You are on page 1of 23

# 10

section

Hydraulics

www.flyaoamedia.com
The material covered in this document is based off information obtained from
the original manufacturers Pilot and Maintenance manuals. It is to be used
for simulation purposes only.

## Copyright 2011 by Angle of Attack Productions, LLC

Page 10-1
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Hydraulics Overview 3 Figure 10-1. Pistons of different sizes 3
Hydraulic System Overview 6 Figure 10-2. Basic Elevator Hydraulic System 5
Systems A and B 7 Figure 10-3. System A Hydraulic Fluid Reservior 8
Systems A&B Fluid Leaks 16 Figure 10-4. System B Hydraulic Fluid Reservoir 9
Power Transfer Unit 17 Figure 10-5. LDU Overfill Indication 13
Standby Hydraulic System 19 Figure 10-6. LDU Refill Indication 14
Stby. Hydraulic System Fluid Leaks 22 Figure 10-7. 737 Hydraulics Schematic 15

Page 10-2
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Hydraulics Overview
The hydraulic system on the 737 powers many components,
and well be elaborating on the specifics later in the lesson.

## Aircraft hydraulic systems are used to move control surfaces

or other equipment such as the landing gear which are too
heavy to be moved by muscle power alone.

## Hydraulic systems vary hugely in complexity from aircraft to

aircraft, but they all revolve around one basic principle:
Pascals Law.

## Pascals Law states that when pressure is applied to

an uncompressible fluid in an enclosed container, that
pressure is transmitted throughout the fluid undiminished,
and acts equally upon every part of the container. This
means that if there is an increase in pressure at any point,
there will be an equal increase in pressure at every other
point in the container.

## Imagine both pistons are of eaual size. If a force is exerted

on the first piston, it will apply pressure on the fluid which will Figure 10-1. Pistons of different sizes
be transmitted through to the second piston. Because the
two pistons have the same surface area, the force exerted
by the second piston will be exactly the same as the force
that we applied to the first piston.

Page 10-3
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Hydraulics Overview (cont.)
This means that if we apply a 5N force to the first piston, equipment that would otherwise be far too heavy to move.
well get a 5N force from the second. Figure 9.2 shows hydraulics moving an elevator.

In illustration 9.1 the first piston has a 1m2 surface area, This is a very generalized diagram, and is NOT intended
and the second piston has a 5m2 surface area. The to reflect the architecture on the 737. Its just to put all
equation we need to keep in mind is: Force = Pressure x this physics and maths into context before we move on to
Area. talking about the 737 hydraulic system.

This means that the pressure transmitted through the liquid This diagram depicts an aircraft elevator actuated by a
varies as a function of the force that we apply to the first single piston. A selector valve rotates through 90 degrees
cylinder. So if we apply a 5N force to the first cylinder, it will to route hydraulic fluid either side of the piston head to
create a 5Pa pressure in the liquid. move it back and forth.

Remember that according to Pascals Law, the pressure will To pitch the aircraft up, the pilot pulls back on the control
remain the same throughout the container! This means that column, and the elevator will move up accordingly. When
the liquid will exert a 5Pa pressure on the base of piston the control column is moved back, the hydraulic fluid is
number 2. pumped under pressure into the actuating cylinder, forcing
the piston backwards and lifting the elevator. When
Force = Pressure x Area, so given the 5m2 surface area of the control column is moved forward, the selector valve
the second piston well get a 25N force from it. This means directs the fluid onto the other side of the piston, pushing
that piston number two has exerted a force five times larger it forward and moving the elevator down. Because the
than the one we initially applied to the first piston. piston has a large surface area, it exerts a large force
on the elevator mechanism, enabling the elevator to be
This is why hydraulics are so useful they allow us to multiply moved even when the aircraft is flying fast, and there is high
forces and apply them to control surfaces and other airflow over the control surface.

Page 10-4
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Figure 10-2. Basic Elevator Hydraulic System

Page 10-5
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Hydraulic System Overview
The 737NG has three hydraulic systems System A, System Notes
B, and the Standby System.

## Many systems on the aircraft use hydraulic power as their

primary, and in some cases sole means of actuation.

## The A and B hydraulic systems together power the following

aircraft systems:
Flight controls
Trailing edge flaps
Landing gear
Wheel brakes
Nose wheel steering
Thrust reversers
The two autopilots

There are some pretty vital systems in that list, which is why
we have two main hydraulic systems. This gives us systems
redundancy, and with that comes greater safety.

## The standby hydraulic system is a further backup that

is available in the event that either System A and/or B
pressure is lost.

Page 10-6
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A and B
Systems A and B are the two main hydraulic systems on the Control Unit, but the list changes a little from there on.
737. They are independent systems yet power many of the
same components. System B also powers:
The two remaining flight spoilers on each wing
There are several components that are only powered by Main yaw damper
one of the two systems however, so it is important to know
which components are covered by which hydraulic system.
Trailing edge flaps
Hydraulic System A powers the following components: Normal brakes
Ailerons Engine No. 2 thrust reverser
Elevator and elevator feel Autopilot B
Main rudder Power Control Unit Alternate nose wheel steering
Two flight spoilers on each wing Landing gear through the Landing Gear Transfer Unit
Ground spoilers Power Transfer Unit pump
Alternate brakes
The Landing Gear Transfer Unit is covered in the Landing
Engine No. 1 thrust reverser
Gear and Brakes Lesson.
Autopilot A
Normal nose wheel steering The hydraulic systems use BMS 3-11 type IV or V hydraulic
Landing gear fluid. The two types are interchangeable. BMS stands for
Power Transfer Unit motor. Boeing Material Specification, which sets out guidelines for
various standards the fluid must meet. The fluid is fire and
Hydraulic System B also supplies power to the ailerons, erosion resistant, but isnt pleasant if spilled!
elevator and elevator feel, and the main rudder Power

Page 10-7
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A and B (cont.)
Each hydraulic system has a reservoir that supplies
hydraulic fluid under pressure to the hydraulic pumps.

## The hydraulic reservoirs are easily the most conspicuous

pieces of equipment in the main landing gear wheel well
they are located on the forward bulkhead.

The reservoir center aft in the wheel well is for the standby
hydraulic system, and well be discussing that later.

## The System B reservoir is considerably larger than the

System A reservoir this is clear when looking at it in the
wheel well.

## System A reservoir volume capacity is about 6.8 gallons,

System B reservoir volume capacity is about 10.7 gallons.
Each reservoir is pressurized by bleed air from the engines
or APU.

## The bleed air supplies a constant pressure of

approximately 45-50 psi to the reservoirs, which ensures a
positive pressure to the hydraulic pumps.

## If the Bleed Air Switches on the Forward Overhead Panel

are selected off, then there will be no flow of air to the Figure 10-3. System A Hydraulic Fluid Reservior

Page 10-8
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A and B (cont.)
reservoirs to pressurize them.

## This is of course normal procedure during a bleeds off

takeoff, and the hydraulic pumps can still function without
the bleed air pressure at low altitudes.

## Reservoir pressurization is there primarily for high altitude

flight where the atmospheric pressure is not sufficient to
prevent foaming and cavitation in the pumps.

## Each hydraulic system has two pumps an Engine-Driven

Pump and an AC Electric Motor-Driven Pump.

Number 1 engine, and the System B Engine-Driven Pump
Motor-Driven Pumps are located on the forward bulkhead
of the wheel well. The purpose of the engine-driven and
electric pumps is to supply pressure to the hydraulic systems.

## In summary, to differentiate the two types of pressurization

going on here:
Bleed air pressurizes the reservoirs, which supply hydraulic
fluid to the pumps.
Figure 10-4. System B Hydraulic Fluid Reservoir

Page 10-9
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A and B (cont.)
The pumps then pressurize the rest of the hydraulic system. Output pressure from the pumps is maintained at a
constant pressure, regardless of system demand. The more
The System A reservoir has a standpipe for the Engine- demand there is on the hydraulic system, the more fluid flow
Driven Pump, and a port at the bottom of the reservoir for is required to maintain that constant pressure.
the electric pump.
A pressure compensator in each pump controls the fluid
The System B reservoir supplies its Engine-Driven and flow to maintain hydraulic pressure as demand fluctuates.
electric pumps from the same standpipe. A port at the Once pressurized by the pumps, the hydraulic fluid is
bottom of the System B reservoir supplies fluid to the Power filtered and flows onwards throughout the rest of the system.
Transfer Unit, which we will be discussing later in the lesson. As there is only a finite amount of hydraulic fluid, each
system that uses hydraulic power returns the fluid to the
There is a shutoff valve between each reservoir and its reservoirs.
respective Engine-Driven Pump that is triggered by pulling
the corresponding engine fire switch. This valve shuts off The fluid is filtered by Return Filter Modules before it goes
hydraulic fluid flow from the reservoir to the Engine-Driven back to the reservoirs.
Pump.
Controls for the four hydraulic pumps are located on the
All four pumps supply approximately the same pressure to Forward Overhead Panel. There are two pairs of switches:
the hydraulic system, but the Engine-Driven pumps are much a pair for the A pumps and a pair for the B pumps.
more powerful and put out approximately four times more They are simple ON/OFF switches.
volume than the electric pumps.
The Engine-Driven Pumps are attached to the accessory
The Engine-Driven Pumps are rated at 36 gallons per gearbox on each engine, so they never actually stop
minute at 3000 psi, while the electric pumps are rated at spinning, regardless of the switch position.
5.7 gallons per minute at 2700 psi.

Page 10-10
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A and B (cont.)
When the Engine Hydraulic Pump switches are selected Engine-Driven Pump.
OFF, a solenoid valve closes and stops the pumps from
transmitting pressure to the rest of the system. AC Transfer Bus 1 powers the System B electric pump, and
AC Transfer Bus 2 powers the System A electric pump.
Because the Engine-Driven Pumps are mounted on the
accessory gearbox, there is no need to select the engine This crossing of the power sources to the two main
pump switches OFF on shutdown. hydraulic systems ensures that hydraulic pressure will be
maintained with the loss of either engine or AC Transfer Bus.
It is actually advised to leave the engine pump switches
ON during shutdown to prolong the life of the solenoid The hydraulic fluid is cooled by heat exchangers in the
valve. main fuel tanks. System A hydraulic fluid is cooled by a heat
exchanger in main tank number one. System B hydraulic fluid
The Electric Hydraulic Pump switches simply provide and is cooled by a heat exchanger in main tank number two.
remove power to the electric pumps. Its important to Only some of the fluid in each system is passed through the
understand how each pump gets its electrical power, and heat exchanger as it passes around the loop.
how that provides further redundancy for the hydraulic
system. Each pump has two outputs an output pressure line and
a case drain line. The output pressure line does as the
The electrical system has two AC Transfer Buses which name suggests; it pressurizes - and provides fluid to - the
in flight usually receive power from the Integrated Drive rest of the associated hydraulic system. The case drain
Generators on the engines. line drains a smaller quantity of hydraulic fluid away to be
filtered and cooled.
Engine 1 powers AC Transfer Bus 1, and Engine 2 powers
AC Transfer Bus 2. Engine 1 also drives the System A It is this case drain fluid that passes through the heat
Engine-Driven Pump, and Engine 2 drives the System B exchangers in the two main fuel tanks.

Page 10-11
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A and B (cont.)
Heat flows from hot to cold, so the heat exchanger transfers The AC motors on the electric pumps produce a lot of
heat from the hot hydraulic fluid to the cold fuel in the tank. heat by comparison, so the overheat warning system
The fluid is then routed back into the reservoirs. provides alerts to the flight crew when an overheat
condition is sensed, but only for the electric pumps.
The electric pumps generate a lot of heat and are
cooled by hydraulic fluid passing through them. Because All four hydraulic pump switches have LOW PRESSURE
the electric pumps rely on the heat exchange process in lights. Each pump has a pressure switch downstream which
the fuel tanks to keep cool, they should not be run on the is tripped when pump output pressure decreases to less
ground if there is less than 1675lbs of fuel in the related than 1300 psi. This triggers the related LOW PRESSURE
tank. light.

Despite the cooling system in place for the electric pumps, When an engine fire switch is pulled, the related Engine-
there is still potential for overheating. Temperature switches Driven Pumps LOW PRESSURE light is deactivated. It is a
downstream of the electric pumps in the case drain line given that the pump will be putting out low pressure when
monitor the hydraulic fluid for overheat. the fire switch is pulled, as the engine will be shut down
immediately.
The amber OVERHEAT lights above each electric pump
switch illuminate when these sensors detect an overheat Workload is high following an engine shutdown, so the light
condition. is deactivated to eliminate the unnecessary distraction it
could cause the flight crew.
Note that there are no OVERHEAT lights for the Engine-
Driven Pumps. This is because overheat situations are much If the hydraulic reservoirs are not properly pressurized by
less of an issue for these pumps. The engine pumps are bleed air, foaming may occur at high altitudes, causing
mechanically driven by the accessory gearbox on each pressure fluctuations. Such pressure fluctuations may cause
engine, so the heat produced is negligible. the blinking of the related LOW PRESSURE lights.

Page 10-12
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A and B (cont.)
Any of the LOW PRESSURE lights will trigger a master
caution and the HYD light on the first officers System
Annunciator Panel.

## There are also hydraulic system indications on the Lower HYDRAULIC

A B
Display Unit Systems Display. Quantity and pressure for QTY % 106 94
Systems A and B are shown at the top of the display. PRESS 3000 2970

## Quantity is expressed as a percentage of the normal full L BRAKE TEMP R

level: 5.7 gallons for the A reservoir and 8.2 gallons for the
B reservoir. The percentage range extends up to 106% 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

## to indicate an overfill of the reservoir (see figure 9-5). If the

quantity dips as low as 76% or below, a white RF refill
indication appears beside the related quantity indication
(see figure 9-6). The RF indication is inhibited in flight, and FLT FLT
SPLR SPLR
appears only when the aircraft is on the ground with either AIL ELEV AIL
the flaps retracted or both engines shut down.
RUDDER
Fluid quantity is determined by a simple float and
transmitter in each reservoir. The float rises and falls as
quantity changes, and pivots around the transmitter body.
The transmitter then forwards the quantity signal onwards to
the indications on the Systems Display. Figure 10-5. LDU Overfill Indication

## Expect to see some variations in quantity throughout

Page 10-13
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A and B (cont.)
normal operations. The most noticeable momentary
quantity variations occur when the landing gear or leading
edge devices are being actuated, as they place great
demand on the hydraulic system. A lot of fluid flow is
therefore required to maintain rated pressure. This causes a HYDRAULIC
A B
temporary reduction in quantity indication. QTY % 76 RF 94
PRESS 3000 2970
A longer term reduction in quantity may be observed
during long periods of cruise where cold soaking occurs L BRAKE TEMP R
in the system. As the hydraulic fluid cools, its volume
decreases, causing a decrease in indicated quantity. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

## Hydraulic pressure is also indicated on the Systems Display.

The indications are expressed in psi, and the full range of
indications is between 0 and 4000 psi. FLT FLT
SPLR SPLR
AIL ELEV AIL
3000 psi is a normal value with the Engine-Driven pumps
operating, as the pumps are rated to output pressure in RUDDER
this range. The pressure indicated on the Systems Display
is measured downstream of both pumps. It is therefore an
indication of the combined output from both the Engine-
Driven Pump and the electric pump for each system. This
differs from the LOW PRESSURE lights on the Forward Figure 10-6. LDU Refill Indication
Overhead Panel, which source from pressure switches
specific to each pump.

Page 10-14
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
RESERVOIR PRESSURIZATION

SYSTEM A SYSTEM B
RESERVOIR STANDBY RESERVOIR
SBY SYSTEM SYSTEM
RETURN RESERVOIR A SYSTEM
RETURN

## EMDP EMDP EDP

EDP EMDP

FLAPS AND SLATS
A SYSTEM B SYSTEM
RETURN RETURN

## STBY RUDDER STBY YAW

PCU DAMPER
A SYSTEM B SYSTEM
NUMBER 1 THRUST NUMBER 2 THRUST
GROUND SERVICE GROUND SERVICE
REVERSER REVERSER

GROUND
SPOILERS MAIN RUDDER MAIN YAW TRAILING EDGE
1, 6, 7, 12 PCU DAMPER FLAPS

FLIGHT FLIGHT
SPOILERS SPOILERS
2, 4, 9, 11 3, 5, 8 10
ELEVATOR AND
AILERONS
PITCH FEEL

ALTERNATE NORMAL
BRAKES NOSEWHEEL ALTERNATE BRAKES
STEERING LANDING GEAR NOSEWHEEL
STEERING

AUTOPILOT A AUTOPILOT B
LANDING GEAR
TRANSFER VALVE

## Figure 10-7. 737 Hydraulics Schematic

Page 10-15
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Systems A&B Fluid Leaks
A leak in any of the hydraulic systems will cause at least The remaining fluid in the reservoir will be sufficient for the
some hydraulic fluid to be lost from that system. Systems electric pump to continue operating. If a leak develops in
A and B are independent systems, so fluid lost from one the electric pump or its related lines, the entire reservoir will
system will have no impact on the other. drain and the fluid quantity will read 0%.

Each reservoir has two means by which hydraulic fluid may The System B reservoir standpipe feeds the Engine-Driven
flow out of it a standpipe, and a port at the bottom of Pump AND the electric pump. The port at the bottom of the
the reservoir. reservoir feeds the Power Transfer Unit. If a leak develops in
either of the two pumps or their related lines, the reservoir
The standpipe stands up off the floor of the reservoir, such will drain to the top of the standpipe. Because both pumps
that the top of the standpipe stands around 20% the are fed by the same standpipe, this will result in System B
way up the reservoir. This is the same for both the A and B pressure being lost.
reservoirs.
The System B quantity indication is calibrated so that
There is a crucial difference however between the two it reads 0% when the fluid has reached the top of the
reservoirs that affects how vulnerable each system is to a standpipe. Once the fluid has drained below the top of
hydraulic leak. the standpipe, it can only be used by the Power Transfer
Unit.
The System A reservoir standpipe feeds the Engine-Driven
Pump, and the port at the bottom of the reservoir feeds So in summary:
the electric pump. If a leak develops in the System A System A will drain empty if a leak develops in the Electric
Engine-Driven Pump or its related lines, the reservoir will only Motor-Driven Pump
drain as far as the top of the standpipe. At this point, the System B will drain empty if a leak develops in either
hydraulic fluid quantity indication on the Systems Display pump

Page 10-16
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Power Transfer Unit
The Power Transfer Unit, or PTU, provides an alternate System A fluid into the PTU motor. The System A fluid turns
source of hydraulic power for the leading edge flaps and the motor, which drives a pump.
slats if System B is depressurized.
The pump receives System B fluid from the port at the
The PTU uses System A pressure to pressurize System B fluid. bottom of the System B reservoir. The pump pressurizes this
There is NO transfer of fluid between the two systems. fluid, thus providing an alternate source of pressure to the
The PTU operates automatically when all of the following
conditions exist: The PTU drives the leading edge flaps and slats to the Full
The aircraft is airborne Extend position.
Trailing edge flaps are set less than 15 but not up
Note that the PTU is only augmenting the pressure supplied
System B Engine-Driven Pump hydraulic pressure drops
below limits
by System B to the leading edge devices. It therefore
cannot work if fluid quantity in System B is too lowor, for
It is triggered by Engine-Driven Pump pressure because the that matter, if pressure in System A is too low!
engine driven pump is about 6 times more powerful than
the electric pump. If youve ever flown on an A320 family aircraft, youve likely
heard the PTU in action. The A320 has three hydraulic
This means that without the Engine-Driven Pump, the B systems, and the PTU is used to even out pressure
system is much less able to quickly extend the leading differential between the Green and Yellow systems. It plays
edge devices. a much more important role on the A320, and runs more
often as a result.
When the three prerequisite conditions are satisfied, power
goes to the PTU Control Valve, which opens to allow The PTU on the A320 is much louder than that on the 737
so loud that its very easily heard from the cabin, and

Page 10-17
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Power Transfer Unit (cont.)
sounds like a barking dog beneath the floor. Notes

## Its common to hear the A320s PTU on taxi after landing if

an engine has been shut down. It barks because it usually
takes very little time for it to resolve the pressure differential
between the two systems. The PTU cuts out once there is
no longer a pressure differential. As soon as it cuts out,
a differential begins to develop again. The PTU then
activates again, and the cycle repeats. This causes the
incessant barking that sometimes causes curiosity amongst
passengers!

The 737 PTU is only used under such specific and rare
circumstances, it is very rarely operated. Its also much
smaller than that on the A320s PTU, because its only
needed to power the leading edge devices. Its smaller
size means that it also generates less noise, so you cannot
hear it from the passenger cabin.

Page 10-18
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Standby Hydraulic System
The Standby Hydraulic System is the third hydraulic system purposes.
on the 737, and operates automatically or manually as a
backup to Systems A and B. The three hydraulic system reservoirs are filled from a single
port in the wheel well. A fill selector valve is used to direct
It supplies alternate hydraulic pressure to: the hydraulic fluid into the reservoir that needs to be filled.
Both thrust reversers The System A reservoir is filled directly from the fill port,
whereas the System B reservoir is filled VIA the Standby
Standby rudder Power Control Unit
System reservoir.
Standby yaw damper
One of the purposes of the fill and balance line is
Controls and indications for the Standby Hydraulic System therefore to fill the System B reservoir via the Standby
are located on the Flight Control Panel on the Forward System reservoir. It also serves as an overflow for the
Overhead Panel. Standby System fluid as it heats up and expands during
operation.
Similarly to the A and B systems, the Standby system has its
own reservoir which supplies hydraulic fluid under pressure Crucially it also transmits bleed air pressure from System B
to the pump. The Standby system reservoir is mounted on to the Standby System reservoir to ensure positive pressure
the keel beam at the aft bulkhead of the wheel well. to the pump.
It is considerably smaller than the primary system reservoirs; The Standby Hydraulic System has a single Electric Motor-
and contains only 3.6 gallons of hydraulic fluid. Driven Pump. This pump is rated at 3.7 gallons per minute at
2700 psi. This is the same output pressure as the System A
The Standby system reservoir is linked to the System B and B electric pumps, but a considerably weaker fluid flow.
reservoir by a fill and balance line, which serves several

Page 10-19
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Standby Hydraulic System (cont.)
Similarly to the A and B pumps, some of the fluid leaving the Standby Rudder Shutoff Valve
standby pump enters a case drain line and is circulated Leading Edge Flap and Slat Shutoff Valve
through the pump to cool and lubricate it. It then re-enters
the reservoir. Setting either of the FLT CONTROL switches to the STBY
RUD position opens up the Standby Rudder Shutoff Valve.
The actual pump motor is air cooled by outside air flowing This allows fluid to flow to and power the Standby Rudder
over it. It draws power from AC Transfer Bus 2. Power Control Unit and Standby Yaw Damper.

There are four ways in which standby system can be Setting the ALTERNATE FLAPS Master switch to ARM, then
activated. Two manual, two automatic. selecting the ALTERNATE FLAPS Position switch to DOWN
opens up the Leading Edge Flaps and Slats Shutoff Valve.
Controls and indications For the Standby Hydraulic System This allows fluid to flow to and power the leading edge
are located on the Flight Control Panel on the Forward flaps and slats.
There are also two conditions which will automatically
Positioning either of the two FLT CONTROL switches to trigger operation of the standby hydraulic system.
STBY RUD, or the ALTERNATE FLAPS switch to ARM will Tripping of the main rudder PCU Force Fight Monitor,
activate the standby hydraulic pump. Low pressure in System A and/or System B.

Whenever the standby hydraulic pump is running, fluid is Low pressure in the main systems alone will not
supplied under pressure to power the thrust reversers. automatically initiate the standby hydraulic system; there
are a number of other conditions that must be fulfilled:
Fluid supply to the Standby Rudder Power Control Unit and Flaps must be extended
Standby Yaw Damper, and the leading edge flaps and
The aircraft must be airborne or the wheels spun up
slats is controlled by two valves:

Page 10-20
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Standby Hydraulic System (cont.)
beyond 60 knots the ALTERNATE FLAPS Master switch to the ARM position,
At least one of the two FLT CONTROL switches must be then momentarily holding the ALTERNATE FLAPS Position
set ON switch to the DOWN position. The leading edge devices
may then be extended using this switch.
The Force Fight Monitor on the main rudder Power Control
Unit detects opposing pressure between the A and B Indications for the Standby Hydraulic System are also
system actuators. If the Force Fight Monitor is tripped, the located on the Flight Control Panel.
standby system is activated automatically.
The STBY RUD ON light illuminates amber when the
When the Standby Hydraulic System is activated Standby Hydraulic System is activated and the Standby
automatically via either method, the Standby Rudder Rudder Power Control Unit is pressurized.
Shutoff Valve is opened. This routes hydraulic fluid through
to the Standby Rudder Power Control Unit, allowing the The LOW QUANTITY light illuminates when the hydraulic
pilot to retain sufficient rudder control even when Systems A fluid quantity in the standby reservoir decreases to less
and B have failed. than 50%. The LOW PRESSURE light illuminates when the
output pressure from the standby electric pump decreases
The Standby Yaw Damper provides dutch roll prevention, below limits. This light is only armed when the standby pump
gust damping and turn coordination for the Standby has been commanded to run either manually or by the
Rudder Power Control Unit. automatic triggers. The light is therefore inhibited when the
standby electric pump is not selected on.
Although the Standby Rudder Shutoff Valve may be
opened automatically, the Leading Edge Flaps and Slats Illumination of any of these three lights triggers a master
Shutoff Valve must always be opened manually when caution and the FLT CONT light on the captains System
required, even if the Standby Hydraulic System has already Annunciator Panel.
been activated automatically. This is done by selecting

Page 10-21
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com
Stby. Hydraulic System Fluid Leaks
When discussing the consequences of fluid leaks in the A Notes
and B hydraulic systems, we mentioned standpipes in those
reservoirs which can help prevent total loss of hydraulic
fluid, depending on where the leak is.

## The standby system reservoir does not have a standpipe,

so any leak in the standby system will result in reservoir
quantity decreasing to zero.

## System B will continue to operate normally, however the

System B reservoir fluid level will decrease to approximately
72% when the Standby System reservoir is empty. 72% is the
level of the fill and balance line connecting the Standby
System reservoir and the System B reservoir.

## As fluid is lost from the standby reservoir and its quantity

decreases through 50%, the LOW QUANTITY light on
the Flight Control Panel will illuminate, triggering a master
caution and the FLT CONTROL light on the captains
System Annunciator Panel.

Page 10-22
Rev 1.0 Apr 12 Hydraulics www.flyaoamedia.com