesture
Extremely fast and complex A guide for dealing with the world
Without it, we are alive, but not aware around us

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Jonathan Zander (Digon3)
Slide 9:
Photograph Andrew Dunn, 9 November 2005.
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Ravenperch at English Wikipedia
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User Smial on de.wikipedia
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By Carioca (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

2a Motherboards Chipsets and Buses


Vocabulary 1Mbps = 125 KBps
Chipset, Bus, Lane Parallel vs. Serial
LANE
Buses Two serial wires that enable the sending
Front-side Bus (Intel) and receiving of data simultaneously
HyperTransport Bus (AMD)
Memory Bus Two main Motherboard Chipset
Expansion Buses Manufacturers

Chipset INTEL and AMD


Intel vs. AMD
Northbridge Two main chips controlling
Southbridge communication on a PC Motherboard
DMI (Direct Media Interface) Northbridge:
Also called Memory Controller Hub
CHIPSET (MCH)
A group of integrated circuits or chips, High data transfer devices
that are designed to work together and High Speed Graphics
are usually marketed as a single product. Memory (RAM)

BUS Southbridge:
One wire or a group of wires that carry Also called I/O Controller Hub (ICH)
data from one place to another. Secondary controllers
Most input/output devices
SERIAL vs. PARALLEL Hard drives, USB, ethernet, etc.
Serial - Sending on bit of data at a time
Parallel - Sending multiple bits of data at DIRECT MEDIA INTERFACE (DMI)
a time Connects the Northbridge and the
Southbridge
BITS vs. BYTES
8 bits = 1 Byte FRONT SIDE BUS (FSB) = INTEL and
bit is represented by a lower case b AMD = HYPERTRANSPORT
Byte is represented by an upper case B
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b - Motherboards - Expansion Buses and


Storage Technology
Expansion Buses AMR & CNR
ISA PCMCIA
PCI
PCIx Storage Technology
PCIe PATA / IDE
mini-PCI SATA
AGP

Expansion Bus
Frequency Max. Data Rate
bus Width
33 MHz 133 MB/s
PCI 32-bit
66MHz 266MB/s
1x = 66MHz 266 MB/s
2x = 66MHz (double pumped 10 533 MB/s
133MHz)
AGP 32-bit 4x = 66MHz (quad pumped to 266 1 GB/s
MHz)
8x = 66MHz (octo-pumped to 2GB/s
533MHz)
Serial, 1-
VERSION 1 = 2.5 GHz 250 MB/s per lane
16 full-
PCIe VERSION 2 = 5 GHz 500 MB/s per lane
duplex
VERSION 3 = 8GHz 1GB/s per lane
lanes

ISA PCI
Instruction Set Architecture Peripheral Component Interconnect bus

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PCIe Personal Computer Memory Card
PCI Express International Association

AGP STORAGE TECHNOLOGY


Accelerated Graphics Port PATA / IDE
Parallel ATA/Integrated Drive
AMR & CMR Electronics interfaces
Intels audio/modem riser expansion slot
SATA
PCMCIA Serial ATA

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By Evan-Amos (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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Copyright Daniel Rutter 1998-2012. - http://www.dansdata.com/homepc.htm
Pascal Giessler at the German language Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], from Wikimedia Commons
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via Wikimedia Commons
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By smial (Own work) [FAL or GFDL 1.2 (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/fdl-1.2.html)], via Wikimedia Commons

2c Motherboards Input/Output Ports and


Front Panel Connectors
Older Ports RJ11
PS/2 RJ45
Serial Audio (1/8) Cluster
Parallel SVGA

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IEEE 1394a (Firewire)
Newer Ports Optical Audio
USB eSATA
DVI DisplayPort
HDMI Connector SD/Multimedia Cards

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By Evan-Amos (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Chris Whytehead, Chris's Acorns CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia
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Copyright 1997-2012 AnandTech, Inc. - http://images.anandtech.com/doci/4499/Zotac%203%20-%20IO%20Panel.jpg
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User:Chassisplans [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons

2d Motherboards Form Factors


Form Factors
ATX
microATX
ITX
BTX
Power Connector

Form
Width Depth Identifying Characteristic
Factor
RAM slots and expansion slots
ATX 12 inches 9.6 inches
are perpendicular to each other
Smaller than ATX, but
microATX 9.6 inches 9.6 inches
backwards-compatible
60mm to 6.7 Designed for HTPCs, UMPCs,
ITX 60mm to 6.7 inches
inches and smartphones
RAM slots and expansion slots
BTX 12.8 inches 10.5 inches
are parallel to each other

Power Connectors

Pin Color Signal Pin Color Signal


+3.3V
1 orange +3.3V 13 orange-brown
+3.3V sense
2 orange +3.3V 14 blue -12V

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3 black ground 15 black ground
4 red +5V 16 green power on
5 black ground 17 black ground
6 red +5V 18 black ground
7 black ground 19 black ground
8 grey power good 20 white -5V (optional)
9 purple +5V standby 21 red +5V
10 yellow +12V 22 red +5V
11 yellow +12V 23 red +5V
12 orange +3.3V 24 black ground

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Chris Whytehead, Chris's Acorns CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia
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2e Motherboards BIOS
BIOS It is the FIRST thing that runs when you
CMOS boot your PC.
CMOS Battery POST Identifies, tests, and initializes system
Flashing the BIOS components:
Configuring BIOS RAM
Time & Date Storage (internal and external)
Boot Device Priority Optical Drives
Password CPU
Power Management
Virtualization CMOS
Wake-on-Lan (WOL) Complementary Metal-Oxide
Monitoring Semiconductor
Stores the contents of what the BIOS
BIOS finds.
Basic Input Output System Type and Speed of CPU

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Drive Capacities is dead, the date/time will
Date/Time constantly reset.
It is VOLATILE
When the power is off, it loses its BOOT DEVICE PRIORITY
contents. Tells the BIOS which devices to boot
from first.
POST
Power On Self Test BIOS PASSWORD
The first step in the boot Process Once set, it is maintained by the battery.
Passes errors on to the BIOS and User
Uses code numbers and Audio beeps POWER MANAGEMENT
POST codes differ from vendor to Certain Power Management features
vendor require BIOS support.

FLASHING THE BIOS VIRTUALIZATION


Erasing and rewriting the BIOS Virtualization features in the OS must be
firmware supported by the BIOS.
Firmware = Persistent memory and
code stored in it WAKE-ON-LAN
Flashing = the new firmware is Allows the computer to be woken up
electronically flashed onto the through a network message.
circuit
If you stop the process during flashing MONITORING
(i.e. lose power), your computer BIOS Monitors several things, including:
not be bootable Temperature
Fan Speeds
CONFIGURING BIOS Intrusion Detection
Voltage
TIME AND DATE Clock
Kept current by the battery. If the battery Bus Speed

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By Simpsons contributor (talk).Simpsons contributor at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
By Evan-Amos (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Chris Whytehead, Chris's Acorns CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia
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Copyright 2012 Help Me Rick Computer Help-http://helpmerick.com/files/helpmerick/bios1.gif
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Copyright 2008 Spyware-Experts.com
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es/NVFLASH.jpg
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1998-2012 APH Networks Inc., all rights reserved. - http://aphnetworks.com/review/asus_p5e3_deluxe/bios/006.JPG
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Copyright 1999-2012 www.pcstats.com All rights reserved. - http://www.pcstats.com/articleimages/200406/biosflashing_8.gif
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3a CPU Technology and Characteristics


Technology second
CPU Overview Most CPUs today use Giga-Hertz
Brands (Ghz)
Clock Rate 109 Hertz, or 1,000,000,000 (1 trillion)
Clock Speed Hertz
External
Internal CLOCK SPEED
Overclocking While the Clock Rate measures the
Characteristics potential speed, Clock Speed
Cache Size/Type indicates its actual speed.
Hyperthreading Just like a car that can go 120mph, you
Multicore rarely drive the maximum.
Architecture (32/64- bit)
Virtualization CLOCK SPEED: MOTHERBOARD
Integrated GPU \ EXTERNAL
The base clock of the motherboard,
CPU OVERVIEW known as the bus speed.
Central Processing Unit Also the external clock speed.
The most expensive and important Generally, the frequency of the FSB.
component
Executes instructions, making it the CLOCK SPEED: INTERNAL
brain of the computer The internal speed of the CPU
It MUST be compatible with the The well-known number (i.e. 1.2 Ghz)
motherboard you see marketed with the CPU

Brands CLOCK SPEED: OVERCLOCKING


Intel
IBM CACHE SIZE / TYPE
AMD
HYPERTHREADING
CLOCK RATE Allows a single CPU to accept and
Identifies the frequency (speed) of the process two independent sets of
CPU instructions
Measured in hertz (Hz), or cycles per Simulates two CPUs

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MULTICORE Software must support 64-bit as well
The CPU physically contains two or Also referred to as x86 or x64
more actual processing cores
Hyperthreading taken to the next level VIRTUALIZATION
Allows a single physical system to run
ARCHITECTURE: 32-BIT VS. 64- BIT multiple virtual systems
Incorporating registers that are 64-bits Centralizes hardware and improves
wide, which allows the CPU to resource usage
process higher data-types The future of computing
32-bit architecture is limited to 4GB of INTEGRATED GPU
data address space

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Copyright 2007, Eklektix, Inc. Comments and public postings are copyrighted by their creators. Linux is a registered trademark
of Linus Torvalds
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http://www.1024cores.net/home/parallel-computing/cache-oblivious-algorithms
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sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

3b CPU Socket Types


Socket Overview AM3
ZIF Socket AM3+
PGA FM1
LGA Socket F

Intel Sockets 775 ZIF SOCKET


1155 Zero Insertion Force
1156 Invented to avoid issues caused by
1366 applying too much force during
installation
AMD Sockets Uses a lever to push sprung contacts
940 apart for easy insertion of the
AM2 pins, and then shifts the contacts
AM2+ to grip the pins.

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LGA SOCKET
PGA Land Grid Array
Pin Grid Array Pins are on the socket rather than on
Pins are arranged in a square-shape, in the circuit (CPU)
a regular array on the underside Square grid array on the underside of
Allows for more pins-per-circuit the circuit

Intel Socket Intel CPUs AMD Socket AMD CPUs


Core 2 Duo
LGA775 Opteron
Core 2 Quad
Athlon 64 FX
Xeon 940
Pentium,
Celeron
Core i7, i5, i3
LGA1155 AM2 Athlon 64 X2
Xeon
Athlon 64
Pentium,
Celeron

LGA1156 Core i7, i5, i3 AM2+ Phenom II


Xeon Phenom
Pentium, Athlon X2
Celeron Athlon 64
LGA1366 Core i7 AM3 Phenom II
Xeon Sempron
Athlon II
AM3+ FX
FM1 Llano
F Opteron

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By Appaloosa
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3c - CPU - Cooling
Cooling
Why? Passive: dissipates heat with no moving
Heat Sink parts
Fans Active: a fan is attached to the top of the
Thermal Compound Liquid-based heat sink

Why? Fans
Electricity causes heat (due to friction) Needed to get the heat out of the case.
Heat damages (melts) metal and
electronics Thermal Compound
Smaller electronics means more heat in Fills the tiny gaps and imperfections
less space between the CPU and Heatsink
Need to dissipate this heat to prevent
damage Liquid Cooling
Can also be used to cool the chipset,
Heat Sinks hard drives, or video cards
A block of metal sitting on the CPU to dissipate heat the most efficiently.
direct heat away from the CPU and out
through the fans.

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4a - RAM Memory Basics


What is Memory? RAM
Memory Controller Random-Access Memory
Types of Memory Volatile Memory
ROM The main memory used as a
RAM workspace for the CPU
SRAM CPU can access any memory on the
DRAM RAM chip at any time

WHAT IS MEMORY? SRAM


The short term memory of the Static RAM
Computer Data stored as a static image until
The computers desk or workspace written over or powered down
Different types of memory take more or Fast and expensive
less time to access Acts as a buffer (cache) for
Volatile or Non-Volatile Motherboard
Retains / does not retain information HD
when power is turned off LCD Screens
CPU
MEMORY CONTROLLER
The go-between for Memory and the DRAM
CPU Dynamic RAM
Stores information to and retrieves Data needs to be refreshed constantly
information from the Memory (each bit stored on separate
Used to be within the Northrbidge and capacitors)
built onto the Chipset Slower but simpler in design (can reach
Nowadays, is usually built onto the higher capacity)
CPU (on-die) What most people mean when they
reference RAM
ROM
Read-Only Memory DRAM
Non-volatile memory Packaged in sticks that are installed in
Generally stores the BIOS and is hard- motherboard slots
wired onto the motherboard Must be compatible with the
motherboard

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By D-Kuru (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0-at (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/at/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
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sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Martyn M aka Martyx
Copyright 2010 - 2012 OCZ Technology Group, Inc.
http://www.ocztechnology.com/images/products/auto_images/SI_big.jpg
Slide 6:
1998-2012 HowStuffWorks, Inc - http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/rom.jpg
Slide 7:
By Topory
Slide 8:
A static RAM chip from NES clone 2K X 8 bit.
Slide 9:
Copyright Dennis Publishing Limited licensed by Felden - http://images.bit-tech.net/news_images/2008/07/elixir-ddr3-1333-wins-
taiwan-excellence-award-2008/Elixir-DDR3-1333-1GB-UDIMM.jpg

Slide 10:
By User:Matrix87 (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

4b RAM Types of DRAM


SIMM of the stick
DIMM Generally a 64-bit data path
SDRAM
DDR
SDRAM
DDR2, DDR3, DDR4
Synchronous DRAM
SODIMMs
Synchronized to the system bus
RDRAM
(motherboard clock)
Waits for clock signal before processing
SIMM incoming commands
Single In-line Memory Module Allows the chip to accept new
The most popular form of DRAM commands while processing
through the mid 90s. others (pipelining)
The contacts on either side of the stick Usually 168-pin
are redundant
Generally a 32-bit data path
DDR
Double Data Rate
DIMM DDR SDRAM is the most commonly
Dual In-line Memory Module found RAM
The current most popular form of Transfers data on the rising and falling
memory on the market clock cycle
Separate electrical contacts on either Typically 184-pins
side
DDR Standard I/O Clock Speed Transfers per second Transfer Rate Module Name
DDR-200 100 MHz 200 Million 1,600 MB/s PC1600
DDR-266 133 MHz 266 Million 2,133 MB/s PC2100
DDR-333 166 MHz 333 Million 2, 667 MB/s PC2700
DDR-400 200 MHz 400 Million 3,200 MB/s PC3200

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DDR2
Superseded the original DDR specification
Faster signaling allowed for double the transfer rates of original DDR
Uses less power
240-pin standard
DDR Standard I/O Clock Speed Transfers per second Transfer Rate Module Name
DDR2-400 200 MHz 400 Million 3,200 MB/s PC2-3200
DDR2-533 266 MHz 533 Million 4,266 MB/s PC2-4200
DDR2-667 333 MHz 667 Million 5,333 MB/s PC2-5300
DDR2-800 400 MHz 800 Million 6,400 MB/s PC2-6400
DDR2-1066 533 MHz 1.066 Million 8,533 MB/s PC2-8500

DDR3
Superseded DDR3
Higher performance and lower power consumption
Also 240-pins
Not backwards compatible

DDR Standard I/O Clock Speed Transfers per second Transfer Rate Module Name
DDR3-800 400 MHz 800 Million 6,400 MB/s PC3-6400
DDR3-1066 533 MHz 1.006 Billion 8,533 MB/s PC3-8500
DDR3-1333 667 MHz 1.333 Billion 10,667 MB/s PC3-10600
DDR3-1600 800 MHz 1.600 Billion 12,800 MB/s PC3-12800
DDR3-1866 933 MHz 1.866 Billion 14,933 MB/s PC3-14900
DDR3-2133 1066 MHz 2.133 Billion 17,066 MB/s PC3-17000

SO-DIMM RDRAM
Small Outline DIMM Rambus DRAM
Half the size of regular DIMMs Designed to replace DIMM SDRAM
For systems with space restrictions, (before DDR)
such as Laptops Lost a standards war with DDR
Also comes in DDR, 2, 3, although the Used in several game systems and
pin count is different. some motherboards, but not
supported much anymore

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By Yaca2671 (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Martyn M aka Martyx
Copyright 2010 - 2012 OCZ Technology Group, Inc.
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Slide 4:

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Copyright 2010 - 2012 OCZ Technology Group, Inc.
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(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Yaca2671 (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

4c RAM RAM Technology


Memory Latency TRIPLE & QUADRUPLE CHANNEL
Multichannel Architecture
Single Channel
Dual Channel 64-bit x 3-channels = 192-bit bus
Triple Channel 64-bit x 4-channels = 256-bit bus
Quadruple Channel
Single Sided vs. Double Sided SINGLE vs. DOUBLE SIDED
Parity vs. Non-Parity A single vs. double bank of chips on the
ECC vs. Non ECC stick
Registered Memory The computer can only access one
bank at a time
MEMORY LATENCY Single sided offers higher density chips
Also known as Column Address Strobe that are more expensive
(CAS) Latency
The delay between the memory PARITY vs. NON- PARITY
controller requesting data, and that Specifically for error detection
datas availability An extra parity bit is stored for every
The lower the latency, the better byte of data
Generally measured in nanoseconds, i.e. 9 bits are stored, not 8 bits
but with RAM its measured in Clock Slightly more expensive and slightly
Cycles slower, but necessary when data
integrity is necessary
MULTICHANNEL ARCHITECTURE
Adds more channels of communication ECC vs. Non-ECC
b/w DRAM and Memory Controller Error Correction Code
Sticks are installed in matching banks Detects AND Corrects data
on the motherboard Stores 7 bits with every 32-bits of data
DRAM in matching banks should be (almost twice as much as parity)
similar in speed and capacity More expensive and slower, but better
at detecting/correcting errors for
SINGLE CHANNEL systems in which data integrity is
64-bit bus extremely important

DUAL CHANNEL REGISTERED MEMORY


64-bit x 2-channels = 128-bit bus Also referred to as buffered memory
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All information being written to and read Improves the integrity of the signal and
from RAM is buffered between the RAM adds stability
and the Memory Controller More expensive and can cause latency

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sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Martyn M aka Martyx
Copyright 2010 - 2012 OCZ Technology Group, Inc.
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Slide 6:
By D-Kuru (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0-at (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/at/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9:
Martyn M aka Martyx

5a - STORAGE - Storage Overview


What is Storage? Floppy Disk Drives (FDD)
Magnetic Storage Media Tape Drives
Optical Storage Media
Solid-State Storage Media OPTICAL STORAGE
Data stored on an optical medium
WHAT IS STORAGE? Recorded and read using light
Sometimes referred to as secondary Lasers!
storage--a place to store data Three common types:
If RAM is your desk, this device is your Compact Disc (CD)
filing cabinet Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)
About 1 million times slower than RAM Blu-Ray Disc
Must be non-volatile
When powered off, retains data SOLID-STATE STORAGE
Mainly three types of media Data stored using integrated circuits
No moving parts
MAGNETIC STORAGE Faster, Less power, fewer chances for
Data stored on a magnetized medium failure
Different patterns (of 1s and 0s) Four types covered:
differentiate types of data Solid-State Drives (SSD)
Read/write heads are used USB Flash Drives
Three types seen: SD Cards
Hard Disk Drives (HDD) CompactFlash

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By Load (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Richard Wheeler (-) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
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Marcin Sochacki (Wanted), 2004
Slide 6:
By Cjp24 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

5b - STORAGE Magnetic Storage


Floppy Disk Drives Transfer Rate (i.e. 300MB/s)
Hard Disk Drive Rotational Speed
Tape Drive 7,200 RPM or 5,400 RPM are standard
Cache
FLOPPY DISK DRIVE (FDD) On-board DRAM
Used to be one of the only forms of Latency
removable media Delay in reading a sector
Today, nearly extinct
May be needed to access older data HDD CONNECTIONS
Some computers ran entirely off PATA (Parallel ATA)
floppies (had no hdd) IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
Floppy in a drive as you start a up to133 MB/s
computer will cause an error 40pin Cable
2 devices per cable (channel)
STANDARD FLOPPY DISK Molex Power
3.5-inch, 1.44 MB Floppy Drive
Can be write-protected HDD CONNECTIONS
SATA (Serial ATA)
FDD CONNECTION Up to 300 MB/s
34-pin data cable Has a twist in it 7pin data cable
Berg (mini) power connector 1 devices per cable (channel)
Sata power
HARD DISK DRIVE (HDD)
Todays most common form of HDD CONNECTIONS
magnetic media SCSI (Small Computer System
Contains platters with a magnetic Interface)
surface Several types of cables
Platters rotate at high speeds 16 devices per cable (channel)
(measured in RPM) piggybacking
Read/Write heads on an arm that Same cord provides power
reaches across the disk
Commonly 3.5-inches standard desktop TAPE DRIVES
computer Similar to VHS or Cassette tapes
Cheap, removable magnetic tape
HDD SPECIFICATIONS Primarily used for archival data
Capacity Data is normally compressed
Nowadays in GB or TB Native and Compressed capacity
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Internal or External USB, IEEE 1394
SCSI, PATA, SATA Requires special drivers

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sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Richard Wheeler (-) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
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Took by Aney 04:15, 22 August 2005 (UTC), 2005-Aug-22
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By T4bits
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By Shieldforyoureyes Dave Fischer (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Photograph: Robert Jacek Tomczak (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

5c - STORAGE Optical Media


Compact Discs (CDs) i.e 48x
Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs) x = 150 KB/s
Blu-Ray Discs
COMPACT DISC (CD)
COMPACT DISC (CD) Up to 700MB data or 80 minutes of
Flat, round, optical disc used to store audio
music and/or data Audio CDs vs. Data CDs
Stored as microscopic indentations Decoder built-into CD drive
Lands and pits CD-ROM is read-only
Read by laser CD-R is read/write
Drives measured in read speeds CD-RW is write/re-write

Compact Disc Technology Maximum Recording Speed


Compact Disc-Recordable(CD-R) 48x (7.2 MB/s) or 52x (7.8 MB/s)
Compact Disc-ReWritable(CD-
24x (3.6 MB/s) or 32x (4.8 MB/s)
RW)

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CD CONNECTIONS Installation identical to CD drives
Installs just like an internal HDD Must have DVD software to watch
PATA or SATA videos
Audio output
PATA requires a special connection to DIGITAL VERSATILE DISC (DVD)
the sound card/motherboard Single-Layer, Single-Sided (SL, SS)
SATA integrates music information Discs hold 4.7 GB of data per
through the data cable side
5 1/4-inch bay Dual-Layer (DL) allows for about 8.5GB
DVD laser shines through the first layer
DIGITAL VERSATILE DISC (DVD) to reach second layer
Also stands for Digital Video Disc Dual-Sided discs hold information on
Most DVD drives read at 16x both sides
x=1.32MB/s DL, DS disc can hold up to 17GB of
9 times CD speed data

DVD-ROM Technology Sides to Layers Ratio Capacity


DVD-5 1 to 1 4.7 GB
DVD-9 1 to 2 8.5 GB
DVD-10 2 to 2 9.4 GB
DVD-14 2 to 3 13.2 GB
DVD-18 2 to 4 17 GB

DVD-Recordable Technology Writing Speeds Capacity


DVD-R SL 22x or 24x 4.707 GB
DVD+R SL 22x or 24x 4.700 GB
DVD-R DL 12x 8.544 GB
DVD+R DL 16x 8.548 GB
DVD-RW SL or DL 6x 4.707 or 8.544 GB
DVD+RW SL or DL 6x 4.707 or 8.544 GB

BLU-RAY DISC BLU-RAY DISC


Originally envisioned to replace DVD Normally connect via SATA
Video Backwards compatible with CDs and
Won standards battle against HD DVD DVDs
Drive speeds range from 1x to12x Must have correct software to watch
x = 36Mb/s or 4.5MB/s High-Defition Movies
Holds 25GB per layer BD-R (Blu-ray Recordable)
Total of 50GB for DL BD-RE (Blu-ray Recordable/Erasable

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Blu-Ray Technology Layers Capacity
Single-Layer, Standard Disc 1 25 GB
Dual-Layer, Standard Disc 2 50 GB
Single-Layer, Mini-Disc 1 7.8 GB
Dual-Layer, Mini-Disc 2 15.6 GB

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(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Marcin Sochacki (Wanted), 2004
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Commons

5d - STORAGE Solid State Media


Solid State Drive (SSD) expensive Decreased capacity
USB Flash Drive
SD Card USB FLASH DRIVES
CompactFlash (CF) Flash is another name for solid-state
i.e. All electronic
SOLID STATE DRIVES (SSD) Also known as USB Thumb Drives
Replacement for HDDs Benefits
Stores Operating System, etc. No special setup
Does not use spinning disks or Drag and Drop (unlike CD-r or DVD-r)
read/write heads Little footprint
Data written to nonvolatile microchips Fairly cheap
or DRAM
Usually connect via SATA SECURE DIGITAL (SD) CARDS
Technically the same as USB Drives
SOLID STATE DRIVES (SSD) The main difference is the form factor
Due to no moving parts: Made to work in digital cameras, PDAs,
Silent Smartphones, etc.
Resistant to physical shock Standard (32 mm 24 mm)
Faster access time miniSD (21.5 mm 20 mm)
Less Latency microSD (15 mm 11 mm)
However, they are also: More

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SECURE DIGITAL (SD) CARDS Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card
2GB Limit Do not confuse with SDIO
High-Capacity SD Card (SDHC) up to Identifies a phone to the telecomm
32GB company
eXtended Capacity SD Card (SDXC)
up to 2TB COMPACT FLASH (CF)
Class determines the transfer rates Solid State Storage that can be used in
i.e. Class 6 between 6-45MB/s a variety of formats, most commonly a
Some devices require higher class card
Type 1: 3.3 mm
SECURE DIGITAL (SD) CARDS Type 2: 5 mm
Secure Digital Input Output (SDIO) card Larger than SD Cards
derivative of SD cards High data capacity (up to 137GB)
merges SD card with I/O device Built in ATA controller
functionality Appears as a Hard Drive to OS
i.e. integrated GPS, WLAN, etc. for
smartphones

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Slide 12:

5e - STORAGE Connecting Devices


PATA Dual Configuration
SATA Slave (Secondary)
SCSI Cable Select
Network
EXTERNAL PATA
INTERNAL BAYS PATA SATA SCSI Network
PATA SATA
IDE DATA CORD SATA DATA CORD
PATA POWER CORD SATA POWER CORD
EXTERNAL SATA
JUMPERS SCSI
Master (Primary) SCSI BIOS
Single Configuration SCSI ID & TERMINATION

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NETWORK ATTACHED STORAGE NAS box connects directly to the
(NAS) network
When one or more hard drives are Can be accessed as mapped network
installed into a NAS box drive from any computer on network

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By User Smial on de.wikipedia (Own work) [FAL, GFDL 1.2 (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/fdl-1.2.html) or CC-BY-SA-2.0-
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By Shieldforyoureyes Dave Fischer (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
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Chris Whytehead, Chris's Acorns CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia
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http://img.tomshardware.com/us/2001/07/25/bios_tuning/pci_3.gif
Slide 18:
http://www.os2voice.org/VNL/past_issues/VNL0603H/bios1.jpg
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http://www-personal.umich.edu/~csev/citoolkit/content/nt/01-nt4bios/070scsidev.gif
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6a POWER Power Basics


Understanding Power Spike
Voltage Sag
Amperage Brownout
Wattage Blackout
Impedance
AC/DC VOLTAGE
The electric potential energy
Power Issues The measure of work needed to move
Surge a charge from one location to another

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against the forces that keep charges of the power
balanced Used by power companies
Also referred to as tension or In Direct Current (DC) the current
pressure (think of water pressure) always flows in the same direction
Voltage is generally 110 in the US and Batteries produce this type of electricity
220 in Europe. The computer uses DC power internally
A power supply converts AC to DC
AMPERAGE current
The measure of electrical current (i.e.
SURGE
amount of electricity that is flowing)
An unexpected increase (surge) in the
The amount of water flowing through a
amount of voltage provided
pipe
SPIKE
WATTAGE A very short pulse of energy that lasts
The amount of electrical work millseconds but is higher in voltage
achieved
SAG
Equals the potential energy multiplied
An unexpected and short decrease in
by the amount of electricity
Wattage = Voltage x Amps the amount of voltage provided
BROWNOUT
IMPEDANCE
An (un)intentional drop in voltage that
The opposition a circuit gives to a
lasts
current when voltage is applied
for minutes or hours
Measured in Ohms ()
BLACKOUT
AC/DC A total loss of power for a prolonged
In Alternating Current (AC) the direction period of time (usually followed by a
of the current reverses spike when power is restore
Makes it easier to change the voltage

Image Attribution:
Slide 1:
User Smial on de.wikipedia
By User Ed g2s
2012 About.com. All rights reserved. - http://0.tqn.com/d/pcsupport/1/0/4/7/-/-/molex-8981-amp-mate-n-lok.jpg
Photo by Dante Alighieri | Talk.

6b POWER Protection and Tools


Protection Multimeter
Power Strips
Surge Protectors POWER STRIPS
UPS A group of sockets (generally in-line)
with a cable that plugs into a single
Tools receptacle
Receptacle Tester Allows multiple devices to share a
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single receptacle Will emit loud beeps when the battery is
May have a maximum wattage rating, running low
that should not be exceeded Do not connect uneccessary high
power devices (such as laser printers)
POWER STRIPS
Some may have a master on/off switch RECEPTACLE TESTER
Usually has a circuit breaker (around Quickly tells you if the wall socket is
15-amps) to protect against overloading functioning correctly
May or may not have a surge protector It is inexpensive and easy to locate at
built-in most home improvement stores

SURGE PROTECTOR MULTIMETER


A device that protects against surges A device that can measure amps
and spikes (current), ohms (resistance), and
Contains a Metal-Oxide Varistor (MOV) voltage
Variable Resistor Can measure these within the
Rated in joules computer and from an AC outlet
A surge burns out part of the varistor There are two leads: red (hot) and
higher joules = longer lasting black (neutral or ground)
1,000 joules or more Never touch the metal!

UPS MULTIMETER
A surge protector with a battery built-in Testing an AC Outlet
Protects against surges, spikes, sags, Black lead to outlets ground
brownouts, & blackouts Red lead to hot opening
The battery can be recharged, but will Turn on multimeter
need to be replaced eventually Get a reading
UPS Turn off multimeter
Can be monitored by the computer via Remove the leads
a USB connection

Image Attribution:
Slide 1:
User Smial on de.wikipedia
By Ed g2s
2012 About.com. All rights reserved. - http://0.tqn.com/d/pcsupport/1/0/4/7/-/-/molex-8981-amp-mate-n-lok.jpg

Photo by Dante Alighieri | Talk.

Slide 3:
By Nordald (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 4:
Photo by Dante Alighieri | Talk.
Slide 5:
By Pelegs (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6:
2011 Kevins Crate.com/Blog Theme customized by Kevin. -http://www.kevinscrate.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/ups.jpg
Ed g2s
Slide 7:
Ed g2s
Slide 9:

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By AndrewBuck (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 10:
By KENPEI (KENPEI's photo) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.1-jp (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.1/jp/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 11:
Photo: H. Straume

6c POWER Power Supplies and Connectors


Power Supplies Supplies power to every device inside
What are they? the computer
Form Factors (CPU, Motherboard, HD, Optical, etc)
Wattage and Capacity Many higher-end systems have multiple
Fans for redundancy
Power Connectors
WHAT ARE THEY?
Molex
External cord not built-in to allow for
Berg
use in different markets
SATA
On/Off switch to cut all power to a
PCIe
system
A red voltage switch allows for use in
WHAT ARE THEY?
different markets
Converts AC from the wall into DC
used by computer

FORM FACTORS
Form Factor Power Connector Characteristic
ATX P1 20-pin connector Older standard but you would probably still support it
ATX 12V P1 20-pin connector and Supplemental 6-pin AUX
1.0 - 3.0 P4 4 -pin connector Connector provides additional 3.3V and 5V supplies to
motherboard
ATX 12V 2.0 P1 24-pin connector 6-pin AUX removed.
(backwards compatible) SATA power cable is required
ATX 12V 2.1 P1 24-pin connector Added separate 6-pin power connector for PCIe video
cards
Delivers 75 watts
ATX 12V 2.2 P1 24-pin connector
Added 8 -pin power connector for PCIe video cards
Delivers 150 watts
ATX 12V 2.3 P1 24-pin connector Recommended efficiency is now 80% because of
EnergyStar 4.0 regulations

WATTAGE AND CAPACITY Maximum amount they can draw from


Power supplies are rated in Watts the wall outlet
(W=VA) Power supplies range from 300 to 1000

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W
Use an online calculator to determine MOLEX
needed power supply Used to power IDE/PATA devices
More devices = more wattage
FANS BERG
Built into the power supply Used to power Floppy Drives
Usually more cost effective to replace
the power supply rather than SATA
replace the fan Used to power SATA devices
Most common problem with power
supply is a failed fan PCI-e
Used to power PCI-e (graphics)
POWER CONNECTORS devices

Image Attribution:
Slide 1:
User Smial on de.wikipedia
By Ed g2s
2012 About.com. All rights reserved. - http://0.tqn.com/d/pcsupport/1/0/4/7/-/-/molex-8981-amp-mate-n-lok.jpg
Photo by Dante Alighieri | Talk.
Slide 3-4,7,9:
User Smial on de.wikipedia
Slide 10:
2012 About.com. All rights reserved. - http://0.tqn.com/d/pcsupport/1/0/4/7/-/-/molex-8981-amp-mate-n-lok.jpg
Slide 11:
2012 About.com. All rights reserved. - http://0.tqn.com/d/pcsupport/1/0/3/7/-/-/floppy-berg-mini-molex.jpg
Slide 12:
2012 About.com. All rights reserved. - http://0.tqn.com/d/pcsupport/1/0/5/7/-/-/sata-power-cable.jpg
Slide 13:
2012 About.com. All rights reserved. - http://0.tqn.com/d/pcsupport/1/0/7/7/-/-/atx-6pin.jpg

7a - CHASSIS - Form Factors


Tower Pizza Box (height 5 cm (2 in))
Full Tower
Mid-Size FULL TOWER
Tower Mini Typically 56cm (22in) or more in height
Tower Desktop 6-10 externally accessible bays
Pizza Box Ratio of internal to external changing
Rack Mount
MID-SIZE TOWER
FORM FACTORS Typically around 46cm (18in) high
Generally related to the form factor of 2-4 externally accessible bays
the motherboard
This is the largest component MINI TOWER
ATX and microATX are the most Typically 36cm (14in) - 41cm (16in)
popular 1-2 externally accessible bays
Vertical Tower (height > width)
Flat Desktop (height < width) DESKTOP/PIZZA BOX
DESKTOP/RACK MOUNT
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Image Attribution:
Slide 1:
User:Chassisplans [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By Fosnez (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By D mcgrath28 [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By steverenouk (Chassis Uploaded by Mewtu) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia
Commons
Slide 3:
By Frijole at en.wikipedia Later versions were uploaded by Msikma at en.wikipedia. [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
Slide 4:
http://images.highspeedbackbone.net/itemdetails/K13-4000/K13-4000-out-wg.jpg
Slide 5:
By TheJosh (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6:
By TheJosh (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 7:
By Caroline Ford (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 8:
User:Chassisplans [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons

7b - CHASSIS - Layout
Layout
Air Flow INTRUSION DETECTION
Intrusion Detection A biased switch (push-button) that
Customization attaches to the chassis and
motherboard
LAYOUT When the case is opened, the switch
Sheet metal enclosures for power position changes
supply and drive bays The system records the change to the
Rear panel for peripheral connectors CMOS
Some chassis have them in front too
Front Panel CUSTOMIZATION
Power button/switch Most chassis through the 90s were
Reset button referred to as White Box Computers
LEDs for Power, HD, Network In reaction, some folks creatively style
their chassis
LAYOUT
Motherboard screwed into the chassis
Along the largest face CUSTOMIZATION
Power supply is often at the top rear Custom chassis built from:
5.25 bays Aluminum
Optical Steel
3.5 bays Styrofoam
HDD, FDD, SSD Acrylic
Wood
AIR FLOW
Perfectly constructed for proper airflow CUSTOMIZATION
Vents are located on either side Some include:

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Custom paint Acrylic windows
Liquid cooling systems Internal lighting
Clear side panels Users can look inside while operating

Image Attribution:
Slide 1:
User:Chassisplans [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By Fosnez (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By D mcgrath28 [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By steverenouk (Chassis Uploaded by Mewtu) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia
Commons
Slide 3-4:
By steverenouk (Chassis Uploaded by Mewtu) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia
Commons
Slide 5:
By Fosnez (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6:
By Maksim (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 7:
By D mcgrath28 [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
Slide 8:
By Goncalopp at en.wikipedia Later version(s) were uploaded by Iain at en.wikipedia. [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9:
By Install (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

8a - BUILDING THE COMPUTER - Electrostatic


Discharge (ESD)
SD Prevention
Anti-Static Bag
ESD Mat
Anti-static Wrist Strap
Anti-static Spray
Environmental Conditions

ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE
Occurs when two objects of different voltages contact
i.e. Static electricity
Can easily cause component damage
You may not even feel the shock!

ANTI-STATIC BAG
Allows safe shipment and storage of electrical components
Can place components on these bags during installation as well

ESD MAT
Ground the surface to a metallic object

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ANTI-STATIC WRIST STRAP
Ground yourself to the chassis
Touching the chassis is a poor mans ESD Strap

ANTI-STATIC SPRAY
Reduces static electricity in the environment
Especially useful in dry areas

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Do not work on carpeted areas
Keep humidity high (above 50%)
Cool environment prevents overheating

Image Attribution:
Slide 1:
http://images.highspeedbackbone.net/itemdetails/K13-4000/K13-4000-out-wg.jpg
Chris Whytehead, Chris's Acorns CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia
Commons
By Petteri Aimonen (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
2009-2011 ICTradeNet.com Corp.All Rights Reserved. -
http://www.ictradenet.com/models_pic/16201,16202,16213,16214,16224,16226.jpg
Slide 4:
By Harke (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 5:
Copyright PCB Assembly | Electronic Manufacturer. All rights reserved. - http://www.binbin.net/photos/generic/ant/anti-static-mat-
anti-static-mat-.jpg
Slide 6:
http://cdn.instructables.com/FPK/598J/H4AGKBAB/FPK598JH4AGKBAB.LARGE.jpg
Slide 7:
Copyright 2012 Rapid Electronics Limited, Severalls Lane, Colchester, Essex, CO4 5JS -
http://www.rapidonline.com/catalogueimages/module/M123030P01WL.jpg
Slide 8:
2009-2011 ICTradeNet.com Corp.All Rights Reserved. -
http://www.ictradenet.com/models_pic/16201,16202,16213,16214,16224,16226.jpg

8b - BUILDING THE COMPUTER - Chassis,


Motherboard, CPU, RAM
Expansion ports for audio, video, etc.
Choosing the Parts I/O ports
Preparing the Chassis
Installing the Motherboard PREPARING THE CHASSIS
Installing the CPU Brass standoffs Offer Support
Installing the RAM Prevent Electrical Loop
Prepare Brass Standoffs before
CHOOSING THE PARTS beginning
After determining your needs... Attach to Chassis
Compatible Motherboard
Compatible Case INSTALLING THE MOTHERBOARD
Compatible Processor Remove motherboard from packaging
Compatible RAM Lay on Anti- static bag if necessary (flat
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side down) Fasten heatsink
Line up with standoffs and pre- drilled
holes INSTALLING THE CPU
Insert screws and tighten until snug Fit CPU fan on top of heatsink
Attach power cable to motherboard
INSTALLING THE MOTHERBOARD
Connect any Power, reset, hard drive, INSTALLING RAM
etc. cords to the motherboard from the Remove RAM from packaging
chassis Lay on Anti-static bag
Follow manufacturers guide Only hold by the edges
Never touch contacts!
INSTALLING THE CPU Determine which slots to use
Remove CPU, heat sink, and fan from Look for the 0s and 1s
packaging Reference the manual
Place on anti-static bag
CPU lands (or pins) must face up to INSTALLING RAM
avoid damage Orient RAM according to keying on
motherboard and on stick
Never touch the lands or pins of a CPU Place the stick gently into the slot, pins
Carefully insert and fasten CPU down
LGA or PGA Distribute even pressure on top of the
stick
INSTALLING THE CPU Ears on slot will close in and lock the
Apply thermal compound module
Fit heatsink on top of CPU

Image Attribution:
Slide 1:
http://images.highspeedbackbone.net/itemdetails/K13-4000/K13-4000-out-wg.jpg
Chris Whytehead, Chris's Acorns CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia
Commons
By Petteri Aimonen (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
2009-2011 ICTradeNet.com Corp.All Rights Reserved. -
http://www.ictradenet.com/models_pic/16201,16202,16213,16214,16224,16226.jpg
Slide 3:
http://images.highspeedbackbone.net/itemdetails/K13-4000/K13-4000-out-wg.jpg
By Mixabest (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 4-5:
By Petteri Aimonen (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6:
By Arnulf zu Linden (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 7:
By Appaloosa (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
By D-Kuru (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0-at (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/at/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 8:
Jyothis at ml.wikipedia [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9:
By User Metoc
Slide 10:
By Cristian Garcia [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons
By D-Kuru (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0-at (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/at/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 11:
2009 Socket1366.com -- http://www.socket1366.com/images/memory/install-ram.jpg

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8c - BUILDING THE COMPUTER - Storage,
Power, and Booting
Installing the Power Supply BOOTING THE COMPUTER
Installing the Storage Devices Attach the power cord to the the power
Booting the Computer cable inlet (C14 inlet)
Finishing Installation
Remove all ESD Hardware
INSTALLING THE POWER SUPPLY Plug the computer into the wall and turn
Make sure the kill switch is switched to the kill switch to on
off Otherwise you will shock yourself
Set the voltage selector to the correct
voltage BOOTING THE COMPUTER
Attach a monitor and keyboard to the
INSTALLING THE POWER SUPPLY on-board connections
Mount the power supply in the case Without closing the case, turn on the
Some chassis come with the power computer.
supply built-in May need to install a graphics card
Generally the top or bottom of the case Attach PCIe power if necessary
Secured using 4 standard screws Visually check that all fans are running
properly
INSTALLING THE POWER SUPPLY
Attach the P1 connector to the BOOTING THE COMPUTER
motherboard Check that the BIOS reads the correct
Keyed to allow correct insertion amount of RAM, HD, etc.
Should not need to force it
BOOTING THE COMPUTER
INSTALLING STORAGE Enter Setup if necessary
Identify whether the drives are made for
5.25 or 3.5 bays FINISHING INSTALLATION
Power-off computer
INSTALLING STORAGE Close the Chassis
Insert storage devices and use screws Sometimes requires screws,
to keep them in place sometimes pops-off
Power the computer on
INSTALLING STORAGE
Adjust drives before tightening!
Ensure its still working
INSTALLING STORAGE Clean your area, put away your tools,
Attach data cables and power cables and take a break!
Jumper if necessary

Image Attribution:
Slide 1:
http://images.highspeedbackbone.net/itemdetails/K13-4000/K13-4000-out-wg.jpg
Chris Whytehead, Chris's Acorns CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia

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Commons
By Petteri Aimonen (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
2009-2011 ICTradeNet.com Corp.All Rights Reserved. -
http://www.ictradenet.com/models_pic/16201,16202,16213,16214,16224,16226.jpg
Slide 3-5:
User Smial on de.wikipedia
By Arnulf zu Linden (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6,8:
http://images.highspeedbackbone.net/itemdetails/K13-4000/K13-4000-out-wg.jpg
Slide 7:
By Richard Wheeler (-) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 10:
User Smial on de.wikipedia
Slide 11:
Chris Whytehead, Chris's Acorns CC-BY-SA-3.0 [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia
Commons
Slide 12:
Copyright 2008 Spyware-Experts.com
Slide 13:
Copyright 2012 Help Me Rick Computer Help - http://helpmerick.com/files/helpmerick/bios1.gif
Slide 14:
By Goncalopp at en.wikipedia Later version(s) were uploaded by Iain at en.wikipedia. [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

9a - LAPTOPS - Ports, The Keyboard, & Pointing


Devices
Ports Pointing Devices
Keyboard Trackpad
Layout Trackpoint/Eraserhead
Connector Stylus
Click is replaced tap
LAPTOP KEYBOARD Touch pads can be tapped or double-
Laptop Keyboards: tapped
101-key alphanumeric, or Can be replaced but is uncommon
86-key with Fn key
Fn key (Function key) activates LAPTOP ERASERHEAD
secondary functions of other keys TrackPoint is a smaller rubber cap that
Num Lk key (Number Lock) looks like an eraser head
enable/disable the numeric keypad on a
laptop STYLUS/DIGITIZER
Writing tool
LAPTOP KEYBOARD FLEX CABLE Usually a thin plastic pen
CONNECTOR Tapping and writing
Used on a touch screen or tablet pad
LAPTOP TRACKPAD Widely used in tablet PCs, PDAs, and
PCs uses a mouse, laptops uses a handheld computers
touch pad In some cases, it must be calibrated.
Two buttons may take the place of a
mouses buttons

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IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1
By User:Littletung (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Inklein (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Uploaded by Mono
By Michael Walsh [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 3
http://questional.com/images/uploads/48/Common-Laptop-Ports-multiply.png
Slide 4
Future Publishing Limited, Beauford Court, 30 Monmouth Street, Bath BA1 2BW. All rights reserved. England and Wales
company registration number 2008885. - http://whatlaptop.techradar.com/files/whatlaptop/Ports1.jpg
Slide 5
http://www.laptoppicker.com/archives/dell-xps-m1730-laptop-ports.jpg
Slide 7
Stefan Khn at the German language Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 8
Copyright 2006-2012 Light In The Box Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
- http://cloud4.lbox.me/images/384x384/201104/flex-cable-with-plug-in-connector-for-iphone-3g-black-_yqlcxs1303107612009.jpg
Slide 9
Balanarahul
Slide 10
By Chris Murphy (Dell D620 keyboard Uploaded by Atlaslin) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
Slide 11
http://img.gawkerassets.com/img/17y6wfxuyu1c5jpg/original.jpg

9b - LAPTOPS - Video and Sound


Video Connects to the motherboard by flex
LCD ribbon cable
Resolutions
GPU LCD SCREENS
Troubleshooting Video Display Controls:
Audio Brightness can be adjusted from the
Integrated Sound Volume keyboard on most laptops
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Resolution:
Flat panel display Amount of pixels
A layer of liquid crystal solution around
two sheets of polarizing material

COMMON LAPTOP RESOLUTIONS

Resolution Horizontal by Aspect


Full Name
Standard Vertical Ratio
WXGA Widescreen Extended Graphics Array 1280 by 800 16:10
High-Definition Display Similar to
HD 1366 by 768 16:9
WXGA
Widescreen Extended Graphics Array
WSXGA+ 1680 by 1050 16:10
Plus
High-Definition Display Similar to
HD 1680 by 945 16:9
WSXGA+

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Graphics Processor Unit (GPU): AUDIO
Processor for video Sound card often integrated (usually
Usually integrated with the laptop with a Mini-PCI card), in addition to
motherboard integrated Speakers
Part of the chipset and utilizes RAM as Usually equipped with:
shared video memory Speaker/headphone out connector,
Line in connector, and Microphone
TROUBLESHOOTING VIDEO ISSUES connector.

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1
By User:Littletung (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Inklein (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Uploaded by Mono
By Michael Walsh [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 3-4
Bercik
Slide 5-7
Yoggy from Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
Slide 9
Uploaded by Mono

9c - LAPTOPS - Storage and Power


Storage SATA vs. PATA
FRUs Most newer laptop HDDs use SATA
HDD Access Also, many are now SSDs
SATA vs PATA Usually 2.5-inches wide (as opposed to
Optical Discs 3.5 in desktops)
Power
Laptop Batteries 44-PIN TO 40-PIN IDE ADAPTER
Lithium-Ion Battery An adapter may be necessary with a
Troubleshooting Fans 2.5 PATA drive (44-pin rather than 40-
pin)
FIELD REPLACEABLE UNIT (FRU)
Can be quickly removed from the Optical Discs
system Laptop DVD or CD drive failing is fairly
Can be done at the customer location common
Easy to replace
STORAGE Usually slide into a slot on the front/side
Laptop HDDs are more prone to failure of laptop
Handled more roughly (mobility bumps
and bruises) POWER
Drive Access Laptops designed to run on wall or
battery power
Between 2-5 hours on a battery

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AC adapter plugs into AC outlet Check battery
Battery not removed and full inserted
BATTERIES Locked into place
Lithium-ion (Li-ion)
Is the most common FANS
No memory effect Need to exhaust hot air Fans on the
side & bottom Get clogged easily
TROUBLESHOOTING LAPTOP Clicking sounds High-pitched noises
POWER
If laptop not getting power... TROUBLESHOOTING FANS
Check all connections Blow compressed air through the fan
Check laptop/AC adapter LEDs slot OUT of the computer (not in)
Use a light to see if something is
TROUBLESHOOTING LAPTOP obstructing the fan
POWER Worst-case replace the fan

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1
By User:Littletung (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Inklein (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Uploaded by Mono
By Michael Walsh [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6
http://www.cyber-ic.com/photo/CF_TO_IDE/CF-44-Pin%20IDE%20adaptor_h.jpg
Slide 7
http://www.laptopparts101.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/laptop-cd-dvd-optical-drives.jpg
Slide 8
highwycombe (talk)
Slide 10-1
Kristoferb
Slide 14
http://www.laptopparts101.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/cooling-fan-inside-laptop.jpg
Slide 15
By User:Littletung (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

9d - LAPTOPS Expansion Devices and


Communication
Expansion Devices Communications
External Ethernet
PC Cards Bluetooth
CardBus Cards Infrared
ExpressCards Cellular Wan
Internal Modem
Mini-PCI
Mini-PCI Express EXTERNAL EXPANSION DEVICES
Docking Stations Hot swappable

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Can be used to... Increase memory ETHERNET
Add functionality Increase storage Wired (LAN)
Networking RJ45
Wireless (WLAN/WiFi)
PCMCIA (PC CARD) 802.11n, g, b
16-bit width
68-pin connector BLUETOOTH
Laptop can connect with other
CARDBUS CARDS bluetooth devices
32-bit width Other computers, smartphones,
Essentially, PCI headphones
Creates a Personal Area Network
CARDBUS CARDS VS. PCMCIA (PAN)

EXPRESSCARD INFRARED OR IRDA


26-pin connector Works a short distance
Not compatible with any of the previous Similar to a remote control
Must be line-of-site
INTERNAL EXPANSION DEVICES
Mini-PCI CELLULAR WAN
max data transfer rate of 133MB/s Internet through 3/4G Cellular
i.e.Verizon, Sprint, AT&T
DOCKING STATIONS May be internal or added through USB
Expands the laptop to behave like a May be called WAN cards
desktop computer
Connects using proprietary connector MODEM
A dial-up modem
Not seen as much anymore External
or Internal

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1
By User:Littletung (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Inklein (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Uploaded by Mono
By Michael Walsh [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 3-4
Copyright 1996-2012 GamCo (Pty) Ltd - http://www.gam.co.za/images/1.jpg
Slide 5
By Ansbaradigeidfran (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6
By Torsten Btge (Deutsch: selbst fotografiert und erstellt) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 8
By User:Affemitwaffe (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9
By Michael Walsh [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 11
http://www.upc.ie/media/2012/5/4/rj45cable_connector_to_laptop_ethernet_port.jpg
Slide 12

Copyright howtonetwork.com / Reality Press Ltd 2014


By User:Omegatron [CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 13
2012 All rights reserved. - http://cdnsupport.gateway.com/s/tutorials/images/Topic_26134/42695.jpg
Slide 14
Copyright 1996-2012 GamCo (Pty) Ltd - http://www.gam.co.za/images/1.jpg

9e - LAPTOPS Memory, System Board, and CPU


Memory MEMORY
SO-DIMMs Small Outline Dual In-Line Memory
DDR, DDR2, DDR3 Module (SO-DIMM)
System Board Smaller device = Smaller memory
CPU module
Mounted versus Socketed Most laptops use DDR SDRAM (like
PGA desktops)
BGA DDR2 SO-DIMM not compatible with
Sockets DDR3 SO- DIMM
MEMORY
Memory Module Format Version
SDRAM 144 pin PC66 - PC133
DDR 200 pin DDR-200 - DDR-400
DDR2 200 pin DDR2-400 - DDR2-1066
DDR3 204 pin DDR3-800 - DDR3-2133

INSTALLING/TROUBLESHOOTING Label and over-document!!


MEMORY
Check manufacturer guides for CPU
compatibility before purchasing/installing May be surface-mounted (cannot be
If BIOS does not identify upgraded/removed) or socketed (like
Memory installed incorrectly desktop computers)
Try reseating Pin Grid Array (PGA) or Ball Grid Array
(BGA)
SYSTEM BOARD SOCKET M
A system board failure is the worst SOCKET P
thing for a technician SOCKET G1
Complete disassembly is required SOCKET G2

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IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1
By User:Littletung (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Inklein (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Uploaded by Mono
By Michael Walsh [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 3
Slide 8
By Sven.petersen (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9
Kyro [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
Slide 10
(c) Copyright 2003 - 2010 Gennadiy Shvets - http://www.cpu-world.com/Sockets/L_Socket_G1-top.jpg
Slide 11
All trademarks used are properties of their respective owners. All rights reserved. Copyright 2004-2012 www.techPowerUp.com. -
http://www.techpowerup.com/cpudb/images/sockets/IntelSocketG2988B.jpg

10a - WINDOWS - Requirements, Versions, and Tools


XP Minimum Requirements WINDOWS VISTA HOME PREMIUM,
Windows XP Versions BUSINESS, ULTIMATE
Vista Minimum Requirements REQUIREMENTS
Windows Vista Versions 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) processor
7 Minimum Requirements 1 GHz 64-bit (x64) processor
Windows 7 Versions 1 GB of system memory
System Analysis Tools
Windows Compatibility Center
System Information WINDOWS VISTA VERSIONS
Belarc Advisor Windows Vista Versions
Self-Booting Diagnostic Programs Home Basic
Home Premium
WINDOWS XP MINIMUM Business
REQUIREMENTS Enterpise
233 MHz processor or faster Ultimate
at least 64 MB of RAM
at least I.5 GB of available space on WINDOWS 7 MINIMUM
HDD REQUIREMENTS
1 GB RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-
WINDOWS XP bit)
VERSIONS 16 GB available HDD space (32-bit) or
Windows XP Home: 20 GB (64-bit)
Windows XP Professional: 1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit
Windows XP Media Center: (x64) processor

WINDOWS VISTA HOME BASIC WINDOWS 7 VERSIONS


MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS Starter
800 MHz 32-bit (x86) processor Home Premium
800-MHz 64-bit (x64) processor Professional
512 MB of system memory Ultimate
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Enterprise http://www.pc-diagnostics.com #1-
TuffTEST:
SYSTEM ANALYSIS TOOLS http://www.tufftest.com/ PC Check:
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/com http://www.eurosoft-uk.com
patibility/ access the hardware section Microsoft Assessment and Planning
(MAP) toolkit:
SELF-BOOTING DIAGNOSTIC http://technet.microsoft.com/en-
PROGRAMS us/library/bb977556.aspx.
PC Diagnostic tools:

10b - WINDOWS - Installation


Installing and Upgrading to Windows XP INSTALLING AND UPGRADING TO
XP Installation Methods WINDOWS VISTA
Verifying and Troubleshooting Decide which version of Vista and
Installing and Upgrading to Windows confirm computers hardware for
Vista compatibility
Vista Installation Methods Decide on an installation method: from
Vista Installation Phases DVD, CD, as an image, or over the
Upgrading to Vista network
Verifying and Troubleshooting
Installing and Upgrading to Windows 7 Four phases of Vista installation
7 Installation Methods process:
Upgrading to Windows 7 Downlevel phase:
Vista to 7 Upgrade Paths Windows Preinstallation Environment
Anytime Upgrades phase:
Repair-In-Place Upgrades Online configuration phase:
Verifying and Troubleshooting Windows Welcome phase:

INSTALLING AND UPGRADING TO INSTALLING AND UPGRADING TO


WINDOWS XP WINDOWS 7
Decide which edition of XP and confirm Decide which version you will use and
computer compatibility with Windows XP confirm computer compatibility with
Decide on an installation method: from Windows 7 Next, choose the
CD, floppy to CD, as an image, over the installation method: from DVD, USB, as
network an image, or over the network
Complete the clean installation or
upgrade and Test it: Windows Vista to 7 Upgrade Paths
Anytime Upgrades
Repair-In-Place Upgrade

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10c - WINDOWS - Migration and Customization
Migrating User Data Older version of Windows Easy
Windows Easy Transfer Transfer Installed by default on
User State Migration Tool (USMT) Windows XP
Files and Settings Transfer (FAST) Meant for transferring files and settings
Wizard from a Windows XP, 2000, or 9x
Customizing the User Environment computer to a Windows XP computer
Revert to Classic mode Replaced by Easy Transfer
Disable visual effects
The Task Scheduler REVERT TO CLASSIC MODE
Region and Language Options i.e. Turn off Windows Aero
Advanced System Tools
Windows Registry DISABLE VISUAL EFFECTS
Hives Special graphic effects strain
Remote Desktop performance
Remote Assistance
Program Compatibility Wizard TASK SCHEDULER
Windows XP Mode Run particular programs
Specify certain conditions/triggers that
WINDOWS EASY TRANSFER cause a task to run
Can be downloaded from Start > All Programs > Accessories >
microsoft.com for Windows XP (built into System Tools
Vista/7)
Copy files, photos, music, email, and REGION AND LANGUAGE OPTIONS
settings (user state) to 7/Vista Modify the format of numbers, currency,
Start > All Programs > Accessories > time and date
System Tools
WINDOWS REGISTRY
USER STATE MIGRATION TOOL A database that stores the settings for
(USMT) Windows 7/Vista/XP
Command-line tool used to migrate
user files/settings Downloaded from REMOTE ASSISTANCE
microsoft.com Allows someone to assist you with the
For larger/automated deployments (vs. computer
easy transfer)
Two different tools used: REMOTE DESKTOP
Scanstate.exe saves all the files and Connect to and control a computer
settings of the user(s) without invitation
loadstate.exe transfers that data to
destination computer(s) PROGRAM COMPATIBILITY WIZARD
Makes applications compatible with
FILES AND SETTINGS TRANSFER 7/Vista/XP:
(FAST) WIZARD

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WINDOWS XP MODE Windows 7 can emulate the entire
Windows XP OS

10d - WINDOWS - Files


Boot Files Extension of the file determines this
Files required to start XP
Files required to start 7/Vista INDEXING
File Associations Help find files faster
Indexing
Directories and Files in Command COMMAND PROMPT
Prompt DIR
CD, MD, RD Displays the contents of the current
DIR, TREE directory
COPY, DEL, MOVE
WINDOWS XP BOOT FILES TREE
NTLDR: Shows all the directories and
Boot.ini: subdirectories in current position
Ntdetect.com:
COMMAND PROMPT
WINDOWS 7/VISTA BOOT FILES CD: Change Directory
Bootmgr (Windows Boot Manager): MD: Make Directory
BCD (Boot Configuration Data) RD: Remove Directory
COPY:
FILE ASSOCIATIONS DEL:
Relationships between files and MOVE
applications

10e - WINDOWS - File Systems and Disk Management


File System Basics FILE SYSTEM
FAT32 and FAT How data is
NTFS stored/addressed/accessed on the disk
exFAT FAT FAT32 NTFS exFat CDFS
Compact Disc File System (CDFS)
Disk Management DISK MANAGEMENT
Utility FAT(16) and FAT32:
Volumes vs. Partitions Original file system
Logical Drives FAT32 replaced FAT
RAID Now used to interact with older
0, 1, 5 versions of Windows and other OSs
NTFS:

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Currently the most LOGICAL DRIVES
common/recommended for Windows RAID
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
DISK MANAGEMENT
Extended File Allocation Table (exFAT): RAID 0
Also known as FAT64 Provides data striping:
Suited specifically for USB flash drives Improves performance
(interoperability)
RAID 1
Compact Disc File System (CDFS) Mirroring and Duplexing
ISO 9660 standard:
RAID 5
VOLUMES VS. PARTITIONS Striping with Parity

11a - WINDOWS CONFIGURATION - User Interfaces


Windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) Shortcuts for program/file stored
Desktop elsewhere
Icons Arrow in the lower-left corner of icon
Taskbar
Start menu TASKBAR
Quick Launch Bar spanning the bottom of the desktop
Notification Area Start button
Sidebar and gadgets Quick Launch
Application windows and dialog boxes Notification Area
Windows Aero
START MENU
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) listing of all the tools within Windows
How the user interacts with the OS Microsoft applications
Can be customized for a particular user third-party applications
and system
Everything on display is part of GUI Search for files
Access the Control Panel
DESKTOP Shows currently logged in user
What you see on the screen Enables you to log off, restart, shut
It is Windows, from a cosmetic down, or sleep computer
standpoint
Meant to replace users physical QUICK LAUNCH
desktop directly right of Start button
contains shortcuts to applications or
ICONS files
Little, clickable pictures on desktop:
Entire programs that run from desktop NOTIFICATION AREA
Files stored on desktop Far right of the taskbar
Houses:

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The clock Work area
Icons of applications running in the Title bar Menu bar Toolbar
background
WINDOWS AERO
SIDEBAR & GADGETS Featuring
Sidebar is a window pane on the side translucent windows
of the desktop exclusively in Vista window animations
Gadgets are mini-applications that three-dimensional viewing of windows a
interact with other applicationss modified taskbar
Not configured to run Aero:
APPLICATION WINDOWS AND Windows XP
DIALOG BOXES Windows 7/Vista Starter
Windows opened by programs contain:

11b - WINDOWS CONFIGURATION - Applications


Windows Applications Analyzes file properties and metadata
Windows Explorer of files and folders
Computer
Libraries CONTROL PANEL
Control Panel All computer settings/configurations
Network The color scheme
Command Prompt Making connections to networks
PowerShell
Computer Management NETWORK
Microsoft Management Console Shows computers and other devices on
the network
WINDOWS EXPLORER Looks similar to Windows Explorer
Start > All Programs > Accessories > Access by Start > Network
Windows Explorer
Allows you to graphically view and COMMAND PROMPT
navigate the contents of the computer Command-line interface (CLI)
You can change the way you view files files and folders
in the windows explorer networking
services
MY COMPUTER
Clicking Start and selecting POWERSHELL
Computer or icon on desktop Combination of Command Prompt and
Tightly integrated with Windows scripting language Perform
Explorer administrative tasks integrating scripts
and executables
LIBRARIES To open:
User-defined collections of folders Start > All Programs > Accessories >
Faster indexing/searching of Windows PowerShell
important/common documents

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COMPUTER MANAGEMENT Shell for other console windows
To Access Computer Management: Customized Computer Management
Click Start, right-click Computer and Control remote computers in addition to
select Manage. local
Run prompt: compmgmt.msc Control what particular users see by
changing Console Mode Saves
MICROSOFT MANAGEMENT everything you added
CONSOLE (MMC) Remembers the last place you worked

11c - WINDOWS CONFIGURATION - Tools and Utilities


System Tools and Utilities DRIVER SIGNING
Managing Devices Driver files are digitally signed by
Device Manager Microsoft
Driver Signing ensures file passed a certain level of
System Information Tool testing
IRQ and I/O Settings In Windows 7 and Vista:
DirectX Diagnostic Tool driver signing is configured
automatically
DEVICE only administrators can install unsigned
MANAGEMENT drivers
View and control hardware and drivers In Windows XP:
connected to the computer driver signing can be configured to
Drivers translate between the ignore, warn, or prevent installing
hardware and OS unsigned drivers
installed/updated through .exe files
from manufacturer or from within the SYSTEM INFORMATION TOOL
Device Manager View and analyze information about:
Access Via: hardware components
Right click Computer > Properties > software environment
Device Manager hardware resources used hardware
Open the Run prompt and type conflicts
devmgmt.msc. IRQ settings
Input/Output (I/O) settings Accessed
DEVICE MANAGER by:
Can search for drivers automatically Start > All Programs > Accessories >
Manually install the driver by browsing System Tools > System Information
for correct file Run prompt and typing msinfo32.exe
Right-clicking a specific device to:
update its driver IRQ AND I/O SETTING
enable or disable it Interrupt ReQuest (IRQ):
uninstall it altogether I/O setting:
check for any hardware changes The range of memory used by a device
access additional properties to transmit the data to the CPU

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A device interrupts the CPU to get its DIRECTX DIAGNOSTICS TOOL
attention to send data to it Legacy Utility to analyze and diagnose the
function of PC video card
Changes to IRQ settings also rare To run the DxDiag program open the
Run prompt and type dxdiag

11d - WINDOWS CONFIGURATION - OS Optimization


and Power Management
Operating System Optimization RAM is limited resource, but virtual
Task Manager Memory is as limited as storage
Msconfig
Virtual Memory SERVICES
Working with Services Control particular functions in Windows:
Power Management i.e Printing, Wireless Networking
Standby/Sleep If a service is stopped or disabled, the
Hibernate corresponding program or utility will not
run
TASK MANAGER You can start or stop services in the
Analyze your processor and memory GUI service console or the command
performance in real time line:
Kill processes and programs type services.msc at the Run prompt
Temporarily boost the power to a use the net start or net stop
particular process command at the command prompt
Set Priority
POWER MANAGEMENT
MSCONFIG Start > Control Panel > System
Microsoft System Configuration Utility Security > Power Options Specify how
Permanently disables long before the
programs/services designed to run at hard disk turns off
start up Set power savings for processor,
Lets you select from different boot wireless, USB, PCI Express
options
Start or stop services upon boot-up STANDBY/SLEEP
To open type msconfig at the run Computer goes into a low power mode
prompt Standby is known as Sleep in
Windows 7/Vista
VIRTUAL MEMORY shutting off the display and hard disks
Also known as the paging file Processor still functions but is throttled
Makes a program think that it has extra down
memory Information worked on and state of
In reality memory address space is on computer is stored in RAM
the HDD

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HIBERNATE Coming out of hibernation takes longer
Effectively shuts down the computer than standby
All data worked on is stored to To enable in Windows 7/Vista, type
hard drive in hiberfil.sys: Not RAM, like powercfg.exe/hibernate in the
Standby command prompt
Beside shutdown, consumes the least
amount of power

12a - WINDOWS MAINTENANCE - Updating Windows


Windows Update Program UPDATE TYPES
Critical Updates and Service Packs Critical Updates and Service Packs:
Slipstreaming Latest service pack (large, bundled
Windows Automated Installation Kit update)
(AIK) Security and stability updates
Windows Updates Some must be installed individually
Driver Updates Windows Updates:
Patch Management Recommended updates to fix
noncritical problems
WINDOWS UPDATE Adds features and updates to features
PROGRAM bundled into Windows
The system (or web page) Driver Updates:
automatically scans for updates: Updated device drivers for installed
Updates are divided into these hardware
categories:
Critical Updates and Service Packs SERVICE PACKS
Windows Updates A group of updates, bug fixes, updated
Driver Updates drivers, and security fixes
To install additional updates through Installed from one downloadable
Windows Update: package
Click Start > All Programs > Windows They are numbered
Update Installing is relatively easy
Turn on Automatic Updates or install While the service pack is installed:
currently available updates rewrites many files and copies new
If your system is in need of updates: ones to HDD
shield appears in the system tray many service packs are cumulative and
double-click to bring up the Security contain previous service packs
Center window:
you can turn on automatic updates SLIPSTREAMING
Automatically download and install Service Pack is incorporated into the
Download but dont install OS distribution DVD/CD
Do neither enables users to install OS and SP at
same time

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Once an SP is released, Microsoft Patching of many systems from a
usually does this automatically central location Useful in large
companies/networks
WINDOWS AUTOMATED Allows for testing before wide-release
INSTALLATION KIT Updates pushed out to multiple clients:
Allows system administrators to create System Center Configuration Manager
slipstreamed images of the OS and SP (SCCM) 2012 and 2007 Systems
For large rollouts, etc. Management Server (SMS) 2003
Windows Server Update Services
PATCH MANAGEMENT (WSUS) program

12b - WINDOWS MAINTENANCE - Hard Disk Utilities


Hard Disk Utilities Select which volume you want to
Temporary Files cleanup
Disk Cleanup It calculates how much space you can
CheckDisk save
System File Checker You can choose which types of files to
Disk Defragmenter delete
Start > All Programs > Accessories >
TEMPORARY FILES System Tools > Disk Cleanup
Created by programs for a variety of
purposes, for instance during installation CHECKDISK
Temporary files and older files can clog A program can check for basic errors
up a hard disk on hard drive:
To view and delete a users default Right-click volume in Windows Explorer
temporary files: > Properties >Tools tab
Go to Run and type %temp% Run chkdsk from command line
/f or /r actually repairs issues
TEMPORARY INTERNET FILES
Your computer saves files as you SYSTEM FILE CHECKER
browse to make the experience Otherwise known as SFC
smoother for you Command line utility
To remove temporary Internet files and Checks the integrity of system files on
cookies: the HD Like Chkdsk but specifically for
access Internet Properties: System Files
Start > Control Panel > Internet Options
> Browsing History section DISK DEFRAGMENTER
Offers the option to remove a variety of As the hard drive saves, accesses, &
information including cookies, history, deletes information on the drive, the
etc. space becomes fragmented Like empty
folders in a filing cabinet
DISK CLEANUP These gaps in the drivespace make the
Utility built into windows for cleaning up hdd work much harder to find data it
space on the disk needs

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the computer will run slower and command-line defrag Other third-party
continually get worse programs
Defragmenting fixes this issue, placing If using the Disk Defragmenter program
empty sectors at the end of the must have15 percent free space on the
drivespace volume required
Programs to defragment include: If you have less than that use
Microsofts Disk Defragmenter The command-line utility defrag

12c - WINDOWS MAINTENANCE - Backing Up


Backups Start > All Programs > Accessories >
Windows 7s Backup and Restore System Tools > Backup Status and
Windows Vistas Backup Status and Configuration
Configuration
Windows XPs NTBackup WINDOWS XP NTBACKUP
Full, Differential, Incremental Run prompt and type ntbackup
System Restore Can backup individual files
Shadow Copy Can backup the System State
XP does not include Complete PC
BACKUPS Backup option Automated System
Crucial for any company (and Recovery (ASR) option in NTBackup:
individual) Individual files/entire system enables you to back up and restore the
can be backed up system state:
user accounts, settings, boot files, et
WINDOWS 7 BACKUP AND cetera
RESTORE
Back up individual files TYPES OF BACKUPS
Create image of system Full backup
Create a system repair disc Backing up everything and resetting the
To create a backup with Windows 7s archive bit
Backup and Restore: Start > Control Differential
Panel > Backup and Restore: Backs up everything changed since the
click the Set Up Backup or last full backup
Back Up Now, if a backup device has Doesnt reset the archive bit
already been set up Incremental
Backs up everything changed since the
WINDOWS VISTA BACKUP STATUS last full or incremental backup Resets
AND CONFIGURATION the archive bit
The successor to Windows XPs
NTBackup Can back up individual files SYSTEM RESTORE
Can back up entire image of your Fixes issues caused by defective
system Complete PC Backup hardware or software registry changes
made by hardware/software are

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reversed forces computer to work as it Makes general backup copies of data
did previously known as snapshots
Reliant on restore points
SHADOW COPY Can be backed up manually or
Also called the Volume Snapshot automatically Created automatically with
Service a restore point Acts as an additional
does not take the place of an actual file supplement
backup
restored files that were Shadow Copied
can have missing data/errors

13a - TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS - Boot and


Recovery Tools
Advanced Boot Options menu (ABOM) Used to restore a domain controllers
Windows Recovery Environment active directory
(WinRE) Debugging Mode:
Windows XP Recovery Console Enables a debug program to examine
Advanced Recovery Options the system kernel
Disable automatic restart on system
ADVANCED BOOT OPTIONS MENU failure (7/Vista only):
Not available on Windows XP Use if an error causes Windows to fail
Safe Mode: Prevents Windows from automatically
Starts system with a minimal set of restarting
drivers Choose only if Windows is stuck in a
Used in case one of the drivers fails loop
Safe Mode with Networking: Disable driver signature enforcement
enables network support (7/Vista only):
Safe Mode with Command Prompt: Enables drivers containing improper
Starts system with a minimal set of signatures to be installed
drivers Start Windows Normally:
Enable Boot Logging: Creates a Used to boot to regular Windows
ntbtlog.txt file Listed in case a person
Gives a glimpse inside the boot inadvertently/accidentally pressed F8
process
Enable low-resolution video (640480): WINDOWS RECOVERY
Uses a standard VGA driver in place of ENVIRONMENT (WINRE)
GPU- specific display driver Can get to WinRE by booting from the
Last Known Good (LKG) Configuration: Vista/7 DVD or Boot Menu
Starts the system with the last Can recover various installations of
configuration known to work Windows
Useful for solving problems caused by Can restore from an already made
new hardware or software image
Directory Services Restore Mode:

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WINDOWS XP RECOVERY CONSOLE ADVANCED RECOVERY
A command-line interface used for If all these methods dont fix the
repairs problems, try advanced recovery:
Included on the Windows XP CD-ROM Control Panel > Recovery >
Press R after booted into installation Advanced Recovery Two options:
Invaluable when system cant start due Use a system image created earlier to
to missing/corrupted files recover the computer

13b - TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS - Boot Errors


Means Bootmgr is not in Boot
Boot Errors Configuration Data (BCD) store or
Windows 7/Vista Boot Errors Boot\BCD file on the active partition is
BOOTMGR is missing damaged or missing
BCD file is missing required info The BCD store needs to be repaired or
Windows XP Boot Errors rebuilt
NTDETECT failed First, boot to the System Recovery
NTLDR is missing Options and select the Startup Repair
Invalid boot.ini option

WINDOWS 7/VISTA BOOT ERRORS Second, boot to the System Recovery


If a boot error is operating system- Options and select the Command
related you will get some type of Prompt
message to troubleshoot Type the bootrec /rebuildbcd
Windows 7/Vista Boot uses the May need to remove the old bcd file
bootmgr and Boot Configuration Data first
(BCD) files during the startup process
WINDOWS XP BOOT ERRORS
BOOTMGR IS MISSING ERROR During startup, Windows XP uses:
Displays if the bootmgr file is missing or NTLDR (boot loader)
corrupt Boot.ini
Probably also says Press Ctrl+Alt+Del NTDETECT.COM Ntoskrnl.exe
to Restart (doing so will likely have the If any of these files are corrupted or
same results) missing: NTDETECT failed:
There are two methods to repair This displays if the NTDETECT.COM
BOOTMGR error: file is missing or corrupt NTLDR is
First, boot to the System Recovery missing:
Options and select the Startup Repair This displays if the NTLDR file is
option missing or corrupt Invalid boot.ini:
Second, boot to the System Recovery boot.ini file is missing or corrupt
Options and select the Command
Prompt BOOT ERRORS
Type the bootrec /fixboot To repair these issues, you can:
Alternatively, repair the installation or
BCD FILE IS MISSING ERROR restore Windows

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Reboot to the Windows CD and access BCD file is missing required info
the Recovery Console and recopy the Windows XP Boot Errors NTDETECT
file from the Windows CD-ROM or from failed
backup media NTLDR is missing
Boot Errors Invalid boot.ini
Windows 7/Vista Boot Errors
BOOTMGR is missing

13c - TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS -


Troubleshooting Tools
Window 7 Troubleshooting Tool EVENT VIEWER
Device Manager Tool for analyzing applications and the
Event Viewer system
Log files Tells a lot about the status of the
Events operating system and programs
Problem Reports and Solutions Three types of logs in the event viewer:
Action Center System:
Dr. Watson Application:

WINDOWS 7 TROUBLESHOOTING Security:


TOOL Four types of events:
Located in the Control Panel Information:
An automated program that determines Warning:
what has gone wrong and fixes it while Error:
you sit there Audit Success:
This tool can
troubleshoot program issues PROBLEM REPORTS AND
hardware problems SOLUTIONS
network and Internet connectivity A program in Windows Vista access
difficulties from the Control Panel
security glitches Enables you to check for solutions to
hardware and software problems Can
DEVICE MANAGER be set to report problems and check for
Can detect if a device is malfunctioning, solutions automatically Solutions can
has the wrong driver, a conflict resource, also be checked for manually when a
or has been disabled. problem occurs
Right click a device to enable/disable it
May need to do this if you have more ACTION CENTER
than one of the same device in the Automatically tells the user what needs
system. to be attended
In Windows 7, Problem Reports and
Solutions is built into it Start > Control

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Panel > System and Security > Action Failures that are listed in Dr. Watson
Center Or icon in the Notification Panel are often listed in the Application log of
the Event Viewer as well
DR. WATSON Accessed from the Run prompt, typing
Built into Windows XP a system and drwtsn32
application failure analysis tool

13d - TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS - Monitoring


Performance
The Performance Monitor WINDOWS MEMORY DIAGNOSTICS
The Resource Monitor Analyzes your memory (RAM) for
Windows Memory Diagnostics physical errors and issues
Msconfig Identifies the problem stick
General Can be started from within windows or
Boot the ABOM (F8 Menu) by pressing the
Service tab key
Startup Errors are displayed after system is
Tools automatically rebooted
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION TOOL
PERFORMANCE MONITOR More commonly known as MSCONFIG
Tracks how much your devices are An extremely useful troubleshooting
utilized tool with a variety of functions
Customizable depending on what you Open it from the Run Prompt and type
want to measure Msconfig
By default, it only measures the CPU
Information appears in graph form MSCONFIG GENERAL TAB
Have data automatically saved to Configure the system for diagnostic or
reports for later viewing selective startup
Information can also be automatically Helps to troubleshoot devices or
placed in logs services that are failing
Great for analyzing information daily
MSCONFIG BOOT TAB
RESOURCE MONITOR Modify OS bootup settings (similar to
Tracks the usage of the CPU, disks, ABOM)
network, and memory If you have multiple operating systems,
These are ActiveX graphs like in the allows you to change the order and
Performance tab of Task Manager choose which to set as default
Done in real-time but are not stored Advanced options allow you to specify
Not as versatile as Performance how much memory you want to use and
Monitor, but gives you a quicker a port to use if you need to output
overview debugging information

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MSCONFIG SERVICES TAB Lists the various applications that start
Lists the services and their current when the computer boots
status You can disable and enable these here
You can enable or disable them from to aid in troubleshooting
here (requires a restart)
Not for stopping/starting services MSCONFIG TOOLS TAB
Lists common utilities you find in
MSCONFIG STARTUP TAB Windows
Gives you a central launching point

13e - TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS - Stop Errors:


Blue Screen of Death
Stop Errors (BSOD) Stop Errors
Troubleshooting Improper Shutdowns Check event viewer (system log) and
Check the Event Viewer dump file upon reboot Dump file dumps
Use Msconfig contents of RAM to a file
Boot into Safe Mode You can alter the settings of what
Run a virus scan happens when a stop error occurs
Check power System Properties > Advanced >
Restoring Windows Startup and Recovery
Error Reporting Stop Errors
Also known as Blue Screen of Death or Can occur for a variety of reasons:
BSOD Brownouts or blackouts
Displays a blue screen with various text A power surge
and code Hardware failure
Completely halts the operating system User inadvertently unplugging the
and all work is lost computer Virus or other malware
May be a one time event or the result of
bad memory, driver errors, etc.

13f - TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS - Command Line


Tools
COMMAND-LINE TOOLS WinREs System Recovery Options
Two groups of commands: (7/Vista)
Those that run from within Windows Recovery Console (XP)
Run Command Prompt (cmd) as
administrator CHKDSK
Those that run within Command Checks a disk and can fix basic issues
Prompt option in: like lost files

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SYSTEM FILE CHECKER (SFC) TASKKILL
Utility that checks protected system Allows the user to shut processes down
files
replaces incorrect versions or missing SHUTDOWN
files with the correct files Used to shutdown, restart, sleep, or
hibernate the computer
CONVERT
Converts a volume previously formatted EDIT
as FAT32 to NTFS without losing any Not available in all versions of Windows
data Used to create and modify text files
Similar to a basic text editor
FORMAT
Used to format magnetic media such as COPY
HDD and SSD media to FAT, FAT32, or Copies files from one location to
NTFS file systems another

DISKPART EXPAND
The command-line counterpart of Decompresses files (like .cab and .exe
Windows Disk Management program files)

DEFRAG BOOTREC (WINDOWS VISTA/7)


The command-line version of the Disk bootrec /fixboot:
Defragmenter Replaces the bootmgr file

XCOPY FIXMBR AND FIXBOOT (WINDOWS


Copies large amounts of data from one XP)
location to another FIXMBR:
ROBOCOPY Use to repair the MBR of the system
Stands for Robust copy partition
FIXBOOT:
TASKLIST Use to write new Windows boot sector
Similar to Processes tab of Task code to the system partition
Manager, lists all processes running

14a - VIDEO - Video Subsystem


The Video Subsystem VIDEO SUBSYSTEM
Video Cards Video card (or integrated video)
Expansion Buses: PCI, PCIe, AGP Cards expansion bus
Connector Types Internal connections
Video Card Chipset External connections between the
GPU video card and the display Display itself
Memory Video driver

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VIDEO CARDS May be multiple connectors for multiple
At this point, they are self- contained images
computers
Processor (GPU) CONNECTOR TYPES
RAM There are several types of DVI
Must take into account connectors
Expansion Bus/Slot Usually not an issue, but double check
GPU speed your motherboard is setup for the
Memory correct
Connectors (DVI, HDMI, etc.)
Power and Cooling VIDEO CARD CHIPSET
Cards have a chipset, similar to a
EXPANSION BUSES motherboards chipset, but more
The major Video Card buses simplified
are Provides a connection between the
Peripheral Component Interconnect GPU and RAM on the card
(PCI)
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) GPU
PCI Express (PCIe)* high data transfer Graphics Processing Unit
rates May have its own heat sink and fan
connects directly to the northbridge of a The entire card may be enclosed by a
motherboards chipset fan for cooling
PCIe x16 uses 16 lanes measured like a CPU
might run at 630 MHz (core clock)
CONNECTOR TYPES
Video card will probably dictate the RAM
connector used Measured like a motherboards RAM
DVI, (S)VGA, HDMI are the major ones Many use a DDR specifically made for
A computers DVI connector usually graphics cards known as GDDR or
compatible with HDMI and VGA Graphics Double Data Rate
Adapters and adapter cables are May have 1, 2, or 3 GB of DDR3 RAM,
available running at 1 or 2 GHz

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1
By AutomaticDefence (Flickr: ELSA Winner II-A32 Vi/DFP) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By w:user:snickerdo (come from en.wikipedia) [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 4
Pavel evela [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 5
By w:user:snickerdo (come from en.wikipedia) [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 8
By Futase_tdkr (I took this picture.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9
By AutomaticDefence (Flickr: ELSA Winner II-A32 Vi/DFP) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons

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14b - VIDEO - Installing and Troubleshooting
Installing Video Cards check that onboard video setting is
Troubleshooting Video Cards disabled in the BIOS since it can conflict
Connections with the new video card
Power supplies
Onboard video setting in BIOS TROUBLESHOOTING: RESOLUTION
Resolution setting SETTINGS
Driver Distorted image or no image at all
DirectX Resolution may be set too high and is
Temperature of video card likely not supported by the monitor
Stuck or dead pixels
Monitor calibration TROUBLESHOOTING: DRIVERS
Internal Causes there to be no image, a
distorted image, or the resolution
INSTALLING VIDEO CARDS remains ridiculously low
Inserted into an expansion bus slot, like
other adapter cards, then screwed into TROUBLESHOOTING: DIRECTX
the chassis of the case to keep them in DirectX is a Windows technology that
place allows for better performance from
Ensure compatibility Video and Sound Windows Aero
PCIe have some special considerations requires DirectX
Some PCIe cards take two slots
TROUBLESHOOTING:
TROUBLESHOOTING: TEMPERATURE
CONNECTIONS High-end video cards are intensely
Nothing shows on the display used by gamers and designers and use
Ensure monitor is plugged into the may push it beyond its temperature
video card threshold
Verify monitor is connected to AC outlet
Verify monitor is powered on TROUBLESHOOTING: STUCK/DEAD
PIXELS
TROUBLESHOOTING: POWER First step should be power cycling, if
Flickering or Stuck Pixels this doesnt work Use software to check
Power cycle the computer, display, and and repair stuck or dead pixels
any power protection equipment:
A go-to solution TROUBLESHOOTING: CALIBRATION
Artifacts (image distortions), incorrect
TROUBLESHOOTING: ONBOARD colors, or degraded image
BIOS Try degaussing if it is a CRT
If you install video card to computer Adjust brightness, contrast, etc. on the
that used onboard video and the new monitor Use manufacturer utility to
card does not work (but the old one calibrate with colors
does)

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TROUBLESHOOTING: INTERNAL The most time consuming
Probably the last thing you do if the Not only the Graphics card, but the RAM
computer is having issues as well

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Wikimedia Commons
By w:user:snickerdo (come from en.wikipedia) [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

14c - VIDEO - Video Displays


Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Contrast Ratio LCD: CLEANING DISPLAYS
Cleaning Displays Be careful that liquid doesnt get
Light Emitting Diode Monitors (LED) between the bezel and the screen
Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Conservatively spray the cleaner on a
Plasma soft, clean, lint-free cloth
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Use isopropyl alcohol diluted with water
Projectors
LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES (LED)
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) Diodes are used in combination to
Consists of two sheets of polarizing display images
material surrounding a layer of liquid Not only used in monitors
crystal solution Calculators and Screens in Sports
Thin-film transistor (TFT) active-matrix Arenas, for instance
displays LED monitors are similar to LCD
they have three transistors for each monitors, except the LEDs provide the
pixel, which are contained within a light source
flexible material
store electrical state of each pixel, while ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODES
other pixels are updated (OLED)
In OLEDs, Organic colored molecules
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) are held in place between electrodes
Cold cathode fluorescent lights Like extremely tiny diodes
(CCFLs) used as backlight
Use low amounts of power and PLASMA
generate a small amount of heat More often found in televisions rather
Cause little in the way of interference than monitors
and emissions i.e. fluorescent lamps
Use small cells that contain electrically
LCD: CONTRAST RATIO charged ionized gases
Comparison of the brightest and LED-backlit LCD were released in
darkest colors (white and black) Higher response
the contrast ratio, the better

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CATHODE RAY TUBES (CRT)
An older type monitor that uses a PROJECTORS
vacuum tube display Plugged into a computers external
Three electron guns display colors red, video port and project the computers
green, and blue (triads) to a fluorescent video display to a projection screen
screen CRTs are measured is in dot more lumens=more powerful
pitch, the distance between two like An extremely bright bulb projects this
colors of adjacent triads image
Lower dot pitch means better CRTs
image quality because the triads are
closer together

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By AutomaticDefence (Flickr: ELSA Winner II-A32 Vi/DFP) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By w:user:snickerdo (come from en.wikipedia) [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 8
By Afrank99 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Loadmaster (David R. Tribble) This image was made by Loadmaster (David R. Tribble) Email the author: David R. Tribble Also
see my personal gallery at Google Picasa (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or
GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9
By meharris (English Wiki) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Jari Laamanen (Own work) [FAL], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 12-3
Daniel Christensen at en.wikipedia [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], from Wikimedia Commons
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(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

14d - VIDEO - Video Settings


Video Drivers as a go-between for the application and
Color Depth the device
Resolution
Aspect ratio COLOR DEPTH
Refresh Rate Used to describe the amount of bits
OSD that represent color
Degaussing 1-bit color is known as monochrome
Multiple Monitor (DualView) 8-bit color is used for VGA mode
16-bit usually enough for the average
VIDEO DRIVERS user with basic applications
Driver enable the OS to communicate
with the actual device RESOLUTION
simplifies the amount of work an Amount of pixels (picture elements) on
application needs to do because it acts a screen

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measured horizontally by vertically
(HxV) VIDEO SETTINGS
more pixels that can be used on the To modify, located in the Adapter tab
screen the more a user can display on on the Advanced Properties of the
the screen display information

ASPECT RATIO ON SCREEN DISPLAY (OSD)


An images width divided by its height Can help you configure picture quality
i.e. XGAs resolution is 1024768 so such as
the aspect ratio: 1.333 or four- to-three distortion, picture size, centering, and
ratio (4:3--full screen) contrast and brightness
Most current laptops and desktop LCD
screens have a widescreen format by DEGAUSS
default, either 16:9 or 16:10 Exists solely in CRT displays
Decreases an unwanted magnetic field
in the CRT
REFRESH RATE CRT has a metal plate near the front of
Amount of times a display is painted the monitor
per second specifically known as It picks up magnetic fields
vertical refresh rate
On a CRT: MULTIPLE MONITORS
painted in horizontal lines one at a time Allows you to either duplicate the
from top to bottom and when the entire display onto other monitors (mirroring),
display has been painted: one refresh or stretch the desktop across to multiple
By default: this is set to occur 60 times displays (extend)
per second, or 60 Hz Works well for applications that are
On an LCD: wide
Instead of painting, the liquid crystal
material is illuminated Flicker is not as
much of an issue on LCDs
Used to be 60-75Hz, but now can reach
120Hz
Gaming requires higher resolution rate

15a - AUDIO - Sound Overview


The Audio Subsystem AUDIO SUBSYSTEM
Sound Cards Sound card Expansion bus
1/8 (mini) jacks Audio ports
S/PDIF Format Internal and External Connectivity
TOSLINK ports Speakers
Installation Sound card drivers
Media players Third-party audio software

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SOUND CARDS Emits red lights from either end (this is
Responsible for generating sound from in place of standard copper)
the data sent to it by the OS or the CD
Drive INSTALLATION
Sound cards can be integrated into the If internal, card should be inserted into
motherboard, installed through PCI or PCIe slot
expansion bays, or connected through May have an HD Audio cable to
external (USB/IEE1394) ports connect the sound card to the Chassis
(to allow easy access in the front for
1/8 MINI JACKS headphones)
Most common connection for sound If replacing on-board sound, disable on-
cards board audio in the BIOS
Light blue - Line input May need to connect audio cable
Pink - Microphone input internally to CD drive Not necessary in
Lime green - Main Output Black - newer systems
Surround Sound Output Silver/Brown -
7.1 Output INSTALLATION
Orange - Center/Subwoofer Output Install manufacturer drivers if you have
a more advanced sound card you have
S/PDIF PORT installed yourself.
Sony/Phillips Digital Interconnect Connect the speakers according to
Format manufacturer instructions (and color
Also known as a digital optical coding)
Delivers high-quality digital sound over 5.1 or 7.1 are two common speaker
fiber optic cable technologies
It is the standard, and there are
different types of ports MEDIA PLAYERS
Some popular media players include
TOSLINK Windows Media Player (which is built in
Stands for Toshiba Link to Windows), iTunes, Winamp, and VLC
The input is usually black, and the Depending on how audio files are
output grey compressed (.mp3, .wav, .wma, etc.)
Short (no longer than 10m, usually it is you may need a specific media player to
5m) open it.

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Slide 8
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(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9
By Andreas -horn- Hornig, de:Benutzer:Sjr (Erstellt von mir, Andreas -horn- Hornig) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By User:Stannered (en:Image:7 1 channels surround sound.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

16a - PERIPHERALS - Input/Output Ports


I/O Ports Rare, but it may have been shipped
Universal Serial Bus (USB) disabled or accidentally disabled
Troubleshooting May require a firmware update
Firewire (IEEE 1394) If using USB 3.0 devices, make sure
Serial Ports using supported cable, port, software Is
Parallel Ports usually backwards compatible
PS/2 Huge difference in transfer speeds
Bluetooth IEEE 1394 / FIREWIRE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics
INPUT/OUTPUT PORTS Engineers (IEEE)
Input information by a keyboard, mouse, a nonprofit organization that creates
microphone, and other devices, such as standards for cables, connectors and
barcode scanners other electric technology Used for
Output of information to printers, devices that demand low-latency real
monitors, speakers, and other time data transfer
devices Music or video (cameras and video
editing)
USB Up to 63 devices can be powered by a
Used by a wide variety of devices, computer
including keyboards, mice, printers,
external hard drives, cameras, and so SERIAL PORT
on. The USB cord provides data USB and FireWire are both serial buses
transfer because of how data is transferred
and supplies power send data serially: one bit at a time
Speed of data transfer depends on the Original 9-pin serial ports are known as
version of the USB port: DE-9 connectors
USB 1.1 is 12 Mbps Known as COM ports
USB 2.0 is 480 Mbps
USB 3.0 is theoretically 5Gbps, but PARALLEL PORTS
closer acutally closer to 3.2Gbps Deliver more than bit of data at a time
USB 1.1 and 3 cables are limited to 3 Generally 8 at a time
meters 25-pin DB-25 port, also known as a
USB 2.0 cables have a maximum length printer port
of 5 meters
PS/2
TROUBLESHOOTING USB Used for connecting keyboards and
Verify that USB is enabled in the BIOS: mice to a desktop or laptop In PC 99
color scheme:

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PS/2 keyboard ports are purple Runs in same 2.4 GHz frequency as
PS/2 mouse ports are green IEEE 802.11b, g, and n networks
Most Bluetooth devices are Class 2,
BLUETOOTH with a range of 10m
Wireless option for peripherals
A short-range, low-speed wireless
network

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Commons
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By Andr Karwath aka Aka (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons

16b - PERIPHERALS - Important Devices


Keyboards and Mice If the mouse is jumping around the
KVM screen
Barcode Scanners
KVM SWITCH
KEYBOARDS AND MICE Keyboard, Video, Mouse switch
Devices like these are also called Allows you to control multiple
Human Interface Devices (HIDs) computers from one mouse, keyboard,
They are commonly separate on and monitor Switch between devices
desktop computers, but sometimes you using a key combination or button on
can purchase a combo Keyboard/Mouse the KVM switch Extremely useful in
If the mouse breaks, then the entire server rooms
thing (i.e. the keyboard) is faulty
BARCODE SCANNER
KEYBOARDS AND MICE Measures the reflections off the black
The keyboard may require cleaning if it and white lines on the barcode, and
has jammed keys translates this to a number
Driver You need to tell the computer/scanner
Surface what each code means my inputting
On laptops, is likely your wrist! them
Generally plugged in via USB

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IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
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By Andr Karwath aka Aka (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Thiemo Schuff (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0-de (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/de/deed.en)], via Wikimedia
Commons
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Slide 5
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Commons

17a - CUSTOM COMPUTING - Custom PC


Configurations
Audio/Video/Graphics TYPE 1 - NATIVE: VIRTUALIZATION
EditingWorkstation WORKSTATIONS
CAD/CAM Workstation The hypervisor runs directly on the host
Virtualization Workstation computers hardware Also known as
Type 1: Native bare metal
Type 2: Hosted
Thin and Thick Clients TYPE 2 - HOSTED: VIRTUALIZATION
Home Server PC WORKSTATIONS
Home Theater PC (HTPC) The hypervisor runs within (or on top
Gaming PC of) the operating system
Scan Line Interleave (SLI) Guest operating systems run within the
hypervisor
AUDIO/VIDEO/GRAPHICS EDITING Guests are one level removed from the
WORKSTATIONS hardware
Due to the requirements of multimedia
the computer VIRTUALIZATION WORKSTATIONS
Faster, Multi-core Processor Any computer designed to run a
Large amount of RAM hypervisor: Often has a powerful (and/or
multiple) CPUs Maximum RAM that can
CAD/CAM WORKSTATIONS fit in the system
Computer-aided design (CAD) and Extremely secure
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Used in engineering, architecture, THIN CLIENTS
drafting, etc. A computer that has few resources
compared to a typical PC
VIRTUALIZATION They have no hard drive or optical
WORKSTATIONS discs but do have a CPU, RAM, and
A computer that runs one ports for the display, keyboard, mouse,
or more virtual operating systems on a and network
physical system
Uses what is known as a hypervisor HOME SERVER PC
Allows multiple virtual OSs (guests) to A real server runs software such as
run at once on one physical computer Windows Server 2008

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Software is expensive and requires a lot Games are some of the most powerful
of know-how applications around

HOME THEATER PC (HTPC) SCAN LINE INTERLEAVE (SLI)


Can take the place of: When a computer has two (or more)
Blu-ray/DVD/CD Player identical video cards and they work
Various audio equipment together for greater performance and
higher resolution
GAMING PC
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By Tstojcev (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Qingqing Chen (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Qingqing Chen (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Mew905 (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

18a - PRINTERS - Printer Types and Technologies


Printer Overview Multifunction Printers PRINTER TYPES
(MFPs) Laser Inkjet Thermal Impact
Types of Printers
Laser LASER PRINTERS
Inkjet Produces high-quality text and graphics
Thermal on cut sheets of paper
Impact They used to mostly print in black but
Local Vs. Network Printers advances in technology and reduction in
costs have brought more color laser
PRINTERS printers to market
Possibly the second most popular
output device right behind video LASER PRINTER ADVANTAGES
displays Speed
Outputs hard copy versions of what is Print quality
on the computer screen
LASER PRINTER COMPONENTS
MULTIFUNCTION PRINTERS (MFPS) Toner
Printers that also act as, fax machines, Corona Wire
copiers, scanners Fusing assembly
The Laser

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LASER PRINTER IMAGING PROCESS Platen
Step One: Cleaning Spring
Step Two: Conditioning Circuit board

Step Three: Writing THERMAL PRINTING PROCESS


Step Four: Developing
Step Five: Transferring IMPACT PRINTERS
Step Six: Fusing Not seen as frequently as it was 20
years ago, but still used in some places:
INKJET PRINTERS Auto-repair, accounting departments,
Common in small offices, home offices, etc.
and for personal use
It works by propelling ink (a jet) from a IMPACT PRINTER PROCESS
cartridge Dot-matrix is the most common impact
printer
INKJET PRINT PROCESS
LOCAL VS. NETWORK PRINTERS
THERMAL PRINTERS
Produce text and images by heating NETWORK PRINTERS
specially coated thermal paper If the printer connects directly to the
Used in point-of-sale systems network it is usually by way of a built-in
RJ45 port on the printer
THERMAL PRINTER PARTS
Thermal head

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Slide 1,5:
By (User:Kevinin / de:Benutzer:Kevinin) (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By Somebody in the WWW at en.wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Combuchan. Combuchan at en.wikipedia (Own work) [CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia
Commons
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(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Welleman (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 10:
By K. Aainsqatsi at en.wikipedia (Original text : K. Aainsqatsi) [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
Slide 11:
DMahalko at en.wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], from Wikimedia Commons
Slide 13:
By K. Aainsqatsi at en.wikipedia (Original text : K. Aainsqatsi) [CC-BY-SA-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], from
Wikimedia Commons
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(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 20:

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(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via
Wikimedia Commons
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By Unsu27 jflacombe.com (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 24:
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Slide 25:
doit.ort.org/course/output/images/311.gif
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By ThinPrint AG (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-2.0-de (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/de/deed.en)], via Wikimedia
Commons

18b - PRINTERS - Printer Installation and


Configuration
Installing Printers CONNECTING THE PRINTER
Compatibility If youre connecting via USB or IEEE
Installing printer drivers 1394 you do not need to turn off the
Connecting the printer computer
Calibrating the printer If youre connecting via parallel, SCSI,
Testing the printer or serial port, you must shutdown your
Configuring Printers computer first
Connect the printer to an AC outlet
COMPATIBILITY after connecting to the computer Do not
The printer must be compatible with connect a laser printer to a UPS!!!
your OS and the version Check the
server and the clients for CALIBRATING THE PRINTER
compatibility Color laser, inkjet, and multifunction
Check the Windows compatibility lists printers need to be calibrated before use
to verify this This aligns the printing mechanism to
Check how the printer will connect to the paper and verifies color output
the network/computer Printer software usually guides a user
through this process Sometimes
PRINTER DRIVERS calibration tests can be done on the
Install the printer driver to Windows small printer display
before physically connecting printer
Download the latest driver from the TESTING THE PRINTER
manufacturer website First test the printer by printing a test
Verify it is correct for your OS and page: Double click the printer in the
version (32/64bit) Printers area
Use the Add Printer wizard, located Select Printer > Properties
in: Click the Print Test Page button on the
Devices and Printers (Windows 7) General tab The resulting page should
Printers (Vista) Printers and Faxes show:
(XP)

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operating system the local computer On the small display sometimes on a
runs printer
various other configuration and driver Within a printers web interface If its a
information network printer
often accessed through a web browser
CONFIGURING PRINTERS Usually on copiers/enterprise printers,
Three locations etc. Within Windows:
more common on laser printers Double-click printer icon
they are menu-driven and usually user- Access the Properties page of the
friendly and intuitive printer

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By (User:Kevinin / de:Benutzer:Kevinin) (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By Somebody in the WWW at en.wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
http://www.trs-80.com/images/hw-printer-dmp200x400.jpg
By Combuchan. Combuchan at en.wikipedia (Own work) [CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia
Commons

18c - PRINTERS - Printer Management and


Troubleshooting
Print Jobs Jobs listed here can be paused,
Printer Priority restarted, or stopped completely if not
Print Spooling printing properly
Printer Pooling
Sharing Printers PRINTER PRIORITY
Printer Permissions Can be configured within the Advanced
Separator Pages tab of printer Properties page
Troubleshooting Printers The priority of a printer can be
configured from 1 to 99 (99 is the
PRINTER MANAGEMENT highest)
To manage a printer or individual print Useful when sharing printers out to give
job double-click the printer the job was certain users first access
sent to
If the print job is listed, the job went to PRINT SPOOLING
the printer properly Three possible options when a job goes
It will either say Printing under the to print:
Status column or it will not be listed (its Print directly to the printer:
already been sent to the printer) Start printing immediately:
Other messages include the job being Start printing after last page is spooled:
spooled, queued, stopped, or failed

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SHARING PRINTERS SEPARATOR PAGES
A networked printer must be shared for Help users find the start and end points
other users to send jobs to it of their print job
Turn on File and Printer Sharing from
Advanced Adapter Settings in Network PRINTER TROUBLESHOOTING
Sharing Center (Vista/7) or in Network When working with printers try to keep
Connections (XP) them clean
First, printer sharing in general must be Use printer maintenance kits provided
enabled by manufacturer for printer type, which
Second, share the printer from the include:
Sharing tab in the Printers properties Fusers, Rollers, Separation pads,
Instructions
PRINTER PERMISSIONS When you finish installing a
Set from the Security tab of the printers maintenance kit always reset the
Properties window maintenance/print count
Users and groups can be added in this Have a vacuum available (for toner
window spill) and a can of compressed air
appropriate permission can be assigned
for: Print, Manage Printers, and Manage
Documents

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Slide 1:
By (User:Kevinin / de:Benutzer:Kevinin) (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via
Wikimedia Commons
By Somebody in the WWW at en.wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
http://www.trs-80.com/images/hw-printer-dmp200x400.jpg
By Combuchan. Combuchan at en.wikipedia (Own work) [CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia
Commons

19a - NETWORKING - Network Types and Topologies


Networking Overview NETWORKING OVERVIEW
Network Types A computer network consists of two or
Local Area Network (LAN) more computers that communicate to
Wide Area Network (WAN) share files, access databases,
Metropolitan/Municipal Area Network collaborate on projects, connect to the
(MAN) Internet, send e-mail, etc.
Personal Area Network (PAN)
Network Topologies NETWORK TYPES
Star Computer networks might inhabit a
Bus room, or encompass a city, or connect
Ring computers across the globe
Mesh Local Area Network (LAN)
Hybrid Wide Area Network (WAN)

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Metropolitan/Municipal Area Network NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
(MAN) BUS TOPOLOGY
Personal Area Network (PAN) Very rare in todays networks
All computers are connected to a
LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) backbone cable If the cable breaks, the
A group of computers and other network goes down
devices that are usually located in a
small area: RING TOPOLOGY
They all connect to each other through Also uncommon nowadays
one or more switches No central connecting device
A router allows the computers access You must bring the whole network down
to the Internet before computers could be added
Not covered on A+
WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN)
A group of one or more LANs over a STAR TOPOLOGY
large geographic area Quickly did away with 90% of the bus
This would (generally) require the help and ring topologies worldwide
of a telecommunications company to By far, the most common physical
create a high-speed connection for two topology
(or more) LANs to communicate quickly
MESH TOPOLOGY
MAN & PAN Every device connects to every other
Metropolitan area network (MAN) or device
Municipal area network (MAN) Could be a lot of connections
Personal Area Network (PAN) Rare because of cost of implementation
Smaller computer network used for
communication between small HYBRID TOPOLOGY
computing devices Combines some characteristics of two
or more different topologies

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Michiel1972 from nl [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons
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By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

19b - NETWORKING - Network Devices


Network Devices Wireless Access Point (WAP)
Hub SoHo WAP/Router
Switch Bridge
Router

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Network Attached Storage (NAS) SOHO WAP/ROUTER
Modem SoHo WAPs have a router, firewall,
Internet Appliance DHCP server, and more built-in
Firewall This is an important distinction for the
VoIP Phones A+ exam!

NETWORK DEVICES BRIDGE


Allow communication between A device that can either connect two
computers (nodes) over media LANs together or separate them into two
They allow connectivity between sections
networks
They provide security and protection NETWORK ATTACHED STORAGE
(NAS)
HUB A device that contains multiple hard
Original connecting device for drives (often hot-swappable) and
computers on the LAN connects these HDDs directly to the
A basic device that has only one trunk network
circuit to which multiple ports connect Data can be stored to and retrieved
from these devices
SWITCH
Similar to a hub, it is a central MODEM
connecting device that all computers Provides Internet and WAN connectivity
connect to A combination of the words modulate
It regenerates the signal, but a switch and demodulate
takes the signal (frames of data) and Changes digital signals of computer to
sends it to the receiving node instead of analog signals used by a typical land-
broadcasting it based phone line, and vice-versa

ROUTER INTERNET APPLIANCE


Used to connect two or more networks This refers to any device that enables
together to form an internetwork, easy connectivity to Internet, but doesnt
allowing data to leave and return to its do much else
local network
FIREWALL
WIRELESS ACCESS POINT (WAP) A hardware appliance or software
Enables data communications over the application that protects from unwanted
air so long as the computer (node) is intrusion

equipped with a wireless networking VOIP PHONES


adapter Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a
Transmits their data over radio waves collection of technologies, devices, and
on 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequencies Brings protocols that allow voice
mobility to new level communication over IP-based networks

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IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Michiel1972 from nl [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 5:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6:
Lansal at the English language Wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 7:
By Celineyy (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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Macic7 at en.wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons
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By PJ (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Wilton Ramon de Carvalho Machado (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 13:
By Harald Mhlbck [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 14:
By Towel401 (w:File:Cisco7960G.jpeg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

19c - NETWORKING - Cables, Connectors, and


Cabling Tools
Cable Types and Connectors UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (UTP)
Twisted Pair Most commonly used Twisted Pair
Coaxial Can be run only 100 meters (328 feet) before
Fiber Optic signal attenuation
Cabling Tools
Cable cutter SHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (STP)
Wire stripper UTP is susceptible to electromagnetic
Crimper interference (EMI), so STP was developed
Punch down tool
Continuity testers TWISTED PAIR CONNECTOR
Patch tester The RJ45 connector connects to each end of
Toner Probe the cable
Loopback plug These connect to RJ45 sockets in network
Time-domain Reflectometer (TDR) adapters and switches

CABLES AND CONNECTORS CABLES AND CONNECTORS


Cables provide huge amounts of data transfer Wired according to 568B on each end makes a
over todays networks straight through cable

TWISTED PAIR COAXIAL


The most common type of cable used in todays Has a single conductor surrounded by
networks insulating material
Copper wires inside of the cable are twisted
together into pairs throughout the entire length
of the cable

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FIBER OPTIC Punches individual wires into 66/110 punch-
Transmits data by way of light instead of down blocks
electricity
Should not bend more than 90 degrees in CONTINUITY TESTER
normal use It will have a LAN testing unit that plugs into a
Sends signals much faster and further than port on the patch panel and a terminator that
copper wires plugs into other end of cable in corresponding
RJ45 jack
SINGLE MODE VS. MULTIMODE
Single-mode fiber is a single ray of light PATCH TESTER
Can support over 10Gbps and can be run It has two RJ45 jacks to which you plug each
thousands of kms end of patch cable
Multi-mode fiber is used over shorter distances
(600m limit), but provides higher bandwidth TONER PROBE
A tone device connects to one end of the
FIBER OPTIC CONNECTORS network cable
When turned on, it sends a tone along the
CABLE CUTTER length of the cable
A good, sharp cutting tool, not scissors that
makes a clean cut on the end of the network
cable
LOOPBACK PLUG
WIRE STRIPPER Connects directly to RJ45 port of PCs network
Used to strip a portion of the plastic jacket off adapter and simulates being connected to a
the cable to expose the individual wires network

CRIMPER TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER (TDR)


How you attach plugs to cable ends Locates faults in a cable or discontinuities in a
connector by transmitting a short pulse across
PUNCH DOWN TOOL cable

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Michiel1972 from nl [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons
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via Wikimedia Commons
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By Lp at it.wikipedia (Transferred from it.wikipedia) [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9:
By FDominec (My photo) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
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(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
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(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons

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By Adamantios (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Adamantios (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Kgrr at en.wikipedia [CC-BY-SA-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], from Wikimedia Commons
Slide 18:
By Adamantios (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 19:
http://community.spiceworks.com/images/how_to_steps/0000/5327/cabletest.jpg -- Spiceworks, Inc 2013

Slide 20:
By Adamantios (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
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Slide 22:
By Electron (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)],
via Wikimedia Commons

19d - NETWORKING - IP Addressing and


Configuration
MAC Address
TCP/IP Overview MAC ADDRESS
IP Address Also called the Physical Address
IPv4 Every device/adapter on the network has one
Classes
Private vs. Public TCP/IP OVERVIEW
Subnet Mask Stands for Transmission Control
Gateway Address Protocol/Internet Protocol
DNS
Hosts File IP ADDRESS
IPv6 The unique assigned number of your computer
Truncation Rules on the network
Dynamic vs. Static
APIPA IPV4
Localhost Consists of four octets (separated by dots) and
Windows Configuration each octets value can be between 0 and 255

IPV4 CLASSES
Class Range of 1st Octet # of Networks # of Addresses per Network
A 0-127 128 16,777,216
B 128-191 16,384 65,536
C 192-223 2,097152 256

IPV4 PRIVATE ADDRESSES SUBNET MASK


These addresses are not displayed directly to Divides a network into two or more networks
Internet (and are not forwarded by Routers)
GATEWAY ADDRESS

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The IP address of a host that enables access to If the node cannot find a DHCP server, it self-
Internet or other networks assigns itself an IP Address

DNS SERVER LOCALHOST


DNS stands for Domain Name System The IPv4 Address 127.0.0.1 is also called the
Translates between IP Address and Domain Localhost
Name
TCP/IP CONFIGURATION (WINDOWS
HOSTS FILE 7/VISTA)
Similar to DNS, but is a file located on your Start > Control Panel > Network and Internet >
computer Network and Sharing Center

IPV6 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION (WINDOWS XP)


Designed to meet the inadequacies of IPv4 Start > Control Panel > Network and Internet
Connections
IPV6 TRUNCATION
DYNAMIC VS. STATIC TCP/IP CONFIGURATION
Dynamic address is automatically assigned Note a check box labeled Validate Settings
Static must be manually assigned by an admin Upon Exit:
If IP Properties dialog box is set to Obtain an IP
APIPA address automatically you will see the Alternate
Known as Automatic Private IP Addressing Configuration tab which allows you to have a
(APIPA) secondary IP configuration
IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:

Slide 1:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Michiel1972 from nl [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons

19e - NETWORKING - TCP/IP Ports and Protocols


Ports Every packet that is sent is checked for delivery
POP3 TCP IMAP
UDP HTTPS UDP
Protocols User Datagram Protocol
RDP FTP Known as connectionless sessions
Additional Protocols If a packet is dropped it is not asked for again
SSH DHCP
TELNET SNMP FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP)
SMTP SMB Allows computers to transfer files back and
DNS LDAP HTTP forth
When you connect to a FTP server
TCP/IP PORTS
In this sense, a port is the logical endpoint of a SECURE SHELL (SSH)
connection Enables data to be exchanged between
The IP Address defines the computer/node, but computers on a secured channel
the port defines what to do with that information
once it reaches the IP Address TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK (TELNET)
Stands for Telecommunication network
TCP Provides remote access to other hosts within the
Transmission Control Protocol Command Line
Known as connection-oriented sessions

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SIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL Includes a Transport Layer Security (TLS)
(SMTP) protocol
Sends e-mail
Remember this with Send Mail to People REMOTE DESKTOP PROTOCOL (RDP)
Commonly uses TCP 25, but this must be the Facilitates connections to remote computers
local server and allows full remote control
Administrators are given full access to a
DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DNS) computer
Used to translate domain names to IP
addresses A+ EXAM PORTS CHART

HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP) DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION


Transfers web-based material from a web PROTOCOL (DHCP)
server to your web browser Used to automatically assign IP address
information to hosts
POST OFFICE PROTOCOL V.3 (POP3)
Used by e-mail clients to retrieve incoming e- SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT
mail from a mail server PROTOCOL (SNMP)
Downloads the Mail to your client Used as a standard for managing and
monitoring devices on your network
INTERNET MESSAGE ACCESS PROTOCOL
(IMAP) SERVER MESSAGE BLOCKS (SMB)
An e-mail protocol that enables messages to Provide access to shared items on network
remain on the e-mail server: computers, such as files and printers
They can be retrieved from any location and Also provides a degree of authentication
organized into folders When read on your
Smartphone shows as read on your Computer LIGHTWEIGHT DIRECTORY ACCESS
PROTOCOL (LDAP)
HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL Used to access and maintain distributed
SECURE (HTTPS) directories of information like those used in
Sends and receives information like HTTP, but Microsoft Domains
is more secure

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Michiel1972 from nl [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons

19f - NETWORKING - Internet Services


ISP INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER (ISP)
Dial-Up An organization or company that
ISDN provides access to the Internet through
DSL a number of different media and
Cable communication types.
Internet
Fiber Optic DIAL-UP
Satellite Still used by millions where it is the only
WiMAX Internet connectivity available
Cellular

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It is inexpensive, but has very slow data SOHO router enabling sharing among
throughput and dropped connections multiple computers
Uses POTS (Plain Old Telephone
Service) or PSTN (Public Switched DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL)
Telephone Network) ADSL (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber
Connect via a Modem (RJ-11) and Line) can run on your home telephone
must have software that supports the line, but is not as fast as cable
modem (built-into OSs these days) SDSL (Symmetrical Digital Subscriber
Line) is installed as a separate line
INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL It more expensive but data transfer
NETWORK (ISDN) rates can be purchased at 384 K, 768 K,
Digital technology developed to combat 1.1 M, 1.5 M
the limitations of PSTN
Can send data, talk on the phone, fax, CABLE INTERNET
all from one line Broadband Cable is used for cable
Not used as often as cable Internet or Internet and cable TV
fiber-optic services, but some Offers higher speeds than DSL, usually
companies still use ISDN as a fault- an average of 5 Mbps to 15 Mbps
tolerant secondary Internet access Coaxial, copper cabling.
connection Shares some of the bandwidth with your
Two types of services neighbors, however, so the more users
BRI: Basic Rate ISDN the slower it becomes
PRI: Primary Rate ISDN Runs at much higher data transfer rates
than copper-based cables
DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL) ex. Verizon FIOS
Builds on dial-up by providing full digital Not as widespread as DSL and standard
data transmissions over phone lines at cable, due to necessary upgrades being
high speeds made in infrastructure
DSL modems connect to a phone line
and to the PCs network adapter or a
IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Michiel1972 from nl [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 4:
By Wilton Ramon de Carvalho Machado (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 5:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/T-ISDN_NTBA.jpg
Slide 6-7:
By Feureau (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 8:
By Sensibilitt Sensibilit (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9:
By Dodd m at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
Slide 11:
By Stalinas (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 12:
By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

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19g - NETWORKING - Network Setup and
Configuration
SOHO Routers QoS Duplex setting Domains Locations
802.11 Wireless WPS Network Sharing Resources
Port forwarding Network Card Configurations Mapping Drives
Port triggering Properties WOL PoE VPNs
NAT Status Lights Workgroups
DMZ Bandwidth Latency Homegroups

SOHO ROUTER Also referred to as a Network Interface Card


Most are plug-and-play NETWORK STATUS INDICATORS
Built-in DHCP server a connectivity LED
an activity LED
SOHO ROUTER
Dont use the default settings, very insecure DUPLEX SETTINGS
Half-duplex: send or receive data but not both
802.11 WIRELESS Full-duplex: do both simultaneously
Known as Wi-Fi or wireless LAN (WLAN)
WAKE-ON LAN (WOL)
WIRELESS ENCRYPTION Used so a computer can be woken up by a
Can secure a wireless network with one of remote computer over the network
several encryption standards: WEP, WPA,
WPA2 POWER OVER ETHERNET (POE)
Allows a device to be supplied power by the
PORT FORWARDING Ethernet networking connection
Forwards an external network port (from the
public network) to internal IP address and port WORKGROUPS
Sometimes also referred to as peer-to-peer
PORT TRIGGERING networking
Enables you to specify outgoing ports your
computer uses for special applications HOMEGROUPS
Introduced with Windows 7, and automatically
NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (NAT) created
The process of modifying IP addresses as
information crosses a router DOMAINS
One or more computers are in control of the
DEMILITARIZED ZONE (DMZ) network, called Domain Controllers
An area that is not quite on the Internet and not
quite part of your LAN LOCATIONS
Allow you to have different network
QUALITY OF SERVICE (QOS) configurations and security settings for different
Attempts to prioritize streaming media, such as locations
VoIP phone calls and audio or video playback
NETWORK SHARING
WI-FI PROTECTED SETUP (WPS) Sharing needs to be turned on in the Network
A standard used by router manufacturers to and Sharing Center
make wireless connecting easier
DRIVE MAPPING
SOHO ROUTER PLACEMENT Allows you to map a network drive, and treat it
Keep away from any electrical sources like a local drive
Place in the physical center of an office or home VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)
Creates a Virtual Private Network over a
NETWORK ADAPTER public network

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IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Michiel1972 from nl [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 3:
By Encryptedruler (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 11:
By Dmccreary (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 16:
By Spc01 at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

19h - NETWORKING - Troubleshooting Networks


Command-Line Tools TROUBLESHOOTING WITH IPCONFIG
Ipconfig You can tell if the computer is successfully
Ping receiving an IP address from a DHCP server or
Tracert if its being assigned an APIPA
Netstat
NBTSTAT PING
Nslookup Tests whether another host is available over the
Net network to see if the other host is live
Troubleshooting Common Symptoms
No connectivity PING SWITCHES
Limited and intermittent connectivity ping t: pings until the command is stopped
Slow transfer speeds ping n: pings specific amount of times
Low RF signal ping l: specify amount of bytes per packet
IP conflict sent
APIPA address

COMMAND LINE TOOLS TROUBLESHOOTING WITH PING


Extremely useful in network troubleshoot Use ping to test whether a computer has
situations TCP/IP installed properly

IPCONFIG TRACERT
Internet protocol configuration Short for traceroute,
It is the first tool to use when troubleshooting way between you and final destination
network connectivity It builds on ping by sending packets to
destinations beyond the local computers
IPCONFIG /ALL network and tracking the route
Shows more information including:
DNS server address MAC address: Gateway NETSTAT
Address The current network statistics
Shows open sessions to the local computer
IPCONFIG /???
ipconfig /release releases the current IP NBTSTAT
Address Displays network protocol statistics that use
ipconfig /renew renews the current IP Address NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections
ipconfig /flushdns erases and re- propogates
the DNS Settings NSLOOKUP
Name Server Lookup
Queries DNS servers to discover DNS details

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NET
A collection of commands LOW RF SIGNAL
First check the distance of the computer from
NO CONNECTIVITY the WAP
Verify physical cables first,
Make sure the network adapter is enabled IP CONFLICTS
Conflict message will pop up on displays of
NO CONNECTIVITY both computers if they are using the same IP
Try rebooting the computer Address

LIMITED/INTERMITTENT CONNECTIVITY
Ping the localhost to see if TCP/IP is
functioning Ping the router or another system APIPA ADDRESS
on the network If a computer shows APIPA address when you
type ipconfig/all the computer is failing to obtain
SLOW TRANSFER SPEEDS an IP address from a DHCP server
Likely related to the type of Internet connection,
network congestion, or faulty/old equipment

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Geek2003 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By NetworkTopologies.png: Maksim derivative work: Malyszkz (NetworkTopologies.png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Michiel1972 from nl [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)],
via Wikimedia Commons

20a - SECURITY - Malware


Malware VIRUS
Viruses A program that can self-replicate and
Worms spread
Trojan horses
Logic Bomb WORM
Rootkits specifically exploits a weakness in the
Spyware OS
Adware
Prevention TROJAN HORSE
AV Software Takes its name from the trojan horse
Windows Updates of Greek mythology
Browser Settings
Firewall LOGIC BOMB
AutoRun A piece of code that sits dormant until
Education specific conditions are met
Troubleshooting/Removal
ROOT KITS
MALWARE Hides its existence from normal
software designed to infiltrate a methods of detection by utilizing root
computer system access

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SPYWARE AUTORUN
Spies on a user or organization, infected applications on the media may
gathering private information about them automatically start and infect the system

ADWARE EDUCATION
Advertising Supported Software The most valuable and important
preventative measure is to educate
ANTI-VIRUS SOFTWARE users as to how viruses can infect a
Prevents infection from a wide variety system
of malware
TROUBLESHOOTING
WINDOWS UPDATES Disconnect the network cable
The system needs to be up-to-date with Move the affected drive to a clean
the latest service packs and updates, machine
otherwise susceptible to attacks by
worms, etc. MANUAL TROUBLESHOOTING
If the above steps do not work, you
BROWSER SETTINGS may need to manually remove the virus:
Consider reverting computer to older
FIREWALL restore point (given that you know when
This will close all the inbound ports infection occured)

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
ArnoldReinhold at the English language Wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

20b - SECURITY - Unauthorized Access


Authentication Biometrics Shoulder Surfing
Lock and Key Physical Security Piggybacking/Tailgating
Cipher Lock ManTrap Hard Drive Disposal
Cardkey Social Engineering Clearing
Smart Cards Spam Purging
Token Phishing Destruction

AUTHENTICATION LOCK AND KEY


Something the user knows Record who has the keys to what
Something the user has rooms
Something the user is
Something the user does* CIPHER LOCK
Uses a punch code to unlock the door
or the PC/Laptop

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CARDKEY SPAM
Each key contains a unique identifier, unsolicited bulk email
so security can log key usage
PHISHING
SMART CARDS Attempting to fraudulently obtaining
Cards that have a small nano- private information
processor built-in, and so they can
communicate with an authentication SHOULDER SURFING
system The use of direct observation

TOKEN PIGGYBACKING/TAILGATING
A small device that displays a code that an unauthorized person tagging along
changes after a certain time
HARD DRIVE DISPOSAL
BIOMETRICS
uses something you ARE category of HARD DRIVE REMOVAL: CLEARING
authentication The removal of data that, then, cannot
be reconstructed
PHYSICAL SECURITY
Passwords should never be written HARD DRIVE REMOVAL: PURGING
down Also known as sanitizing
Completely destroys all data on the
MANTRAP media
a double-door system by which only
one person is allowed access at a time. HARD DRIVE REMOVAL:
DESTRUCTION
SOCIAL ENGINEERING The storage media is physically
manipulating users into revealing destroyed through pulverizing
confidential information

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
ArnoldReinhold at the English language Wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 4:
By ( Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 5:
By User:Mattes Restored by ZooFari (Original)[see page for license], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 6:
By MKFI (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 7-8:
ArnoldReinhold at the English language Wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 9:
I, Avenafatua [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-
BY-SA-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 12:
Kandschwar at the German language Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.0-de (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/2.0/de/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 15:
By freezelight [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 16:

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By Stomchak (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Fairycherry (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 22:
By Eyakovlev (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

20c - SECURITY - User Security


User Security Account Lockout User Account Control
Account Types Passwords (UAC)
Administrator Complexity Least Privilege
Standard User account History Settings
Power User Age
Guest account Length

USER SECURITY Can require complexity by users in


Usernames and passwords are the Local Security Policy
most common
PASSWORD HISTORY
ADMINISTRATOR ACCOUNT When defined users cannot use
A type of user that has full (or near full) passwords they have previously used
control of an operating system PASSWORD AGE
Defines exactly how long a password
STANDARD USER ACCOUNT can be used
Normal account for a person on a Minimum must be higher than 0
network They will be prompted to change
Can access their own data, but nobody password when reach the maximum age
else
PASSWORD LENGTH
POWER USER ACCOUNT Defines the number of characters,
Between administrator and a standard minimum, that must be in the password
user
Ability to do some administrative tasks, USER ACCOUNT CONTROL (UAC)
A security component of Windows
GUEST ACCOUNT 7/Vista that keeps every user in
An extremely limited account standard user mode instead of
administrator
ACCOUNT LOCKOUT
If a user attempts to log on to a system LEAST PRIVILEGE
and is unsuccessful, they will be locked UAC is based on the principle of least
out after a number of attempts privilege

PASSWORD COMPLEXITY UAC SETTINGS


Password with at least 8 characters In User Accounts of Control Panel
At least1 uppercase letter, 1 number, click the Change User Account Control
and 1 special character settings link

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UAC SETTINGS Notify Me Only When Programs Try to
Windows 7 displays a slider that Make Changes to My Computer (Do Not
enables four different settings Dim My Desktop)
Always Notify Never Notify
Notify Me Only When Programs Try to
Make Changes to My Computer
(Default)

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
ArnoldReinhold at the English language Wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

20d - SECURITY - File Security


File Security NTFS permissions Encryption
Attributes Permission Inheritance Encrypting File System
Hidden Files/Folders Moving and Copying (EFS)
Administrative Shares BitLocker Encryption
Permissions Trusted Platform Module
Share permissions (TPM)

FILE SECURITY HIDDEN FILES/FOLDERS


Files can be assigned different System files and folders are hidden by
attributes in Windows the OS to protect the system
To access these, right-click any file and
select Properties ADMINISTRATIVE SHARES
Folders and Files shared out, but
ATTRIBUTES hidden
Read-Only
No one can save modifications to the SHARE PERMISSIONS
file Accessed from the Sharing tab
Hidden check By default: Everyone group has read-
Makes file invisible to all users except only access
user who created file
Admins can unhide files individually or NTFS PERMISSIONS
for entire system Accessed from the Security tab
Compression:
Allows you to convert file to a smaller Six default levels of permissions from
size Read and Write to Full Control NTFS
Encryption: permissions take precedence over
Scrambles file content so only user who share permissions Allow/Deny access to
created file can read it Users or Groups

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PERMISSION INHERITANCE ENCRYPTION
If you create a folder the default action The process of converting information
is to inherit permissions from the parent making it unreadable by other users with
folder use of a cipher (algorithm)
Any permissions set in the parent will
be inherited by the subfolder ENCRYPTING FILE SYSTEM (EFS)
automatically When you want to encrypt one or more
files or folders, windows uses the
MOVING AND COPYING Encrypting File System (EFS), a
If you copy a folder on the same or to a component of NTFS
different volume, the folder inherits
permissions of parent folder it was BITLOCKER ENCRYPTION
copied to If you move a folder to a Can be used to encrypt the entire disk
different location on the same volume, Based on the Advanced Encryption
the folder retains its original permissions Standard (AES)

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
ArnoldReinhold at the English language Wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 15:
By FxJ (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

20e - SECURITY - Router Security


Default Admin Password WPA is stronger WPA2 is the
Disabling SSID Broadcast strongest
Wireless Encryption Some older devices wont support
MAC Filtering WPA2
Disabling WPS Try upgrading firmware
DHCP Range
MAC FILTERING
CHANGE DEFAULT PASSWORD Filters out which computers can access
Most routers come with a blank the network by MAC (Physical) address
password to access administrative Manually enter these into the SoHo
settings router
Change this to a complex password If not on the list, no access to the
network
DISABLE SSID BROADCAST
Hides the doorway into the WiFi DISABLE WPS
network Wi-Fi Protected Setup is intended to
Can still be discovered, but not with make connecting to wireless access
normal software point easier for user
Susceptible to a brute force attack
WIRELESS ENCRYPTION Trying combinations of letters, numbers,
WEP is the weakest type of encryption and symbols

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DHCP RANGE Wont hand out one of your static IPs
Set the range of IP addresses the
SOHO router hands out

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ArnoldReinhold at the English language Wikipedia [GFDL (www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

21a - MOBILE DEVICES - Hardware and Operating


Systems
Mobile Hardware IOS
Mobile OS A closed-source, unix-based
Android
iOS INSTALLING APPS
Installing Apps installed directly from the mobile
Screen Configuration device
Accelerometer Android Market or App Store
Gyroscope
Calibration SCREEN CONFIGURATION
Resetting display rotates automatically

MOBILE DEVICES ACCELEROMETER & GYROSCOPE


Computers that are smaller and lighter The Accelerometer detects rotation and
than laptops (ultra-mobile) shaking of the device (X, Y, Z Axis)
Has the same basic components, but The Gyroscope (added to newer
different types devices) adds pitch, roll, and yaw
Enables automatic adjustment from
MOBILE HARDWARE portrait to landscape
ARM-based processors Especially useful for gaming
Nonvolatile flash memory hard-wired to
the system CALIBRATION
On-screen keyboard Android devices have a screen
No Mouse (multi-touch) calibration utility: G-Sensor calibration
found in Settings > Display
MOBILE OSS Ensures the three axes (X,Y,Z) are
Open-source calibrated properly Only available on
effectively free to download and modify Android devices
Closed-source
cannot be modified without permission RESETTING
A soft reset is powering the device off
ANDROID and then powering it back on again
An open-source, linux-based

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In both types of phones, press and hold RESETTING
the power button until prompted to shut A hard reset returns the device to its
down the phone. factory state, removing all data and
applications.

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By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Petar Miloevi (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 13:
By SatyrTN at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
Slide 15:
By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Petar Miloevi (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

21b - MOBILE DEVICES - Connectivity and Networking


Global Positioning System (GPS) GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
Cellular Connectivity (GPS)
Wi-Fi Network To enable/disable GPS on an Android-
Tethering based device
Bluetooth Settings > Location > Use GPS
satellites
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM To enable/disable GPS on an Apple
(GPS) device
Worldwide system of satellites that Settings > Privacy > Location Services
provide location information to apps and
service providers CELLULAR CONNECTIVITY
i.e. Turn-by-turn directions and Global System for Mobile
restaurant search apps Communications (GSM) allows voice
i.e. Geotracking - tracking and calls
recording the location of a mobile device EDGE, 3G, 4G, LTE, and so on are
over time used for cellular data
Can also use crowd-sourced Wi-Fi Every device is required to have an
locations to determine location airplane mode that turns off any
wireless antenna in the device (GSM,
Wi-Fi, GPS, and Bluetooth)

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Android: Settings > Wireless & Cell service must support this service
Networks > Airplane Mode (and it may cost the user more money)
iOS: Settings > Airplane Mode
BLUETOOTH
WIFI NETWORK Wireless standard for transmitting data
Similar to PCs, mobile devices can over short distances
connect to WiFi /WLAN (802.11a, b, g, Commonly implemented in headset or
n) printer connection Used to create PAN
Sometimes faster and cheaper data (personal area network)
than cellular Takes up battery power, so it should be
Android: Settings > Wireless & disabled if not used
Networks > Wi-Fi Settings To connect a Bluetooth device to a
iOS: Settings > Wi-Fi mobile device:
Bluetooth first needs to be enabled on
TETHERING both devices
The mobile device shares its cellular Set one device to discovery mode, and
connection with other Wi-Fi capable the other to search for devices Bluetooth
devices device needs to be paired or linked,
i.e. A portable hotspot sometimes using a pin code

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Google [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Slide 3:
By Nachoman-au (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

21c - MOBILE DEVICES - Email and Synchronization


E-Mail Configurations PUSH VS. FETCH
Synchronization Push automatically pushed new
USB emails to your device whenever they
Wi-Fi arrive
This takes more battery & data usage,
EMAIL CONFIGURATION and isnt always available
Can connect to web-based email using Fetch quieries the server for new email
a mobile browser or through a mail on a set time frame (i.e. every 15
client app (built-in or downloaded) minutes)
Similar to desktop configuration using Not as up-to-date
IMAP, POP3, or Exchange
Setup is automated for you based on TROUBLESHOOTING EMAIL
service! Best place to start is your email
Sometimes may require manual setup providers help desk or knowledgebase

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Double Check all settings (including Internet Connection shares cell network
ports) Internet pass-through shares computers
Ensure there arent special setup network
requirements
Double check passwords (small IOS USB SYNCHRONIZATION
keyboards = more mistakes) May or may not be able to charge iOS
Make sure you have Connectivity! device connected to Computer USB port
Latest version of iOS, once you sync
SYNCHRONIZATION through USB once, you can sync
wirelessly via your WiFi network in the
Matching up of files, e-mail, and other future
types of data between devices Synchronize using iTunes
For synchronization, a mobile device Use iTunes to determine what to sync
can connect via USB, Wi- Fi, and
Bluetooth WIRELESS SYNCHRONIZATION
Wi-Fi is the current gold- standard Services, such as google, dropbox, etc.
allow for synchronization through the
ANDROID USB SYNCHRONIZATION Internet
If you connect an Android-based mobile iOS iCloud also allows for
device to a PC via USB You can synchronization through the internet
charge only In a perfect world, you should only plug
Synchronize with your desktop using in your device to charge it!
appropriate software (i.e. HTC Sync)
Use your device as a disk drive

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Google [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

21d - MOBILE DEVICES - Security


Screenlocking SCREENLOCKING
Remote Wipe Code/Password must be entered to
Software Update access device
Stopping Applications Pattern that is drawn on the display
PIN (passcode)
MOBILE DEVICE SECURITY Password
Mobile devices are a HUGE security
risk SCREENLOCKING
Always on your person, but smaller and Android: Settings > Security
easier to steal iOS: Settings > General > Passcode
Access to email = access to your digital Lock
LIFE Set how quickly to lock device and
when it asks for the passcode
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May want to set device to automatically On later versions, can be done without
erase data after a certain number of plugging in
unsuccessful attempts iOS: Settings > General > Software
REMOTE WIPE Update
Find my iPhone on iOS allows you to
locate and remotely wipe a lost device. STOPPING APPLICATIONS
Must install a 3rd Party app to Android: Settings > Applications >
accomplish this on Android Running Services
Larger organizations may use an MDM Select services to close
(mobile device management) system May also download a 3rd-party app
iOS: Double click home button > hold
SOFTWARE UPDATE down finger on any app > press - that
Android: Settings > About Device > appears in upper left corner
Software Update

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 1:
By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Google [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Zach Vega (Own work) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

22a - TECHNICIAN PROFESSIONALISM -


Troubleshooting Process
Six-Step A+ Troubleshooting Process:
Step 1: Identify the problem STEP THREE: TEST THE THEORY
Step 2: Establish a theory Make sure your theory holds water
Step 3: Test the theory i.e. Look, the computer isnt plugged
Step 4: Establish and implement a plan in! or The computer is plugged in, so
of action my theory is incorrect
Step 5: Verify full system functionality
Step 6: Document findings, actions, and STEP FOUR: ESTABLISH AND
outcomes IMPLEMENT A PLAN OF ACTION
Fix the problem!
STEP ONE: IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM i.e. Im plugging in the computer
What exactly is going on?
i.e. My computer will not turn on STEP FIVE: VERIFY FULL SYSTEM
FUNCTIONALITY
STEP TWO: ESTABLISH A THEORY Turn on the computer and test that
What is the most likely cause of the everything works
problem? i.e. The computer boots up and has
If the computer wont turn on, perhaps been working for five minutes.
the system is unplugged

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STEP SIX: DOCUMENT YOUR Helps you fix future problems and
FINDINGS others know how a user has broken
Write it down for the next time their system in the past

22b - TECHNICIAN PROFESSIONALISM - Physical


Safety and Environmental Control
Physical Safety If it is possible something holds a
Securing cables charge, do not even open it! i.e. CBT
Heavy items Monitors
Hot components
Ergonomics ERGONOMICS
Environmental Controls Our bodies were not made to sit in front
Air Quality of computers all day
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) May need special eyeglasses
Radio frequency interference (RFI) Use proper typing techniques
MSDS Monitor at eye-level
Disposal Wrists and hands in-line with forearms
Get up and take a break at least every
SECURING CABLES two hours
Should be professionally installed
permanently in the walls AIR QUALITY
Temporary cables should be kept from Temperature range of 68 to 76 degrees
high traffic areas and secured with cable Fahrenheit and humidity range of
guards/tape/wraps between 20% and 60%
Be careful unplugging and rerouting An HVAC system should remove
cables yourself Definitely NOT during contaminants and from the air as well
the work day Filters needs to be replaced frequently
Ultraviolet filters are the new it thing
LIFTING
Easiest way to injure yourself is through ELECTROMAGNETIC
improper lifting Dont even attempt if INTERFERENCE (EMI)
more than a quarter of your weight Unwanted disturbance that affects
Lift from your legs with a straight back electrical circuits and can cause network
Immediately report injuries to a interference Keep cables away from
supervisor and get it in writing! large electrical sources, junction boxes,
and anything magnetic
HOT COMPONENTS
Youre dealing with electricity, so be RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE
very aware of heat Cordless phones, microwaves, etc. use
Wait 15-30 minutes for a hot the 2.4Ghz frequency range
component (i.e. hard drive, power Also used by 802.11b, g, and n
supply) to cool networks

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Be aware of this when installing WiFi Identifies chemical substance, possible
networks hazards, handling and storage

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS DISPOSAL


(MSDS) Batteries and toner cartridges should
Products that use chemicals require not be thrown away with normal trash
MSDSs

IMAGE ATTRIBUTION:
Slide 6:
By Berkeley Lab [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

22c - TECHNICIAN PROFESSIONALISM - Customer


Relations
First Response Listening Speaking clearly Professionalism
Chain of Clarify the Expectations
Custody Problem Distractions
Punctuality Positivity Confidentiality

FIRST RESPONSE LISTENING


Identify exactly what happened and Dont interrupt the customer (even if the
recognize whether it is simple or major information isnt necessary) and allow
(may require escalation) them to complete their explanation

CHAIN OF CUSTODY CLARIFY THE PROBLEM


Chronological documentation or paper Ask open-ended questions (not yes/no)
trail of evidence that is taken from Repeat and restate the problem to the
beginning to end (litigation) user
Verifies that the evidence has not been Never make the user feel that they are
modified at fault

PUNCTUALITY POSITIVITY
Be on time! Problems that appear to be terrible
If you are running late (due to a sometimes have easy solutions
previous client), contact the customer Also, be realistic
and apologize and let them know you There is always a solution
are running late
Offer to reschedule SPEAKING CLEARLY
Speak slowly and clearly (maintaining
enthusiasm) Avoid jargon and
acronyms

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Use metaphors and analogies if
necessary CONFIDENTIALITY
Do not look at or touch confidential
EXPECTATIONS information
When you have a clear idea of the Do nothing illegal or that would break
problem, provide a realistic timeline company policy
Stay in contact with the customer and Ask customers to move confidential
give updates at intervals items

DISTRACTIONS PROFESSIONALISM
Make your customer feel that they are Customers can come from all walks of
your priority life so be patient, understanding, and
Mobile phone calls should be screened respectful
and the majority sent to voicemail Never argue with customers or take a
If it is another client, refer to a manager defensive or offensive stance
or quickly explain you are with another
client Do not talk to co-workers

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